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513 Hamilton Street Project

Franklin
Township, Parking Needs Analysis - DRAFT
New Jersey
April 24, 2019
513 Hamilton Development Parking Analysis
April 24, 2019

Table of Contents

Introduction ............................................................................................................................ 3

Executive Summary ............................................................................................................... 3

The Project .............................................................................................................................. 4

The Hamilton Street Corridor - Parking Requirements ........................................................ 6

Rationale for Smart Growth Parking Strategies and “Right Sizing” ................................... 7

Establishing Appropriate Parking Requirements – Criteria for Reduction ........................ 8


Parking Ratios Specific to Student Oriented Housing ............................................................... 9
Parking Demand Survey of Similar Projects ............................................................................. 9
Parking Occupancy Survey Results.........................................................................................10
Census Data ...........................................................................................................................12
Availability of On-Street Parking - Hamilton Street Corridor .....................................................13
Transit Accessibility / Shuttle Service ......................................................................................15
Car Share Program .................................................................................................................16
Bike Share...............................................................................................................................17
Ride Hailing .............................................................................................................................18
Match Ride Programs ..............................................................................................................19
Unbundle Parking Fees ...........................................................................................................19
Contingency Parking Plan .......................................................................................................20
Payment in Lieu of Parking (PILOP) ........................................................................................20
Shared Parking........................................................................................................................22

513 Hamilton Street Project - Parking Requirement Recommendation .............................22

Recommendation Summary .................................................................................................24

Implementation ......................................................................................................................24

Tables and Figures

Table 1: 513 Hamilton Street Proposed Unit Breakdown ............................................................ 4


Table 2: Comparable Housing Projects’ Current Parking Ratios ...............................................11

Figure 1: 513 Hamilton Street Proposed Project Site ................................................................. 5


Figure 2: Hamilton Street Corridor as Outlined in the April 2015 Master Plan Update ................ 6
Figure 3: Comparable Housing Projects’ Location Map .............................................................12
Figure 4: Franklin Township, NJ – Census Tract 532 ................................................................13
Figure 5: Hamilton Business District’s (VC2) On-Street Parking Inventory ................................14
Figure 6: Rutgers University’s College Avenue and Cook/Douglass Campus Bus Stop Locations
in Proximity to the Proposed Project Site ..................................................................................16

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Introduction
A developer is proposing a multi-family residential development to be located along Hamilton
Street in the area of Highland Avenue. The proposed multi-family project, referred to as 513
Hamilton Street is to have 172 units, containing a total of 362 bedrooms. The project’s target
renter is Rutgers University, other area students and young professionals.

Timothy Haahs and Associates (TimHaahs), as sub consultant to 4ward Planning, was retained
to conduct a Parking Needs Analysis and recommend the necessary parking for the project, in
consideration of smart growth parking planning principles and strategies. The study examines
local precedents and standards for the project’s on-site parking, and recommends the parking
ratio for the project given its location, design, target market, proximity to mass transit and other
alternative modes of transportation, and its implementation of smart growth parking principles
and strategies.

To undertake the Parking Needs Analysis TimHaahs performed the following:

 Visited the site to evaluate surrounding development and land uses and assess the project’s
area of impact.
 Reviewed all relevant background information concerning the proposed multi-family
residential development project, inclusive of site plans, renderings and other pertinent
project information.
 Met with a developer and their development team to ensure a thorough understanding of the
proposed project and its target rental market.
 Obtained unit, bedroom, and parking count data for similar multi-family, student oriented
rental projects in the vicinity of Rutgers University.
 Obtained unit, bedroom, and parking count data for new multi-family rental projects in
proximity to the Project in Franklin Township.
 Performed parking utilization surveys of both the student focused projects and new multi-
family rental projects in the area to obtain actual parking utilization data.
 Reviewed the availability and proximity of alternative transportation options to the proposed
RU Shuttle Bus services related to frequency, route destination, etc. that will serve the
Project.
 Identified Parking Demand Management Strategies to mitigate parking demand for the
Project.
 Recommend a parking ratio per unit or total parking required for the Project.
 Provide a draft ordinance outlining parking code requirements for the Project.

Executive Summary

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The Project
513 Hamilton Street is a proposed 172 unit multi-family rental project, containing a total of 362
bedrooms targeted to Rutgers University, other area students and young professionals.
According to the Hamilton Street Corridor Master Plan Update from April 2015, the purpose of
the Hamilton Street Corridor is to foster the development of an attractive, pedestrian-friendly,
mixed-use “main street” environment that improves the community. The project is located in the
Hamilton Street Corridor in Franklin Township, approximately 1.2 miles from Rutgers
University’s New Brunswick’s Campus (College Avenue) and 1.5 miles from the College Avenue
Student Center (126 College Avenue).

The proposed site at 513 Hamilton Street has a walk score of 67 out of 100, which is considered
to be somewhat walkable and bike score of 59 out of 100, deeming it bikeable for most with
some bike infrastructure nearby. The site is approximately a 25 minute walk or a 6 minute bike
ride to downtown New Brunswick.

Table 1 indicates the current proposed residential unit counts broken down by site.

