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A. General 1. What is DHCP? 2. What is DHCP's purpose? 3. Who Created It? How Was It Created? 4. Can DHCP work with Appletalk or IPX? 5. How is it different than BOOTP or RARP? 6. How is it different than VLANs? 7. What protocol and port does DHCP use? 8. What is an IP address? 9. What is a MAC address? 10. What is a DHCP lease? 11. What is a Client ID? 12. Why shouldn't clients assign IP numbers without the use of a server? 13. Can DHCP support statically defined addresses? 14. How does DHCP and BOOTP handle other subnets? 15. Can a BOOTP client boot from a DHCP server? 16. Can a DHCP client boot from a BOOTP server? 17. Is a DHCP server "supposed to" be able to support a BOOTP client? 18. Is a DHCP client "supposed to" be able to use a BOOTP server? 19. Can a DHCP client or server make a DNS server update the client's DNS entry to match the client's dynamically assigned address? 20. Can a DHCP server back up another DHCP server? 21. When will the server to server protocol be defined? 22. Is there a DHCP mailing list? 23. In a subnetted environment, how does the DHCP server discover what subnet a request has come from? 24. If a single LAN has more than one subnet number, how can addresses be served on subnets other than the primary one? 25. If a physical LAN has more than one logical subnet, how can different groups of clients be allocated addresses on different subnets? 26. Where is DHCP defined? 27. What other sources of information are available? 28. Can DHCP support remote access? 29. Can a client have a home address and still float? 30. How can I relay DHCP if my router does not support it? 31. How do I migrate my site from BOOTP to DHCP? 32. Can you limit which MAC addresses are allowed to roam? 33. Is there an SNMP MIB for DHCP? 34. What is DHCP Spoofing? 35. How long should a lease be? 36. How can I control which clients get leases from my server? 37. How can I prevent unauthorized laptops from using a network that uses DHCP for dynamic addressing? 38. What are the Gotcha's?
B. Info on Implementations 1. What features or restrictions can a DHCP server have? 2. What freeware DHCP servers are available? 3. What commercial DHCP servers are available? 4. What freeware DHCP clients are available? 5. Which vendors of client software currently support DHCP? 6. What are the DHCP plans of major client-software vendors? 7. What Routers forward DHCP requests? 8. What Routers include DHCP servers? 9. What Routers use DHCP to configure their IP addresses? 10. What Servers forward DHCP requests? 11. Which implementations support or require the broadcast flag? 12. What servers support secondary subnet numbers? 13. What servers support RFC-based dynamic DNS update? 14. How can I run Windows 95 without a DHCP server? 15. Do any servers limit the MAC addresses that may roam? 16. What analyzers decode DHCP? 17. What administration tools administer DHCP configurations? 18. How do I make a client give up its lease? 19. What are the Gotcha's specific to various implementations?
A. General 1. What is DHCP? DHCP stands for "Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol". 2. What is DHCP's purpose? DHCP's purpose is to enable individual computers on an IP network to extract their configurations from a server (the 'DHCP server') or servers, in particular, servers that have no exact information about the individual computers until they request the information. The overall purpose of this is to reduce the work necessary to administer a large IP network. The most significant piece of information distributed in this manner is the IP address. 3. Can DHCP work with Appletalk or IPX? No, it is too tied to IP. Furthermore, they don't need it since they have always had automated mechanisms for assigning their own network addresses. 4. Who Created It? How Was It Created?
DHCP was created by the Dynamic Host Configuration Working Group of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF; a volunteer organization which defines protocols for use on the Internet). As such, it's definition is recorded in an Internet RFC and the Internet Activities Board (IAB) is asserting its status as to Internet Standardization. As of this writing (June 1998), DHCP is an Internet Draft Standard Protocol and is Elective. BOOTP is an Internet Draft Standard Protocol and is Recommended. For more information on Internet standardization, see RFC2300 (May 1998) 5. How is it different than BOOTP or RARP? DHCP is based on BOOTP and maintains some backward compatibility. The main difference is that BOOTP was designed for manual preconfiguration of the host information in a server database, while DHCP allows for dynamic allocation of network addresses and configurations to newly attached hosts. Additionally, DHCP allows for recovery and reallocation of network addresses through a leasing mechanism. RARP is a protocol used by Sun and other vendors that allows a computer to find out its own IP number, which is one of the protocol parameters typically passed to the client system by DHCP or BOOTP. RARP doesn't support other parameters and using it, a server can only serve a single LAN. DHCP and BOOTP are designed so they can be routed. 6. How is it different than VLANs? DHCP and VLANs, which are very different in concept, are sometimes cited as different solutions to the same problem. While they have a goal in common (easing moves of networked computers), VLANs represent a more revolutionary change to a LAN than DHCP. A DHCP server and forwarding agents can allow you to set things up so that you can unplug a client computer from one network or subnet and plug it into another and have it come alive immediately, it having been reconfigured automatically. In conjunction to Dynamic DNS, it could automatically be given its same name in its new place. VLAN-capable LAN equipment with dynamic VLAN assignment allows you to configure things so a client computer can be plugged into any port and have the same IP number (as well as name) and be on the same subnet. The VLAN-capable network either has its own configuration that lists which MAC addresses are to belong to each VLAN, or it makes the determination from the source IP address of the IP packets that the client computer sends. Some differences in the two approaches:
DHCP handles changes by reconfiguring the client while a VLANcapable network handles it by reconfiguring the network port the client is moved to.
