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A KISS Grammar

Second Grade Workbook

Free, from the KISS Grammar Web Site


http://home.pct.edu/~evavra/kiss/wb/Pbooks/index.htm

© Edward A. Vavra
April, 2008
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Contents

Based on “Bunny Rabbit’s Diary,” by Mary Frances Blaisdell.........................................6


1. What is a sentence? – Ex # 1........................................................................................................................6
2. What is a sentence? – Ex # 2........................................................................................................................7
3. What is a sentence? – Ex # 3........................................................................................................................8
Based on “Billy’s Slide,” by Mary Frances Blaisdell..........................................................9
4. Punctuating a Sentence – Ex # 1.................................................................................................................9
5. Punctuating a Sentence – Ex # 2...............................................................................................................10
Based on “A Christmas Tree,” by Mary Frances Blaisdell..............................................11
6. Recognizing Subjects and Verbs (Ex # 1).................................................................................................11
7. Recognizing Subjects and Verbs (Ex # 2).................................................................................................12
8. Recognizing Subjects and Verbs (Ex # 3).................................................................................................13
9. Recognizing Subjects and Verbs (Ex # 4).................................................................................................14
10. Creating an Exercise on Subjects and Verbs.........................................................................................15
Based on “Bobtail’s Kite,” by Mary Frances Blaisdell.....................................................16
11. Adding Complements (Ex # 1).................................................................................................................16
12. Adding Complements (Ex # 2)................................................................................................................17
13. Adding Complements (Ex # 3)................................................................................................................18
14. Adding Complements (Ex # 4)................................................................................................................19
15. A Punctuation Exercise – Quotation Marks..........................................................................................20
Based on “April Fool’s Day,” by Mary Frances Blaisdell................................................21
16. Adding Complements (Ex # 1)................................................................................................................21
17. Adding Complements (Ex # 2)................................................................................................................22
18. Adding Complements (Ex # 3)................................................................................................................23
19. Adding Complements (Ex # 4)................................................................................................................24
20. Creating an Exercise with Complements...............................................................................................25
21. Complements – Creating Exercises........................................................................................................26
22. Complements – Using Students’ Exercises.............................................................................................26
Adding “Helping” Verbs (Tense).........................................................................................
(Tense).........................................................................................27
27
Based on “Mrs. Duck’s Secret,” by Mary Frances Blaisdell............................................28
23. Adding Helping Verbs (Tense) Ex # 1.....................................................................................................28
24. Adding Helping Verbs (Tense) Ex # 2.....................................................................................................29
Based on “The Swimming Lesson,” by Mary Frances Blaisdell......................................30
25. Adding Helping Verbs (Tense) Ex # 1.....................................................................................................30
26. Adding Helping Verbs (Tense) Ex # 2.....................................................................................................31
27. Adding Helping Verbs (Tense) Ex # 3.....................................................................................................32
Adding “Helping” Verbs (Modal).......................................................................................
(Modal).......................................................................................33
33
Based on “Mrs. Duck’s Secret” by Mary Frances Blaisdell.............................................34
28. Adding Helping Verbs (Modal) Ex # 1....................................................................................................34
29. Adding Helping Verbs (Modal) Ex # 2....................................................................................................35
Based on Bunny Rabbit’s Diary (Ch. 1-7) by Mary Frances Blaisdell............................36
30. Adding Helping Verbs (Modal) Ex # 1....................................................................................................36
31. Adding Helping Verbs (Modal) Ex # 2....................................................................................................37
32. Writing Sentences with Modal Verbs.....................................................................................................38
Adding Other Helping Verbs...............................................................................................
Verbs...............................................................................................39
39
Based on Bunny Rabbit's Diary by Mary Frances Blaisdell.............................................40
33. Other Helping Verbs (Ex # 1)..................................................................................................................40
34. Other Helping Verbs (Ex # 2)..................................................................................................................41
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35. Other Helping Verbs (Ex # 3)..................................................................................................................42
36. Other Helping Verbs (Ex # 4)..................................................................................................................43
37. Contractions (Ex # 1)...............................................................................................................................44
38. Contractions (Ex # 2)...............................................................................................................................45
39. Contractions (Ex # 3)...............................................................................................................................46
40. “Piggy Wig's House” – Creating an Exercise with Helping Verbs......................................................47
What Is a Noun?...................................................................................................................
Noun?...................................................................................................................49
49
41. Singular and Plural Nouns......................................................................................................................50
42. Identifying Nouns.....................................................................................................................................51
What Is a Pronoun?..............................................................................................................
Pronoun?..............................................................................................................52
52
43. Identifying Pronouns................................................................................................................................53
44. Identifying Pronouns................................................................................................................................54
45. Writing Sentences with Pronouns...........................................................................................................55
What Is an Adjective?..........................................................................................................
Adjective?..........................................................................................................56
56
46. Identifying Adjectives..............................................................................................................................57
47. Writing Sentences with Adjectives..........................................................................................................58
What Is an Adverb?..............................................................................................................
Adverb?..............................................................................................................59
59
48. Identifying Adverbs..................................................................................................................................60
49. Writing Sentences with Adverbs.............................................................................................................61
More Practice with Adjectives & Adverbs.........................................................................
Adverbs.........................................................................62
62
From "The Clover Patch," by Mary Frances Blaisdell....................................................62
50. Adjectives & Adverbs (Ex # 1)................................................................................................................62
51. Adjectives & Adverbs (Ex # 2)................................................................................................................63
52. Adjectives & Adverbs (Ex # 3)................................................................................................................64
53. Adjectives & Adverbs (Ex # 4)................................................................................................................65
54. Using Adjectives to Combine Sentences.................................................................................................66
Using an Apostrophe to Make a Noun into a Possessive Adjective.................................
Adjective.................................67
67
55. Apostrophes to Show Possession Ex # 1.................................................................................................68
56. Apostrophes to Show Possession Ex # 2.................................................................................................69
57. Treasure Hunt...........................................................................................................................................69
58. “The Pig's Dinner” – Creating an Exercise...........................................................................................70
Compounding with “and,” “or,” or “but”..........................................................................
“but”..........................................................................72
72
Based on “Moving Day” by Mary Frances Blaisdell.........................................................73
59. Compounds (Ex # 1).................................................................................................................................73
60. Compounds (Ex # 2).................................................................................................................................74
61. “The Windmill” – Creating an Exercise................................................................................................75
62 – Treasure Hunt.........................................................................................................................................77
63 – Recipe Roster..........................................................................................................................................77
64 – Treasure Hunt.........................................................................................................................................77
Identifying Prepositional Phrases.......................................................................................
Phrases.......................................................................................78
78
How Prepositional Phrases Work in a Sentence................................................................
Sentence................................................................79 79
From “A Summer Shower,” by Mary Frances Blaisdell..................................................80
65 Adding Prepositional Phrases (Ex # 1)....................................................................................................80
66 Adding Prepositional Phrases (Ex # 2)....................................................................................................81
67 A Punctuation Exercise.............................................................................................................................82
From “Sammy’s Flying Machine,” by Mary Frances Blaisdell.......................................83
68 Adding Prepositional Phrases (Ex # 1)....................................................................................................83
69 Adding Prepositional Phrases (Ex # 2)....................................................................................................84
70 An Exercise in Punctuation......................................................................................................................85
71 Treasure Hunt............................................................................................................................................85
From “The Cabbage Patch,” by Mary Frances Blaisdell.................................................86
72 Adding Prepositional Phrases (Ex # 1)....................................................................................................86
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73 Adding Prepositional Phrases (Ex # 2)....................................................................................................87
74 A Matching Game with Prepositional Phrases.......................................................................................88
From “The White Rabbit,” by Mary Frances Blaisdell...................................................89
75 Adding Prepositional Phrases (Ex # 1)....................................................................................................89
76 Adding Prepositional Phrases (Ex # 2)....................................................................................................90
77 A Punctuation Exercise.............................................................................................................................91
78 Recipe Roster.............................................................................................................................................91
79 “Bobbie Squirrel's Tail” – Creating an Exercise....................................................................................92
Understood “You”................................................................................................................
“You”................................................................................................................94
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80 “You” as the Understood Subject Ex # 1.................................................................................................95
81 “You” as the Understood Subject Ex # 2.................................................................................................96
82 “You” as the Understood Subject–“Betty Blue”....................................................................................97
83 “Dark Pony” – Creating an Exercise.......................................................................................................98
84 Sentence Combining and Style – Ex # 1................................................................................................101
85 Sentence Combining and Style – Ex # 2................................................................................................102
86 Sentence Combining and Style – Ex # 3................................................................................................103
87 Sentence Combining and Style – Ex # 4................................................................................................104
Based on "Teddy Bear," by Mary Frances Blaisdell......................................................105
88 Sentence Combining with Adjectives....................................................................................................105
89 Sentence Combining with Prepositional Phrases.................................................................................106
90 Combining to Make Compound Subjects or Verbs..............................................................................107
Identifying Complements...................................................................................................
Complements...................................................................................................108
108
Based on “Bobby’s Party,” by Mary Frances Blaisdell..................................................109
91 The Subject/Verb/No Complement Pattern..........................................................................................109
92 Focusing on Predicate Adjectives...........................................................................................................110
93 Focusing on Predicate Nouns..................................................................................................................111
94 Focusing on Indirect and Direct Objects...............................................................................................112
95 A Special Focus on Indirect Objects......................................................................................................113
From “The Ugly Duckling” by E. Louise Smythe...........................................................114
96 Focusing on Subjects and Verbs.............................................................................................................114
97 Focusing on Predicate Adjectives...........................................................................................................115
98 Focusing on Predicate Nouns.................................................................................................................116
99 Focusing on Indirect and Direct Objects...............................................................................................117
100 Focusing on Mixed Complements........................................................................................................118
From “The Story of the Oriole” by Florence Holbrook.................................................119
101 Mixed Complements Ex # 1..................................................................................................................119
102 Mixed Complements Ex # 2..................................................................................................................120
103 Mixed Complements Ex # 3..................................................................................................................121
104 Mixed Complements Ex # 4..................................................................................................................122
105 A Punctuation Exercise.........................................................................................................................123
106 Treasure Hunt........................................................................................................................................123
From Bunny Rabbit's Diary, by Mary Frances Blaisdell................................................124
107 Mixed Complements Ex # 1..................................................................................................................124
108 Mixed Complements Ex # 2..................................................................................................................125
109 Mixed Complements Ex # 3..................................................................................................................126
110 Recipe Roster.........................................................................................................................................126
111 “The Easter Rabbit” – Creating an Exercise......................................................................................127
112 Jack Sprat..............................................................................................................................................130
Assessment Quiz # 1 “Bobbie and the Apples”..........................................................................................131
Assessment Quiz # 2 “Alice and Her Mother”..........................................................................................132
Assessment Quiz # 3 Bunny Rabbit’s Diary..............................................................................................133
Assessment Quiz # 4 Bunny Rabbit’s Diary................................................................................................134
Assessment Quiz # 5 “The Wise Jackal”....................................................................................................135
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Assessment Quiz # 6 “Manuel and Rita” (1).............................................................................................136
Assessment Quiz # 7 “Manuel and Rita” (2).............................................................................................137
Assessment Quiz # 8 “Susie Sunbeam”......................................................................................................138
Assessment Quiz # 9 “Why the Evergreen Trees”.....................................................................................139
Assessment Quiz # 10 “Why the Evergreen Trees”...................................................................................140
Looking Ahead - A Challenging Exercise......................................................................................................141
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Based on “Bunny Rabbit’s Diary,” by Mary Frances


Blaisdell

1. What is a sentence? – Ex # 1

Lesson: A sentence is based on a subject and verb. The subject is one or more words that
name what the sentence is about. The verb makes a statement about the subject. It may
state what the subject does, or what it is. (Note that “is,” “are,” “am,” “was,” and “were”
are always verbs. Always underline them twice.)

Directions: In the following sentences, underline the verbs twice and their subject once.

1. The three little rabbits lived in the woods.


2. Each little rabbit had a name.
3. Bunny was full of fun.
4. But Billy was lazy.
5. The rabbits had many playmates.
6. They played with the gray squirrels.
7. Sometimes Bunny ran down to the brook.
8. One Christmas Mrs. Rabbit gave Bunny a book.
9. She pinned the leaves together with thorns.
10. Sometimes he talked to Mrs. Duck.
11. He turned one leaf and then another.
12. They were all alike.
13. This is a funny book.
14. What kind of a book is this?
15. She made it herself out of maple leaves.
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Based on “Bunny Rabbit’s Diary,” by Mary Frances


Blaisdell

2. What is a sentence? – Ex # 2

Directions: In the following sentences, underline the verbs twice and their subject once.

1. So Bunny Rabbit ran back to the big stump.


2. But Bunny shook his head.
3. He was very busy.
4. He hid his book in the hollow tree.
5. I found the hollow tree.
6. The gray squirrels lived in the big oak tree.
7. It was all full of stories about the three little rabbits.
8. They played with the red squirrels.
9. It was about the slide on the long hill beside the pond.
10. The rose-bush grew on the wall.
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Based on “Bunny Rabbit’s Diary,” by Mary Frances


Blaisdell

3. What is a sentence? – Ex # 3

Directions: In the following sentences, underline the verbs twice and their subject once.

1. Bunny saw the book.


2. He jumped up and down.
3. He clapped his hands.
4. Mrs. Duck came to the brook.
5. Bunny jumped off the stump.
6. That is a diary.
7. The book is full.
8. I found the little maple-leaf book.
9. He hopped off toward home.
10. “Bunny Rabbit’s Diary” was the name of the book.
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Based on “Billy’s Slide,” by Mary Frances Blaisdell

4. Punctuating a Sentence – Ex # 1

Lesson: A sentence begins with a capital letter and ends with a period, question
mark, or exclamation point.

Directions: In the following ten items, one is not a sentence. Write “NS” after it
(for “not a sentence”). For those that are sentences,
1.) underline the verb twice and its subject once, and
2.) fix the capitalization and punctuation.

1. one morning in winter Bunny opened his eyes

2. then he pulled Bobtail’s long ears

3. oh, I am so sleepy

4. the sled going faster every minute

5. it is too cold

6. the three little rabbits hopped off through the woods

7. bunny jumped up and down in the snow

8. something hit Bunny on the head

9. the three rabbits soon found some tender little roots

10. this is a good breakfast


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Based on “Billy’s Slide,” by Mary Frances Blaisdell

5. Punctuating a Sentence – Ex # 2

Lesson: A sentence begins with a capital letter and ends with a period, question
mark, or exclamation point.

Directions: In the following ten items, one is not a sentence. Write “NS” after it
(for “not a sentence”). For those that are sentences,
1.) underline the verb twice and its subject once, and
2.) fix the capitalization and punctuation.

1. soon they came to the long hill


2. is the ice thick on the pond
3. jack frost covered the pond with ice last night
4. the time to sleep
5. ice is very thick
6. the big round sun peeped up from behind the hills
7. i know that
8. billy was on the sled
9. it was not very deep
10. it came to the pond
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Based on “A Christmas Tree,” by Mary Frances Blaisdell

6. Recognizing Subjects and Verbs (Ex # 1)

Directions: In the following sentences underline the verb twice and its subject once.