Table 1: 513 Hamilton Street Proposed Unit Breakdown


Parking Spaces Parking Spaces
Building Site Total Units Total Bedrooms Total Parking Spaces
per Unit per Bedroom
513 Hamilton Street 172 362 127 0.74 0.35
Type of Unit Number of Units Square footage
1 Bedroom Units 16 540 SF
2 Bedroom Units 122 910 SF
3 Bedroom Units 34 1104 SF to 1130 SF

Source: Timothy Haahs & Associates, Inc. 2019

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Figure 1: 513 Hamilton Street Proposed Project Site

Source: Timothy Haahs & Associates, Inc. 2019

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The Hamilton Street Corridor Master Plan Update dated April 2015 outlines zoning amendments
recommended by the Planning Board to encourage revitalization of the Hamilton Street Corridor
through private investment and redevelopment.

Figure 2: Hamilton Street Corridor as Outlined in the April 2015 Master Plan Update

Source: Township of Franklin Hamilton Street Corridor Master Plan Update, April 2015 and Timothy Haahs & Associates, Inc. 2019

The Hamilton Street Corridor - Parking Requirements


Parking Requirements for the Hamilton Business District (HBD)
Currently, the parking requirements for the Hamilton Street Corridor are unique to the Hamilton
Street Zone; this includes the HBD (where the Project is located) and the Hamilton Street
Special Improvement District (SID). Free public parking is provided through on-street parking
along Hamilton Street. According to the Hamilton Street Corridor Master Plan Update from April
2015, the parking requirements presently set are meant to encourage development that is
consistent with the Township’s vision for Hamilton Street as a pedestrian-friendly, mixed-use
“main street” type of environment. The non-residential uses in the HBD zone are set at three (3)
spaces per 1,000 square feet; considerably lower than those of other commercial zones, for
example the highway-oriented retail development in the G-B Zone. This zone recognizes, to an
extent, the availability of the on-street parking supply. The provided parking within this zone is
not to exceed the minimum requirements by more than 20%, while recognizing the presence of
on-street parking and discouraging “over-parking”, as this takes away from the overall “Main
Street” character of the zone. As it stands, the Hamilton Corridor offers a multitude of options to
provide parking for non-residential uses, which are consistent to the “main-street” environment

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and are not available in other commercial zones including:

 The parking requirements are unique to the Hamilton Street Zone and encourage
development that is consistent with the Township's vision for the area as a pedestrian-
friendly, mixed-use "main street" type environment.

 Non-residential uses in the HBD Zone (3 spaces per 1,000 square feet) is significantly
lower than other commercial zones (e.g., highway-oriented retail development in the G-B
Zone) and acknowledges, to some degree, the availability of on-street parking supply.

 Provided parking in the zone shall not exceed minimum requirements by more than
20%, which acknowledges existence of on-street parking and discourages “overparking”
which detracts from “main street” character.

 The zone provides various options for providing parking for non-residential uses (not
available in other commercial zones and consistent with a "main street" type
environment):
o On-site
o Off-site location within 1,500 feet walking distance
o In-lieu contribution shall be made to a capital improvement to the township for the
purpose of constructing on-street and off-street public parking facilities within HBD

 Per Residential Site Improvement Standards (RSIS): all residential parking must be
provided on-site.

The current parking requirements discourage “over-parking”. However, the current residential
requirements are based on RSIS standards which are suburban in nature and do not entirely
apply to the proposed project given its density and the walkable, mixed-use nature of the
Hamilton Street Corridor. That said, the Hamilton Street Corridor Master Plan Update – Zoning
Evaluation and Recommended Zoning Amendments included the following opportunity for
developers to reduce residential parking requirements:

“Allow the approving board, on a case-by-case basis, to reduce the parking requirements for 1-
bedroom and/or 2-bedroom units below that required by RSIS provided the applicant proves
that a lower parking ratio is warranted based upon the expected occupancy of the development
and/or other relevant factors. The approving board should be permitted to place conditions on
the approval of the development it deems necessary to ensure that the factors presented in
support of the lower parking ratio remain in place (e.g., deed restriction on occupancy). Such a
requirement acknowledges the possibility that lower parking demand may result for such unit
types and may encourage developers to build efficiency, 1-bedroom and 2-bedroom units (e.g.,
apartments geared towards students and young professionals).”

Rationale for Smart Growth Parking Strategies and “Right Sizing”


As per the recommended zoning amendment in the Hamilton Street Corridor Master Plan
Update, given the land use, environmental and cost impacts associated with parking for any
development project, it is critical to effectively size the necessary parking for the given “smart
growth” development project. The rationale for right sizing the amount of parking for a project
and not overbuilding includes the following:

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Parking is Expensive - Parking is costly to construct, both


in terms of real estate and capital costs, and if too much
parking is required, the economic feasibility of a given
project is negatively impacted. A typical surface parking
stall costs between $4,000 and $8,000 to construct (not
including the value of the land) and a structured, above
ground parking space in central NJ can cost between
$20,000 and $30,000 per space depending on a variety of
factors.

Parking Takes up Land - Parking requires a significant


amount of space, typically between 300-320 square feet
per space for an efficient parking facility, and requiring too
much parking can negatively impact the ability to achieve
the dense, walkable, pedestrian friendly, downtown
environment which is desired for the Hamilton Street Corridor.

Excess Parking Impacts Housing Affordability and Availability – The cost to purchase land
and build parking for a residential project is passed along to tenants of the development in the
form of increased rent and, in some cases, onerous parking requirements can kill a project
altogether thereby limiting the amount of new quality housing in a particular municipality or area.

