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# Theory Questions:

1. Compare the characteristics of a silicon and germanium diode and determine which you would prefer to
use for most practical applications.
2. Explain the working of diode in forward and reverse bias condition with relevant diagrams.
3. Describe in your own words the characteristics of the ideal diode and how they determine the ON and OFF
states of the device.
4. Interpret the need of rectification and illustrate the operation of half wave rectifier with its input and output
waveforms.
5. Illustrate the operation of center tapped full wave rectifier with its input and output waveforms.
6. In a half wave rectifier, derive the following:
i. Idc and Irms
ii. Ripple factor
iii. Rectifier efficiency
7. In a full wave rectifier with two diodes, derive the following:
i. Vdc and Vrms
ii. Regulation
iii. Transformer Utilization Factor
8. In a full wave rectifier with four diodes (bridge rectifier), derive the following:
i. Efficiency
ii. Regulation
iii. Transformer Utilization Factor
iv. PIV
Analysis Problems:
1. In the reverse bias region, the saturation current of a silicon diode is about 0.1µA (T=20°C). Determine its
approximate value if the temperature is increased to 40°C.
2. Determine the diode current at 20°C for a silicon diode with Io=50 nA and an applied forward bias of 0.6 V.
3. A Silicon diode has reverse saturation current of 30 nA at 300 K. Find forward voltage for forward current
of 15 mA.
4. At what voltage the reverse current flowing through a germanium diode will reach 60% of its saturation
value at room temperature?
5. Given a diode current of 6 mA, VT = 26 mV,  =1, and Io=1nA, find the applied voltage VD.
6. Given the circuit of figure 1 below, determine the voltage drops across the resistors. The source is 12 Volts,
R1 = 4.7 kΩ and R2 = 3.3 kΩ.
7. Determine the resistor currents in figure 2 below. The source is 15 Volts, R1 = 8.2kΩ and R2 = 3.9kΩ.

Figure 1 Figure 2
8. A full-wave bridge rectifier with a 120-Vrms sinusoidal input has a load resistor of 1kΩ.
a) If silicon diodes are employed, what is the dc voltage available at the load?
b) Determine the required PIV rating of each diode.
c) Find the maximum current through each diode during conduction.
d) What is the required power rating of each diode?
9. A diode whose internal resistance is 20Ω is to supply power to a 100Ω load from 110V(rms) source of
supply. Calculate (a) peak load current (b) the dc load current (c) the ac load current (d) the percentage
regulation from no load to full load.
10. A diode has an internal resistance of 20Ω and 1000Ω load from 110V(rms) source of supply. Calculate
a) The efficiency of rectification
b) The percentage regulation from no load to full load.
11. An a.c. supply of 230V is applied to a half-wave rectifier circuit through transformer of turns ration 5:1.
Assume the diode is an ideal one. The load resistance is 300Ω. Find
a) DC output voltage
b) PIV
c) Maximum
d) Average values of power delivered to the load.
12. A Full-Wave rectifier circuit is fed from a transformer having a center-tapped secondary winding. The rms
voltage from wither end of secondary to center tap is 30V. if the diode forward resistance is 5Ω and that of
the secondary is 10Ω for a load of 900Ω,
Calculate:
a) Power delivered to load
b) % regulation at full-load
c) Efficiency at full-load
d) TUF of secondary.
13. A Full-wave rectifier circuit uses two silicon diodes with a forward resistance of 20Ω each. A dc voltmeter
connected across the load of 1kΩ reads 55.4volts. Calculate
a) IRMS
b) Average voltage across each diode
c) Ripple factor, and
d) Transformer secondary voltage rating.
14. A 230V, 60Hz voltage is applied to the primary of a 5:1 step down, center tapped transformer used in the
Full-wave rectifier having a load of 900Ω. If the diode resistance and the secondary coil resistance together
has a resistance of 100Ω. Determine:
a) DC voltage across the load
b) DC current flowing through the load
c) DC power delivered to the load
d) Ripple voltage and its frequency.
15. A bridge rectifier uses four identical diodes having forward resistance of 5Ω and the secondary voltage of
30V (rms) . Determine the dc output voltage for I DC =200mA and the value of the ripple voltage.
16. In a bridge rectifier the transformer is connected to 220V, 60Hz mains and the turn’s ratio of the step down
transformer is 11:1. Assuming the diode to be ideal, find:
a) Idc
b) Voltage across the load
c) PIV assume load resistance to be 1kΩ