1. The little pine tree stood near the path.

2. The path led through the woods.

3. The rabbits often sat under this tree.

4. The tree listened to the stories.

5. The birds flew to its branches.

6. Sammy Red Squirrel knew something about this tree.

7. The hole was not very large.

8. He put a piece of bark in the hole.

9. This is a good door for my store-house.

10. I am sure.
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Based on “A Christmas Tree,” by Mary Frances Blaisdell

7. Recognizing Subjects and Verbs (Ex # 2)

Directions: In the following sentences underline the verb twice and its subject once.

1. Sammy ran to the hole very often.

2. The little red squirrel hunted for nuts under the trees.

3. The holes were empty.

4. The hunting was always good.

5. Then Sammy went to his store-house in the stone wall.

6. At last it became very cold.

7. North Wind blew through the woods.

8. The squirrels slept in their nests.

9. Blacky Crow stayed in the deep woods.

10. He melted the snow in the warm hollows.


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Based on “A Christmas Tree,” by Mary Frances Blaisdell

8. Recognizing Subjects and Verbs (Ex # 3)

Directions: In the following sentences underline the verb twice and its subject once.

1. The squirrels ran up and down the trees.

2. All at once Bunny Rabbit heard a noise.

3. The other rabbits listened, too.

4. It is the dog!

5. Sammy and Bobby were safe in the tree.

6. The man had an axe in his hand.

7. The two children ran along the path.

8. This is a good one.

9. She pointed right at the little pine tree.

10. That is too large for our Christmas tree.


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Based on “A Christmas Tree,” by Mary Frances Blaisdell

9. Recognizing Subjects and Verbs (Ex # 4)

Directions: In the following sentences underline the verb twice and its subject once.

1. And before long the sound of the axe rang out through the stillness.

2. I thought so, too.

3. But I have a store-house in this tree.

4. Where is it?

5. I am as hungry as a bear.

6. So am I.

7. Sammy took out a nut.

8. I saw many pretty things.

9. Oh, it was pretty!

10. Then the little sparrow flew away.


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10. Creating an Exercise on Subjects and Verbs


“The Cat's Dinner” by Lillian M. Allen
from The Elson Readers Primer

Directions: Read the story, and then find ten sentences in it that would make a good
exercise on simple subjects and verbs. Note that some sentences may be hidden in other, bigger
sentences. For example, in the sentence
She said, "I love music."
You can use the sentence "I love music." Make your exercise on separate paper, and then make
an answer key for it. The directions for your exercise should be:
Directions: In the following sentences underline the verb twice and its subject once.

The cat said, "Come, kittens!


Come to the barn."
The cat went to the barn.
The kittens went, too.
The cat saw a mouse.
The mouse saw the cat.
Alice said, "Come, cat. The mouse ran away.
Come to dinner."
The cat said, "No.
We will find a dinner."

The cat went to the house.


The kittens went, too.
We said, "Come, cat, come!
The cat saw a bird. Come, kittens, come !"
The kittens saw it, too. We gave them milk for dinner.
The bird saw the cat.
It saw the kittens, too.
The bird flew away.
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Based on “Bobtail’s Kite,” by Mary Frances Blaisdell

11. Adding Complements (Ex # 1)

Lesson: A “complement” answers the question “Whom or what?” after a verb.

Directions: In the following sentences, underline the verb twice, their subjects once, and
write "C" above any complements.

1. North Wind played a game.

2. He blew the dry leaves over the ground.

3. He piled them up under the oak tree.

4. The oak tree bowed.

5. And it bowed its head.

6. North Wind blew on and on.

7. He blew through the woods.

8. Bunny heard North Wind.

9. North Wind blew past their house.

10. Oh, how the wind blows!


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Based on “Bobtail’s Kite,” by Mary Frances Blaisdell

12. Adding Complements (Ex # 2)

Lesson: A “complement” answers the question “Whom or what?” after a verb.

Directions: In the following sentences, underline the verb twice, their subjects once, and
write “C” above any complements.

1. I reached the big oak tree first.

2. So they both hopped out of their warm house.

3. The path led to the big oak tree.

4. They came to the oak tree.

5. Bobtail saw the pile of leaves.

6. Who put all those leaves under this tree?

7. Then North Wind puffed out his cheeks.

8. North Wind blew more leaves under the oak tree.

9. The children always fly kites.

10. The wind blows.


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Based on “Bobtail’s Kite,” by Mary Frances Blaisdell

13. Adding Complements (Ex # 3)

Lesson: A “complement” answers the question “Whom or what?” after a verb.

Directions: In the following sentences, underline the verb twice, their subjects once, and
write “C” above any complements.

1. We had a kite.

2. It sailed up in the air and over the trees.

3. A boy dropped a string out of his pocket the other day.

4. It is on the ground, under the pine tree.

5. Bobtail tied the string to the short stem of the oak leaf.

6. We take turns.

7. He picked the kite up.

8. And he tossed it into the air.

9. This is not a good kite.

10. So Billy took hold of the string.


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Based on “Bobtail’s Kite,” by Mary Frances Blaisdell

14. Adding Complements (Ex # 4)

Lesson: A “complement” answers the question “Whom or what?” after a verb.

Directions: In the following sentences, underline the verb twice, their subjects once, and
write “C” above any complements.

1. He tossed the kite into the air.

2. The oak leaf fell to the ground at Billy’s feet.

3. North Wind watched the three little rabbits.

4. He laughed softly to himself.

5. Up, up in the air flew the kite.

6. The branches of the oak tree caught the string.

7. Now it is my turn.

8. Bobtail picked himself out of the big pile of leaves.

9. He shook his long ears back and forth.

10. North Wind sang a gay little song.


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Based on “Bobtail’s Kite,” by Mary Frances Blaisdell

15. A Punctuation Exercise – Quotation Marks

Directions: In the following sentences, identify the words that were said by placing them in
quotation marks “ ”.

1. Bend your head and bow to me, big oak tree, said North Wind.

2. Oh, how the wind blows! said Bunny.

3. I shall stay in the house to-day, said Billy. I do not like the wind.

4. Let’s go out and have a game of tag, he said to his two brothers.

5. Look out for me! called North Wind. I can catch you all.

6. Who put all those leaves under this tree? he said.

7. I did, I did, called North Wind. And here are some more to make the pile larger.

8. Oh, what fun! said Bunny. I should like to do that.

9. This is just the day to fly a kite, said Bobtail.

10. Yes, said Billy. The children always fly kites when the wind blows.
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Based on “April Fool’s Day,” by Mary Frances Blaisdell

16. Adding Complements (Ex # 1)

Lesson: A “complement” answers the question “Whom or what?” after a verb.

Directions: In the following sentences, underline the verb twice, their subjects once, and
write “C” above any complements.

1. Billy opened his sleepy eyes.

2. Then he went to the door.

3. Billy hopped out of doors.

4. It was a warm sunny day.

5. But first the little rabbits found their breakfast.

6. Bobtail grew very fat.

7. They stored away nuts.

8. Jack Frost covered the ground with snow.

9. The squirrels dug up these nuts.

10. But now the ground was soft again.


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Based on “April Fool’s Day,” by Mary Frances Blaisdell

17. Adding Complements (Ex # 2)

Lesson: A “complement” answers the question “Whom or what?” after a verb.

Directions: In the following sentences, underline the verb twice, their subjects once, and
write “C” above any complements.

1. They never opened the store-house doors.

2. They just hopped around under the trees.

3. But on this first day of April Bunny found the biggest acorn.

4. He told Bobtail about the joke.

5. In a few minutes the three rabbits finished their breakfast.

6. Bunny saw a string under the oak tree.

7. It was the same string.

8. The string held the kite to the branch for a long time.

9. Then one day North Wind came again.

10. The string dropped to the ground under the oak tree.
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Based on “April Fool’s Day,” by Mary Frances Blaisdell

18. Adding Complements (Ex # 3)

Lesson: A “complement” answers the question “Whom or what?” after a verb.

Directions: In the following sentences, underline the verb twice, their subjects once, and
write “C” above any complements.

1. He tied the string around the acorn.

2. Then he scampered back to his brothers.

3. They waited for him near the old stone wall.

4. Bunny put the acorn in front of Sammy’s door.

5. Billy hid behind the pine tree.

6. He kept very still.

7. The acorn lay on the ground near his door.

8. Now Sammy was very fond of big acorns.

9. So he pounced on the acorn.

10. But it was not there!


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Based on “April Fool’s Day,” by Mary Frances Blaisdell

19. Adding Complements (Ex # 4)

Lesson: A “complement” answers the question “Whom or what?” after a verb.

Directions: In the following sentences, underline the verb twice, their subjects once, and
write “C” above any complements.

1. That was a good trick.

2. Bobby often comes to the big oak tree.

3. Then they all hid behind the tree.

4. Sammy Red Squirrel dropped that big acorn.

5. Then all at once it was not still in the woods.

6. Bobby forgot all about the acorn.

7. Sammy skipped up the tree after him.

8. The three little rabbits put their ears down on their heads.

9. Four little bright eyes watched Jip from the oak tree.

10. One of the squirrels had that big acorn for his dinner.
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20. Creating an Exercise with Complements


“What Was in the Nest?” from The Elson Readers Primer
Directions: Read the story, and then find ten sentences in it that would make a good exercise on
simple subjects, verbs, and complements. Make your exercise on separate paper. Then make an
answer key. The directions for your exercise should be:
Directions: In the following sentences, underline the verb twice, their subjects once, and
write “C” above any complements.
Note that some sentences may be hidden in other, bigger sentences. For example, in the sentence
She said, “I love music.”
You can use the sentence “I love music.”

Mother bird sat on the nest.


She sat there day after day.
One day she flew from the nest.
She sat in the tree.
She sang and sang.
The girls saw a nest. Father bird sang, too.
It was a little nest. The girls looked in the nest.
It was in a tree. Can you guess what they saw?
The girls saw two birds.
Can you see them?
They were pretty birds.
They were in the tree.

Four little birds were in the nest.


Soon they could fly.
Mother bird said, “Fly, fly!”
Mother bird sat on the nest. Father bird said, “Fly, fly!”
One day she flew from the nest. They flew from the nest.
What was in the nest? They flew from tree to tree.
Can you guess? One day they flew away.
The girls saw eggs in the nest. The girls said, “Good-bye, good-bye!”
They saw one, two, three, four eggs.
The four eggs were blue.
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21. Complements – Creating Exercises


Have the students each make an exercise and answer key comparable to the

preceding four, using some other story that they are reading. You might want to

explain that they can take parts of sentences from the original text, as was done in

making the exercises above.

22. Complements – Using Students’ Exercises


(Based on the preceding exercise) Have the students work in pairs, each doing

the other's exercise, and then checking responses against the answer key. Doing

and checking this exercise should take about ten minutes at most. If you set the

students up in two rows, one row can move back a seat after each exercise, thereby

setting up new pairs so that the students could do five to ten different exercises in

one class period. (Note that in order to do this, students will need to make several

copies of their exercise.)


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Adding “Helping” Verbs (Tense)

Illustration by Kate Greenaway

Some verbs “help” other verbs express differences in time or


emphasis. The results are “verb phrases”:

Bobby is playing. Bobby does play.


Bobby will be playing. Bobby did play.
Bobby was playing. Bobby has played.
Bobby had been playing.
Bobby will be playing. Bobby was going to play.
Bobby will have been playing.

These helpers are usually forms of the verbs:

be: is, are, was, were, am, be, being, been


have: have, has, had
do: do, does, did, done

Note that “will,” “going to,” and “used to” are also used as parts
of a verb phrase:
Sam will play tomorrow.
They were going to play baseball.
Toni also used to play baseball.

When you underline verbs, be sure to underline all the helping verbs
in the verb phrase.
28

Based on “Mrs. Duck’s Secret,” by Mary Frances Blaisdell

23. Adding Helping Verbs (Tense) Ex # 1

Directions: In the following sentences, underline the verbs twice, their subjects
once, and write “C” above any complements.

1. But Bobby did not know it.

2. And Sammy Red Squirrel did not know it.

3. Sometimes she was going to the barn.

4. Sometimes she was coming from the barn.

5. Why is she walking along this little path?

6. I will ask Mrs. Duck.

7. The sun was just going to bed.

8. Have you seen Mrs. Duck today?

9. Bobby Squirrel was sitting in the maple tree over their heads.

10. I will try again tomorrow.


29

Based on “Mrs. Duck’s Secret,” by Mary Frances Blaisdell

24. Adding Helping Verbs (Tense) Ex # 2

Directions: In the following sentences, underline the verbs twice, their subjects
once, and write “C” above any complements.

1. She was going to the barn.

2. Where are you going this fine morning?

3. Where have you been?

4. She had eaten everything.

5. Mrs. Duck had gone to sleep.

6. Mrs. Duck was still sitting in the nest.

7. We will come again.

8. Mrs. Duck was leading her family to the barnyard.

9. I am going down to the brook.

10. I will show you my secret.


30

Based on “The Swimming Lesson,” by Mary Frances Blaisdell

25. Adding Helping Verbs (Tense) Ex # 1

Directions: In the following sentences, underline the verbs twice, their subjects
once, and write “C” above any complements.

1. Mrs. Duck was walking along the little path through the meadow.

2. Bunny Rabbit was sitting under a tree.

3. He did not hear them.

4. He was dreaming about the little birds.

5. All the other rabbits were sitting on the ground.

6. What are you saying, Bunny?

7. I was going far away.

8. I am going to teach my little ones.

9. I will teach you, too.

10. Mrs. Duck was talking to her ducklings.


31

Based on “The Swimming Lesson,” by Mary Frances Blaisdell

26. Adding Helping Verbs (Tense) Ex # 2

Directions: In the following sentences, underline the verbs twice, their subjects
once, and write "C" above any complements.

1. We will all go into the water together.


2. That will be the best way for me.
3. The little ducks had been standing in a row behind their mother.
4. Mrs. Duck was soon swimming in the middle of the brook.
5. All the little ducks were swimming after their mother.
6. Why don’t you try it, Bunny?
7. Mr. Green Frog was sitting on a rock close by.
8. Bunny had been sitting still on the bank.
9. But he had not said a word.
10. The ducks had to paddle their feet.
32

Based on “The Swimming Lesson,” by Mary Frances Blaisdell

27. Adding Helping Verbs (Tense) Ex # 3

Directions: In the following sentences, underline the verbs twice, their subjects
once, and write “C” above any complements.

1. He did put one foot in the water.


2. You will like it.
3. Bunny had gone a step nearer.
4. Bunny did not know how.
5. He was splashing around in the brook.
6. The water was running into his eyes.
7. At last his feet had touched the ground.
8. You did not paddle your feet.
9. But Mr. Sun had been shining down brightly.
10. Bunny will soon be dry.
33

Adding “Helping” Verbs (Modal)

Illustration by Blanche Fisher Wright

As you try to identify verb phrases, remember that the following words often function
as "helping" verbs and are thus part of the verb phrase.

They can see the parade (DO) from here.


Can and Could
But Samantha could see it (DO) from there.
Dare Do they dare go to the cemetary?
Charlie Brown may have seen the Great Pumpkin (DO).
May and Must
Charlie, you must not kick that football (DO).
Might You might see Venus (DO) on a clear night.
Need They need only ask for help.
Ought Bobby ought to practice more if he wants to be a better player.
Cinderella shall not go to the ball.
Shall and Should
You should read more fairy tales (DO).
Cinderella, you will go to the ball.
Will and Would
A fairy Godmother would be a big help (PN).
34

Based on “Mrs. Duck’s Secret” by Mary Frances Blaisdell

28. Adding Helping Verbs (Modal) Ex # 1

Directions: In the following sentences, underline the verbs twice, their subjects
once, and write "C" above any complements.

