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consists essentially of a curved surface in contact with a flat or

11.1 Bearings ~— General curved surface and constrained to prevent relative horizontal
movement. The curved surface may be cylindrical or spherical.

11.1.1 Description 15 Longitudinal: Parallel with the main span direction ofthe bridge.
16 Transverse: The horizontal direction normal to the longitudinal
1 This Sub-section describes the requirements for designing,
axis of the bridge.
testing, furnishing and installing replaceable bridge bearings as
shown on the Drawings or in the Special Specification or as required 17 Translation: Horizontal movement of the bridge in the
to complete the work. longitudinal or transverse direction.
18 Rotation about the longitudinal axis: Rotation about an axis
1 1.1.1 .1 Definitions parallel to the main span direction of the bridge.
1 Bearing: A structural device that transmits loads while l9 Rotation about the transverse axis: rotation about an axis parallel
facilitating translation and/or rotation. to the transverse axis ofthe bridge.
2 Elastomer: A compound containing natural or chloroprene 11.1.1.2 References
rubber with properties similar to those of rubber.
3 Elastomeric bearing: A bearing comprising a block of elastomer 1 American Association of State Highway and Transportation
that may be reinforced internally with steel plates. Officials (AASHTO):
AASHTO 2009 AASHTO LRFD Bridge Construction
4 Plain pad bearing: An unreinforced elastomeric bearing. It
provides limited translation and rotation. Specifications, 3rd Edition, 2009, with 2010,

5 Strip bearing: A plain pad bearing for which the length is at least 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015 Interim
ten times the width. Revisions.
6 Laminated elastomeric bearing or steel-reinforced elastomeric AASHTO 2014 AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design
bearing: A bearing made from alternate laminates of steel and Specifications, 7th Edition, 2014, with 2015
elastomer bonded together during vulcanization. Vertical loads are Interim Revisions.
carried by compression of the elastomer. Movements parallel to the
reinforcing layers and rotations are accommodated by deformation of 1 1.1.1.3 Design and Construction Standards
the elastomer.
1 Bearings shall be designed in accordance with the latest edition
7 Pot bearing: A bearing consisting essentially of a metal piston of AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications, Sub-Section 14.7,
supported by a disc of unreinforced elastomer that is confined within as complemented or modified herein.
a metal cylinder. Rotations are accommodated by deformation of the
2 Bearings shall be constructed as specified in the latest edition of
elastomer. It may be movable, guided, unguided or fixed. Movement
AASHTO LRFD Bridge Construction Specifications, Section 18.
is accommodated by sliding ofpolished stainless steel on PTFE.
3 Definitions of bearing types and bearing components shall be in
8 Disc bearing: A bearing that accommodates rotation by
accordance with AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications,
deformation of a single elastomeric disc molded from a urethane
Third Edition, 2004, Section 14.2. Relevant definitions are reported
compound. It may be movable, guided, unguided or fixed.
in Paragraph 11.1.1.1.
Movement is accommodated by sliding of polished stainless steel on
PTFE. 4 Detailed specifications for elastomeric bearings and Pot Bearings
are given in Sub-Sections 11.2 and 11.3, these two types being the
9 PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene): Also known as Teflon.
most common and most suitable types.
10 Fixed bearing: A bearing that prevents differential translation
of abutting structural elements. It may or may not provide for
differential rotation.
11 Movable bearing: A bearing that facilitates differential
horizontal translation of abutting structural elements in a longitudinal
and/or lateral direction. It may or may not provide for rotation.
Translation may be constrained to a specified direction by guide bars.
12 Sliding bearing: A bearing that accommodates movement by
translation of one surface relative to another. Translation may be
constrained to a specified direction by guide bars.
13 Roller bearing: A bearing that carries vertical load by direct
contact between two metal surfaces and that accommodates
movement by rolling of one surface with respect to the other. It
consists essentially of one or more steel rollers between upper and
lower plates.
14 Rocker bearing: A bearing that carries vertical load by direct
contact between two metal surfaces and that accommodates
movement by rocking of one surface with respect to the other. It