Parking Has Environmental Impacts – Too much property dedicated to parking increases the
amount of impervious surface associated with a project and contributes to storm water run-off.
Free ample parking also encourages more automobile use and dissuades alternative modes of
transportation such as, walking, biking, and mass transit. Also, by not incentivizing the use of
single occupancy vehicles with an abundance of free parking, there is an opportunity to
encourage use of transit, rideshare, biking and walking thereby reducing vehicle miles traveled
(VMT) and greenhouse gases (GHG).

However, inadequate parking for a project has negative consequences such as forcing project
residents to cruise in search of a spot and potentially inundate nearby on-street parking in the
adjacent residential areas. Accordingly, the goal of this analysis is to project the right amount of
parking for the Project considering the details and characteristics of the 513 Hamilton Street
Project and with the application of pertinent Smart Growth Parking Principles.

Establishing Appropriate Parking Requirements – Criteria for


Reduction
Determining the appropriate amount of parking for the 513 Hamilton Project requires flexible
standards based on the analysis of the characteristics, nuances, and location of the Project and
the implementation of best practice, Parking Management Strategies that influence parking
demand. Each development project is distinctive when it comes to parking planning and there
are many factors to consider when determining the right amount of parking including:

 The target market for the residential units


 Existing vehicle ownership in the area
 Population characteristics (i.e., total population, total households, etc.)
 Availability of on-street parking
 Availability of other proximate parking resources that could be shared

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 Accessibility to alternative modes of transportation


 Mixed-use nature of the project and surrounding area
 Availability of amenities within walking distance of the project (shopping, dining, etc.)
 Parking pricing (Unbundled or bundled with the rent)
 Walkability of the area (walk score)
 Bikeability of the area (bike score)

Parking Ratios Specific to Student Oriented Housing

Student oriented housing development typically has lower parking demand than traditional multi-
family residential projects. Many educational institutions, Rutgers University included, implement
strategies to reduce parking demand on campus, encouraging students, not to bring a car to
campus and to choose alternative modes of transportation for commuting. Students living off
campus are less restricted in terms of parking and storing their vehicles. However, there are still
challenges associated with parking at the University’s New Brunswick and Piscataway
Campuses. At Rutgers University, off campus students must purchase commuter parking
permits: valid each year from September 1st through spring commencement, that allows a
student to park at an assigned lot on 1 of the 5 campuses. Once parked, the student must take
a bus to another campus or walk to their class. Permits for the New Brunswick campuses cost
$375 annually.

There are multiple disincentives for students attending Rutgers and living off campus to have a
vehicle including: (1) the cost of a permit to park on the Rutgers Campus in one designated lot;
(2) the likely necessity that after parking in the designated lot, the student will then have to take
the University Bus to their ultimate campus destination; (3) the limited amount of free,
unregulated on-street or off-street parking within walking distance of the New Brunswick
campuses; and (4) the cost to own, operate, and maintain a car, estimated at approximately
$8,500 per year (nerdwallet.com).

As such, it is practical that parking requirements for student oriented, residential projects
warrant parking reductions when compared to typical market rate multi-family projects and
fewer on-site parking spaces should be required. As a result of the referenced challenges and
costs related to bring a vehicle to school, a number of students in off campus housing will walk,
carpool, take public transit, or bike to and from their residence to the campus. In addition, with
growth and popularity of Transportation Network Companies (TNCs), or ride-hailing services
such as Uber and Lyft in University communities, the need or benefit of college students having
a vehicle at school is further reduced.

Parking Demand Survey of Similar Projects

Since the 513 Hamilton Street Project is being designed for and marketed to Rutgers University
and other area students, it is important to identify the off-street parking ratio requirements and
the actual parking utilization for various types of multi-family housing pertinent to the 513
Hamilton Project. Therefore, this project is unique in the sense that it is geared towards Rutgers
University and other area students but it is farther away from campus than other off campus
housing projects in the New Brunswick area. In order to take into consideration the uniqueness
of this project, we obtained and evaluated a broader range of the parking requirements and
demand data for “peer” projects based on their similarity to the 513 Hamilton Street Project in
terms of the following:

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 Density: projects that exceed 100 units per acre – (our project is 148 units per acre)
 Target Market: projects geared towards students
 Location: new projects in the Hamilton Street Corridor
 Project Age: recent high-density projects in the Hamilton Street Corridor area or in
Franklin Township

Parking Occupancy Survey Results

TimHaahs conducted a parking occupancy survey of the 18 peer project sites. Parking
Occupancy refers to the amount of vehicles parked in parking spaces at a particular time of day.
To validate the actual utilization of the parking spaces and be able to make realistic
recommendations, TimHaahs performed a parking occupancy survey for peer housing projects
on Tuesday, January 29, 2019 and Wednesday, February 6, 2019 from 10:00PM to
11:30PM. The results are as follows:

According to the distance to Rutgers College Avenue Campus and primary tenant groups,
TimHaahs categorizes these 18 projects into five groups, in order to determine the best parking
ratio to apply to the 513 Hamilton Street Project:

 Group 1: Core New Brunswick Housing Projects


 Group 2: Hamilton Street Housing Projects in New Brunswick
 Group 3: Developer Housing Projects in Somerset
 Group 4: Highland Park Housing Projects
 Group 5: Affordable Housing Projects in Somerset

Calculation Methodology

 Average Ratio per Project: The average parking ratio among different projects
 Survey Utilization Ratio: The average parking ratio of survey parking utilization divided
by total number of units and bedrooms

In order to have a better understanding of the actual parking ratio of each project, TimHaahs
applied the total parking utilization in each group divided by the total number of units and
bedrooms, thereby comparing the difference between each project’s provided parking and the
parking utilization data from the surveys.