1. Mrs. Duck would not tell him.

2. Mrs. Duck must have gone long ago.

3. They ran back and forth along the little path.

4. In the sun we shall go to sleep.

5. After a while the three little rabbits became sleepy.

6. I can not tell you.

7. Where are you going, now?

8. But they did not tell the secret to any of their friends.

9. May we go with you?

10. Some little yellow heads were peeping out from under her wings.
35

Based on “Mrs. Duck’s Secret” by Mary Frances Blaisdell

29. Adding Helping Verbs (Modal) Ex # 2

Directions: In the following sentences, underline the verbs twice, their subjects once, and write
“C” above any complements.

1. Now I must cover my eggs up.

2. Mrs. Duck would not get off the nest.

3. I will show you my secret.

4. Then we shall not see Mrs. Duck.

5. How pretty they are!

6. Where can the ducks be?

7. Perhaps he can keep awake.

8. Perhaps you have guessed Mrs. Duck’s secret by this time.

9. What can you see?

10. You must stay in the nest.


36

Based on Bunny Rabbit’s Diary (Ch. 1-7) by Mary Frances Blaisdell

30. Adding Helping Verbs (Modal) Ex # 1

Directions: In the following sentences, underline the verbs twice, their subjects once, and write
“C” above any complements.

1.Bunny could not find one picture.

2. You must write the stories in the book.

3. You can write about the good times.

4. I can not find one story.

5. What shall we do?

6. That must be a Christmas tree.

7. They could not find very much.

8. Bunny may have his turn first.

9. This would make a good Christmas tree.

10. I shall stay in the house today.


37

Based on Bunny Rabbit’s Diary (Ch. 1-7) by Mary Frances Blaisdell

31. Adding Helping Verbs (Modal) Ex # 2

Directions: In the following sentences, underline the verbs twice, their subjects once, and write
“C” above any complements.

1. We must find one.

2. This would make a good kite.

3. Sammy dared to play a joke on Bobby Gray Squirrel.

4. I am going to teach my little ones.

5. Bobby Gray Squirrel must have been here.

6. The squirrels could not dig up these nuts.

7. The squirrels ought to dig them out.

8. Bobtail could not see it.

9. Sammy Red Squirrel must have dropped that big acorn.

10. Would you show it to me?


38

32. Writing Sentences with Modal Verbs

Directions: Use each of the following words as a helping verb in a sentence about
Bunny Rabbit's Diary.

1. can 7. need
2. could 8. ought
3. dare 9. shall
4. may 10. should
5. must 11. will
6. might 12. would
39

Adding Other Helping Verbs

Illustration by Blanche Fisher Wright

Some helping verbs show the beginning, continuation, or ending of an


action. For example:
He will begin to swim in the morning.
begin
They began playing the game (C).
Bobby is starting to draw a picture (C).
start
Sandi started reading a story (C).
The rabbit continued to run away.
continue
Blackie Crow will continue to fly high in the sky.
Bobtail kept on eating nuts (C).
keep (on)
Bobby will keep climbing into the trees.
Mrs. Duck stopped swimming in the pond.
stop
They will stop playing soon.

Other helping verbs show an attitude toward an action. For example:


Sammy Squirrel likes eating nuts (C).
like
Would you like to go to the park?
The ducks love to swim.
love
Bobtail does not love flying.
Children hate to go to bed early.
hate
Bobtail hates flying.
want Blackie Crow will want to fly to the party.
try Bobby will try to fly too.
40

Based on Bunny Rabbit's Diary by Mary Frances Blaisdell

33. Other Helping Verbs (Ex # 1)

Directions: In the following sentences, underline the verbs twice, their subjects
once, and write “C” above any complements.

1. But Jip wanted to play.

2. Bobtail stopped eating.

3. I like to see the water.

4. Bobtail began to hop around.

5. Bobtail liked to play with Bunny.

6. I never can learn to swim.

7. The birds tried to keep warm.

8. I love to eat the seeds.

9. Bobby began to scold Jip.

10. Do you like to live in a little house?


41

Based on Bunny Rabbit's Diary by Mary Frances Blaisdell

34. Other Helping Verbs (Ex # 2)

Directions: In the following sentences, underline the verbs twice, their subjects
once, and write “C” above any complements.

1. The wind stopped blowing.


2. He did not like to work.
3. I am trying to find someone.
4. Bobtail began to nibble the greenest leaves.
5. He did not ask to play.
6. And the rabbits did not like to wet their feet.
7. I did not want to leave my home in the field this week.
8. He loved to curl up in the tall grass.
9. A gentle wind began to blow over the tall grass in the field.
10. Billy always liked to have a game of tag with Bobtail.
42

Based on Bunny Rabbit's Diary by Mary Frances Blaisdell

35. Other Helping Verbs (Ex # 3)

Directions: In the following sentences, underline the verbs twice, their subjects
once, and write “C” above any complements.

1. He was trying to tell Jack something.

2. Bunny liked to play tricks on his brothers.

3. Sammy stopped eating the nut.

4. Bobtail continued to nibble the sweet leaves.

5. We will learn to swim.

6. So Bobby began to carry the nuts to a safe place.

7. Bunny would not like to live in a house all the time.

8. I did not want to come so far anyway.

9. The sled kept on sliding faster and faster.

10. Jip loves to play tag with Bobby.


43

Based on Bunny Rabbit's Diary by Mary Frances Blaisdell

36. Other Helping Verbs (Ex # 4)

Directions: In the following sentences, underline the verbs twice, their subjects
once, and write “C” above any complements.

1. Bunny started to run after the sled.

2. But I like to see the tree in the woods better.

3. Bobby did not try to run away.

4. North Wind tried to carry the string away.

5. The largest trees helped to keep him warm.

6. Of course Teddy did like to stay in the playroom.

7. Blacky Crow continued to fly round and round over Sammy's head.

8. Then the water began to fall down on the ground at the foot of the tree.

9. He just kept on wiggling and twisting.

10. Now all the families will have to move out.


44

Based on Bunny Rabbit's Diary by Mary Frances Blaisdell

37. Contractions (Ex # 1)

An apostrophe is used to indicate that letters have been left out. This usually
happens when two words are combined into one. The resulting word is called a
"contraction." For example, "it's" is a contraction of "it is."

Directions: In the following sentences, underline the verbs twice, their subjects once,
and write "C" above any complements. After each sentence, write the full form of the
contraction. (For example, if the contraction is "I'm," write "I am.")

1. I don’t like to fly kites.

2. I’ve never seen you before.

3. But Teddy didn’t speak.

4. You can’t swim on dry land.

5. It’s the dog!

Directions: In the following sentences, underline the verbs twice, their subjects once,
and write "C" above any complements. After each sentence, write a contraction that would
combine two words in the sentence. (For example, if the sentence includes "I will," write
"I'll.")

1. It is going to rain.

2. I do not like the wind.

3. Teddy did not say a word.

4. But you will never be hungry here.

5. But he could not find Bobtail.


45

Based on Bunny Rabbit's Diary by Mary Frances Blaisdell

38. Contractions (Ex # 2)

An apostrophe is used to indicate that letters have been left out. This usually
happens when two words are combined into one. The resulting word is called a
"contraction." For example, "it's" is a contraction of "it is."

Directions: In the following sentences, underline the verbs twice, their subjects
once, and write "C" above any complements. After each sentence, write the full form of
the contraction. (For example, if the contraction is "I'm," write "I am.")

1. I don’t want that now.

2. It’s too cold.

3. I’ll never go in there again.

4. I’m out.

5. I don’t like to stay in this yard all the time.

Directions: In the following sentences, underline the verbs twice, their subjects
once, and write "C" above any complements. After each sentence, write a contraction that
would combine two words in the sentence. (For example, if the sentence includes "I will,"
write "I'll.")

1. I am so hungry.

2. I am going home.

3. I will show you.

4. I have had enough to last me all day.

5. I can not swim.


46

Based on Bunny Rabbit's Diary by Mary Frances Blaisdell

39. Contractions (Ex # 3)

An apostrophe is used to indicate that letters have been left out. This usually
happens when two words are combined into one. The resulting word is called a
"contraction." For example, "it's" is a contraction of "it is."

Directions: In the following sentences, underline the verbs twice, their subjects
once, and write "C" above any complements. After each sentence, write the full form of
the contraction. (For example, if the contraction is "I'm," write "I am.")

1. I don’t believe him.

2. I’m going to eat this one.

3. I'll write a story every day.

4. I don’t want to learn to swim.

5. They’re going to the pond.

Directions: In the following sentences, underline the verbs twice, their subjects
once, and write "C" above any complements. After each sentence, write a contraction that
would combine two words in the sentence. (For example, if the sentence includes "I will,"
write "I'll.")

1. I will go to the pond.

2. Bobby Gray Squirrel did not like the noise.

3. We are going to the garden.

4. But Blacky Crow did not fly down to the garden.

5. They will look just like wings.


47

40. “Piggy Wig's House” – Creating an Exercise with Helping Verbs


“Piggy Wig's House” from The Elson Readers Primer

Directions: Read the story, “Piggy Wig's House” from The Elson Readers Primer. (See the
next page.) Then find ten sentences in it that would make a good exercise on simple subjects,
helping verbs, and complements. Make your exercise on this paper. Then make an answer key.
The directions for your exercise should be:

Directions: In the following sentences, underline the verb twice, their subjects once, and
write “C” above any complements.
1._________________________________________________________________________

2. ._________________________________________________________________________

3. ._________________________________________________________________________

4. ._________________________________________________________________________

5. ._________________________________________________________________________

6. ._________________________________________________________________________

7. ._________________________________________________________________________

8. ._________________________________________________________________________

9. ._________________________________________________________________________

10. .________________________________________________________________________
48
“Piggy Wig's House” from The Elson Readers Primer

JACK RABBIT:
Good morning, Piggy Wig!
Where are you going? RED COCK:
PIGGY WIG: Good morning, Piggy Wig!
I am going to the woods. Where are you going?
I want to make a house. PIGGY WIG:
JACK RABBIT: I am going to the woods.
May I go with you? I want to make a house.
PIGGY: WIG: RED COCK:
What can you do? May I go with you?
JACK RABBIT: PIGGY WIG:
I can cut down trees. What can you do?
You can not cut them down. RED COCK:
PIGGY: WIG: I can wake you up.
Come with me. I want you. I say, "Cock-a-doodle-doo !"
PIGGY WIG:
Come with me. I want you.

GRAY GOOSE:
Good morning, Piggy Wig!
Where are you going?
PIGGY WIG:
I am going to the woods. Soon they came to the woods.
I want to make a house. Jack Rabbit cut down the trees.
GRAY GOOSE: Piggy Wig made the house.
May I go with you? Gray Goose filled the cracks.
PIGGY WIG: Red Cock waked them up.
What can you do? "Cock-a-doodle-doo !" he said.
GRAY GOOSE:
Your house will have cracks.
I can fill all the cracks.
PIGGY WIG:
Come with me. I want you.
49

What Is a Noun?

Thus far you have been studying subjects, verbs, and complements, but now we need
to look at what a noun is. Words that name people, places, or things are nouns:
dad, sister, friend, Mr. Jones,
park, school, New York,
tree, apple, car, air, idea, health
Note that many nouns name things that you can see, but others name things such as "air,"
"idea," or "health" that cannot be sensed.

The words that function as subjects are all nouns, and most of the words that function
as complements are also nouns.

Words that directly follow "a," "an," or "the" are usually nouns:
Nouns: Not Nouns:
a book, a thought, a ghost a usually, a pleasant
an airplane, an error an even, an honest
the house, the thing the friendly, the because

Nouns can be singular (naming one) or plural (naming more than one) person, place, or
thing. Many plural nouns end in "-s." Some end in "-en." A few are the same in the singular and
the plural form.
Singular Nouns: Plural Nouns:
an eagle the eagles
the sound the sounds
the child the children
the sheep the sheep

Some words can be nouns or verbs. The real test is how a word functions in a sentence.
"Fish," for example, can be a noun or a verb:
The fish were swimming in the pond.
Noun:
They were watching the fish (C).
Verb: Billy and Jane fish in the pond.
50

41. Singular and Plural Nouns

A. Write the plural form (meaning more than one) of each of the following nouns.
Then use that form in a simple sentence. Underline the verb in the sentence twice,
its subject once, and label (C) any complements.

1. rabbit

2. tree

3. acorn

4. noise

5. game

B. Write the singular form (meaning just one) of each of the following nouns. Then
use that form in a simple sentence. Underline the verb in the sentence twice, its
subject once, and label (C) any complements.

1. secrets

2. leaves

3. branches

4. stories

5. dresses
51

42. Identifying Nouns

Directions: Circle the nouns in the following sentences.

1. So Bunny sat down on the stump and opened his book.

2. One morning in winter Bunny opened his eyes.

3. The big round sun peeped up from behind the hills.

4. The ground was covered with snow.

5. Something hit Bunny on the head.

6. Billy can make a long slide over in the meadow.

7. The rabbits stood at the top of the hill and looked down at the pond.

8. Jack Frost covered the pond with ice last night.

9. But the garden was far away, across the field and over the other side of the road.

10. All the red squirrels scampered off to get the best seats among the branches of

the oak tree.


52

What Is a Pronoun?

Pronouns are words that act like nouns but do not name specific people, places,
or things. They are often used to take the place of nouns:
Karla and George went to the store.
They went to the store.
Pronouns can stand in for a noun anywhere in a sentence.
The following words are, or can be, pronouns:

I me
mine myself
we us
ours ourselves
you (you)
yours yourself (yourselves)
he him
his himself
she her
hers herself
it (it)
its itself
they them
theirs themselves
who whom

Other words that can be pronouns are:


which, what, this, that
someone, something, somebody
anyone, anything, anybody
53

43. Identifying Pronouns

Directions:
1. Underline the verbs twice, subjects once, and label (C) any complements.
2. Draw a circle around each pronoun.

1. That is too large for our Christmas tree.

2. Why don’t you try it, Bunny?

3. They were waiting for him near the old stone wall.

4. But they did not tell the secret to any of their friends.

5. You did not make it the right way.

6. Then he went to the door and peeped out of it.

7. She made it herself out of maple leaves.

8. That is a diary. You must write the stories in it yourself.

9. There Bunny found the acorn, and he tied the string around it.

10. Bunny sat still on the bank, but he did not say anything.
54

44. Identifying Pronouns

Directions: Circle the pronouns in the following sentences:

1. I will ask Bobtail to come with me.

2. They saw many pretty things hanging on the branches.

3. “Swimming may be easy for ducks,” he said to himself.

4. If you are with me, I shall not go to sleep.

5. That is a good place to hide some nuts for the winter.

6. Sammy hid ten acorns in the tree. He packed them in one by one.

7. Rabbits and squirrels can run and hop and jump. And that is easy for them.

8. “It may have been funny for you,” said Bunny. “But it was not funny for me.”