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5 Other types of bearings shall follow AASHTO LRFD Bridge manufacturers or suppliers. These shall state the
Design Specifications, Section 14 for design, and AASHTO LRFD type and grade of material, the relevant standard and
Bridge-Construction Specifications for construction requirements, as the results of all tests carried out.
follows:
xi. Test Reports:
i. Disc Bearings Sub-Section 18.3
ii. Rocker and Roller Bearings Sub-Section 18.4 — Reports of the specified material tests.
iii. Spherical Bearings Sub-Section 18.5 — Reports of the specified tests on bearings.
xii. Replacement procedures.
11.1.1.4 Submittals xiii. Inspection and Maintenance Plan.
1 The Contractor shall submit the following to be approved by the
11.1.1.5 Quality Assurance
Engineer prior to fabrication of the bearings. Such approval shall not
relieve the Contractor of any responsibility under the contract 1 Codes and Standards: AASHTO LRFD Bridge Construction
documents for the successful completion of the work. Specifications.
i. Working drawings as defined in AASHTO LRFD Bridge 2 The Contractor shall ensure that direct site supervision of the
Construction Specifications Article 18.1.1. The drawings first of each type of bearing is provided by an experienced technical
shall, additionally, show transit restraints and lifting representative of the manufacturer and thereafter, by competent
points as necessary. persons who have been trained in the proper installation of bearings.
ii. Details of protective coatings with data sheets and
painting drawings showing the venue and timing of the 11.1.2 Materials
application of shop and site applied coatings.
1 1.1.2.1 Steel
iii. Method statements.
l Unless otherwise specified, rolled steel shall conform to
iv. Evidence that the manufacturer has at least ten years
experience in manufacturing bearings comparable with AASHTO M 270M/M 270 (ASTM A 709/A 709M), Grade 36
those required for the Project, and that the proposed types (Grade 250), and shall cause no adverse electrolytic or chemical
of bearings have been incorporated in structures in similar reaction with other components of the bearing and shall be free of all
environmental conditions. rust and mill scale.

v. Design calculations. 2 Unless otherwise specified, steel laminates shall be made from
rolled mild steel conforming to AASHTO M 270M/M 270 (ASTM A
vi. Construction drawings of any additional or revised
709/A 709M), Grade 36 (Grade 250), ASTM A 1011/A 1011M, or
reinforcement and modified concrete details and/or
equivalent. Laminates shall have a minimum nominal thickness of
steelwork details required at the abutting structural
(1.6 mm). Holes in plates for manufacturing purposes shall not be
elements.
permitted unless they have been accounted for in the design and are
vii. Details of fixings to superstructures and substructures in accordance with the contract documents.
including tolerance requirements.
3 Cast steel shall satisfy the requirements of ASTM A802/A802M
viii. Program of manufacture, testing and delivery, including and be free of all blow-holes and impurities larger than 3.2 mm the
the name, address and accreditation of the testing inside wall of the pot in pot bearings and the contact surface of metal
laboratory. rocker or roller bearings shall be fiee of blow-holes or impurities of
ix. Samples: any size.
— All samples required to perform the tests specified 4 Forged steel shall satisfy the requirements of ASTM A 788.
for the verification of material quality and 5 Stainless steel shall conform to the requirements of ASTM A167,
performance of bearings and ancillary items. Type304 or ASTM A240/A240M, Type 304 and shall have a
— Records of an installation trial for each type of minimum thickness of 0.91 mm and a surface finish in the finished
bearing in accordance with the method of bearing better than or equal to 0.2 um. Stainless steel in contact with
installation which shall take full account of PTFE sheet shall be polished to a finish not less than 0.50 um.
restrictions that may be imposed on the operations 6 Where ASTM is referred, equivalent specifications, Eurocode
by the location of the bearings in the Works. A for example, may be accepted.
photographic record of the trial shall be made.
Subject to the successful completion of the trial the l 1.1.2.2 Material Testing
method of installation shall not subsequently be
1 Material certification tests to determine the physical and
varied unless approved by the Designer.
chemical properties of all materials shall be conducted in accordance
x. Certificates (not older than 12 months): with the appropriate specification governing the material. The test
— Certificates as specified in the standards in respect certificates shall be submitted to the Engineer.
of the specified materials. 2 Material fiiction test for sliding surfaces shall be conducted
— Certificates for all materials used in the manufacture either on samples taken fiom the same batch of materials as those
of bearings shall be obtained from the used in the prototype bearings, or on finished bearings. The testing

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procedure shall be in accordance with AASHTO LRFD Bridge 3 Performance for the system for protection against corrosion shall
Construction Specifications Article 18.1.5.2.3. The bearing or not be less than 15 years to first maintenance unless otherwise
specimen shall show no appreciable sign of wear, bond failure, or specified in the contract documents. The system for corrosion
other defects. protection shall be subject to test in accordance with Table 1, Clause
5.3, BS EN 133 7-9 or other such criteria as may be additionally
3 Long-term deterioration test shall either be conducted on
recommended by the corrosion protection system manufacturer as
samples or on a pair of bearings placed back-to-back. The testing
being adequate to demonstrate the ability of the protection system to
procedure shall be in accordance with AASHTO LRFD Bridge
achieve life to first maintenance as specified for the steelwork.
Construction Specifications Article 18.1.5.2.7. The following shall
be cause for rejection ofthe bearing: 11.1.3.2 Manufacture Tolerances
i. Damage visible to the naked eye on disassembly of the
bearing, such as excessive wear, cracks, or splits in the l Bearings shall be fabricated within the tolerances of Table
material. 18.1.4.2-1 of AASHTO LRFD Bridge Construction Specifications.
ii. A coefficient of friction which exceeds two-thirds the The Special Specification defines, where appropriate, the class of
value used in design. tolerances A, B or C.

