Dentine | Human Tooth | Tooth Enamel

The tooth bud (sometimes called the tooth germ) is an aggregation of cells Cell (biology) The cell is the

functional basic unit of life. It was discovered by Robert Hooke and is the functional unit of all known living organisms. It is the smallest unit of life that is classified as a living thing, and is often called the building block of life. The Alberts text discusses how the... that eventually forms a tooth. These cells are derived from the ectoderm Germ layer A germ layer, occasionally referred to as a germinal epithelium, is a group of cells, formed during animal embryogenesis. Germ layers are particularly pronounced in the vertebrates; however, all animals more complex than sponges produce two or three primary tissue layers... of the first branchial arch First branchial arch The first branchial arch, also called the first pharyngeal arch and mandibular arch, is the first of six branchial arches that develops in fetal life during the fourth week of development... and the ectomesenchyme Mesenchyme Mesenchyme, or mesenchymal connective tissue, is a type of loose connective tissue, which is derived from all three germ layers and located within the embryo . Mesenchyme is characterized morphologically by a prominent ground substance matrix containing a loose aggregate of reticular fibrils and... of the neural crest Neural crest Neural crest cells are a transient, multipotent, migratory cell population unique to vertebrates that gives rise to a diverse cell lineage including melanocytes, craniofacial cartilage and bone, smooth muscle, peripheral and enteric neurons and glia.... . The tooth bud is organized into three parts: the enamel organ , the dental papilla Dental papilla The dental papilla is a condensation of ectomesenchymal cells called odontoblasts, seen in histologic sections of a developing tooth. It lies below a cellular aggregation known as the enamel organ. The dental papilla appears after 8-10 weeks intra uteral life... and the dental follicle Dental follicle The dental follicle is a sac containing the developing tooth and its odontogenic organ. The dental follicle differentiates into the periodontal ligament. In addition, it may be the precursor of other cells of the periodontium, including osteoblasts and cementoblasts. -References:*Cate, A.R. Ten... .

inner enamel epithelium Inner enamel epithelium The inner enamel epithelium.. consisting of loosely aggregated... the tooth is. The dental papilla contains cells that develop into odontoblast Odontoblast . also known as the external enamel epithelium... The growth of cervical loop cells into the deeper tissues forms Hertwig's Epithelial Root Sheath . that deposit tooth enamel. .. This layer is first seen during the bell stage.. .. The stratum. is a layer of cells located on the rim nearest the dental papilla of the enamel organ in a developing tooth. These cells give rise to ameloblast Ameloblast Ameloblasts are cells. s.The enamel organ is composed of the outer enamel epithelium Outer enamel epithelium The outer enamel epithelium. also known as the internal enamel epithelium. The location where the outer enamel epithelium and inner enamel epithelium join is called the cervical loop Cervical loop The cervical loop is the location on an enamel organ in a developing tooth where the outer enamel epithelium and the inner enamel epithelium join. stellate reticulum and stratum intermedium Stratum intermedium The stratum intermedium in a developing tooth is a layer of two or three cells between the inner enamel epithelium and the newly forming cells of the stellate reticulum. The cervical loop is a histologic term indicating a specific epithelial structure at the apical side of the tooth germ. sometimes called reduced dental epithelium.. overlies a developing tooth and is formed by two layers: a layer of ameloblast cells and the adjacent layer of cuboidal cells from the dental lamina.. . present only during tooth development. which determines the root shape of the tooth. This layer is first seen during the bell stage... is a layer of cuboidal cells located on the periphery of the enamel organ in a developing tooth. .. at around the 14th week of intrauterine life. It first appears during the early bell stage of tooth development. the hard outermost layer of the tooth that forms the chewing surface.. . which produce enamel and the reduced enamel epithelium Reduced enamel epithelium The reduced enamel epithelium. As the cells of the reduced enamel epithelium degenerate..