9. Bunny knew she had a secret, but she would not tell him what it was.

10. They heard someone talking and they looked to see who it was.
55

45. Writing Sentences with Pronouns

Use each of the following pronouns in a sentence:

1. I 11. her
2. me 12. herself
3. myself 13. they
4. we 14. them
5. us 15. themselves
6. ourselves 16. who
7. he 17. whom
8. him 18. someone
9. himself 19. something
10. she 20. anyone
56

What Is an Adjective?

Words that describe nouns or pronouns are called "adjectives." A noun plus the
adjectives that describe it make a noun phrase:

the green frog one blue flower


a pretty picture the little gray kitten
an orange circle six small fish
the young girl this big house
an old tree that tiny spider

Sometimes, adjectives act as complements:


The forest is big. My dog is brown.
Ripe apples are red. Our kitten was white and black.
The water turned green. Sammy grew tall.

Adjectives that function as complements are called "predicate adjectives," but


you do not need to remember that yet.
Note that "this" and "that" can be either pronouns or adjectives, depending on
how they are used in a sentence
As pronouns: As adjectives:
This is fun (C). This sandwich is good (C).
That will be silly (C). That boy was a hero (C).
We know that (C). We know that man (C).
Jerry will remember this (C). Angela likes this book (C).

Adjectives often answer the questions "Which?" or "What kind of?" about the
noun:
Which frog? the green frog
What kind of picture? a pretty picture
57

46. Identifying Adjectives

Directions:
1. Underline the verbs twice, subjects once, and label (C) any complements.
2. Draw an arrow from each adjective to the word it describes.

1. The gray squirrels lived in the big oak tree.

2. The red squirrels lived in the old stone wall.

3. The ten little acorns were in the small hole in the tree.

4. I will eat these nuts last of all.

5. He sat up on his hind legs and held up his long ears.

6. Four little bright eyes watched Jip from the oak tree.

7. Santa Claus gave the pretty toys to the happy children.

8. The next day Bunny sat down under the maple tree.

9. One, two, three, four, five, six little yellow ducks waddled after their mother

along the little path through the meadow.

10. The new slide was smooth and hard.


58

47. Writing Sentences with Adjectives

Use each of the following adjectives in a sentence:

1. big 11. silly


2. tiny 12. funny
3. small 13. round
4. large 14. square
5. green 15. three
6. red 16. five
7. orange 17. long
8. purple 18. short
9. angry 19. good
10. friendly 20. bad
59

What Is an Adverb?

Adverbs are words that describe verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs. They
usually answer questions such as “How?” “When?” “Where?” “How long?” “How
far?” or “Why?” about the word they describe.

Some commonly used adverbs are:

not, never, always, often, usually, sometimes, soon, later, early, late,
then, up, upstairs, down, downstairs, very, away, together, here,
there, too

Many adverbs are formed from adjectives by adding “-ly”:

quick quickly silent silently


slow slowly happy happily
eager eagerly merry merrily
soft softly angry angrily

To decide if a word is an adverb in a specific sentence, you need to look at how the
word affects the meaning of that sentence – what word does the word meaningfully
go with? In
They came early.

“early” is an adverb that explains when they came, but in

The early bird gets the worm.

“early” is an adjective because it describes the “bird.”


60

48. Identifying Adverbs

Directions:
1. Underline the verbs twice, subjects once, and label (C) any complements.
2. Draw an arrow from each adverb to the word it describes.

1. He had never written one before.

2. Bunny jumped up and down in the snow.

3. And just then something else went, too.

4. It is a very good breakfast.

5. Bunny was soon dry and warm.

6. That is too far away.

7. Then the little sparrow flew away.

8. Bobtail hopped faster and faster over the ground.

9. The rabbits slept in their warm home and did not come out very often.

10. The three rabbits soon found some tender little roots.
61

49. Writing Sentences with Adverbs

Use each of the following adverbs in a sentence:

1. not 11. usually


2. never 12. up
3. soon 13. upstairs
4. later 14. down
5. early 15. too
6. late 16. very
7. always 17. away
8. sometimes 18. together
9. often 19. here
10. then 20. there
62

More Practice with Adjectives & Adverbs

From "The Clover Patch," by Mary Frances Blaisdell

50. Adjectives & Adverbs (Ex # 1)

Directions: In the following sentences, underline the verbs twice, their subjects once, and
write “C” above any complements. Then draw an arrow from every adjective and adverb
to the word it modifies.

1. It was a lovely day in June.

2. I know a great big patch of clover.

3. I have not had a taste of clover.

4. I like clover, too.

5. Is it very far from here?

6. The three little rabbits hopped off to the patch of clover.

7. They hopped down to the brook.

8. But they could not see any clover there.

9. The brook runs quietly through the meadow.

10. Then it runs quickly through the woods.


63

From "The Clover Patch," by Mary Frances Blaisdell

51. Adjectives & Adverbs (Ex # 2)

Directions: In the following sentences, underline the verbs twice, their subjects once, and
write “C” above any complements. Then draw an arrow from every adjective and adverb
to the word it modifies.

1. Clover would not grow under the trees.

2. The warm sun shines brightly in the meadow.

3. They were eagerly watching the small fishes in the water.

4. Billy hopped very close to the brook.

5. Then Billy hopped back from the water.

6. That was just old Mr. Green Frog.

7. There he is now.

8. I frightened you, too.

9. You almost hopped on my back.

10. I was very frightened.


64

From "The Clover Patch," by Mary Frances Blaisdell

52. Adjectives & Adverbs (Ex # 3)

Directions: In the following sentences, underline the verbs twice, their subjects once, and
write “C” above any complements. Then draw an arrow from every adjective and adverb
to the word it modifies.

1. We must find that clover patch soon.

2. They could not hop so near the brook now.

3. The muddy ground was very soft and wet.

4. The white blossoms held their heads up to the sun.

5. The sun smiled sweetly at the pretty white flowers among the green leaves.

6. Many bees were flying over the clover patch.

7. They were politely asking the beautiful blossoms for nectar.

8. The busy bees flew swiftly from flower to flower.

9. Bobtail hungrily began to nibble the greenest leaves.

10. What good honey we can make!


65

From "The Clover Patch," by Mary Frances Blaisdell

53. Adjectives & Adverbs (Ex # 4)

Directions: In the following sentences, underline the verbs twice, their subjects once, and
write “C” above any complements. Then draw an arrow from every adjective and adverb
to the word it modifies.

1. How good this clover is!

2. I never tasted such sweet clover before.

3. Billy hopped round and round.

4. He carefully rubbed his sore nose.

5. I just took a big bite of this clover.

6. A small bee flew up from the clover.

7. I did not want to come so far anyway.

8. Billy hopped along home very slowly.

9. He stopped every few steps and softly rubbed his poor little nose.

10. Because of the dirt on his nose, the pain soon went away.
66

54. Using Adjectives to Combine Sentences

Directions: Combine the two sentences into one by making the information in one
sentence an adjective in the other sentence.

Example: Our house is big. It is new.


Our new house is big.

1. We have a cat. He is white and orange.

2. Down the hall to the left is another room. It is my brother's room.

3. My parents' room has a blue carpet. The carpet is fluffy.

4. I live in a house with four bedrooms. It is green and white

5. Then I had homework. It was math and English.

6. Our house has bricks and trim. The bricks are red. The trim is white.
67

Using an Apostrophe to Make a Noun into a


Possessive Adjective

An apostrophe (’) changes a noun into an adjective to show possession or


ownership. If the noun ends in s or z, just an an apostrophe:

the Wilsons’ house the books’ covers


the babies’ bottles Mr. Hernandez’ baseball

If the noun does not end in s, add ’s to it.

Billy’s kite the car’s engine


the children’s kitten the store’s sign

Note the difference between:

one (singular) and more than one (plural)


the airplane’s wings the airplanes’ wings
and
the girl’s books the girls’ books

Words that describe the owner are still considered adjectives. For example, in

Little Bunny's hat flew off.

“Bunny's” is an adjective to “hat,” but “Little” is still an adjective that describes


“Bunny's” as a noun.
68

55. Apostrophes to Show Possession Ex # 1


Based on Bunny Rabbit's Diary
by Mary Frances Blaisdell

Directions:
1. Fix the apostrophe problem in each sentence.
2. Then underline the verbs twice, their subjects once, and write “C” above any
complements.
3. Draw an arrow from each adjective and adverb to the word it describes.

1. Then he pulled Bobtails long ears.

2. Teddy jumped out of Jacks arms.

3. Someone is in my masters garden.

4. Poor Bunnys heart began to beat very fast.

5. They came to Mr. Mans barn.

6. Then they told Mrs. Ducks secret to all their friends.

7. One little duck wriggled out from under her mothers wing.

8. At last they reached Whities house.

9. The rabbits could hear Bobbys feet.

10. Bunny put the acorn in front of Sammys door.


69

56. Apostrophes to Show Possession Ex # 2


Based on Bunny Rabbit's Diary
by Mary Frances Blaisdell

Directions:
1. Fix the apostrophe problem in each sentence.
2. Then underline the verbs twice, their subjects once, and write “C” above any
complements.
3. Draw an arrow from each adjective and adverb to the word it describes.

1. One great big drop fell on Bunnys nose.


2. You would have to go to Mr. Mans garden.
3. Did he know Mrs. Ducks secret?
4. Jack dropped Whities supper on the ground.
5. The oak leaf fell to the ground at Billys feet.
6. And the little duck wriggled back again under her mothers wing.
7. Jip is Jacks dog.
8. They could not find the bunnies home.
9. The kite was stuck in the trees branches.
10. The childrens Christmas tree was very big.

57. Treasure Hunt


Find and bring to class a sentence that has at least three adjectives (not
counting “a,” “an,” or “the”) and one adverb. Draw an arrow from each adjective
and adverb to the word it modifies.
70

58. “The Pig's Dinner” – Creating an Exercise


“The Pig's Dinner,” by Maud Lindsay from The Elson Readers Primer

Directions: Read the story, “The Pig’s Dinner” from The Elson Readers Primer. (See
the next page.) Then find ten sentences in it that would make a good exercise on S/V/C
patterns, adjectives, and adverbs. At least two sentences should include adverbs.. Make
your exercise on this paper. Then make an answer key.
The directions for your exercise should be:

Directions: In the following sentences, underline the verbs twice, their subjects once, and
write “C” above any complements. Then draw an arrow from every adjective and adverb
to the word it modifies.
1._________________________________________________________________________

2. ._________________________________________________________________________

3. ._________________________________________________________________________

4. ._________________________________________________________________________

5. ._________________________________________________________________________

6. ._________________________________________________________________________

7. ._________________________________________________________________________

8. ._________________________________________________________________________

9. ._________________________________________________________________________

10. .________________________________________________________________________
71
“The Pig's Dinner,” by Maud Lindsay from The Elson Readers Primer

Soon White Cow came down the road.


She saw the pretty flowers.
She saw Little Pig in the garden.
She saw Red Hen and her chickens.
“Moo, moo!” she said.
“How pretty the flowers are!
They will make a good dinner.”
Little Pig went down the road. Red Hen said, “Cluck, cluck, come in!”
He wanted some dinner. Little Pig said, “Wee, wee, come in!”
Soon he came to a garden. White Cow went into the garden.
It was full of pretty flowers.
“Wee, wee!” said Little Pig.
“I want to go into that garden.
“Flowers make a good dinner.”
He went into the garden.

Soon the farmer came home.


He saw White Cow in the garden.
He saw Red Hen and her chickens.
He saw Little Pig, too.
“Stop eating my flowers!” he said.
Soon Red Hen came down the road. “Get out of my garden!”
Her little chickens were with her. Away they all ran down the road!
By and by they came to the garden. “Good-bye, Mr. Farmer!” said the hen.
They saw the pretty flowers. “We had a good dinner!” said the pig.
“Cluck, cluck!” said Red Hen. “We will come back soon!” said the cow.
“How pretty the flowers are!
Come with me into the garden.
We can find a good dinner there.”
They went into the garden to eat.
How happy they all were!
72

Compounding with “and,” “or,” or “but”

Three words are often used to show that other words or constructions in a
sentence are working together. These words are “and,” “or,” and “but.” What you
need to remember is that:

“And,” “or,” and “but” join equal grammatical things.

For example, they can join subjects – “Bill or Bob will win.”

Or they can join verbs – “Sarah reads and writes.”

Or they can join complements – “Bunny likes carrots and lettuce.”

Or they can join adjectives – “They have a brown and white puppy.”

The words or constructions that are joined are called “compounds.”

Any parts of speech, or any grammatical constructions


can be compounded.
73

Based on “Moving Day” by Mary Frances Blaisdell

59. Compounds (Ex # 1)

Directions: In the following sentences, underline the verbs twice, their subjects once, and
write “C” above any complements.

1. It was warm and sunny in the meadows.

2. Mrs. Rabbit had on her bonnet and shawl.

3. Bunny and Bobtail and Billy hopped and skipped along.

4. Then she shook her head and wiped a tear from her eye.

5. Sammy sat on the wall and watched the mice.

6. Mrs. Mouse and the little mice were peeping into the hole.

7. Mrs. Mouse picked up the bag and started into the hole.

8. Mrs. Mouse heard the noise and jumped back.

9. Sammy jumped off the wall and ran up into the pine tree.

10. The cat sat down beside the hole and waited and waited.
74

Based on “Moving Day” by Mary Frances Blaisdell

60. Compounds (Ex # 2)

Directions: In the following sentences, underline the verbs twice, their subjects once, and
write “C” above any complements.

1. Bunny kicked and kicked and scrambled and splashed around in the brook.

2. But Bobby only laughed and ran higher up among the branches of the oak tree.

3. Bunny hopped down the hill and made a little path in the snow.

4. The sled was half way down the hill and going faster every minute.

5. Bobby Gray Squirrel and his brothers often ran up into the pine tree.

6. Mr. Sun came up from behind the hills and shone brightly all day long.

7. The little rabbits whirled around and hopped back to their house.

8. The man and the two children and the dog came back through the woods.

9. And hippity-hop went Billy and Bunny after him.

10. Then he climbed up on the old stump and tossed the kite into the air.
75

61. “The Windmill” – Creating an Exercise


“The Windmill,” by Kathlyn Libbey from The Elson Readers Primer

Directions: Read the story, “The Windmill” from The Elson Readers Primer. (See the
next page.) Then find five sentences in it that would make a good exercise on compounds.
Remember that you can use compound subjects, compound verbs, compound
complements, compound objects of prepositions, and compound adverbs or adjectives.
Make your exercise on this paper. Then make an answer key.
The directions for your exercise should be:

Directions: In the following sentences, underline the verbs twice, their subjects once, and
write “C” above any complements. Then draw an arrow from every adjective and adverb
to the word it modifies.