8. the data your web browser retrieves and displays when you surf the net. 7.3 or 84. i. supporting the same VLAN scheme. It is analogous to your telephone number in that the telephone number is used by the telephone network to direct calls to you.g.111) which uniquely identifies a computer that is making use of the Internet. forwarding agent in each router. The analogous capability in VLANs requires that all hubs throughout the network be VLAN-capable.4. What is a MAC address? A MAC address (also called an Ethernet address or an IEEE MAC address) is a number (typically written as twelve hexadecimal digits. DHCP is generally aimed at giving "easy moves" capability to networks that are divided into subnets on a geographical basis. DHCP can configure a new client computer for you while a VLAN-capable network can't. putting each person on a subnet that has access to the servers that that person requires. e. which precludes the use of network to get the configuration information from a DHCP or BOOTP server.e. Doing so assumes the client computer is already configured. 9. like BOOTP runs over UDP. 0080002012ef. utilizing ports 67 and 68. There is an issue with trying to use DHCP (or BOOTP) and VLANs at the same time. e. instead of putting everyone in one office on the same subnet. and DHCP capability in each client's TCP/IP support. but standards are being developed. or on separate networks. To this point VLAN support is proprietary with no vendor interoperability. 107. One task of DHCP is to assist in the problem of getting a functional and unique IP number into the hands of the computers that make use of the Internet.e. 0 through 9 and A through F.1. What protocol and port does DHCP use? DHCP. 0:80:0:2:20:ef) which uniquely . or as six hexadecimal numbers separated by periods or colons. DHCP dynamic reconfiguration requires a DHCP server. i. VLANs are generally aimed at allowing you to set up subnets on some basis other than geographical. with the scheme by which the VLAN-capable network determines the client's VLAN based upon the client computer's source IP address. What is an IP address? An IP address (also called an IP number) is a number (typically written as four numbers separated by periods.2. The IP address is used by the Internet to direct data to your computer. in particular.1.g.
and you must be sure the DHCP server will accept it. 10. you must be certain that no other client is using the client ID you choose. In DHCP's typical use. it includes no indication of where your computer is located. Unlike the IP number. in order for DHCP to function. This has problems both for finding services and for security. 11. During this time. Some DHCP implementations have a setup option to specify the client ID you want. the server uses a requesting computer's MAC address to uniquely identify it. What is a DHCP lease? A DHCP lease is the amount of time that the DHCP server grants to the DHCP client permission to use a particular IP address. they start malfunctioning. However. 1 1 . Appletalk is designed around this idea. A computer that needs a permanently-assigned IP number might be turned off and lose its number to a machine coming up. Why shouldn't clients assign IP numbers without the use of a server? It is theoretically possible to develop software for client-machines that finds an unused address by picking them out of the blue and broadcasting a request of all the other client machines to see if they are using them. DHCP implementations typically employ the client's MAC address for this purpose. Another problem with the use of such ranges is keeping it easy to move a computer from one subnet to another. but the DHCP protocol allows other options. This can lead both to hidden configuration errors and to difficulty in changing the range. One alternative to the MAC address is simply a character string of your choice. 12. In any case. and Apple's MacTCP can be configured to do this for IP. then the ranges are configured in each desktop machine rather than being centrally administered. 1 1 If such dynamic assignment is to be confined to ranges of IP addresses.identifes a computer that has an Ethernet interface. this method of IP address assignment has disadvantages. What is a Client ID? What is termed the Client ID for the purposes of the DHCP protocol is whatever is used by the protocol to identify the client computer. A typical server allows its administrator to set the lease time. two different client-machines might end up claiming the same IP number. By default. When the network comes back. 1 1 A network might be temporarily divided into two noncommunicating networks while a network component is not functioning.
what the designers of the DHCP protocol set as their own goals. The part of such a router (or server acting as a router) that does this is called a "BOOTP forwarding agent". This is really a server matter and the client should work either way. however useful. you can set up a seperate server on each subnet. Typically you have to enable it on the interface to the subnet to be served and have to configure it with the IP address of the DHCP or BOOTP server. 5. It is not in a list of requirements for DHCP servers. there are two ways. At least there is nothing in the protocol to preclude this and one expects it to be a feature of any DHCP server.. First of all.2. a DHCP server: . the address is known as the "UDP Helper Address". A source of confusion on this point is the following statement in section 1. The word "MAY" indicates such support.e. On a Cisco router. The RFC refers to this as manual allocation. 4. the TCP/IP stack included with Windows 95 does not have this capability. is left as an option. MAY support BOOTP clients. 6. Is a DHCP server "supposed to" be able to support a BOOTP client? The RFC on such interoperability (1534) is clear: "In summary. 3." However. this statement is one in a list of "general design goals for DHCP". Secondly.5 of RFC 1541: "DHCP must provide service to existing BOOTP clients. In particular." (section 2). a feature of some routers known as "BOOTP forwarding" to forward DHCP or BOOTP requests to a server on another subnet and to forward the replies back to the client.. Can DHCP support statically defined addresses? Yes. Can a BOOTP client boot from a DHCP server? Only if the DHCP server is specifically written to also handle BOOTP queries. . Can a DHCP client boot from a BOOTP server? Only if the DHCP client were specifically written to make use of the answer from a BOOTP server. i. How does DHCP and BOOTP handle multiple subnets? For the situations where there is more than one LAN. It would presumably treat a BOOTP reply as an unending lease on the IP address. each with its own subnet number.