Among these five groups, Group 3 has the highest parking ratio per unit and per bedroom with a
ratio of 2.17 parking spaces per unit and 1.08 parking spaces per bedroom. For survey
utilization, Group 5 has the highest parking ratio per unit at a ratio of 1.35 parking spaces per
unit and Groups 2-5 have similar parking spaces per bedroom ratios from 0.58 to 0.63, of which,
Group 2 has the highest parking per bedroom ratio at 0.63 parking spaces per bedroom. Group
2 - Hamilton Street Housing Projects in New Brunswick and Group 3 - Developer Housing
Projects in Somerset share the most similarities with the 513 Hamilton Street Project from both
geographic and tenant group perspectives. The survey utilization parking spaces per bedroom
ratio are 0.63 (Group 2) and 0.58 (Group 3) respectively.

The 513 Hamilton Street Project has a parking ratio of 0.35 parking spaces per bedroom.
This parking ratio may be too low and could result in not enough available parking for
residents.

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Table 2 illustrates the surveyed housing oriented projects and Figure 3 illustrates a
location map of the surveyed projects.

Table 2: Comparable Housing Projects’ Current Parking Ratios


Comparable Student Housing Projects to Franklin Township
Built Utilization
# of Parking
# of # of Parking Parking Parking Parking Survey
Address Parking Utilization
Units Bedrooms Spaces by Spaces by Spaces Spaces by Parking
Spaces % (10:30-
Unit Bedroom by Unit Bedroom Utilization
11:30PM)
513 Hamilton St. Somerset, NJ 172 362 127 0.74 0.35
Group 1: Core New Brunswick Housing Projects
1 205 Easton Ave. New Brunswick, NJ 62 80 54 0.87 0.68 0.54 0.42 34 62%
2 17 Mine St. New Brunswick, NJ 52 66 43 0.83 0.65 0.65 0.52 34 79%
3 130 Easton Ave. New Brunswick, NJ 35 59 36 1.03 0.61 0.70 0.42 25 68%
4 48 Sicard St. New Brunswick, NJ 15 28 15 1.00 0.54 0.57 0.30 9 57%
5 6 Sicard St. New Brunswick, NJ 25 35 18 0.72 0.51 0.44 0.31 11 61%
6 12 Bartlett St. New Brunswick, NJ 59 80 39 0.66 0.49 0.43 0.32 26 65%
7 66 Sicard St. New Brunswick, NJ 32 66 29 0.91 0.44 0.77 0.37 25 84%
8 61 Morrell St. New Brunswick, NJ 63 126 49 0.78 0.39 0.48 0.24 30 61%
9 75 Easton Ave. New Brunswick, NJ 14 58 14 1.00 0.24 0.89 0.22 13 89%
Average per Project 0.87 0.50 0.61 0.35

Group 2: Hamilton Street Housing Projects in New Brunswick


10 276 Hamilton St. New Brunswick, NJ 29 29 29 1.00 1.00 0.57 0.57 17 57%
11 272 Hamilton St. New Brunswick, NJ 113 283 226 2.00 0.80 1.73 0.69 196 87%
12 508-516 Hamilton St.Somerset, NJ 84 134 118 1.40 0.88 N/A N/A N/A N/A
Average per Project 1.47 0.89 1.15 0.63

Group 3: Developer Housing Projects in Somerset


13 499 Hamilton St. Somerset, NJ 6 12 13 2.17 1.08 1.08 0.54 7 50%
14 507 Hamilton St. Somerset, NJ 6 12 13 2.17 1.08 1.25 0.63 8 58%
Average per Project 2.17 1.08 1.17 0.58

Group 4: Highland Park Housing Projects


15 2 River Rd. Highland Park, NJ 28 28 37 1.32 1.32 0.82 0.82 23 62%
16 11 Raritan Ave. Highland Park, NJ 84 96 46 0.55 0.48 0.46 0.41 39 85%
Average per Project 0.93 0.90 0.64 0.61

Group 5: Multi-Family Projects in Somerset


17 727 Franklin Blvd. Somerset, NJ 66 150 156 2.36 1.04 1.58 0.69 104 67%
18 863 Somerset St. Somerset, NJ 74 155 114 1.54 0.74 1.11 0.53 83 72%
Average per Project 1.95 0.89 1.35 0.61

*Note: 727 Franklin Blvd. and 863 Somerset St. are both multi-family affordable housing units
Source: New Brunswick Planning Department, Franklin Township and Timothy Haahs & Associates, Inc. 2019

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Figure 3: Comparable Housing Projects’ Location Map

Source: Timothy Haahs & Associates, Inc. 2019

Census Data

To assist in identifying the appropriate parking ratios for the Project it is helpful to understand
the existing parking conditions in the area of the Project. The proposed project site, 513
Hamilton Street, is located along Census Tract 532 in Franklin Township, outlined in Figure 4.