1._________________________________________________________________________

2. ._________________________________________________________________________

3. ._________________________________________________________________________

4. ._________________________________________________________________________

5. ._________________________________________________________________________
76
“The Windmill,” by Kathlyn Libbey from The Elson Readers Primer

Once there was a big windmill. It went


round and round. It gave water to the horses They all ran to the windmill. They all
and the cows. It gave water to the sheep, too. wanted some water. There was no water for
One day it said, "I will stop! I will not them!
go round and round." They said, "Oh, Windmill! Will you be
So the windmill was still all day. By and kind to us? Will you give us water,
by the wind came. Windmill?"
It said, "I will help you, Windmill. I will The windmill was not happy.
make you go round and round and round." It said, "There is no water. Wind, come
and help me."
"No, no!" said the windmill. "I don't The wind came at once.
want to go round and round and round. I "I will blow for you," it said.
don't want you to help me. I want to be still The windmill went round and round.
all day." Soon the water came. The horses drank and
The wind said, "You must go round! drank. The cows and the sheep drank, too.
The horses and cows want water. I will blow How happy the windmill was!
for you."
The windmill would not go. It would not
bring any water. So the wind went away.
By and by the horses came home. They had
helped the farmer all day. The cows and the
sheep came, too.
77

62 – Treasure Hunt

Find and bring to class a sentence that has a compound subject. Identify the subject(s),
verb(s) and complement(s) in the sentence.

63 – Recipe Roster

Write a sentence that has compound verbs. Identify the subject(s), verb(s) and
complement(s) in the sentence.

64 – Treasure Hunt

Find and bring to class a sentence that has a compound complement. Identify the
subject(s), verb(s) and complement(s) in the sentence.
78

Identifying Prepositional Phrases


Prepositional phrases are simply prepositions plus the noun or pronoun that answers
the question "What?" after them: "in the house," "under the desk," "from the street."
Thus, to identify prepositional phrases you need to recognize prepositions and then make a
question with "What?" after them – "Under what?" – "Under the desk."
If a verb answers the question "To what," it is not a prepositional phrase.
about Words That Can Function as Prepositions in
above Note: Some prepositions consist of more than one word.]
inside
across
instead of
according to
into
after Note that all the words like
against in brown could be used to near
along
among tell a squirrel's relationship of
in space to trees: off
around
on
as
onto
aside from
opposite
as for
out
as to The squirrel is ____ the trees. out of
at
outside
because of
over
before Other prepositions express per
behind relationships in time: regardless of
beneath
since
beside They left after dinner. such as
between They arrived before dinner. through
beyond We talked during dinner. to
but * We haven't eaten since dinner. toward
by We waited until dinner. under
despite
until
down
up
down to The word that answers the question upon
due to "What?" after a preposition is called the via
during
except
"object of the preposition." with
within
for * when it means "except" without
from Image from Beatrix Potter’s “The Tale of Squirrel Nutkin”
79

How Prepositional Phrases Work in a Sentence

Every word in a sentence has a job to do. That job is called its “function.” The
function of subjects is to name what the sentence is about. Verbs say something
about the subject(s). Some verbs raise the question “whom or what?” The nouns or
adjectives that answer that question function as complements.
This subject / verb / optional complement pattern (S/V/C) is the most important
part of any sentence. Remember that conjunctions (“and,” “or,” and “but”) can join
two or more subjects, verbs, or complements within one sentence.
Almost every word in every English sentence describes (modifies) the words in
an S/V/C pattern. You have already learned how adjectives and adverbs modify,
and thus grammatically connect to, subjects, verbs, and complements.
Almost all prepositional phrases function as adjectives or adverbs:
Mr. Green Frog lives {in a pond}.
Just like an adverb would, “in a pond” describes where he lives. Similarly, in the
sentence
The squirrels {in the tree} were having fun (DO).
the prepositional phrase “in the tree” identifies which squirrels the sentence is
about and thus functions as an adjective.
Sometimes more than one prepositional phrase will modify the same word:
Mr. Green Frog will be {in the pond} {for a few hours}.
In this sentence, “in the pond” tells where he will be, and “for a few hours” tells
how long he will be there.
But a prepositional phrase can also modify a word in another prepositional
phrase:
The squirrels scampered off {among the branches} {of the oak tree}.
In this sentence, “of the oak tree” modifies “branches” and thus functions as an
adjective. The “among the branches” phrase modifies “scampered.” In other words,
the “of the oak tree” phrase connects to the verb because it is connected to
“branches.”
80

From “A Summer Shower,” by Mary Frances Blaisdell

65 Adding Prepositional Phrases (Ex # 1)

Directions:
1. In the following sentences, underline the verbs twice, their subjects once, and write “C”
above any complements.
2. Place parentheses ( ) around each prepositional phrase. Draw an arrow from the
preposition to the word that the phrase modifies, and above the phrase write “Adj” for
“adjective” or “Adv” for “adverb.”

1. The flowers would like to have a drink of fresh water.


2. We will go down to the brook.
3. Will you come with us?
4. There is not much water in the brook today.
5. So at last Bunny sat down under the oak tree.
6. Mrs. Duck and all the little ducks waddled along the path.
7. It was really nothing but mud.
8. The little ducks were playing in the muddy brook.
9. They pushed their flat bills into the mud.
10. Their little yellow feet were black with mud.
11. Mr. Sun looked down and smiled at them.
12. A gentle wind began to blow over the tall grass in the field.
13. It rushed along to the woods.
81

From “A Summer Shower,” by Mary Frances Blaisdell

66 Adding Prepositional Phrases (Ex # 2)

Directions:
1. In the following sentences, underline the verbs twice, their subjects once, and write “C”
above any complements.
2. Place parentheses ( ) around each prepositional phrase. Draw an arrow from the
preposition to the word that the phrase modifies, and above the phrase write “Adj” for
“adjective” or “Adv” for “adverb.”

1. The clouds sailed faster and faster across the sky.


2. We must go back to the barn.
3. So the robin flew to the woods.
4. Billy and Bobtail were playing in their yard.
5. Patter, patter, patter! the rain drops fell on the oak leaves.
6. In a few minutes the leaves were wet.
7. Faster and faster the rain drops fell from the black clouds.
8. The ground was soon wet under the oak tree.
9. I am going to take a bath in that puddle of water.
10. Mr. Green Frog came out of his hole.
11. On his way he met Mrs. Duck and all the little ducks.
12. And Robin Redbreast took a bath in the puddle under the oak tree.
13. The duck and all the little ducks waddled across the road and into the meadow.
82

From “A Summer Shower,” by Mary Frances Blaisdell

67 A Punctuation Exercise

Directions: The punctuation and capitalization in the following sentences was lost.
Please fix it, on this paper.

then the water began to fall down on the ground at the foot of the tree one great
big drop fell on Bunnys nose then another fell on his ear he waked up with a start

what is the matter he said what is the matter


83

From “Sammy’s Flying Machine,” by Mary Frances Blaisdell

68 Adding Prepositional Phrases (Ex # 1)

Directions:
1. In the following sentences, underline the verbs twice, their subjects once, and write “C”
above any complements.
2. Place parentheses ( ) around each prepositional phrase. Draw an arrow from the
preposition to the word that the phrase modifies, and above the phrase write “Adj” for
“adjective” or “Adv” for “adverb.”

1. Sammy Red Squirrel was sitting on the stone wall.


2. Blacky Crow flew over the field.
3. I am going to the pasture now.
4. The crow flew over the tallest tree and out of sight.
5. Just then something hit Sammy on the head.
6. There at his feet lay an oak leaf.
7. He looked up in the top of the tree.
8. West Wind flew by and shook the branches of the tree very gently.
9. And another leaf floated softly down to the ground beside its brother.
10. I can make some wings for myself out of those oak leaves.
84

From “Sammy’s Flying Machine,” by Mary Frances Blaisdell

69 Adding Prepositional Phrases (Ex # 2)

Directions:
1. In the following sentences, underline the verbs twice, their subjects once, and write “C”
above any complements.
2. Place parentheses ( ) around each prepositional phrase. Draw an arrow from the
preposition to the word that the phrase modifies, and above the phrase write “Adj” for
“adjective” or “Adv” for “adverb.”

1. Sammy put the two leaves on the ground and covered them with a stone.

2. You must be at the tree in a few minutes.

3. All the red squirrels scampered off among the branches of the oak tree.

4. You would have to go to Mr. Man’s garden and ask him for some of the leaves

from the rhubarb plants.

5. I will fly to the oak tree this very minute.

6. He ran up the tree and out on one of the longest branches.

7. He stood on the very end of the branch for just one minute.

8. The wings would not hold Sammy up in the air.

9. And down to the ground Sammy fell.

10. He almost fell on top of Bunny Rabbit.


85

From “Sammy’s Flying Machine,” by Mary Frances Blaisdell

70 An Exercise in Punctuation

Directions: The punctuation and capitalization in the following sentences was lost.
Please fix it, on this paper.

sammy stopped eating the nut and looked up to see who was talking to him he

saw blacky crow sailing round and round over his head

i am eating my breakfast he answered would you like to have a nut to eat too

oh no answered blacky crow i can find something better than that

71 Treasure Hunt
Find and bring to class a sentence that has at least two prepositional phrases.
Identify the prepositional phrases.
86

From “The Cabbage Patch,” by Mary Frances Blaisdell

72 Adding Prepositional Phrases (Ex # 1)


Directions:
1. In the following sentences, underline the verbs twice, their subjects once, and write “C”
above any complements.
2. Place parentheses ( ) around each prepositional phrase. Draw an arrow from the
preposition to the word that the phrase modifies, and above the phrase write “Adj” for
“adjective” or “Adv” for “adverb.”

1. Bobtail and Bunny hopped off down the road.

2. They hopped along the road and came to Mr. Man’s barn.

3. So the two little rabbits laid their ears down on their heads and hopped away

behind the barn.

4. Where are you going in such a hurry?

5. The rooster flapped his wings and flew up on the fence.

6. This is no place for us.

7. Not a word did the little rabbits speak.

8. How still it was in the garden!

9. The bees were humming among the flowers.

10. The tender and sweet corn had just peeped out of the ground.
87

From “The Cabbage Patch,” by Mary Frances Blaisdell

73 Adding Prepositional Phrases (Ex # 2)

Directions:
1. In the following sentences, underline the verbs twice, their subjects once, and write “C”
above any complements.
2. Place parentheses ( ) around each prepositional phrase. Draw an arrow from the
preposition to the word that the phrase modifies, and above the phrase write “Adj” for
“adjective” or “Adv” for “adverb.”

1. Jip bounded across the field.

2. Someone is in my master’s garden.

3. Off through the garden they hopped.

4. Jip ran after them and barked louder and louder at every step.

5. They hopped across the field and into the woods.

6. They had hopped into a hole under the big rock at the foot of the oak tree.

7. At last Bunny pulled his head back through the hole.

8. He was safe on the outside of the hole.

9. Mother Rabbit was standing at the door and watching for him.

10. Bunny pointed to his poor little scratched nose.


88

From “The Cabbage Patch,” by Mary Frances Blaisdell

74 A Matching Game with Prepositional Phrases

Directions: The seven prepositional phrases below lost their places. Help the phrases find
where they belong by writing the number of the phrase in the blank where it best
belongs.

1. to the hungry little rabbits 5. across the yard


2. of one long row 6. at a big, big cabbage
3. into the garden 7. of them
4. at the end

The two rabbits hopped off __________ and __________.

There they found the biggest cabbages they had ever seen.

There were rows and rows __________.

They were great big green cabbages. How good they did look __________!

“I am going to eat this one,” said Bunny. And he stopped ____________

________ __________.
89

From “The White Rabbit,” by Mary Frances Blaisdell

75 Adding Prepositional Phrases (Ex # 1)


Directions:
1. In the following sentences, underline the verbs twice, their subjects once, and write “C”
above any complements.
2. Place parentheses ( ) around each prepositional phrase. Draw an arrow from the
preposition to the word that the phrase modifies, and above the phrase write “Adj” for
“adjective” or “Adv” for “adverb.”

1. Billy was fond of cabbage, too.

2. But the garden was far away, across the field and over the other side of the road.

3. Mother Rabbit and Bobtail were in the garden on a warm summer day.

4. Bunny ate clover in the meadow with Billy.

5. The two little rabbits nibbled at the tender leaves.

6. But Billy only shook his head and hopped off toward home.

7. He could not see any of his friends.

8. I will go over to the garden and find mother and Bobtail.

9. He hopped across the field and across the road.

10. The rooster was sitting on the fence.


90

From “The White Rabbit,” by Mary Frances Blaisdell

76 Adding Prepositional Phrases (Ex # 2)

Directions:
1. In the following sentences, underline the verbs twice, their subjects once, and write “C”
above any complements.
2. Place parentheses ( ) around each prepositional phrase. Draw an arrow from the
preposition to the word that the phrase modifies, and above the phrase write “Adj” for
“adjective” or “Adv” for “adverb.”

1. Bunny hopped along past the hen-yard fence, and into the orchard.

2. I live in a little house near the barn.

3. So Bunny and Whitie hopped off toward the barn.

4. The white rabbit pointed to a little house under the apple tree.

5. He had never been so near the barn before.

6. The two little rabbits hopped through the gate.

7. Jack left them here for my dinner.

8. The dog was not running along beside him.

9. But I like my home in the woods much better.

10. Bunny ran out of the house and played a game of tag with Billy and Bobtail.
91

From “The White Rabbit,” by Mary Frances Blaisdell

77 A Punctuation Exercise

Directions: The punctuation and capitalization in the following sentences was lost. Please fix it,
on this paper.

and then he heard jack talking to the dog

poor bunnys heart began to beat very fast

what shall i do what shall i do he said

jack and jip will not hurt you said whitie i think jack is coming to close the gate

bunny hid himself in one corner of the house and held his breath for fear jack

would see him

78 Recipe Roster
Write a funny sentence that has at least two prepositional phrases. Identify the
prepositional phrases.
92

79 “Bobbie Squirrel's Tail” – Creating an Exercise


Directions: Read the “Bobby Squirrel’s Tail” by Carolyn S. Bailey. (See the next page.)
Then find ten different sentences in it that would make a good exercise on prepositional phrases.
Try to use as many different prepositions as you can, and use at least one sentence in which a
prepositional phrase modifies a word in another prepositional phrase. Use your sentences to
make an exercise on this paper, and then make an answer key. The directions for your exercise
should be:

Directions:
1. In the following sentences, underline the verbs twice, their subjects once, and write “C” above
any complements.
2. Place parentheses ( ) around each prepositional phrase. Draw an arrow from the preposition to
the word that the phrase modifies, and above the phrase write “Adj” for “adjective” or
“Adv” for “adverb.”

1. ______________________________________________________________________

2. ______________________________________________________________________

3. ______________________________________________________________________

4. ______________________________________________________________________

5. ______________________________________________________________________

6. ______________________________________________________________________

7. ______________________________________________________________________

8. ______________________________________________________________________

9. ______________________________________________________________________

10. ______________________________________________________________________
93
“Bobbie Squirrel's Tail” by Carolyn S. Bailey
from The Elson Readers Primer

See Bobbie Squirrel.


What a big tail he has!
One day he ran down a tree. Guess what Bobbie found at home!
Jack Rabbit was coming along. He found shells on the floor!
His tail was little. A little squirrel had put them there.
Jack Rabbit said, "Look at Bobbie! "Oh, dear me!" said Bobbie.
He wants us to see his big tail." "The floor must be swept!"
Brown Owl said, "Oh, see Bobbie! So Bobbie swept the floor.
He has his tail above his back." He swept it with his big tail.
Bobbie Squirrel ran to a nut tree. By and by night came.
There were nuts under the tree. Bobbie went to sleep on the floor.
Bobbie made a hole in the ground. Guess what he did with his tail!
It was a big round hole.
He swept the nuts into it.
He swept them with his big tail.
Bobbie covered them with leaves.
He swept the leaves with his tail, too.
Then he ran to his home in the tree.
He will eat the nuts next winter.
94

Understood “You”

In some sentences the subject “you” is simply understood:

Close the door. = You close the door (DO).