edu Purpose ------General discussion: a good server administrators. When will the server to server protocol be defined? The DHC WG of the IETF is actively investigating the issues in interserver communication. 8. 10. any client with a lease from it will not be able to renew their lease with the other server. If each has a dynamic pool accessible to the same clients.edu dhcp-dns@bucknell. It is possible that some server vendors have addressed this issue with their own proprietary server-to-server communication. 11.7.edu list for dhcp-bake@bucknell. Can a DHCP client or server make a DNS server update the client's DNS entry to match the client's dynamically assigned address? RFCs 2136 and 2137 indicate a way in which DNS entries can be updated dynamically. there are DNS and DHCP servers that accomplish this through proprietary means. The protocol should be defined "soon". However. when one server is down. Is there a DHCP mailing list? There are several: List ---dhcp-v4@bucknell. Can a DHCP server back up another DHCP server? You can have two or more servers handing out leases for different addresses.edu dhcp-impl@bucknell. DHCP bakeoffs Implementations Server to server protocol DNS-DHCP issues . then even if one server is down. The word "MAY" indicates such support. 9. Using this requires a DNS server that supports this feature and a DHCP server that makes use of it. is left as an option." (section 3). however useful. In the mean time. Is a DHCP client "supposed to" be able to use a BOOTP server? The RFC on such interoperability (1534) is clear: "A DHCP client MAY use a reply from a BOOTP server if the configuration returned from the BOOTP server is acceptable to the DHCP client. without communication between the two servers to share their information on current leases. The RFCs are very recent (as of 5/97) and implementations are few. one of those clients can lease an address from the other server.edu dhcp-serve@bucknell. Such communication is the purpose of the "server to server protocol" (see next question).
If a single LAN has more than one subnet number.bucknell. 12. Note: a DHCP relay agent is the same thing as a BOOTP relay agent. how does the DHCP server discover what subnet a request has come from? DHCP client messages are sent to off-net servers by DHCP relay agents. how can different groups of clients be allocated addresses on different subnets? . In this case. and technically speaking. the DHCP/BOOTP Relay sends the server a gateway address associated with the primary subnet and the server must know what to do with it. the others as secondary. but not all of them. It is possible that a particular server-implementation can handle some of these cases. DHCP's scheme for handling this is that the server has to be configured with the necessary information and has to support such configuration & allocation. one subnet is designated as primary. 11 Dynamic allocation supported on secondary subnet numbers on a LAN which is handled through a DHCP/BOOTP Relay. how can addresses be served on subnets other than the primary one? A single LAN might have more than one subnet number applicable to the same set of ports (broadcast domain).edu which can be used to subscribe and sign off. If a physical LAN has more than one logical subnet. which are often a part of an IP router. the latter phrase is correct. In a subnetted environment.dhcp-v6@bucknell. Archives for the dhcp-v4 list (which used to be called the host-conf list) are stored at ftp://ftp. See section below listing the capabilities of some servers. 13. The DHCP relay agent records the subnet from which the message was received in the DHCP message header for use by the DHCP server.edu/pub/dhcp/.edu DHCP for IPv6 The lists are run by listserv@bucknell. 14. Here are four cases a server might have to handle: Dynamic allocation supported on secondary subnet numbers on the LAN to which the server is attached. Typically. A site may find it necessary to support addresses on more than one subnet number associated with a single interface. 11 The other two cases are the same capabilities during manual allocation.
15.lcs. a web site is http://ds. "Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol". Droms. and sometimes there is one or more draft related to DHCP.isi. 3/97. "DHCP Options and BOOTP Vendor Extensions". F.edu/1s/in-notes/rfc/ http://www.CC.edu/~droms/dhcp/ Problems and Solutions of DHCP: Experiences with DHCP implementation and Operation A. [Note that some of the references in this FAQ are to RFC 1541: I'll update them when I get a chance.Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol http://www.internet.org/HMP/PAPER/127/html/paper. 10/08/1993.internic.ehsco.internic. http://NWS.com/reading/dhcp.html Internet Drafts Internet drafts are works in progress intended to update the current RFCs or specify additional functionality. R.net/ds/dsintdrafts. Murai.ohio-state. "Interoperation Between DHCP and BOOTP". The DHCP-related drafts currently have . Supersedes RFC 1533. RFC 2132 S. J. Supersedes RFC 1541 and RFC 1531. Alexander.edu/hypertext/information/rfc.mit. http://www.cis. -. To do this.html 16.Edu/WebStaff/Alan/NetMan/Computing/DHCP/ DHCP Reading Room Eric Hall.html http://www.Emory.Author] RFC 1534 R.One way to do this is to preconfigure each client with information about what group it belongs to.pmg. 3/97. Where is DHCP defined? In Internet RFCs. RFC 2131 R. What other sources of information are available? See the dhcp-v4 mailing list mentioned above as well as its archives.eg. Droms.bucknell. Droms. Tominaga. All Internet Drafts are available from various sites: the US East Cost site is ftp://ds.html DHCP Resources Alan Dobkin.html.isoc. Some websites with copies of RFCs: http://info.net/internet-drafts/. DHCP . A DHCP feature designed for this is the user class option. the client software must allow the user class option to be preconfigured and the server software must support its use to control which pool a client's address is allocated from. http://info.edu/rfc. Nakamura. O. Teraoka.