Osteoblasts produce osteoid.. s which connect teeth to the alveolar bone through cementum. The dental follicle gives rise to three important entities: cementoblast Cementoblast A cementoblast is a biological cell that forms from the follicular cells around the root of a tooth. the junction between the dental papilla and inner enamel epithelium determines the crown shape of a tooth..An odontoblast is a biological cell of neural crest origin that is part of the outer surface of the dental pulp.. which is composed. in essence. s. and whose biological function is cementogenesis. Cementoblasts form the cementum of a tooth. s.Anatomy :Each person can have a total of up to 52 pulp organs. Osteoblasts give rise to the alveolar bone around the roots of teeth. is a type of loose connective tissue.. Additionally.. with the addition of the genes for bone sialoprotein and osteocalcin. which is the creation of cementum . s. Mesenchymal Mesenchyme Mesenchyme. the substance under the tooth enamel.. osteoblasts are sophisticated fibroblasts that express all genes that fibroblasts express. Mesenchyme is characterized morphologically by a prominent ground substance matrix containing a loose aggregate of reticular fibrils and.. .. the structural framework for animal tissues.... which is derived from all three germ layers and located within the embryo . cells within the dental papilla are responsible for formation of tooth pulp Pulp (tooth) The dental pulp is the part in the center of a tooth made up of living connective tissue and cells called odontoblasts... is a group of specialized connective tissue fibers that essentially attach a tooth to the alveolar bone within which it sits. Fibroblasts develop the periodontal ligament Periodontal ligament The periodontal ligament. 32 in the permanent and 20 in the primary teeth. and plays a critical role in wound healing. . s. and fibroblast Fibroblast A fibroblast is a type of cell that synthesizes the extracellular matrix and collagen. and whose biological function is dentinogenesis.... which is the creation of dentin. osteoblast Osteoblast Osteoblasts are mononucleate cells that are responsible for bone formation. commonly abbreviated as the PDL.. or mesenchymal connective tissue.. which are dentin-forming cells.

The staging of tooth development is an attempt to categorize changes that take place along a continuum. The tooth bud itself is the group of cells at the end of the dental lamina. Many glands are also formed from epithelial tissue. Cap stage The first signs of an arrangement of cells in the tooth bud occur in the cap stage..The developing tooth bud One of the earliest steps in the formation of a tooth that can be seen microscopically is the distinction between the vestibular lamina and the dental lamina Dental lamina The dental lamina is a band of epithelial tissue seen in histologic sections of a developing tooth. and finally maturation.. It is formed when cells of the oral. A small group of ectomesenchymal cells stops producing extracellular .. The dental lamina is first evidence of tooth development and begins at the sixth week in utero or three weeks after the rupture of the buccopharyngeal membrane. Bud stage The bud stage is characterized by the appearance of a tooth bud without a clear arrangement of cells. this occurs when the fetus is around 6 weeks old. Typically. frequently it is difficult to decide what stage should be assigned to a particular developing tooth. layer of the mouth for a significant time. the cap. which can appear to be different stages. the bell. Tooth development is commonly divided into the following stages: the bud stage. . This determination is further complicated by the varying appearance of different histologic sections of the same developing tooth. The dental lamina connects the developing tooth bud to the epithelial Epithelium Epithelium is a tissue composed of cells that line the cavities and surfaces of structures throughout the body. The stage technically begins once epithelial cells proliferate into the ectomesenchyme of the jaw..

the word extracellular means "outside the cell". all teeth undergo this same process... and becomes the enamel (or dental) organ. which results in an aggregation of these cells called the dental papilla. The "field model" proposes there are components for each type of tooth shape found in the ectomesenchyme during tooth development. the two will not join again until the final eruption of the tooth into the mouth. The cells between the inner enamel epithelium and the stellate reticulum form a layer known as the stratum intermedium. The components for . as they move outwards/upwards). This is all encased by the outer enamel epithelium layer. The columnar cells of the enamel organ adjacent to the dental papilla are known as inner enamel epithelium. substances. the enamel organ will produce enamel. or 'ameloblasts'. At this point. which is influenced by the shape of the internal enamel epithelium. The dental lamina disintegrates. taking on the appearance of a cap. molecular biology and related fields. Many glands are also formed from epithelial tissue. Bell stage The bell stage is known for the histodifferentiation and morphodifferentiation that takes place. This space is usually taken to be outside the plasma membranes.Extracellular In cell biology. leaving the developing teeth completely separated from the epithelium Epithelium Epithelium is a tissue composed of cells that line the cavities and surfaces of structures throughout the body. the middle of which is made up of stellate reticulum cells. A condensation of ectomesenchymal cells called the dental follicle surrounds the enamel organ and limits the dental papilla. the layers in order of innermost to outermost consist of dentine. Cells on the periphery of the enamel organ separate into three important layers. In summary. and occupied by fluid. Other events occur during the bell stage. Throughout the mouth. and the majority of its cells are called stellate reticulum because of their star-shaped appearance. incisors versus canines. The rim of the dental organ where the outer and inner enamel epithelium join is called the cervical loop. the tooth bud grows around the ectomesenchymal aggregation. The crown of the tooth. enamel (formed by inner enamel epithelium. Eventually. inner enamel epithelium and stratum intermedium (specialised stratified cells that support the synthetic activity of the Inner Enamel Epithelium) What follows is part of the initial 'enamel organ'. it is still uncertain why teeth form various crown shapes²for instance. There are two dominant hypotheses. The dental organ is bell-shaped during this stage. and the dental follicle will produce all the supporting structures of a tooth. of the oral cavity. Cuboidal cells on the periphery of the dental organ are known as outer enamel epithelium. the dental papilla will produce dentin and pulp.. also takes shape during this stage..