1 1.1.2.3 Bedding Material 11.1.3.3 Testing of Complete Bearings

l Bedding material shall be of the type specified in the contract 1 Dimension Check: the dimensions of the bearings shall be
documents or as ordered or approved by the Engineer and shall be checked in accordance with AASHTO LRFD Bridge Construction
installed to provide full bearing on contact areas. Grout and mortar Specifications Article 18.1.5.2.4.
used for filling under bearing or masonry plate shall conform to the 2 Clearance Test: in accordance with AASHTO LRFD Bridge
requirements of AASHTO LRFD Bridge Construction Specifications Construction Specifications Article 18.1.5.2.5.
Sub-Section 8.14.
3 Bearing Friction Test: in accordance with AASHTO LRFD
2 Materials for mortar and grout shall conform to the requirements Bridge Construction Specifications Article 18.1 .5.2.6.
of Sub-Section 5.1 as complemented and/or modified herein.
In addition to the compression of 100 percent of the full service dead
3 When the width or depth of the void to be filled is less than 20 load plus live load, the bearings shall be checked for 50 percent and
mm, the grading of sand for use in the grout shall be modified so that 8O percent of the full service dead load plus live load.
all material passes the 2.36 mm sieve.
4 Bearing Horizontal Force Capacity: in accordance with
4 Unless otherwise specified or ordered by the Engineer, the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Construction Specifications Article
proportion of cement to sand shall be one to one. 18.1.5.2.8. Failure or excessive deflection of any of the components
5 When nonshrink mortar or grout is specified, a nonshn'nk shall be cause for rejection.
admixture of a type approved by the Engineer shall be used. 5 Vertical Load Test: bearings shall be tested for vertical load
6 Only sufficient water shall be used to permit placing and packing. equal to one and a half (1.5) times the full service dead load plus live
7 Mixing shall be done by either hand methods or with rotating load. The test shall be applied in five equal increments and the test
paddle-type mixing machines and shall be continued until all load held for one (1) hour or until deformation ceases, whichever is
ingedients are thoroughly mixed. Once mixed, mortar or grout shall the greater. The load shall then be removed in equal decrements as
not be retempered by the addition of water and shall be placed within the load increments. A second cycle of load increment and
one hour. decrement shall be applied with the maximum test load being held
for (30) minutes. The load-deformation graph shall be plotted for
both load cycles and the set determined. If the set exceeds a value
11.1.3 Construction Requirements
deemed to be excessive by the Engineer, the Engineer may require
11.1.3.1 Manufacture all bearings to be pre-loaded before installation. At the end of the
vertical load test, the bearing shall be dismantled and the bearing
1 The manufacturer shall certify that each bearing satisfies the surfaces examined. Damage visible to the naked eye on disassembly
requirements of the contract documents and this Specification, and of the bearing, such as excessive wear, cracks, or splits in the
shall supply the Engineer a certified copy of material test results. material shall be cause for rejection.
Each bearing shall be marked in indelible ink or flexible paint. The
6 If one bearing of the sample fails, all the bearings ofthat lot shall
marking shall consist of the location in the structure, the orientation,
be rejected, unless the manufacturer elects to test each bearing of the
the order number, lot number, bearing identification number, and
lot at his expense. In lieu of this procedure, the Engineer may require
elastomer type and grade number. Unless otherwise specified in the
every bearing of the lot to be tested.
contract documents, the marking shall be on the face that is visible
after erection of the bridge. Bearing assemblies shall be 7 Testing of the complete bearings shall be at the Contractor’s
preassembled in the shop by the supplier and checked for proper expense and will be witnessed by representatives of the Engineer and
completeness and geometry before shipping to the site. the Employer. The cost for providing facilities to the Engineer or his
representative for witnessing the test shall be borne by the Contractor.
2 The design of the bearing shall include necessary provision to
The Contractor shall ensure access to the manufacturer plant for the
facilitate the replacement of the bearing with minimum interruption
Engineer’s representatives.
to traffic. The Special Specification defines, where appropriate, the
maximum lifting of bridge decks to remove existing and install new 8 The Engineer may waive any or all of the bearing tests.
bearings.