SLIP has no standard way in which a server can hand a client an IP address. The DHCP protocol is capable of allocating an IP address to a device without an IEEE-style MAC address. Reviews DHCP-client-function of some popular Windows IP stacks. No. With this.edu/pub/dhcp/. a PPP client could get its IP number using IPCP.ehsco. Vol. Network Computing.com/reading/19960515ncw1. A feature of DHCP under development (DHCPinform) is a method by which a DHCP server can supply parameters to a client that already has an IP number. and are available through http://www. such as a computer attached through SLIP or PPP.filenames of the form "draft-ietf-dhc-SOMETHING". Vol. May 1. Reviews DHCP servers. Such a communications server may support the use of DHCP to acquire the IP addresses it gives out.edu/~droms/dhcp/. http://www. pp. 1996. Network Computing. such communications servers could also support the use of DHCP to acquire the IP addressees to give out. 1996. Another way (used by Shiva) is to use a different "client ID type" for your hardware address. 114-120. May 15.bucknell. it makes use of a feature which may or may not be supported by the DHCP server: the ability of the server to use something other than the MAC address to identify the client. then get the rest of its parameters using this feature of DHCP. but to do so. No. I cannot be more specific about the documents because they are by their nature temporary. These DHCP-related drafts are also stored at ftp://ftp. but many communications servers support non-standard ways of doing this that can be utilized by scripts. Thus. like communications servers supporting PPP. Client ID type 1 .eg. I know that Windows NT's remote access support does this. "DHCP Clients: Do They Really Work?" Eric Hall. 7. 7. Communications servers that acquire IP numbers for their clients via DHCP run into the same roadblock in that they have just one MAC address.html "The Heaven And Hell Of DHCP Servers" Eric Hall. but need to acquire more than one IP address. 8. etc.ehsco. This is sometimes called doing DHCP by proxy for the client. pp. http://www. 118-121.bucknell. 7.com/reading/19960515ncw2. Can DHCP support remote access? PPP has its own non-DHCP way in which communications servers can hand clients an IP address called IPCP (IP Control Protocol) but doesn't have the same flexibility as DHCP or BOOTP in handing out other parameters. One way such a communications server can get around this problem is through the use of a set of unique pseudo-MAC addresses for the purposes of its communications with the DHCP server.html 17.
21. The answer depends a lot on what BOOTP server you are using and how you are maintaining it. for that laptop which is almost always in one office. turn off DHCP and configure them statically: not a good solution.means you're using MAC addresses. one popular BOOTP server. has been patched so that it will answer DHCP queries. Can a client have a home address and still float? There is nothing in the protocol to keep a client that already has a leased or permanent IP number from getting a(nother) lease on a temporary basis on another subnet (i. 11 Adapt your site's administration to one of the available DHCP/BOOTP servers. e. I've heard that Microsoft's NT-based server can do it. you are faced with the choice: Find a server that is administered like your BOOTP server only that also serves DHCP. However. How do I migrate my site from BOOTP to DHCP? I don't have an answer for this. See section below on servers that implement this. For example. but occasionally is plugged in in a conference room or class room).e. but certainly one that can be done to handle the first few non-BOOTP clients at your site.g. then the demand to support clients that support DHCP but not BOOTP presents you with problems.. In general. presumably as an option to the server administrator. the CMU server. 18. If you depend heavily on BOOTP server software to support your existing clients. 20. Thus it is left to the server implementation to support such a feature. 22. Can you limit which MAC addresses are allowed to roam? 11 Sites may choose to require central pre-configuration for all computers that will be able to acquire a dynamic address. but will offer a little discussion. How can I relay DHCP if my router does not support it? A server on a net(subnet) can relay DHCP or BOOTP for that net. 11 Run both a DHCP and a BOOTP server. 19. client ID type 0 means an ASCII string. Microsoft has software to make Windows NT do this. 1 1 Handle the non-BOOTP clients specially. A DHCP server could be designed to implement such a requirement. It would be good if I could find out the gotcha's of such a setup. Is there an SNMP MIB for DHCP? .
there are degrees. if you know you will have 20 users using 10 addresses in within a day. for example. Do you have a typical or minimum amount of time that you are trying to support? If your typical user is on for an hour at minimum. Another factor is that the longer the lease the longer time it takes for client configuration changes controlled by DHCP to propogate. Most administrators will say it depends upon your goals.There is no standard MIB. with a 4 day lease. I've heard examples cited of 15 minutes. 2 hours. A very relevant factor is that the client starts trying to renew the lease when it is halfway through: thus. See above. During a 2-day outage. In this situation. with the intention of giving it an IP number during its connection process. 24. you may be in the situation of having more users than addresses on some particular IP number range. Are you supporting mobile users? If so. but no lease will expire for any computer turned on at the time that the outage commences. the client which has lost access to its DHCP server has 2 days from when it first tries to renew the lease until the lease expires and the client must stop using the network. How many clients do you have and how fast are the communications lines over which the DHCP packets will be run? . you want to keep the lease time short so people don't end up sitting on leases. Some relevant questions in deciding on a lease time: Do you have more users than addresses? If so. and 2 days. a 2 day lease is not practical. Naturally. It is possible that some servers implement private MIBs. that suggest a hour lease at minimum. How long should a lease be? I've asked sites about this and have heard answers ranging from 15 minutes to a year. 23. new users cannot get new leases. creating one is on the list of possible activities of the DHCP working group. What is DHCP Spoofing? Ascend Pipeline ISDN routers (which attach Ethernets to ISDN lines) incorporate a feature that Ascend calls "DHCP spoofing" which is essentially a tiny server implementation that hands an IP address to a connecting Windows 95 computer. Naturally. and service arrangements for your DHCP server. your site's usage patterns.
The shorter the lease. While some sites would manually allocate any address that people expected to remain stable. then a lease of six weeks or longer would suffice. Some examples of lease-times that sites have used & their rationals: 15 minutes To keep the maximum number of addresses free for distribution in cases where there will be more users than addresses. Do you have users who want to tell other users about their IP number? If your users are setting up their own web servers and telling people how to get to them either by telling people the IP number or through a permanent DNS entry. How long would it take to bring back up the DHCP server. then a six hour lease will handle such an outage. this is avoided. 12 hours If you need to take back an address. Note that if you have a communication line down for a long enough time for the leases to expire. 4 months . For shorter leases. If the lease-time is at least double the communication line outage. and you wish them to keep their IP address. there may be a point beyond which you will want to watch the load. thus many sites use it. then they are looking for an IP number that won't be changing. then you know that it will only take one night for the users' lease to expire. and to what extent can your users live without it? If the lease time is at least double the server outage. 3 days This is apparently Microsoft's default. a lease of at least 2 hours is long enough that the load of even thousands of clients is negligible. if students might have their computers turned off for as long as three weeks between semesters. If you might have a server go down on Friday right after work and may need all Monday's work-day to fix it. In general. 6 hours Long enough to allow the DHCP server to be fixed. the higher the server and network load. then running clients who already have leases will not lose them. 3 hours. For example. if your servercoverage is likely to recover the server within three hours at any time that clients are using their addresses. If you have a good idea of your longest likely server outage. you might see an unusually high load it returns. e. 6 days Long enough that a weekend server outage that gets fixed on Monday will not result in leases terminating. The relevant time is the maximum amount of time that you wish to allow the user to keep their machine turned off yet keep their address. other sites want to use DHCP's ability to automate distribution of relatively permanent addresses. in a university. For example.g. you can avoid such problems. then your maximum outage time is 3 days and a 6day lease will handle it.