Be quiet! = You be quiet (PA)!
Take out the garbage. = You take out the garbage (DO).

To show that you understand this, your teacher may want you to always write in,
and underline once, the understood “you.”
95

From Bunny Rabbit's Diary by Mary Frances Blaisdell

80 “You” as the Understood Subject Ex # 1


Sometimes the subject of a verb is an understood “You.”

Directions:
1. Write in the understood “you” in each sentence.
2. Underline verbs twice, their subjects once, and write “C” above any complements.
3. Place parentheses ( ) around each prepositional phrase. Draw an arrow from the preposition to
the word that the phrase modifies, and above the phrase write “Adj” for “adjective” or
“Adv” for “adverb.”

1. Follow us and you will see.

2. Come down here.

3. Wait for me.

4. See this big oak leaf?

5. Look, look!

6. Come, little leaves.

7. Put on your dresses of red and gold.

8. Wake up, Billy!

9. Don’t make a noise.

10. Come down and play with us.


96

From Bunny Rabbit's Diary by Mary Frances Blaisdell

81 “You” as the Understood Subject Ex # 2


Sometimes the subject of a verb is an understood “You.”

Directions:
1. Write in the understood “you” in each sentence.
2. Underline verbs twice, their subjects once, and write “C” above any complements.
3. Place parentheses ( ) around each prepositional phrase. Draw an arrow from the preposition to
the word that the phrase modifies, and above the phrase write “Adj” for “adjective” or
“Adv” for “adverb.”

1. Look at that!

2. See my ducks.

3. Come back!

4. See Mrs. Duck and all the little ducks.

5. Paddle your feet, paddle your feet!

6. Show it to us.

7. See the fishes in the water.

8. Don't go into that house.

9. Just see the flowers after the rain.

10. Flap your wings!


97

82 “You” as the Understood Subject–“Betty Blue”

Directions:
1. Write in the understood “you” in each sentence.
2. Underline verbs twice, their subjects once, and write “C” above any complements.
3. Place parentheses ( ) around each prepositional phrase. Draw an arrow from the preposition to
the word that the phrase modifies, and above the phrase write “Adj” for “adjective” or
“Adv” for “adverb.”

Betty Blue

Little Betty Blue

Lost her holiday shoe;

What shall little Betty do?

Give her another

To match the other

And then she'll walk upon two.


98

83 “Dark Pony” – Creating an Exercise


Directions: Read the “Dark Pony.” (See the next page.) Then find five different sentences in
it that would make a good exercise on “You” as an understood subject. Use your sentences to
make an exercise on this paper, and then make an answer key. The directions for your exercise
should be:

Directions:
1. Write in the understood “you” in each sentence.
2. Underline verbs twice, their subjects once, and write “C” above any complements.
3. Place parentheses ( ) around each prepositional phrase. Draw an arrow from the preposition to
the word that the phrase modifies, and above the phrase write “Adj” for “adjective” or
“Adv” for “adverb.”

1. ______________________________________________________________________

2. ______________________________________________________________________

3. ______________________________________________________________________

4. ______________________________________________________________________

5. ______________________________________________________________________
99
“Dark Pony,”
from The Elson Readers Primer

Soon they came to a little girl.


The girl’s name was Niddy.
Niddy said,
“Let me go, too,
Take me with you!”
DARK PONY Dark Pony stopped galloping.
Noddy said, “We will take you.”
Once there was a pony. Niddy jumped up behind Noddy.
His name was Dark. “Go, go, Dark Pony!” she said.
He took boys and girls to Sleepytown. Away they went galloping, galloping,
One night a boy stopped him. galloping.
The boy's name was Noddy.
Noddy said,
“Take me down
To Sleepytown!”
Noddy jumped upon Dark Pony.
Away they went galloping, galloping,
galloping.
134 135
Soon they came to a black cat.
The cat said,
“Mew, mew, mew!
Take me, too!”
Dark Pony stopped galloping.
Niddy jumped down to get the cat.
Then she jumped upon the pony.
She took the cat with her.
Soon they came to a white dog. “Go, go, Dark Pony!” she said.
The dog said, Away they went galloping, galloping,
“Bow, wow, wow! galloping.
Take me now!”
Dark Pony stopped galloping.
Noddy jumped down to get the dog.
Then he jumped upon the pony.
“Go, go, Dark Pony!” he said.
Away they went galloping, galloping,
galloping.
136 137
100

By and by they came to a barn. Soon they came to the woods.


They saw a red cock there. They saw a gray squirrel there.
The red cock said, The squirrel said,
“Cock -a-doodle-doo ! “Take me, too,
Take me, too!” Along with you!”
Dark Pony stopped galloping. Niddy said, “Yes, Gray Squirrel.
Niddy said, “Come, Red Cock! We will take you.
You may sit behind me.” Sit by the red cock.”
The red cock flew up behind Niddy. The squirrel sat by the red cock.
“Go, go, Dark Pony!” said Niddy. “Go, go, Dark Pony!” said Niddy.
Away they went galloping, galloping, Away they went galloping, galloping,
galloping. galloping.
138 139

They went galloping on and on.


How happy they all were!
They sang and sang and sang.
By and by Dark Pony stopped.
He had come to Sleepytown.
All the eyes were shut.
Niddy and Noddy and White Dog and
Black Cat and Red Cock and Gray Squirrel
were all fast asleep.

140
101

84 Sentence Combining and Style – Ex # 1


Sentence-Building with Prepositional Phrases

Thumbelina
Jan Marcin Szancer (1902-1973)

A. Directions: Write sentences, using the following phrases as modifiers.

To Europe, of oak, from Albany, at the station, through the fields, for
vacation, among the Indians, of the United States

B. Directions: To each of the following verb phrases add a subject that is modified by at least
one prepositional phrase.

_____ is situated on the Mississippi. _____ was received.


_____ has arrived. _____ has just been completed.
_____ was destroyed by an earthquake. _____ may be enjoyed.

C. Directions: Use the following subjects to create sentences in which the verbs are modified by
prepositional phrases.

Iron __________ . The book __________ Paul __________ .


The trees __________ . Sugar __________ . Strawberries __________ .
Squirrels __________ . Cheese __________ . The mountain __________

D. Directions: Write five sentences, each of which contains one or more prepositional phrases.

Adapted from Reed and Kellogg's Graded Lessons in English (1889)


102

85 Sentence Combining and Style – Ex # 2


Rewriting Adjectives and Adverbs as Phrases
The Flying Trunk
Jan Marcin Szancer (1902-1973)

A. Directions: Rewrite the following sentences, changing the italicized words into
equivalent prepositional phrases.

Model. -- A golden image was made.


An image of gold was made.

You will notice that the adjective golden was placed before the subject, but, when changed
to a phrase, it followed the subject.

1. The book was carefully read.


2. The old soldiers fought courageously.
3. A group of children were strolling homeward.
4. No season of life should be spent idly.
5. The English ambassador has just arrived.
6. The generous act was liberally rewarded.

B. Directions: Change the following adjectives and adverbs into equivalent phrases, and
use the phrases in sentences of your own.

Wooden, penniless, eastward, somewhere, here, evening,


everywhere, yonder, joyfully, wintry.

Adapted from Reed and Kellogg's Graded Lessons in English (1889)


103

86 Sentence Combining and Style – Ex # 3


Using Adjectives & Prepositional Phrases
The Little Match Girl
to Combine Sentences
Jan Marcin Szancer (1902-1973)

Directions: Combine the two sentences into one in two ways. First, make the important
word in one sentence an adjective in the other sentence. Second, make it an adjectival
prepositional phrase.

Example: It was July. One afternoon we decided to play tag.

One July afternoon we decided to play tag.


One afternoon in July we decided to play tag.

1. Sam had spent all his money for the book. It was a story book.

2. The old cat is asleep on the mat. The mat is by the door.

3. It is evening. Shadows steal across the sky.

4. He caught hold of the clothes. The clothes were Mr. Brown's.

5. A woman was standing at a table. She was of middle age.

6. In two of our trees there are boxes. They are for squirrels.
104

87 Sentence Combining and Style – Ex # 4


Using Prepositional Phrases to Combine Sentences
The Steadfast Tin Soldier
Jan Marcin Szancer (1902-1973)

Directions: Combine the two sentences into one by making the information in one sentence
a prepositional phrase in the other sentence.

Example: Our house is big. It has a big back yard.

Our house is big with a big back yard.

1. I had a popcicle. It was in my hand.

2. My dad had just got home. He had been at work.

3. We have another shower. It is in our basement.

4. I live in a brick house. It is on Maple Street.

5. We have a living room. It has a table, two chairs, and a couch.


105

Based on "Teddy Bear," by Mary Frances Blaisdell

88 Sentence Combining with Adjectives

Directions:
1. Combine the sentences in each set into one sentence by putting the adjective (or adjectives) in
the later sentences into the first. For example:
Jip liked to play tag with Bobby. Jip was friendly.
Friendly Jip liked to play tag with Bobby.
2. In your new sentence, underline verbs twice, their subjects once, and write “C” above any
complements.
3. Place parentheses ( ) around each prepositional phrase. Draw an arrow from the preposition to
the word that the phrase modifies, and above the phrase write “Adj” for “adjective” or
“Adv” for “adverb.”

1. Teddy stared at the duck with his little eyes. His eyes were black.
2. You lived in the playroom. The playroom is new.
3. He saw Bobby Gray Squirrel. Bobby Gray Squirrel was happy.
4. “Good-morning,” Bobby said to the little bear. The bear was brown.
5. Teddy stared at the squirrel. The squirrel was polite.
6. He thought of Jack-in-the-box, and the tin soldiers. The tin soldiers were bright.
7. He thought of the automobile and of all the dolls. The automobile was new. The dolls
were pretty.
8. May was sitting on the floor. May was a baby.
9. I will go to the pond and see Mr. Green Frog. He is wise. He is old.
10. So the brown bear lay on the grass. The brown bear was little. The grass was soft.
106

Based on "Teddy Bear," by Mary Frances Blaisdell

89 Sentence Combining with Prepositional Phrases

Directions:
1. Combine the sentences in each set into one sentence by putting the prepositional phrase in the
second sentence into the first. For example:
Bobby Squirrel was playing. He was in the oak tree.
Bobby Squirrel was playing in the oak tree.
2. In your new sentence, underline verbs twice, their subjects once, and write “C” above any
complements.
3. Place parentheses ( ) around each prepositional phrase. Draw an arrow from the preposition to
the word that the phrase modifies, and above the phrase write “Adj” for “adjective” or
“Adv” for “adverb.”

1. Teddy Bear lay on the grass. The grass was in the meadow.
2. Jip picked Teddy up in his mouth and ran. He ran along through the meadow.
3. Bobby Gray Squirrel was hunting. He was looking for nuts.
4. Jip liked to play tag. He liked to play with Bobby.
5. I had just found a nut. It is for my breakfast.
6. Jack came along the path. He was with Jip.
7. Jack was near the tree. He saw Teddy Bear on the ground.
8. Bunny hopped off. He went down the path.
9. Then Jip started along the path. The path was in the woods.
10. He would tell his friends about his day. It had been a day in the woods.
107

Based on "Teddy Bear," by Mary Frances Blaisdell

90 Combining to Make Compound Subjects or Verbs

Directions:
1. Combine the sentences in each set into one sentence by putting the verb phrase in the second
sentence into the first. For example:
Bobby saw Teddy. He ran over to speak to him.
Bobby saw Teddy and ran over to speak to him.
2. In your new sentence, underline verbs twice, their subjects once, and write “C” above any
complements.
3. Place parentheses ( ) around each prepositional phrase. Draw an arrow from the preposition to
the word that the phrase modifies, and above the phrase write “Adj” for “adjective” or
“Adv” for “adverb.”

1. Baby May had dropped him there. She had forgotten all about him.
2. Blacky Crow flew over the meadow. He called to the bear.
3. Mrs. Duck waddled along the path. All the little ducks waddled along the path.
4. Teddy just stared. And he stared. But he did not say a word.
5. He tossed him up in the air. Then he caught him in his mouth.
6. But Bobby saw the dog. He skipped up into the oak tree.
7. He forgot about Teddy. And he left him under the tree.
8. May was sitting on the floor. She was playing with her dolls.
9. Then at last Teddy fell asleep. He dreamed about the playroom.
10. May picked Teddy up. She gave him a great bear hug.
108

Identifying Complements

There are four different possible types of complements. Use


the following sequence to identify the types of complements:

Possibility # 1: Subject / Verb


If nothing answers the question "Verb + whom or what?", the pattern is S/V.
[STOP: You have your answer.]

Possibility # 2: Subject / Verb / Predicate Adjective


If the word that answers the question "what?" after the verb is an adjective,
the pattern is S/V/PA.
[STOP: You have your answer.]

Possibility # 3: Subject / Verb / Predicate Noun


If the word that answers the question is a noun (or pronoun) that renames the subject
and the verb implies an equality between subject and complement, the pattern is S/V/PN.
Ed remained a child (PN). ("Remained" here means "was" and "continues to be.")
Bill became a teacher (PN). (He "was" not, but now he "is.")
When it is used as the main verb (and not just a helping verb), the verb “to be” (“am,” “is,”
“are,” “was,” “were”) always takes a predicate adjective or predicate noun.
[STOP: You have your answer.]
Note that in sentences like “She washes herself,” “washes” does not in any way mean
“equals.” Thus the complement is a direct object, not a predicate noun.

Possibility #4: Subject / Verb / (Indirect Object) Direct Object


[If it's not 1, 2, or 3, it has to be #4]
If a word or construction answers the question "whom or what?" after a verb and is
not a predicate noun or predicate adjective, it has to be an indirect or direct object. An
indirect object indicates the person "for" or "to" whom something is done.

Examples of Direct Objects: Examples of Indirect Objects:


Sally bought ice cream (DO) They sent him (IO) a letter (DO).
The cat washed itself (DO) Bill told Bob (IO) a joke (DO).
109

Based on “Bobby’s Party,” by Mary Frances Blaisdell

91 The Subject/Verb/No Complement Pattern


If nothing answers the question “What or Whom?” after a verb, there is no complement.

Directions:
1. Underline verbs twice, and their subjects once.
2. Place parentheses ( ) around each prepositional phrase. Draw an arrow from the
preposition to the word that the phrase modifies, and above the phrase write “Adj” for
“adjective” or “Adv” for “adverb.”

1. And all day long the children played with their fire-crackers.

2. So he peeped out of his door once more.

3. The sun was not shining now.

4. The big round moon was looking down.

5. All the children were in bed.

6. He jumped up and ran out of doors.

7. He ran down the branch of the oak tree and off through the woods.

8. He ran past the three rabbits.

9. Bobby jumped up on the highest stone.

10. Right at his feet was a paper bag.


110

Based on “Bobby’s Party,” by Mary Frances Blaisdell

92 Focusing on Predicate Adjectives

If whatever answers the question “What or Whom?” after a verb


is an adjective that describes the subject,
the complement is called a predicate adjective.
Directions:
1. Underline verbs twice, their subjects once, and label predicate adjectives (PA).
2. Place parentheses ( ) around each prepositional phrase. Draw an arrow from the
preposition to the word that the phrase modifies, and above the phrase write “Adj” for
“adjective” or “Adv” for “adverb.”