The following census information for Tract 532 was obtained through the 2017 American
Community Survey (ACS) 5-Year Estimates:

 Total Households: 2,093 total households


 Total Population: 6,750 people (about 10%) of Franklin Township’s total population
 Average Household Size: 3.23 people
 Owner-Occupied Housing Units: 70.1% of households
 Renter-Occupied Housing Units: 29.9% of households
 Total Vehicles Available: 2,057 total vehicles available
 Total Vehicles per Household: 0.98 vehicles (approximately 1 vehicle per household)
 Total vehicles per bedroom: 0.86 vehicles

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Figure 4: Franklin Township, NJ – Census Tract 532

Source: US Census, 2010

Availability of On-Street Parking - Hamilton Street Corridor

On-street parking adds vibrancy,


convenience, and a buffer to street level
activity. It contributes to the overall
viability of a development project and it is
critical to support local retail businesses.
On-street parking, regulated and enforced
appropriately can meet both retail and
residential parking needs in a given area.
On-street parking can often be shared by
patrons of local retail establishments
within proximity of the project during the
weekday, and then shared by residential
parkers whose occupancy typically peaks
On-street parking in front of 507 & 513 Hamilton Street,
in the evenings. Accordingly, many Somerset, NJ
municipalities allow a portion of the on-
street parking, adjacent to or within close proximity of the project, to satisfy the parking
requirement of a proposed project. This strategy reduces the amount of off-street parking
required, often improving the aesthetic character of the project as well as its financial feasibility.

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The Project
513 Hamilton Street is a proposed 172 unit multi-family rental project, containing a total of 362
bedrooms targeted to Rutgers University, other area students and young professionals.
According to the Hamilton Street Corridor Master Plan Update from April 2015, the purpose of
the Hamilton Street Corridor is to foster the development of an attractive, pedestrian-friendly,
mixed-use “main street” environment that improves the community. The project is located in the
Hamilton Street Corridor in Franklin Township, approximately 1.2 miles from Rutgers
University’s New Brunswick’s Campus (College Avenue) and 1.5 miles from the College Avenue
Student Center (126 College Avenue).

The proposed site at 513 Hamilton Street has a walk score of 67 out of 100, which is considered
to be somewhat walkable and bike score of 59 out of 100, deeming it bikeable for most with
some bike infrastructure nearby. The site is approximately a 25 minute walk or a 6 minute bike
ride to downtown New Brunswick.

Table 1 indicates the current proposed residential unit counts broken down by site.

Table 1: 513 Hamilton Street Proposed Unit Breakdown


Parking Spaces Parking Spaces
Building Site Total Units Total Bedrooms Total Parking Spaces
per Unit per Bedroom
513 Hamilton Street 172 362 127 0.74 0.35
Type of Unit Number of Units Square footage
1 Bedroom Units 16 540 SF
2 Bedroom Units 122 910 SF
3 Bedroom Units 34 1104 SF to 1130 SF

Source: Timothy Haahs & Associates, Inc. 2019

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Transit Accessibility / Shuttle Service

A 2002 working paper (Cervero and Duncan) estimates that households within a ½ mile of
transit stations are significantly less likely to own a car. Parking requirements for high-density
projects at or near transit stations should be significantly less than areas without reasonable
access to public transit. However, the proposed project does not presently have transit
accessibility within a half mile of the site. NJ Transit rail service at the downtown New Brunswick
Train Station is approximately 1 mile from the development site and the following NJ Transit bus
lines are between ½ mile and 1 mile of 513 Hamilton Street:

 Route 811 (St Peter's University Hospital, New Brunswick) – 0.6 miles
 Route 814 (Livingston Ave. At Handy St., New Brunswick) – 0.9 miles
 Routes 810, 815, 818 (Somerset at George St., New Brunswick) – 1.0 miles

The Rutgers University New Brunswick /


Piscataway Campus Bus / Shuttle Service
has various routes to provide
transportation within or between the
College Avenue, Busch, Livingston, Cook
and Douglass Campuses. Busing is
available to all members of the Rutgers
University Community as well as New
Brunswick residents and visitors. However,
the closest University Bus Stop (the Scott
Hall Stop at College Avenue and Hamilton
Street) is approximately 1 mile from the
513 Hamilton Street Project. The Township and the Developer have indicated that they intend to
run a shuttle bus for students to the nearest Rutgers Bus Stop or to the Student Center and then
residents can transfer to the Rutgers Bus System to connect to other destinations. The
Township and the Developer have also informed us that Rutgers is contemplating the addition
of a shuttle route geared towards Hamilton Street and the Township will be working with
Rutgers to effectuate the extension of the Rutgers bus service to Hamilton Street.

Figure 6 is a location map of the Rutgers Bus Stops on Routes A, EE and New Brunsquick 1
(these routes hit all the stops located along the College Avenue and Cook/Douglass Campuses)
in relation to the proposed Project Site.

The implementation of a student shuttle for the Hamilton Street Corridor with adequate
frequency to the New Brunswick Rutgers University Campus will likely reduce parking
demand for the 513 Hamilton Street Project.

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The Hamilton Street Corridor Master Plan Update dated April 2015 outlines zoning amendments
recommended by the Planning Board to encourage revitalization of the Hamilton Street Corridor
through private investment and redevelopment.