DHCP servers that support roaming machines may be adapted to such use. Perhaps you can find DHCP server software that allows you to list which MAC addresses the server will accept. How can I control which clients get leases from my server? There is no ideal answer: you have to give something up or do some extra work. possibly intermittent of one or the other is sometimes turned off. You still depend upon the other clients to respect your wishes. 25. . You can put all your clients on a subnet of your own along with your own DHCP server. 3.Long enough that students can keep their IP address over the summer hiatus. The immediate problem would be a server passing out numbers already belonging to some computer yielding the potential for two or more "innocent bystander" nodes ending up with the same IP number. One scenario is a client that loads its OS over the network via tftp being directed to a different file (possibly on a different server). 2. thus allowing the perpetrator to take over the client. Allows administrator to recover those addresses after someone has moved on. What are the Gotcha's? A malicious user could make trouble by putting up an unofficial DHCP server. A lot of problems are possible if a renegade server manages to get a client to accept its lease offering. then they are likely to be gone. DHCP can impose no restrictions on what IP address can use a particular port nor control the IP address used by any client. I believe this rational is workable if the summer hiatus is no more than 2 months. One year If a user has not used their address in six months. You can use manual allocation. and feeds the client its own version of other booting parameters. You can use the user class option assuming your clients and server support it: it will require you to configure each of your clients with a user class name. DHCP does not prevent other clients from using the addresses it is set to hand out nor can it distinguish between a computer's permanent MAC address and one set by the computer's user. Net result is problems using the nodes. How can I prevent unauthorized laptops from using a network that uses DHCP for dynamic addressing? This would have to be done using a mechanism other than DHCP.
. it must pass along as IP number that is associated with one of the network (or subnet) numbers. The only way the DHCP server can allocate addresses on one of the LAN's other network (or subnet) numbers is if the DHCP server is specifically written to have a feature to handle such cases.g. The client first connects to the home site and receives an address from one of the two serves. don't work when using DHCP to dynamically assign addresses. Furthermore. DHCP servers and relay agents use their knowledge of what LAN the client-station is on to select the subnet number for the client-station's new IP address whereas such switches use the subnet number sent by the client-station to decide which (virtual) LAN to put the station on. and it has a configuration describing the situation. The "broadcast flag": DHCP includes a way in which client implementations unable to receive a packet with a specific IP address can ask the server or relay agent to use the broadcast IP address in the replies (a "flag" set by the client in the requests). a remote site with DHCP services. Dynamic configuration of the IP numbers undercuts such methods. thus they announced new versions stated to handle DHCP. the IP numbers have to be stable. if the DNS's names are going to identify IP numbers. relay agents and servers had to implement it. many other scenarios are just as serious.Given that boot parameters are often made to control many different things about the computers' operation and communication. Some of the virtual LAN schemes. clients that are moved around (e. in routers) handled DHCP just fine except for the need for this feature. Some Microsoft TCP/IP implementations used this flag. The definition of DHCP states that implementations "should" honor this flag.g. i. but it doesn't say they "must". some sites try to keep the continued use of dynamically allocatable IP numbers to a minimum. Note that BOOTP has the same vulnerabilities. When the router is relaying requests from such a LAN to the DHCP server.e. Routers are sometimes configured so that one LAN on one port has multiple network (or subnet) numbers. and a mobile client. Consider a home site with two DHCP servers. Examples are: for security purposes. . The knowledge that a particular IP number is associated with a particular node is often used for various functions. mobile clients) can end up with redundant leases. With two or more servers serving a LAN. A number of BOOTP-relay-agent implementations (e. and even for identifying resources. the numbers. which meant in practical terms. For this reason. those that use the packet's IP number to decide which "virtual LAN" a client-computer is on for the purposes of TCP/IP. for network management.
it is possible for these transient clients to consume more than their fair share of addresses. or individuals run DHCP servers with their own small address pools on LANs shared by other departments. He/she then travels to the remote site (without releasing the lease at the home site) and attempts to use the acquired address. or merely waiting a certain amount of time for the leases to be renewed. B. consequently. An easy mistake to make in setting up a DHCP server is to fail to set all the necessary global parameters. it is possible for the client to acquire an address on the other server and therefore have two leases within the site. In particular. but does not provide that kind of support. It is of course NAK'ed and the client receives an address appropriate for the remote site. but failing to work when set to use DHCP. they can find that their addresses are being used by anyone on the LAN that happens to set their IP configuration to use DHCP. But in a very mobile environment. The client then returns home and tries to use the address from the remote site. offices. The length of the lease can mean the difference between having to go to every affected client and rebooting it. there is nothing to stop someone from implementing a server that uses the DHCP protocol. or functions working when the client is set up manually. or individuals. The following terminology has become common to describe three kinds of IP address allocation/management. If departments. What features or restrictions can a DHCP server have? While the DHCP server protocol is designed to support dynamic management of IP addresses. The problem can be solved by using only one server per subnet/site and can be mitigated by short lease lengths. These are independent "features": a particular server can offer or not offer any of them: . This can result in some functions working while others are not. The server that holds the previous lease will offer the address back to the client but there is no guarantee that the client will accept that address. (Note: one workaround is to fool with the client computer's clock). It is NAK'ed but now the client broadcasts a DHCPDISCOVER to get a address. offices. Long leases can be disadvantageous in cases where you need to change a configuration parameter or withdraw an address from use. the maintainer of a BOOTP serverimplementation might find it helpful to enhance their BOOTP server to allow DHCP clients that cannot speak "BOOTP" to retrieve statically defined addresses via DHCP. Info on Implementations 4.