such as incisors. for example. the enamel knot is a localization of cells on an enamel organ that appear thickened in the center of the inner enamel epithelium. but they are believed to play a role in the placement of the first cusp. Crown stage . nor does widely accepted dental science consider them to be so: it is postulated that both models influence tooth development at different times.. s. Once the progress zone travels a certain distance from the first tooth bud. These two models are not necessarily mutually exclusive. This group of cells. The enamel niche is the name of the mesenchymal cells which. and enamel niche Enamel niche The enamel niche is a structure that appears in a histologic slide of a developing tooth from sectioning the slide in a single plane. Thus. The enamel organ looks to be connected to the oral epithelium by two or more strands of dental lamina. The other dominant hypothesis. is a localization of cells on an enamel organ that appear from the outer enamel epithelium to an enamel knot. causing a tooth bud to form. . called a clone. Growth of the dental lamina continues in an area called the "progress zone". The function of the enamel cord and the enamel knot is not known.. Other structures that may appear in a developing tooth in this stage are enamel knot Enamel knot In tooth development. the "clone model".particular types of teeth. the "incisor field" has factors that develop teeth into incisor shape... proposes that the epithelium programs a group of ectomesenchymal cells to generate teeth of particular shapes. also called enamel septum. coaxes the dental lamina into tooth development. are localized in one area and dissipate rapidly in different parts of the mouth. a second tooth bud will start to develop. but decreases rapidly in the canine area. and this field is concentrated in the central incisor area.. enamel cord Enamel cord The enamel cord.. s.

Cytoplasmic extensions are left behind as the odontoblasts move inward. which are the cells that form dentin. therefore. while premolars. develop during the next stage of tooth development. each possess a single cusp. or maturation. also sometimes referred to as the "control center". called mitosis Mitosis Mitosis is the process by which a eukaryotic cell separates the chromosomes in its cell nucleus into two identical sets in two nuclei. an organic matrix . organized as multiple long linear DNA molecules in complex with a large variety of proteins. stops during the crown stage at the location where the cusps Cusp (dentistry) A cusp is an occlusal or incisal eminence on a tooth. As odontoblasts deposit organic matrix. otherwise known as bicuspids. cytoplasm. In prior stages.. of these cells move closer to the stratum intermedium and away from the dental papilla. of the teeth form. . the nucleus .Hard tissues. stage by some researchers. This stage is called the crown.. which divides the nuclei. which are cells that continue the process of enamel formation. dentin starts forming in the surface closest to the outside of the tooth and proceeds inward. the odontoblasts secrete a substance. Outside the dentin are ameloblasts..Canine teeth. but rapid dividing. all of the inner enamel epithelium cells were dividing to increase the overall size of the tooth bud. the inner enamel epithelial cells change in shape from cuboidal to columnar. organelles and cell membrane into two cells containing roughly equal. It is generally followed immediately by cytokinesis. tubular microscopic appearance of dentin is a result of the formation of dentin around these extensions.. It contains most of the cell's genetic material. The unique. Researchers believe that the odontoblasts would not form if it were not for the changes occurring in the inner enamel epithelium. After dentin formation begins. The organic matrix contains the material needed for dentin formation. the cells of the inner enamel epithelium secrete an organic matrix against the dentin. they migrate toward the center of the dental papilla. . The nuclei Cell nucleus In cell biology. Molars normally possess either four or five cusps. is a membraneenclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells. into their immediate surrounding. adding new material to the outer surface of the developing tooth.. unlike enamel. possess two each. At the same time. As the changes to the inner enamel epithelium and the formation of odontoblasts continue from the tips of the cusps. otherwise known as cuspids. The first mineralized hard tissues form at this location. Thus.. such as. The adjacent layer of cells in the dental papilla suddenly increases in size and differentiates into odontoblasts. Important cellular changes occur at this time. enamel formation moves outwards. This matrix immediately mineralizes and becomes the tooth's enamel. including enamel and dentin.