Figure 2: Hamilton Street Corridor as Outlined in the April 2015 Master Plan Update

Source: Township of Franklin Hamilton Street Corridor Master Plan Update, April 2015 and Timothy Haahs & Associates, Inc. 2019

The Hamilton Street Corridor - Parking Requirements


Parking Requirements for the Hamilton Business District (HBD)
Currently, the parking requirements for the Hamilton Street Corridor are unique to the Hamilton
Street Zone; this includes the HBD (where the Project is located) and the Hamilton Street
Special Improvement District (SID). Free public parking is provided through on-street parking
along Hamilton Street. According to the Hamilton Street Corridor Master Plan Update from April
2015, the parking requirements presently set are meant to encourage development that is
consistent with the Township’s vision for Hamilton Street as a pedestrian-friendly, mixed-use
“main street” type of environment. The non-residential uses in the HBD zone are set at three (3)
spaces per 1,000 square feet; considerably lower than those of other commercial zones, for
example the highway-oriented retail development in the G-B Zone. This zone recognizes, to an
extent, the availability of the on-street parking supply. The provided parking within this zone is
not to exceed the minimum requirements by more than 20%, while recognizing the presence of
on-street parking and discouraging “over-parking”, as this takes away from the overall “Main
Street” character of the zone. As it stands, the Hamilton Corridor offers a multitude of options to
provide parking for non-residential uses, which are consistent to the “main-street” environment

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especially students, who occasionally need a car


but want to avoid the expense that accompanies
owning a vehicle.

In Hoboken and Jersey City, residents can join a


municipally sponsored car share program. Hourly
driving rates start at $7.00 which includes fuel,
physical damage/liability protection and 180 miles
per day (mileage for additional days is prorated at
30 miles an hour for the first 6 hours). The
Enterprise Car Share app, available on iPhone and
Android devices, can locate vehicles nearby and
make immediate reservations. Enterprise car share
has one location in Hoboken and two locations in
Jersey City.

The Garden Village Apartments is a student


oriented housing complex in Berkeley, CA
developed by the Nautilus Group. The project is
located approximately 0.7 miles from the University
of California at Berkeley Campus and was designed
as a walking- and biking-oriented development. The
developers implemented an on-site car share
program and a digital travel concierge in the lobby to
help residents get around without a car, as they do
not offer on-site parking to residents. The free
membership to the car share program is guaranteed
to be in place for all residents for 40 years.

As per discussions with Zip Car, the cost to have a Zip Car shared vehicle at the proposed
development is approximately $1,800 per month. This cost is offset by patron use fees so that if
monthly fees equal or exceed $1,800, there is no cost to the developer.

A car share program implemented with the development of 513 Hamilton Street will likely
reduce the parking demand for the Project. The car share program could also be
available to the other residents in the Hamilton Street Corridor.

Bike Share

In recent years, bike-share programs like LimeBike or Jersey Bike have become largely popular
in more walkable communities as an alternative to driving. Companies provide public bicycles
for people to use on an “as-needed” basis without the costs, maintenance, storage and
responsibilities that come with owning a bike. These programs rely on a system of self-service
bike stations that allow users access through a mobile app to rent a bike by the use of a
membership or a credit card. The user is then able to ride the bike to their destination and park
the bike, offering an affordable and environmentally sustainable reason to switch from driving to
biking within a downtown district.

Talia Apartments, a complex in Marlborough, MA, has implemented a bike-sharing program


exclusively for their residents. The apartment complex offers bikes that their residents can

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check out using a mobile app at their


convenience. Residents download the mobile
app onto their smart phone and then register
themselves for the bike share system. Once
approved by an administrator, residents receive
a confirmation that their account was approved
and then they have the ability to check out a
bicycle from the app. Different from city-wide or
university-wide bike-share programs, the
bicycles cannot be dropped off at any bike rack,
but rather must be returned to the apartment
complex’s bike rack. Once the bike is returned
securely, the resident must use the app to end
the bike rental; the app also logs users’ ride
history.

A project based bike-share service implemented at 513 Hamilton Street will likely reduce
parking demand for the 513 Hamilton Street Project.

Ride Hailing

Transportation Network Companies (TNCs), sometimes


known as a Mobility Service Providers (MSP) or ride-hailing
services such as Uber or Lyft, are companies that match
passengers with drivers via websites and mobile apps.
TNCs are examples of the sharing economy and shared
mobility. Rideshare services are an opportunity to help
commuters share transportation costs. Carpooling has
been a commuting concept for decades but more recently
rideshare services have become a way to formally arrange
these carpools even among strangers. Ride-hailing
services are now a significant alternative to owning or
driving a car. Ride-hailing services have reduced parking
needs. Both Uber and Lyft offer ridesharing options where
students can carpool with others in one trip which makes it
that much cheaper. One shared Lyft trip can cost as little as
$3.00 for someone who lives 15 minutes from campus.

The City of Summit, NJ currently has a program with the


ridesharing app, Lyft, where Summit Residents who already
have prepaid parking permits can receive free rides to the
Summit Train Station. Drop-offs at the train station run from
Mondays to Fridays starting at 5AM and ending at 11PM
and all trips must begin or end within the City of Summit.
Residents can request a ride either on demand or up to
seven (7) days in advance. What started out as 100
residential commuters with UberX (prior to Lyft) has gained
popularity allowing the program to expand. Effective as of November 2018, the program
expanded from 250 to 300 participants. This program has been successful in helping to alleviate
parking congestion in municipal parking lots and garages near the train station.