Ideally. Note that there are a number of interactions that one might support and that a standard set & method is in the works. Administrator-settable lease times on manually allocated addresses. is permanently associated with it until the server's administrator intervenes. Allows manual allocation of two or more alternative IP numbers to a single MAC address. This is the basic support for "secondary nets". .g. This is pretty obvious. Automatic allocation: the server's administrator creates a configuration for the server that includes only IP addresses. Support for the broadcast bit. the server does not force such a pool to consist of contiguous IP addresses. Allows administrator to configure additional DHCP option-types. Administrator-settable lease times.g. Manual allocation: the server's administrator creates a configuration for the server that includes the MAC address and IP address of each DHCP client that will be able to get an address: functionally equivalent to BOOTP though the protocol is incompatible. Note: this is a feature that might be used to assign different client-groups on the same physical LAN to different logical subnets. NIS. Ability to configure groups of clients based upon client-supplied user and/or vendor class. e. Interaction with a DNS server. Dynamic allocation: like automatic allocation except that the server will track leases and give IP addresses whose lease has expired to other DHCP clients. Ability to define the pool/pools of addresses that can be allocated dynamically. Administrator-settable T1/T2 lengths. Ability to associate two or more dynamic address pools on separate IP networks (or subnets) with a single gateway address. whose use depends upon the gateway address through which the request is relayed. An IP address. once associated with a MAC address. which it gives out to clients. though someone might have a server that forces the pool to be a whole subnet or network. Interaction with some other type of name server. a router that is acting as a BOOTP relay for an interface which has addresses for more than one IP network or subnet. Other features which a DHCP server may or may not have: Support for BOOTP clients. Ability to limit what MAC addresses will be served with dynamic addresses. e.
or ability to make modifications to groups of ports or pools. e. Graphical administration. but with the "DHCP patches" mentioned below. the DHCP Release packet) 950711 Patched bootp server supporting DHCP-based "automatic" allocation: (gives addresses dynamically. i. Even better is the ability to make the server do this via a command that can be used in a script. etc. can handle DHCP requests) ftp://ftp.e.uk/~mpreston/bootp_dhcp. i.ac. What freeware DHCP servers are available? (This is not necessarily a complete list) 950415 Bootp server: Bootp 2. but to the way that it is administered.sghms.ac.tar.uk/~mpreston/tools. Ability to force client(s) to get a new address rather than renew.4.4. /etc/bootptab as used by the CMU BOOTP daemon. Use of PING (ICMP Echo Request) to check an address prior to dynamically allocating it. Ability to import files listing manually allocated addresses (as opposed to a system which requires you to type the entire configuration into its own input utility). 5. i. Maintenance of a lease audit trail.e.3 with "samba" DHCP patches (does manual allocation of IP addresses) http://www.sghms. but never takes them away) . Server grace period on lease times. Ability to make global modifications to parameters.3.Z 950425 Bootp server version 2. Ability to import data in the format of legacy configurations. modify parameters.anu. Central administration of multiple servers.e.au:/pub/tridge/samba/contributed/DHCP .tar. Note that there are a number of interactions that one might support and that a standard set & method is in the works.4. Following are some features related not to the functions that the server is capable of carrying out.mc.patch (note: I've heard that the patched server will crash if it receives one particular optional packet. add or take away addressees from a pool.Z (within http://www.3 (not DHCP.htm) 950706 "samba" DHCP patches for bootp server: (does manual allocation of IP addresses) ftp://nimbus. that apply to all entries.edu. rdist..g. Ability to make changes while the server is running and leases are being tracked. a log of the leases granted. rsh.com/pub/bootp-2. Interaction with another DHCP server.
gz Check Archie for dhcp-1.gz 961104 Princeton patches to CMU dhcpd 3.org/dhcp.process.tar.html 950630 WIDE Project: mailto:tomy@sfc. http://www.zip 960130 Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology "Mondo-DB" LAN administration project: modified DHCP server planned http://www.4.princeton.com/info/CustomerUpdate/940620001.digital.puzzle. What commercial DHCP servers are available? (This is not necessarily a complete list) 951010 Wollongong: included in next release of PathWay for OpenVMS which is in beta 951219 Puzzle Systems: WEBserv (NLM(s) that do DHCP.edu/~irwin/dhcpd.2.7. Proxy IP/DHCP Server (PIP) Beta-1.cmu.7.org/pub/comp/os/os2/tcpip/systools/bootpd243-dhcp.net/pub/networking/bootp/bootpDD2.ad.3beta.edu/pub/dhcp/dhcp-3.gz 951219 BOOTP server and patches for DHCP ftp://africa.jp/WIDE/free-ware/dhcp/dhcp-1.7.html 960327 Xedia: IP/Assist 1.xedia.nevod.html 960312 Nevod Inc. Japan ftp://sh.wide.html 971204 Internet Software Consortium (ISC) DHCP/BOOTP Server http://www.rose-hulman.geomic.wide.unioldenburg.wide.jp/WIDE/free-ware/dhcp/dhcp-1.0 feature for their switches includes DHCP service.3.ad.2. dhcp-3.1 because lots of sites distribute it.com http://www.html 6. and FTP) mailto:email@example.com://ftp.de/pub/people/joey/dhcp/bootpd/ 960112 OS/2 port of BOOTP server with patches for manual DHCP support ftp://ftp. HTTP.1. BOOTP.edu/~allard/Mondo-DB/index.net.com/ .0 http://www.com/ 951220 Process Software: server for OpenVMS included in TCPware for OpenVMS http://www.3.com/ 960130 Digital: RoamAbout Mobile IP Client/Server Network Software V2.ad.gz 960312 Carnegie Mellon University DHCP/BOOTP server (SunOS.tar.tar.7) ftp://ftp.3.jp WIDE Project Keio Univ. http://www.0 http://www. Beta version: ftp://sh.leo.ntplx.com/pip/index.txt.tar.isc.