1. Fourth of July is fun for boys and girls.

2. But it is not so funny for rabbits and squirrels.

3. At last it was quiet.

4. I am hungry.

5. And the bag smelled very good.

6. This bag is full of peanuts.

7. Sammy Red Squirrel had been wide awake all day.

8. Bobby's teeth were little and sharp.

9. Some of the squirrels were red.

10. But Bobby's storehouse was empty.


111

Based on “Bobby’s Party,” by Mary Frances Blaisdell

93 Focusing on Predicate Nouns


If whatever answers the question “What or Whom?” after a verb
is a noun and the verb in any way means “equals,”
the complement is called a predicate noun.
Directions:
1. Underline verbs twice, their subjects once, and label predicate nouns (PN).
2. Place parentheses ( ) around each prepositional phrase. Draw an arrow from the
preposition to the word that the phrase modifies, and above the phrase write “Adj” for
“adjective” or “Adv” for “adverb.”

1. It was morning.

2. This is a good morning.

3. What a big squirrel am I.

4. It was a peanut.

5. That was a good joke.

6. The hiding place was a hole behind a big rock.

7. It was a funny sound up in the maple tree.

8. It was a wonderful party.

9. The nuts were big, juicy peanuts.

10. Sammy Red Squirrel was a trickster.


112

Based on “Bobby’s Party,” by Mary Frances Blaisdell

94 Focusing on Indirect and Direct Objects


If whatever answers the question “What or Whom?” after a verb
indicates to whom or what, or for whom or what, something is done or given,
the complement is called an indirect object.

If the complement is not a predicate adjective, predicate noun, or indirect object,


it has to be a direct object.
Directions:
1. Underline verbs twice, their subjects once, and label indirect and direct objects (IO or DO).
2. Place parentheses ( ) around each prepositional phrase. Draw an arrow from the preposition to
the word that the phrase modifies, and above the phrase write “Adj” for “adjective” or
“Adv” for “adverb.”

1. He poked his nose out once or twice.

2. But each time he heard a loud bang.

3. Bobby had not heard a sound for a long time.

4. Bobby saw the moon.

5. I might find an apple on one of the trees.

6. I will make a hole in the bag.

7. I will show you a big pile of peanuts.

8. Not one peanut could they see.

9. So Bobby began to carry the nuts to a safe place.

10. Meet me at the old stone wall.


113

95 A Special Focus on Indirect Objects

Part One:

Directions:
1. Underline verbs twice, their subjects once, and label complements (PA, PN, IO, or DO).
2. Place parentheses ( ) around each prepositional phrase. Draw an arrow from the preposition to
the word that the phrase modifies, and above the phrase write “Adj” for “adjective” or
“Adv” for “adverb.”

1. The frog gave the boy a ride beneath the moonlight.


2. Tommy paid Curt a dollar for a baseball card.
3. Steve painted his mother a beautiful picture of her garden.
4. Please save me a seat.
5. Debbie got Sam a new brown coat for the winter.
6. Carla drew the police a picture of the man.
7. Omar taught the elephant his name.
8. Sally blew her father a kiss.
9. In the evening Rick read Margo a story about elves.
10. The director refused the man a part in the play.
11. Carlos threw Ginny the ball.
12. The coach hit Sandra some fly balls.
13. Can you win me a stuffed elephant at the circus?
14. On Mother's Day, the children brought their mother her breakfast.
15. Can you find me a book about animals in South America?
Part Two:
On separate paper, rewrite each of the sentences, but replace the indirect objects with
prepositional phrases with "to" or "for."
114

From “The Ugly Duckling” by E. Louise Smythe

96 Focusing on Subjects and Verbs

Directions:
1. Underline verbs twice, their subjects once, and label complements (PA, PN, IO, or DO).
2. Place parentheses ( ) around each prepositional phrase. Draw an arrow from the
preposition to the word that the phrase modifies, and above the phrase write “Adj” for
“adjective” or “Adv” for “adverb.”

1.) The mother duck was in the water.


2.) They all jumped in and began to swim.
3.) The big, ugly duckling swam, too.
4.) They all went into the duck yard.
5.) Now, my dears, have a good time.
6.) The big ducks walked on him.
7.) At night he came to an old house.
8.) An old woman lived there with her cat and her hen.
9.) And the duckling hid in a corner.
10.) The next day he went for a walk.
11.) One day he flew far away.
12.) The summer went by.
13.) He put his head down to the water.
14.) The other swans came to see him.
115

From “The Ugly Duckling” by E. Louise Smythe

97 Focusing on Predicate Adjectives

Directions:
1. Underline verbs twice, their subjects once, and label complements (PA, PN, IO, or DO).
2. Place parentheses ( ) around each prepositional phrase. Draw an arrow from the
preposition to the word that the phrase modifies, and above the phrase write “Adj” for
“adjective” or “Adv” for “adverb.”

1.) He will not be so ugly when he is bigger.

2.) They are all pretty but one.

3.) He is very ugly.

4.) But he is very good.

5.) It was so old.

6.) The poor duckling was very sad.

7.) Then the leaves fell and it was very cold.

8.) The ugly duckling was big now.

9.) The little birds in the bushes were afraid and flew away.
116

From “The Ugly Duckling” by E. Louise Smythe

98 Focusing on Predicate Nouns

Directions:
1. Underline verbs twice, their subjects once, and label complements (PA, PN, IO, or DO).
2. Place parentheses ( ) around each prepositional phrase. Draw an arrow from the
preposition to the word that the phrase modifies, and above the phrase write “Adj” for
“adjective” or “Adv” for “adverb.”

1.) He is not a turkey.

2.) He is my own little duck.

3.) At last it was spring.

4.) But he was not an ugly duck.

5.) He was a white swan.

6.) It was a happy time for the ugly duckling.


117

From “The Ugly Duckling” by E. Louise Smythe

99 Focusing on Indirect and Direct Objects

Directions:
1. Underline verbs twice, their subjects once, and label complements (PA, PN, IO, or DO).
2. Place parentheses ( ) around each prepositional phrase. Draw an arrow from the
preposition to the word that the phrase modifies, and above the phrase write “Adj” for
“adjective” or “Adv” for “adverb.”

1.) He did not hurt you.


2.) You have lovely ducklings.
3.) The hens all bit him.
4.) What did he see?
5.) He saw a big pond.
6.) He saw himself in the water.
7.) And they gave him bread and cake.
8.) I will keep the duck. I will have some eggs.
9.) The next day, the cat saw the duckling and began to growl.
10.) But the poor, big, ugly duckling did not have a good time.
11.) The poor duckling had a hard time.
12.) Soon he saw three white swans on the lake.
13.) What a noise the ducks made!
14.) While the mother duck was eating a big bug, an old duck bit the ugly
duckling.
118

From “The Ugly Duckling” by E. Louise Smythe

100 Focusing on Mixed Complements

Directions:
1. Underline verbs twice, their subjects once, and label complements (PA, PN, IO, or DO).
2. Place parentheses ( ) around each prepositional phrase. Draw an arrow from the
preposition to the word that the phrase modifies, and above the phrase write “Adj” for
“adjective” or “Adv” for “adverb.”

A duck made her nest under some leaves.

She sat on the eggs to keep them warm.

At last the eggs broke, one after the other. Little ducks came out.

Only one egg was left. It was a very large one.

At last it broke, and out came a big, ugly duckling.

“What a big duckling!” said the old duck. “He does not look like us. Can he be

a turkey? – We will see. If he does not like the water, he is not a duck.”

The next day the mother duck took her ducklings to the pond.
119

From “The
“The Story of the Oriole”
Oriole” by Florence Holbrook
(The Book of Nature Myths)

101 Mixed Complements Ex # 1


Directions:
1. Underline verbs twice, their subjects once, and label complements (PA, PN, IO, or DO).
2. Place parentheses ( ) around each prepositional phrase. Draw an arrow from the
preposition to the word that the phrase modifies, and above the phrase write “Adj” for
“adjective” or “Adv” for “adverb.”

1. The king of the north struck at him with a war-club.

2. The sun hid himself in fear.

3. An oriole is loved by everyone.

4. I am master of the country of ice and snow.

5. The land of the south was ever bright and sunny.

6. And even the oaks could not stand against its power.

7. He will build his nest on our trees.


120

From “The Story of the Oriole” by Florence Holbrook


(The Book of Nature Myths)

102 Mixed Complements Ex # 2


Directions:
1. Underline verbs twice, their subjects once, and label complements (PA, PN, IO, or DO).
2. Place parentheses ( ) around each prepositional phrase. Draw an arrow from the
preposition to the word that the phrase modifies, and above the phrase write “Adj” for
“adjective” or “Adv” for “adverb.”

1. The thunder growled in the hollows of the mountains.

2. My king, on all the earth no one loves me.

3. The arrows of the lightning are aimed at us.

4. You shall no longer be a stinging insect.

5. Their roots were tough and strong.

6. At last the king of the north went back to his own country, and drove before him

the thunder and lightning and rain and the black storm-clouds and the icy wind.
121

From “The Story of the Oriole” by Florence Holbrook


(The Book of Nature Myths)

103 Mixed Complements Ex # 3


Directions:
1. Underline verbs twice, their subjects once, and label complements (PA, PN, IO, or DO).
2. Place parentheses ( ) around each prepositional phrase. Draw an arrow from the
preposition to the word that the phrase modifies, and above the phrase write “Adj” for
“adjective” or “Adv” for “adverb.”

1. The northwind shall bear my icy breath.

2. The cruel storm-wind and rain beat upon them.

3. You shall be a bright and happy oriole.

4. Bird and beast shall quiver and tremble with cold.

5. The fallen trees lay on the earth and wailed in sorrow.

6. The little insect went out alone, and bravely stung the master of the storm-wind.
122

From “The Story of the Oriole” by Florence Holbrook


(The Book of Nature Myths)

104 Mixed Complements Ex # 4


Directions:
1. Underline verbs twice, their subjects once, and label complements (PA, PN, IO, or DO).
2. Place parentheses ( ) around each prepositional phrase. Draw an arrow from the
preposition to the word that the phrase modifies, and above the phrase write “Adj” for
“adjective” or “Adv” for “adverb.”

1. But all at once the sky grew dark.

2. A mocking laugh was heard from among the clouds.

3. I cannot be ruler of the land of sunshine and flowers.

4. In the fearful gloom came the white fire of the forked lightning.

5. My king, may I go out and fight the wicked master of the storm-wind?

6. O dear ruler of the southland, must we yield to the cruel master of the north?
123

From “The Story of the Oriole” by Florence Holbrook


(The Book of Nature Myths)

105 A Punctuation Exercise


Directions:
The punctuation and capitalization in the following sentences was lost. Please fix it (right
on this page).

1.
the land of the south was ever bright and sunny, but all at once the sky grew

dark and the sun hid himself in fear black storm-clouds came from the north an icy

wind blew over the mountains it wrestled with the trees of the southland and even

the oaks could not stand against its power

2.
will you make men love me

3.
brave little hornet said the king of the south

106 Treasure Hunt


Find and bring to class four sentences, one with a zero complement, one with a
predicate adjective, one with a predicate noun, and one with an indirect and a direct object.
124

From Bunny Rabbit's Diary,


Diary, by Mary Frances Blaisdell

107 Mixed Complements Ex # 1

Directions:
1. Place parentheses ( ) around each prepositional phrase. Draw an arrow from the preposition to
the word that the phrase modifies, and above the phrase write “Adj” for “adjective” or
“Adv” for “adverb.”
2. Underline verbs twice, their subjects once, and label complements (“PA,” “PN,” “IO,” or
“DO”).

1. So Bunny sat down on the stump and opened his book.

2. He opened the book and looked at the first leaf.

3. Bunny made a snowball and threw it at Billy.

4. Bobby Gray Squirrel was running up and down in the big oak tree.

5. I will give you a good start.

6. Come down here.

7. Bunny hopped down the hill and made a little path in the snow.

8. Swimming is the easiest thing in the world.

9. Swimming may be easy for ducks.

10. They were safe in their own cozy home.


125

From Bunny Rabbit's Diary, by Mary Frances Blaisdell

108 Mixed Complements Ex # 2

Directions:
1. Place parentheses ( ) around each prepositional phrase. Draw an arrow from the preposition to
the word that the phrase modifies, and above the phrase write “Adj” for “adjective” or
“Adv” for “adverb.”
2. Underline verbs twice, their subjects once, and label complements (“PA,” “PN,” “IO,” or
“DO”).

1. The ground had been covered with snow for two or three weeks.

2. They were dragging a little tree over the snow.

3. But at last Jack Frost came and covered everything with snow.

4. They had chased each other up and down the trees and along the little path.

5. One of the boys dropped it out of his pocket the other day.

6. But first the little rabbits had to find their breakfast.

7. Over the stone he fell, – right into the big pile of leaves under the oak tree.

8. The man and the two children and the dog came back through the woods.

9. He piled the leaves up under the oak tree at the edge of the woods.

10. They had played tag, and hide-and-seek, and ever so many other games.
126

From Bunny Rabbit's Diary, by Mary Frances Blaisdell

109 Mixed Complements Ex # 3

Directions:
1. Place parentheses ( ) around each prepositional phrase. Draw an arrow from the preposition to
the word that the phrase modifies, and above the phrase write “Adj” for “adjective” or
“Adv” for “adverb.”
2. Underline verbs twice, their subjects once, and label complements (“PA,” “PN,” “IO,” or
“DO”).

1. I am going to pile some more leaves under the oak tree.

2. He kept very still and held on to the string.

3. Was it Sammy or Bobby?

4. Bunny Rabbit and his brothers came out and hopped around.

5. Just then he saw the acorn on the ground near his door.

6. After a while Jip went home.


7. The water looked cool to the little ducks.
8. So the man and the two children went along the path into the woods.
9. And Bunny and Billy and Bobtail were growing very fat.
10. The three little rabbits put their ears down on their heads, and hopped away out
of sight.

110 Recipe Roster


Write four sentences, one with a zero complement, one with a predicate adjective, one
with a predicate noun, and one with an indirect and a direct object.
127

111 “The Easter Rabbit” – Creating an Exercise


Directions: Read the “The Easter Rabbit” by Anne Schutze. (See the next page.) Then find ten
different sentences in it that would make a good exercise that focuses on the types of
complements. Include at least one pattern with no complement, one predicate adjective, one
predicate noun, one indirect object, and one direct object in the exercise.
Note that some sentences may be hidden in other, bigger sentences. For example, in the
sentence
She said, “I love music.”
You can use the sentence "I love music." The directions for your exercise should be:

Directions:
1. Place parentheses ( ) around each prepositional phrase. Draw an arrow from the preposition to
the word that the phrase modifies, and above the phrase write “Adj” for “adjective” or Adv”
for “adverb.”
2. Underline verbs twice, their subjects once, and label complements (“PA,” “PN,” “IO,” or
“DO”).