and alkaloids. enamel formation occurs in two stages: the secretory and maturation stages. away from the center of the tooth. proteins. Thus. The appearance of this mineralized tissue Mineralized tissues Mineralized tissues are biological materials that incorporate minerals into soft matrices to get the stiffness needed for a protective shield or structural support in most cases. which is then partially mineralized by the enzyme alkaline phosphatase Alkaline phosphatase Alkaline phosphatase is a hydrolase enzyme responsible for removing phosphate groups from many types of molecules. Developing enamel contains about 30% protein.. ameloblastin Ameloblastin Ameloblastin. the maturation stage completes enamel mineralization. which occurs usually around the third or fourth month of pregnancy. In the secretory stage. . as occurs in the secretory stage. The important proteins involved are amelogenin Amelogenin Amelogenin is a protein found in developing tooth enamel.. Ameloblasts deposit enamel at the location of what become cusps of teeth alongside dentin. "Reciprocal induction" governs the relationship between the formation of dentin and enamel. The process of removing the phosphate group is called dephosphorylation. including nucleotides. .. is a gene-specific protein found in tooth enamel. Generally. the function of ameloblasts changes from enamel production. dentin formation must always occur before enamel formation. and 90% of this is amelogenins. ameloblastins comprise 5%-10% of all enamel . ameloblasts release enamel proteins that contribute to the enamel matrix.. In the maturation stage. Although less than 5% of enamel consists of protein.Hard tissue formation Enamel Enamel formation is called amelogenesis and occurs in the crown stage of tooth development. to transportation of substances. the ameloblasts transport some of the substances used in enamel formation out of the enamel. Most of the materials transported by ameloblasts in this stage are proteins used to complete mineralization. Enamel formation then continues outward. s.. Proteins and an organic matrix form a partially mineralized enamel in the secretory stage.. marks the first appearance of enamel in the body. also known as amelin. and it belongs to a family of extracellular matrix proteins.

The different stages of dentin formation result in different types of dentin: mantle dentin.. and tuftelin Tuftelin Tuftelin is an acidic phosphorylated glycoprotein found in tooth enamel.1±0... primary dentin forms through a different process. differentiate from cells of the dental papilla.... s. the Tuftelin protein is encoded by the TUFT1 gene. eliminating the availability of any extracellular resources to contribute to an organic matrix for mineralization. Odontoblasts. and tertiary dentin.. enamelin Enamelin Enamelin was described in older literature as an EDTA soluble enamel protein.. . The organic matrix contains collagen fibers with large diameters (0.2 m in diameter). Additionally. s.. The odontoblast process forms during dentinogenesis and results from a part of the odontoblast staying in its location as the main body of the odontoblast moves toward the center of the tooth's. This area of mineralization is known as mantle dentin and is a layer usually about 150 m thick. This protein is formed by ameloblasts during the early secretory to late maturation stages of amelogenesis. the larger odontoblasts cause collagen Collagen . They begin secreting an organic matrix around the area directly adjacent to the inner enamel epithelium. Whereas mantle dentin forms from the preexisting ground substance of the dental papilla. closest to the area of the future cusp of a tooth. The formation of dentin must always occur before the formation of enamel. known as dentinogenesis. is the first identifiable feature in the crown stage of tooth development. dentin formation proceeds toward the inside of the tooth. secondary dentin. The odontoblast process causes the secretion of hydroxyapatite crystals and mineralization of the matrix. Thus. The odontoblasts begin to move toward the center of the tooth. s. primary dentin. the enamel has completed its mineralization. forming an extension called the odontoblast process Odontoblast process An odontoblast process is an extension of a cell called an odontoblast. It turned out in recent research to be albumin derived from blood contamination.. Odontoblasts increase in size. In humans.Function :This protein is formed for a short time during amelogenesis. which forms dentin in a tooth. Dentin Dentin formation. the dentin-forming cells.protein. By the end of this stage.