51 http://www. part of IRIXpro.com/updates/unixconn/nwip22/nip22b.html 960829 Isotro: NetID DHCP Server (BOOTP/DHCP server) (No longer available from Isotro) 960912 Cisco: (announced) DHCP/BOOTP server for Solaris.com/ 960716 Weird Solutions: BOOTP Server NT supports both BOOTP and statically allocated DHCP.2 (free upgrade to NetWare servers) includes a DHCP/BOOTP server.htm ftp://ftp.htm 960809 Silicon Graphics: 'proclaim' software for SGI workstations.novell.com/on/onprods/iptrack.960420 Competitive Automation's JOIN (415-321-4006): SunOS4.html http://www.0 and Cisco's Server Suite 1000 V1.com/ 960917 SunSoft: (future) DHCP/BOOTP server to be bundled with Solaris 2. http://www.microsoft.0 http://www.cisco.novell. 4.sgi.html/ 960514 FTP Software: OnNet Server 2.farallon. HP-UX 9 & 10 DHCP/BOOTP servers.join.x. Solaris2. unlike NetWare/IP 2.com/NTServer/ http://www.12.sgi.ftp.microsoft.2 itself. and AIX.on. http://www.microsoft. exe http://netware. this server will run on NetWare 3.html 960531 Cisco: server in development. http://www.x.com/bussys/winnt/winntdocs/papers/tcpipimp.com/solstice/Networking-products/PCAdmin.html 960514 Microsoft: DHCP server included in Windows NT Server 3.com/discover/nwip/index.5 includes a DHCP/BOOTP server.se/ 960808 Novell: NetWare/IP 2. Digital Unix 3.com/ 960620 Farallon: a DHCP server is built into its Netopia Internet Router http://www. HP-UX. ftp://ftp.0 (Services OnNet Product) http://www. http://www.cisco.6 . Windows NT (Alpha & Intel) included in Cisco's DNS/DHCP Manager V1.com/mkt_info/services.com/Products/hardware/challenge/IRIXp ro/IRIXpro.com/Products/hardware/challenge/IRIXp ro/IRIXprospecs.x.com/ 960514 SunSoft: Solstice SolarNet PC-Admin 1.com/BackOffice/techbriefs/tech1 000. http://www.0 is a Novell Server-based DHCP/BOOTP server (NLM) http://www.mhi.sun.doc 960514 ON Technology: IPTrack 1.2.
net/ 980603 IBM OS/400 Version 3 Release 7 and subsequent versions includes a DHCP/BOOTP server.com/kb/articles/q161/5/71. BOOTP and DDNS and java-based administration.0 SP2.quadritek.ibm.com/ 980612 IBM: TCP/IP Version 4.ibm.ibm. Includes BOOTP service.html 970805 Process Software: MultiNet 3.rs6000.1b) "proxy server" http://www. 970325 American Internet Corp: Net Registrar (for Windows NT and Solaris) http://www.com/multinet/ 971217 Quadritek Systems.4 and beyond. http://www.5.1.html 961217 Hewlett-Packard: HP-UX 10.com/NTS/shadow.as400.htm 970415 VICOM: VICOM DHCP Server (runs on Macintosh/MacOS) http://www. http://www.com/ 980611 Bay (Xylogics) Remote Annex (RA) and Remote Access Concentrator (RAC) communication servers have proxy DHCP client since release 13.baynetworks.com/ 980612 IBM: DHCP server included in AIX 4.5 for OpenVMS includes DHCP/BOOTP server. 961118 BOOTP or as hte "Internet Server Supplement" to Solaris http://www.com/ 980331 Deerfield Communications: DHCP server included in Wingate Pro (2.microsoft.com/ Network TeleSystems: Shadow (PC-based) also does http://www.sun.process. December 1995.com/os/warp-server 7.html 980518 Billiter Consultants: ipLease DHCP server (32bit Windows) http://www.com/products/qipdhcpserv.com/dhcp.sonicsys.: QDHCP (NT or UNIX).software. Inc.1 for OS/2 Warp includes DHCP.1. http://www. http://www.html 970415 Sonic Systems: Sonic DHCP Internet Server runs on Macintosh/MacOS.main. What freeware DHCP clients are available? (This is not necessarily a complete list) . http://www.vicomtech.nts.10 and subsequent versions include a bootp server with DHCP extensions.com/ 970403 Microsoft: BOOTP/DHCP server in NT 4. http://www. also does BOOTP http://www.american.2.billiter.2.wingate.com/dhcp. also does BOOTP http://www.