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Bearings of the same type but of different load or movement
11.1.3.4 Packaging, Handling and Storage capacities shall be measured separately.
1 Prior to shipment from the point of manufacture, bearings shall 2 Bearing tests, installation trials, bedding, nuts and bolts, grout
be packaged in such a manner to ensure that during shipment and injection where applicable, and temporary restraint of bearings where
storage, the bearings will be protected against damage from handling, necessary due to the sequence of deck construction, measuring
weather, or any normal hazard. Each completed bearing shall have its devices for movement and/or load, as well as plinths, downstands,
components clearly identified, be securely bolted, strapped, or masonry plates and all elements between the substructure and
otherwise fastened to prevent any relative movement, and be marked superstructure shall not be measured for direct payment but shall be
on its top as to location and orientation in each structure in the considered as subsidiary works the costs of which shall be deemed to
Project. be included in the rates for bridge bearings.
2 All bearing devices and components shall be stored at the work
site in an area that provides protection from environmental and 11.1.5 Basis of Payment
physical damage. When installed, bearings shall be clean and free of
1 The amount of completed and accepted work measured as
all foreign substances.
provided above, will be paid for at the rate for each type of “Bridge
3 Dismantling of bearings at the site shall not be done unless Bearing” as specified in the Bill of Quantities, which rate shall be
absolutely necessary for inspection or installation. Bearings shall not full compensation for filmishing all materials, labor, equipment,
be opened or dismantled at the site except under the direct tools, supplies and other items necessary for proper completion of
supervision of or with the approval of the manufacturer. the Work.

11.1.3.5 Construction and Installation


11.1.6 Items in the Bill of Quantities
1 Bearings shall be installed by qualified personnel to the positions
shown in the contract documents. Bearings shall be set at time of For bearing types other than BOQ items 11.2.6, 11.3.6 and 11.4.4
installation to the dimensions and offsets prescribed by the i Bridge bearing (type), vertical and horizontal loads
manufacturer, by the Engineer, and as shown in the contract (kN), movement (mm) (nr.)
documents and shall be adjusted as necessary to take into account the
temperature and filtlll'fi movements of the bridge due to temperature
11.2 Elastomeric Bearings
changes, release of falsework, and shortening due to prestressing.
2 Each bridge bearing shall be located within i3 mm of its correct
11.2.1 Description
position in the horizontal plane and oriented to within an angular
tolerance of 1 degree. Guided bearings and bearings which rotate 1 Elastomeric bearings as defined herein shall include
about only one axis shall be oriented in the direction specified in the unreinforced pads (consisting of elastomer only) and reinforced
contract documents to within a tolerance of 0.25 degree. All bearings bearings with steel laminates.
except those which are placed in opposing pairs shall be set 2 Design of steel-reinforced elastomeric bearings shall be in
horizontal to within an angular tolerance of 0.25 degree, and must accordance with AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications
have full and even contact with load plates, where these exist. The Method B defined in Article 14.7.5 or Method A defined in Article
superstructure supported by the bearing shall be set so that, under 14.7.6 where the provisions of the appropriate article are used.
lull dead load, its slope lies within an angular tolerance of 0.25
3 Bearings shall be constructed as specified in the latest edition of
degree of the design value. Any departure from this tolerance shall
AASHTO LRFD Bridge Construction Specifications, Section l8, as
be corrected by means of a tapered plate or by other means approved
complemented or modified herein.
by the Engineer. If shim stacks are needed to level the bearing, they
shall be removed after grouting and before the weight of the 4 Altematively elastomeric bearings may be designed and
superstructure acts on the bearing. constructed in accordance with Eurocode BS EN 1337-3 Structural
Bearings - Part 3: Elastomeric Bearings.
3 Metallic bearing assemblies not embedded in the concrete shall
be bedded on the concrete with a filler or fabric material as specified 11.2.2 Materials
in Paragraph 11.1.2.3. 1 The raw elastomer shall be either virgin Neoprene
4 Where bearings are seated directly on steel work, the supporting (polychloroprene) or virgin natural rubber (polyisoprene) satisfying
surface shall be machined so as to provide a level and planar surface the testing requirements in Tables 18.2.3.1-1 and 18.2.3.1-2 of
upon which the bearing is placed. AASHTO LRFD Bridge Construction Specifications. Test
5 Bearings or masonry plates which rest on steel supports may be requirements may be interpolated for intermediate hardness.
directly installed on the supports, provided the support is flat within 2 Unless otherwise specified in the contract documents, the
a tolerance of 0.002 times the nominal dimension and is sufficiently elastomer shall be Grade 0, 60-durometer.
rigid so as not to deform under specified loads. 3 Materials for elastomeric bearings and the finished bearings
themselves shall be subjected to the tests described in AASHTO
11.1.4 Method of Measurement LRFD Bridge Construction Specifications Article 18.2.5. Material
tests shall be in accordance with either Table 18.2.3.1-1 or Table
1 Measurement of bridge bearings shall be by the number of each
18.2.3.1-2, as appropriate. Frequency of testing shall be as specified
type of bearing filmished, installed, completed in place and accepted.
in Article 18.2.5.2.

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