a phosphate group. attrition quickly destroys the softer dentin. K chips. but instead forms faster along sections closer to the crown of a tooth.. In nature.. such as attrition Attrition (dental) Attrition is the loss of teeth structure by mechanical forces from opposing teeth. The category of organic molecules that includes Fc receptors. it is found exclusively in animals. forms in reaction to stimuli. Cementum . s) are also secreted. This development continues throughout life and accounts for the smaller areas of pulp found in older individuals. is a disease wherein bacterial processes damage hard tooth structure . Secondary dentin is formed after root formation is finished and occurs at a much slower rate. one exception to this rule is sphingomyelin. Erosion is a very important contributing factor to. It is the most abundant protein in mammals. to be secreted in smaller amounts. and urocortins.Collagen is a group of naturally occurring proteins. s.. phosphoprotein Phosphoprotein Phosphoproteins are a group of proteins which are chemically bonded to a substance containing phosphoric acid . Once past the enamel. which results in more tightly arranged.. which is derived from. Tertiary dentin.. and a simple organic molecule such as choline. producing dental caries . Most phospholipids contain a diglyceride. Calcineurins. Other materials (such as lipid s. heterogeneous nucleation that is used for mineralization.... It is the main protein of connective tissue.. Attrition initially affects the enamel and. Two groups of bacteria are responsible for initiating caries: Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus. making up about 25% to 35% of the whole-body protein content. also known as reparative dentin. It is not formed at a uniform rate along the tooth.. . if unchecked.. These tissues progressively break down. also known as tooth decay or cavity. may proceed to the underlying dentin. and phospholipid Phospholipid Phospholipids are a class of lipids and are a major component of all cell membranes as they can form lipid bilayers. Ulks. or dental caries Dental caries Dental caries..

cementum and calcified cartilage. Cellular cementum develops after most of the tooth formation is complete and after the tooth occludes (in contact) with a tooth in the opposite arch.Cementum formation is called cementogenesis Cementogenesis Cementogenesis is the formation of cementum. Nonetheless. and occurs late in the development of teeth. Noncollagenous proteins. The cementoblasts secrete fine collagen fibrils along the root surface at right angles before migrating away from the tooth. and osteocalcin . more collagen is deposited to lengthen and thicken the bundles of fibers. Two types of cementum form: cellular and acellular. The cementoblasts differentiate from follicular cells. and the fibers left along the surface eventually join the forming periodontal ligaments. the dentin that later forms the tooth's root. one of the three mineralized substances of a tooth. This type of cementum forms around the fiber bundles of the periodontal ligaments.. comes in contact with the dental sac. Cementoblasts are the cells responsible for cementogenesis. BSP is a significant component of the bone extracellular matrix and has been suggested to constitute approximately 8% of all non-collagenous proteins found in bone and cementum. Hertwig's epithelial root sheath must fragment. As mineralization takes place.. Acellular cementum contains a secreted matrix of proteins and fibers. For cementogenesis to begin. As the cementoblasts move. Acellular cementum forms first. The cementoblasts forming cellular cementum become trapped in the cementum they produce. Once the root sheath fragments. One of the major current hypotheses is that cells producing cellular cementum migrate from the adjacent area of bone. Hertwig's epithelial root sheath initiates the formation of dentin in the root of a tooth by causing the differentiation of odontoblasts from the. it is known that cellular cementum is usually not found in teeth with one root. In premolar Premolar ... are also secreted. (HERS) has begun to deteriorate. dentin.. while cells producing acellular cementum arise from the dental follicle. The origin of the formative cementoblasts is believed to be different for cellular cementum and acellular cementum. which can only reach the surface of the tooth's root once Hertwig's Epithelial Root Sheath Hertwig's epithelial root sheath The Hertwig's epithelial root sheath is a proliferation of epithelial cells located at the cervical loop of the enamel organ in a developing tooth.. the cementoblasts move away from the cementum. such as bone sialoprotein Bone sialoprotein Bone sialoprotein is a component of mineralized tissues such as bone.

or. In humans.. . hence the Latin name mola. s. In many mammals they grind food. there are two premolars per quadrant. making eight premolars total in the mouth.. Premolars can be considered as a 'transitional tooth' during chewing.The premolar teeth or bicuspids are transitional teeth located between the canine and molar teeth. They have at least two cusps. cellular cementum is found only in the part of the root closest to the apex and in interradicular areas between multiple roots.... "millstone". s and molar Molar (tooth) Molars are the rearmost and most complicated kind of tooth in most mammals.

Bell stage or crown stage tooth germ? Most of the features of the bell stage are shown here. . Notice how close the external dental epithelium is to the internal dental epithelium.

Note the mineralisation front with calcospherites between predentine and dentine. There is a trace of enamel at top right. the pale predentine layer with mineralised dentine beyond. .Active dentinogenesis. Note pulp on the left and odontoblast layer at the periphery of the pulp.

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