1. ______________________________________________________________________

2. ______________________________________________________________________

3. ______________________________________________________________________

4. ______________________________________________________________________

5. ______________________________________________________________________

6. ______________________________________________________________________

7. ______________________________________________________________________

8. ______________________________________________________________________

9. ______________________________________________________________________

10. ______________________________________________________________________
128
“The Easter Rabbit,” by Anne Schutze
from The Elson Readers Primer

Little Rabbit ran to his mother.


“I want to be the Easter Rabbit,” he said.
“What is the Easter Rabbit?” said his
mother.
“The Easter Rabbit puts eggs into nests,”
THE EASTER RABBIT he said.
“Ray and May are going to make a nest
Little Rabbit sat by the road. in the yard.
Ray and May came along. I want to put eggs into it.”
They did not see Little Rabbit. His mother said, “Do not go away! Ray
“Easter is coming soon,” said May. and May will get you.”
“Let us make a nest in the yard.
The Easter Rabbit will see it.
He will leave pretty eggs in it for us.”
Ray said, “Yes, let us make a nest!”
Away they ran to make the nest.
118 119
Mother Rabbit went to the garden.
Then Little Rabbit ran away.
He wanted to find Easter eggs.
Ray and May saw Little Rabbit.
They ran after him.
“Stop, Little Rabbit!” said Ray.
“Stop! We want you. Little Rabbit wanted his mother.
Oh, now we have you! Ray said, “The rabbit is not happy.
We will keep you in the barn.” Let us take him to the yard.
They took Little Rabbit to the barn. He will put Easter eggs into the nest!”
They patted him and patted him. They took Little Rabbit to the yard.
They gave him leaves for dinner. Away he ran down the road!
By and by Little Rabbit stopped.
He said, “I will go back to the yard.
I want to make Ray and May happy.
I want to be the Easter Rabbit.
I will look for eggs in the yard.”
120 121
129
Soon May came to the nest.
She was looking for Easter eggs.
“Oh, see the kittens!” she said.
“Come, Ray! See what is in the nest!”
Ray ran to look in the nest.
“What pretty kittens!” he said.
How happy Ray and May were!
Little Rabbit was happy, too.
Little Rabbit ran back to the yard. “The cat is the Easter Rabbit!” he said.
He could not find any eggs there. Then he ran home to his mother.
Then he looked in the nest.
Can you guess what he saw?
He saw two little kittens!
One kitten was white.
The other kitten was black.
Then he saw the mother cat.
She had a gray kitten in her mouth.
She put it into the nest, too. 123
122
130

112 Jack Sprat

Directions:
1. Place parentheses ( ) around each prepositional phrase. Draw an arrow from the preposition to
the word that the phrase modifies, and above the phrase write “Adj” for “adjective” or
“Adv” for “adverb.”
2. Underline verbs twice, their subjects once, and label complements (“PA,” “PN,” “IO,” or
“DO”).

Jack Sprat

Could eat no fat,

His wife could eat no lean;

And so,

Betwixt them both,

They licked the platter clean.

This illustration and poem are from The Real Mother Goose.
Illustrated by Blanche Fisher Wright. Chicago: Rand McNally & Co., 1916.
131

Assessment Quiz # 1 “Bobbie and the Apples”


Adapted from Kate Whiting Patch
from The Elson Readers Primer
Directions:
1. Place parentheses ( ) around each prepositional phrase.
2. Underline verbs twice, their subjects once, and label complements (“PA,” “PN,” “IO,” or “DO”).
3. In the blank after each word below each sentence, explain how that word grammatically connects to the subject,
verb, or complement. (Remember that you do not have to repeat explanations.)

1. Who will give me some?


2. Come with me.
me ________________________________________
3. The farmer's apples were pretty.
farmer's ________________________________________
4. The cat went to the house.
The ________________________________________
house ________________________________________
5. Away he ran to his mother.
Away ________________________________________
mother ________________________________________
his ________________________________________
6. I will give you some apples.
some ________________________________________
7. Bobbie was a little boy.
little ________________________________________
8. You may have four apples.
four ________________________________________
9. Go to the cow.
cow ________________________________________
10. Where did you get them?
Where ________________________________________
132

Assessment Quiz # 2 “Alice and Her Mother”


from The Elson Readers Primer

Directions:
1. Place parentheses ( ) around each prepositional phrase.
2. Underline verbs twice, their subjects once, and label complements (“PA,” “PN,” “IO,” or “DO”).
3. In the blank after each word below each sentence, explain how that word grammatically connects to the subject,
verb, or complement. (Remember that you do not have to repeat explanations.)

1. Alice ran to the dog.


dog ________________________________________
2. Spot had to find her kittens a mouse.
her ________________________________________
3. Soon she came to a bird.
Soon ________________________________________
bird ________________________________________
4. I give rides to boys and girls.
boys ________________________________________
girls ________________________________________
5. Soon little sister was fast asleep.
Soon ________________________________________
asleep ________________________________________
fast ________________________________________
6. Alice's sister was not sleepy.
Alice's ________________________________________
not ________________________________________
7. A cow was in the meadow.
A ________________________________________
meadow ________________________________________
8. Sing little sister to sleep.
sleep ________________________________________
9. Alice was a playful little girl.
playful ________________________________________
little ________________________________________
10. I must make my nest.
my ________________________________________
133

Assessment Quiz # 3 Bunny Rabbit’s Diary


Directions:
1. Place parentheses ( ) around each prepositional phrase.
2. Underline verbs twice, their subjects once, and label complements (“PA,” “PN,”
“IO,” or “DO”).
3. In the blank after each word below each sentence, explain how that word
grammatically connects to the subject, verb, or complement. (Remember that
you do not have to repeat explanations.)

1. This is a very good Christmas tree.


very ________________________________________
2. Now my kite is going over the tall trees.
Now ________________________________________
trees ________________________________________
3. I shall never be dry again.
never ________________________________________
again ________________________________________
4. The rabbits slept in their warm home and did not come out very often.
home ________________________________________
their ________________________________________
5. In the fall they had stored away nuts and acorns in little holes in the ground.
away ________________________________________
holes ________________________________________
little ________________________________________
ground ________________________________________
6. Bobtail tied the string to the short stem of the oak leaf.
stem ________________________________________
leaf ________________________________________
oak ________________________________________
7. But she did not tell them her secret.
not ________________________________________
her ________________________________________
8. Don’t call for rain.
rain ________________________________________
134

Assessment Quiz # 4 Bunny Rabbit’s Diary


Directions:
1. Place parentheses ( ) around each prepositional phrase.
2. Underline verbs twice, their subjects once, and label complements (“PA,” “PN,”
“IO,” or “DO”).
3. In the blank after each word below each sentence, explain how that word
grammatically connects to the subject, verb, or complement. (Remember that
you do not have to repeat explanations.)

1. In the woods it was very cool and shady under the pine trees.
very ________________________________________
trees ________________________________________
pine ________________________________________
2. He quickly sat up on his hind legs and held up his long ears.
quickly ________________________________________
legs ________________________________________
3. This is not a good kite.
not ________________________________________
4. See this big oak leaf?
big ________________________________________
5. Bobtail gave it a toss.
6. Where has everyone gone?
Where ________________________________________
7. They sat up on their hind legs and nibbled away happily.
up ________________________________________
happily ________________________________________
8. Four little bright eyes watched Jip from the oak tree.
Four ________________________________________
tree ________________________________________
9. He picked himself out of the big pile of leaves, and shook his long ears back and
forth.
pile ________________________________________
leaves ________________________________________
135

Assessment Quiz # 5 “The Wise Jackal”


“A Tale from India,” The Children's Own Readers - Book Three
by Mary E. Pennell and Alice M. Cusack,

Directions:
1. Place parentheses ( ) around each prepositional phrase.
2. Underline verbs twice, their subjects once, and label complements (“PA,” “PN,” “IO,” or “DO”).
3. In the blank after each word below each sentence, explain how that word grammatically connects to the subject,
verb, or complement. (Remember that you do not have to repeat explanations.)

1 1. What is the matter?


2. Out jumped the tiger and seized the poor man.
Out ________________________________________
poor ________________________________________
3. Has the tiger treated me fairly?
fairly ________________________________________
4. The Brahman turned and walked sadly back to the tiger.
sadly ________________________________________
back ________________________________________
tiger ________________________________________
5. The Brahman told everything all over again to the jackal.
again ________________________________________
jackal ________________________________________
6. Why do you look so sad?
Why ________________________________________
so ________________________________________
7. Give me but five minutes more.
8. Then the sad Brahman told his story to a buffalo in a field.
Then ________________________________________
buffalo ________________________________________
field ________________________________________
9. At this the tiger roared with rage, and jumped into the cage.
rage ________________________________________
cage ________________________________________
136

Assessment Quiz # 6 “Manuel and Rita” (1)


“Manuel and Rita - Earning a Holiday,”
The Children's Own Readers - Book Three
by Mary E. Pennell and Alice M. Cusack,

Directions:
1. Place parentheses ( ) around each prepositional phrase.
2. Underline verbs twice, their subjects once, and label complements (“PA,” “PN,” “IO,” or “DO”).
3. In the blank after each word below each sentence, explain how that word grammatically connects to the subject,
verb, or complement. (Remember that you do not have to repeat explanations.)

1. The early morning sun was just beginning to shine through the bamboo trees.
just ________________________________________
trees ________________________________________
2. The windows of the queer little house were open.
3. They took the crowded rice plants from the seed bed and planted them in the mud of the
rice field.
crowded ________________________________________
mud ________________________________________
field ________________________________________
4. Manuel gave the carabao some hay.
5. Bananas and rice are a fine breakfast.
fine ________________________________________
6. Change your shirt and trousers quickly.
quickly ________________________________________
7. I have caught a big mud fish without a fish trap.
big ________________________________________
trap ________________________________________
fish ________________________________________
8. You must help us with the rice plants today.
plants ________________________________________
137

Assessment Quiz # 7 “Manuel and Rita” (2)


“Manuel and Rita - The Holiday,”
The Children's Own Readers - Book Three
by Mary E. Pennell and Alice M. Cusack,
Directions:
1. Place parentheses ( ) around each prepositional phrase.
2. Underline verbs twice, their subjects once, and label complements (“PA,” “PN,” “IO,” or “DO”).
3. In the blank after each word below each sentence, explain how that word grammatically connects to the subject,
verb, or complement. (Remember that you do not have to repeat explanations.)

1. So Juan was “It.”


2. Mother and the children climbed into the two-wheeled carriage.
carriage ________________________________________
two-wheeled ________________________________________
3. In some of the fields the rice was ripe.
some ________________________________________
fields ________________________________________
4. On the back of the carriage he hung a lighted lantern.
back ________________________________________
carriage ________________________________________
lighted ________________________________________
5. Juan had to hop to each stick, pick it up, and hop back with it to the stone.
stick ________________________________________
up ________________________________________
it (2nd) ________________________________________
stone ________________________________________
6. Finally the road left the ocean, and ran along between fields and fields of rice.
Finally ________________________________________
fields ________________________________________
rice ________________________________________
7. Wake up!
8. The squealing of the pig could be heard above the shouts of laughter of the boys.
pig ________________________________________
shouts ________________________________________
laughter ________________________________________
boys ________________________________________
138

Assessment Quiz # 8 “Susie Sunbeam”


From McGuffey's Second Reader

Directions:
1. Place parentheses ( ) around each prepositional phrase.
2. Underline verbs twice, their subjects once, and label complements (“PA,” “PN,” “IO,” or “DO”).
3. In the blank after each word below each sentence, explain how that word grammatically connects to the subject,
verb, or complement. (Remember that you do not have to repeat explanations.)

1. Susie Sunbeam was not her real name.


real ________________________________________
2. She would sit by her mother's side for an hour at a time.
side ________________________________________
mother's________________________________________
hour ________________________________________
time ________________________________________
3. She had such a sweet, smiling face, and always brought brightness with her.
smiling ________________________________________
always ________________________________________
4. One day, a poor little girl with a very ragged dress was going by.
ragged ________________________________________
very ________________________________________
5. She gave her a nice dress and a pair of shoes.
shoes ________________________________________
6. Susie was always pleasant in her play with other children.
play ________________________________________
children ________________________________________
7. She loved to go about the house and get things for her mother, and in this way
save her many steps.
house ________________________________________
mother ________________________________________
139

Assessment Quiz # 9 “Why the Evergreen Trees”


From “Why the Evergreen Trees Never Lose their Leaves”
from The Book of Nature Myths by Florence Holbrook
Directions:
1. Place parentheses ( ) around each prepositional phrase.
2. Underline verbs twice, their subjects once, and label complements (“PA,” “PN,” “IO,” or “DO”).
3. In the blank after each word below each sentence, explain how that word grammatically connects to the subject,
verb, or complement. (Remember that you do not have to repeat explanations.)

1. May I touch every leaf in the forest?


forest ________________________________________

2. The poor little bird began to fly away.


away ________________________________________

3. I can give you berries all winter long.

4. The leaves of the spruce, the pine, and the juniper are always green.
spruce ________________________________________
juniper ________________________________________
always ________________________________________

5. The willow did not look gentle then.


not ________________________________________

6. Come right here, then.


here ________________________________________

7. I would not have strange birds on my boughs.


boughs ________________________________________

8. A cold north wind had come in the night.


night ________________________________________

9. I am big and strong.


140

Assessment Quiz # 10 “Why the Evergreen Trees”


From “Why the Evergreen Trees Never Lose their Leaves”
from The Book of Nature Myths by Florence Holbrook

Directions:
1. Place parentheses ( ) around each prepositional phrase.
2. Underline verbs twice, their subjects once, and label complements (“PA,” “PN,” “IO,” or “DO”).
3. In the blank after each word below each sentence, explain how that word grammatically connects to the subject,
verb, or complement. (Remember that you do not have to repeat explanations.)

1. You shall live on my warmest branch.


branch ________________________________________
warmest ________________________________________
2. So the spruce gave the lonely little bird a home.
lonely ________________________________________
3. You might even eat up some of my acorns.
acorns ________________________________________
4. I can keep the north wind from you and the spruce.
you ________________________________________
spruce ________________________________________
5. The other trees looked on and talked together wisely.
other ________________________________________
together ________________________________________
wisely ________________________________________
6. In the morning all those shining green leaves lay on the ground.
morning ________________________________________
those ________________________________________
ground ________________________________________
7. Leave me at once.
once ________________________________________
8. Some trees have been kind to the little bird with the broken wing.
bird ________________________________________
wing ________________________________________
broken ________________________________________
9. I am very cold.
very ________________________________________
141

Looking Ahead - A Challenging Exercise


From “Why the Evergreen Trees Never Lose their Leaves”
from The Book of Nature Myths by Florence Holbrook

Note: In this exercise, you will be working with the complete first paragraph from “Why
the Evergreen Trees Never Lose their Leaves.” Keep two things in mind as you do it:
1. In many sentences, you will find more than one S/V/C pattern.
2. There are many words in the passage that you are not expected to be able to explain. Just
do the best you can.

Directions:
1. Place parentheses ( ) around each prepositional phrase.
2. Underline verbs twice, their subjects once, and label complements (“PA,” “PN,” “IO,” or
“DO”).

WINTER was coming, and the birds had flown far to the south, where the air

was warm and they could find berries to eat. One little bird had broken its wing

and could not fly with the others. It was alone in the cold world of frost and snow.

The forest looked warm, and it made its way to the trees as well as it could, to ask

for help.