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Figure 3: Comparable Housing Projects’ Location Map

Source: Timothy Haahs & Associates, Inc. 2019

Census Data

To assist in identifying the appropriate parking ratios for the Project it is helpful to understand
the existing parking conditions in the area of the Project. The proposed project site, 513
Hamilton Street, is located along Census Tract 532 in Franklin Township, outlined in Figure 4.

The following census information for Tract 532 was obtained through the 2017 American
Community Survey (ACS) 5-Year Estimates:

 Total Households: 2,093 total households


 Total Population: 6,750 people (about 10%) of Franklin Township’s total population
 Average Household Size: 3.23 people
 Owner-Occupied Housing Units: 70.1% of households
 Renter-Occupied Housing Units: 29.9% of households
 Total Vehicles Available: 2,057 total vehicles available
 Total Vehicles per Household: 0.98 vehicles (approximately 1 vehicle per household)
 Total vehicles per bedroom: 0.86 vehicles

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Figure 4: Franklin Township, NJ – Census Tract 532

Source: US Census, 2010

Availability of On-Street Parking - Hamilton Street Corridor

On-street parking adds vibrancy,


convenience, and a buffer to street level
activity. It contributes to the overall
viability of a development project and it is
critical to support local retail businesses.
On-street parking, regulated and enforced
appropriately can meet both retail and
residential parking needs in a given area.
On-street parking can often be shared by
patrons of local retail establishments
within proximity of the project during the
weekday, and then shared by residential
parkers whose occupancy typically peaks
On-street parking in front of 507 & 513 Hamilton Street,
in the evenings. Accordingly, many Somerset, NJ
municipalities allow a portion of the on-
street parking, adjacent to or within close proximity of the project, to satisfy the parking
requirement of a proposed project. This strategy reduces the amount of off-street parking
required, often improving the aesthetic character of the project as well as its financial feasibility.

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Parking (PILOP) offers a developer the option to pay a fee for each waived parking space, in-
lieu of providing the number of parking spaces required by the local land use ordinance. The
municipality utilizes the PILOP fee to maintain or construct a public parking facility available to
the users or occupants of the development project, as well as the general parking public. For
years, municipalities have used PILOP initiatives as a way of allowing new development to
proceed without providing all or some of the required parking on the development site. PILOP
Programs can be a valuable tool for promoting new development, especially with the presence
of mass transit where residents and employees of the downtown have the option of an
alternative mode of transportation.

The PILOP fee is generally calculated based on the per-space cost of constructing surface or
structured parking. Depending on the location and type of parking, this fee can range from as
little as $3,000 per space in smaller towns with abundant and inexpensive land for surface
parking, to over $25,000 in more dense areas where structured parking is required due to land
costs and the desired development density. The benefits of a PILOP Program include the
reduction of over building parking facilities, encouraging shared parking, saving valuable land
for other uses, and creating a fund for future parking development and maintenance. PILOP
Programs exist around the country with different ways to finance the in-lieu costs developers
must pay. These typically depend on the fiscal needs, liquidity and desires of each municipality.
Some variations on methods to collect payment include:

 Lump sum payment


 Annual installment payment
 Combination of both upfront and installment payments
 Guaranteed monthly permit sales/payments

Funds contributed to a PILOP fund can be used for the following:

 Acquire simple fee or other interest in land, and other real property for parking purposes
 Construct, maintain, operate, lease, manage, or otherwise provide off-street parking
facilities for public use
 Provide public information to enhance parking utilization including publicity campaigns,
signage, and other informational devices
 Coordinate plans for parking facility improvements and expansion with public
transportation plans and operations in the vicinity, particularly joint facilities that might be
operated in connection with transit stations and any feeder services
 Fund parking studies and professional fees for feasibility analysis, design and
construction of new facilities

The benefits of adopting a PILOP Program include:


 Developer flexibility
 Public parking facilities can be shared by multiple users (private parking facilities are
often restricted to users generated by the owner’s development project)
 Consolidation of multiple small and single user parking facilities, into a larger
strategically located public parking facility
 Reduction or elimination of parking variances granted by a municipality
 Creates a level playing field, where all developers contribute to and share public parking
 Provides a funding mechanism for public parking improvements and facilities

Franklin Township’s ordinance also speaks to a PILOP as per Section 112-105B-2c which

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states the following: For every space not provided by alternatives in Subsection B(2)(a)
and/or (b) above, an in-lieu contribution can be made to a capital improvement fund
dedicated by the Township for the purpose of constructing on-street and off-street public
parking facilities to serve the needs of the HBD. The amount of the contributions shall be
equivalent to the costs of constructing the parking spaces on site, as calculated by the
Township Engineer.

Franklin Township presently charges $2,331.24 per parking space to the dedicated township
capital improvement fund for the construction of a surface lot as a PILOP. This charge is
anticipated to cover the cost to construct the parking space and does not include the land cost.

Shared Parking

According to the Urban Land Institute, “Shared Parking is defined as parking spaces that can be
used to serve two or more individual land uses without conflict or encroachment”. The mix of
land uses typical in a downtown or city area provide meaningful opportunities for shared
parking. The utilization of the same parking space by multiple user groups (i.e., parking for
commuters during the day, and residents or retail patrons
in the evening and on weekends) maximizes the use of
parking resources, reduces the amount of parking to be
built, and if parking fees are charged, financially supports
the facilities’ capital and operating expenses. The mix of
land uses located near 513 Hamilton Street and throughout
the Hamilton Business District Corridor poses an
opportunity to share the residential parking with patrons
and / or business owners/employees of nearby businesses
during the typical weekday.

Adjacent, complementary uses of shared parking reduce


the amount of spaces that would otherwise be required
independently. This improves the overall financial
feasibility of a project by maximizing land value, sharing
the capital and operation costs of parking and increasing
the opportunity for parking revenue.

Shared parking is consistent with Franklin Township’s Ordinance (Section 112-105B-2c)


related to the Payment in Lieu of Parking (PILOP) Program and should be considered as
an effective strategy to help reduce parking requirements for projects in the Hamilton
Corridor.

513 Hamilton Street Project - Parking Requirement Recommendation


The following parking requirement recommendations for the 513 Hamilton Street Project are
based on the data analysis outlined in the report:

 The project is a multi-family housing project designed to be student-oriented housing;


 The Project has 172 units and 362 bedrooms on 1.16 acres of land resulting in a
residential density of 148 units or 312 bedrooms per acre;

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 That the Census Tract 532 data from the 2017 American Community Survey (ACS)
indicates that the existing residents in the tract have 0.98 vehicles per household or
approximately 1.00 vehicle per household and 0.86 vehicles per bedroom; and,
 That the parking occupancy survey results of like projects yielded an average parking
utilization of 1.10 parking spaces per unit and 0.72 parking spaces per bedroom.

Based upon this information listed above, TimHaahs recommends a parking requirement as
follows:

 1.25 parking spaces per total unit count


 0.60 parking spaces per total bedroom count

The referenced requirements result in a parking requirement of 215 parking spaces based on
the proposed unit and bedroom count for the Project.

Parking Demand Management Plan

Should the developer implement a Parking Demand Management Plan with the components
outlined below, TimHaahs would be willing to lower our recommendation for the parking
requirement for the 513 Hamilton Street development project:

 The implementation of a developer sponsored car share program, either on-site or an


on-street car share program in close proximity to the project;
 The implementation of a developer sponsored bike-share program on-site;
 The implementation of a developer sponsored Uber / Lyft ride-hailing subsidy program
providing residents who do not have a car with a $75.00 monthly allowance;
 A contingency plan that provides up to 20 additional off-site parking spaces located
within a 500-foot radius of the Project Site; and,
 The ability to obtain a credit of up to 25% for the on-street parking spaces within a 1,000-
foot radius of the Project Site to count towards the Project’s overall parking requirement
(approximately 10 parking spaces).

Based on the implementation of the referenced Parking Demand Management Strategies,


TimHaahs would recommend reducing the parking ratio for the Project as follows:
 1.00 parking space per total unit count
 0.50 parking spaces per total bedroom count

The referenced requirements result in a parking requirement of 172 parking spaces based on
the proposed unit and bedroom count for the Project.

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Recommendation Summary
To summarize:
 A developer is currently proposing 127 parking spaces for the development of 172 total
units and 362 total bedrooms for required parking ratios of:

o 0.74 parking spaces per total unit count


o 0.35 parking spaces per total bedroom count

 TimHaahs’ initial recommendation would require 215 parking spaces to be built,


requiring an additional 88 parking spaces from what a developer is proposing, before
the implementation of any Parking Demand Management Plan for required parking ratios
of:

o 1.25 parking spaces per total unit count


o 0.60 parking spaces per total bedroom count

 Timhaahs’ final recommendation would require 172 parking spaces to be built,


requiring an additional 45 parking spaces from what a developer is proposing, after
the implementation of a Parking Demand Management Plan for required parking ratios
of:

o 1.00 parking spaces per total unit count


o 0.50 parking spaces per total bedroom count

Implementation
The proposed recommendations and parking requirements are specific to 513 Hamilton Street
Project with the intent of “right sizing” the parking component based on a variety of project
characteristics and strategies outlined in this report. In order to implement the parking
requirements and the associated parking demand strategies, we recommend that Franklin
Township grant a variance for the project’s proposed parking requirements with specific
parking mitigation and parking demand management strategies associated with the parking
variance. A variance associated with the parking requirements of the project offers several
advantages:

 It is easier to implement than a zoning ordinance change;

 The grant of a parking variance has no precedent value for subsequent applications.
This is beneficial if the mitigations and parking demand strategies do not yield the
anticipated benefits addressing parking demand. Accordingly, a subsequent developer
has no right to rely on the previous project having been granted the variance;

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 With a variance, the township can obtain real life data and understand what works well
and what doesn’t providing valuable information for future applications and providing
support for an ordinance change at a later date;

 Variances allow different methods to be used in different locations in the HBD. As the
zoning district extends for a long distance along Hamilton Street, different parking
alternatives may be effective in different areas. The variance process is flexible and
allows different strategies to be easily incorporated at different locations; and

 With a variance, planning staff can require a report or plan for each application and use
this report in their planning review memo to encourage the approving board with regards
to a parking variance if the developer offers sufficient mitigations.

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