8.kobe-u. Japan ftp://sh.jp/pub/PCUNIX/Linux/network/dhcp/dhcpcd-0.jp/pub/PCUNIX/Linux/network/dhcp/dhcpcd-0.damtp.2.com .4a.5: ftp://ftp.5.jp/pub/PCUNIX/Linux/network/dhcp/ version 0.ac.3. ftp://ftp.5-p1: ftp://ftp.kobe-u.4a: ftp://ftp.5 950630 Beame & Whiteside Software: resells Dirk Koeppen EDV-Beratungs-GmbH's TCP/IP BOOT-PROM 950705 Microsoft: MS-TCP/IP 3.wide.6.960809 WIDE Project includes a client for BSD and SunOS systems: mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org 960904 Linux bootp client: bootpc.tar.ad.gz 971204 Internet Software Consortium (ISC) DHCP/BOOTP Server Distribution includes a client.gz version 0.ac.jp/pub/PCUNIX/Linux/network/dhcp/dhcpcd-0. 1.ac.1 because lots of sites distribute it.ad.5 950711 Microsoft: Windows for Workgroups 3.0.ad.11b 950711 Microsoft: Windows NT 3. Which vendors of client software currently support DHCP? (This is not necessarily a complete list) 950417 Shiva: proxy client for remote users (in Lanrovers and Netmodems) 950425 Hewlett-Packard 950502 NetManage: Chameleon 4.3beta.x) ftp://ftp.tar.ac.jp/pub/PCUNIX/Linux/network/dhcp/dhcpcd-0.kobe-u. Beta version: ftp://sh.tar. See ISC server in section above on "Freeware Servers".6: ftp://ftp.11a 950711 Frontier Technologies(800-929-3054): in SuperTCP for Windows http:www.2.frontiertech.jp/WIDE/free-ware/dhcp/dhcp1.ac.uk/pub/linux/bootpc/ 970415 dhcpcd (for Linux 1.wide.kobe-u. DHCP being added over time.gz version 0.2.wide. 2.gz Check Archie for dhcp-1.jp/WIDE/free-ware/dhcp/dhcp1.tar.11a & MS-TCP/IP 3.jp WIDE Project Keio Univ.xx.kobe-u.cam.xx.gz version 0.tar.5-p1.ac.tar.1.
68040.com/info/CustomerUpdate/940620001.html 960209 FTP Software: included in OnNet 2.net/~core/Coresys/homepage. 960408 IBM: Client DHCP software for Windows 3.com/Products/software/IRIX6.1 included with System 7.0 (Windows 95 and NT) http://www.1 (beta) will use either DHCP or BOOTP to get IP parameters. 960514 Novell: NetWare/IP servers can use DHCP to autoconfigure their IP parameters.0 (Windows) http://www.0 http://www.x.com 950712 Beame & Whiteside(800-720-7151): BW-Connect NFS for DOS & Windows 950802 Wollongong: PathWay Access ver 3. http://www.x and DECOSF3. . Version 1.sgi.win.5.3 & runs on 68030. and Windows NT uses DHCP to obtain IP parameters.x clients 950915 Stampede: included in Remote Office Gold 951113 Persoft(800-368-5283): TCP Addition and Portable TCP http://www. Windows 3. 960514 Novell: NetWare/IP for DOS.wrq.html 960917 Sun: Solaris 2.html 960313 Apple: Open Transport 1.html http://www.6.2/IRIX62D S.1 960130 Digital: RoamAbout Mobile IP Client/Server Network Software V2.dunkel.com/ 960209 FTP Software: PC/TCP 4.x.1.1 shrink wrap version will be offered.2 (Windows) http://www.de/dksoft 951220 Attachmate: IRMA TCP Suite Version 3.ftp. 960809 Silicon Graphics: included in IRIX since version 5.com/ 960514 Novell: Client32 for DOS/Windows 3.com/ 950814 Competitive Automation(415-321-4006): SunOS4. http://ns1.com/ 950802 WRQ: Reflection Network Series products (version 5) for Windows http://www.sgi.0 for Windows 960501 NetManage: included in ChameleonNFS 4.x. 960501 SunSoft: included in PC-NFS Pro 2.3.ftp.ftp. Windows 95. and PowerPC Macintoshes.digital.com/Products/hardware/challenge/IRIXp ro/IRIXpro.0 (DOS) http://www.6 960503 FTP Software: included in OnNet32.info@frontiertech. Solaris2.persoft. 960408 IBM: Client DHCP software for MS/PC-DOS.txt.4.com/ 960312 Core Systems: Internet-Connect for Windows 95 Version 2.com/ 951207 Dirk Koeppen EDV-Beratungs-GmbH: TCP/IP DHCP Boot ROMs (TCP/IP BOOT-PROM) www. 960314 Apple: Open Transport 1.1 has DHCP proxy client.twg.
Client32 for DOS/Windows. Microsoft MS-DOS. supports DHCP. What Routers forward DHCP requests? (This is not necessarily a complete list).1b) "proxy server" http://www.sun.html 970805 Cisco: DHCP & BOOTP for Windows 3. What are the DHCP plans of major client-software vendors? Apple MacOS MacTCP's successor.1 ships with System 7. A shrink wrap version of Open Transport is planned.cisco.com/ 961118 Network TeleSystems TCP Pro 3. uses the native support.rs6000.com/ 980331 Deerfield Communications: DHCP server included in Wingate Pro (2. Open Transport.5.wingate.as400.net/ 980611 IBM: OS/2 WARP Version 4 (Merlin) has DHCP client capability in the basic package.ibm. the native stack will be used so that DHCP is supported. I heard a rumor that BOOTP support will be added.5 Update 2. or PowerPC Macintosh.1.1. http://www. http://www.com/NTS/tcp_pro.ibm. due in June 1996.4 client and server packages include a DHCP client. For Windows 95 and Windows NT.com/os/warp-client 980612 IBM's DOS/Windows LAN Services (for IBM PC-DOS. http://www. Microsoft Windows95 supports it and does not support BOOTP.0 (which updates MacOS to version 7. 1996) and supports any 68030. released March 11.software. Novell LAN Workplace for DOS For supporting DOS/Windows 3. will provide the TCP/IP stack functions and will support DHCP and BOOTP.3. IBM OS/2 Warp supports it. 10.com/ 9.http://www.x) 980612 IBM's line of NetworkStations are all DHCP clients (or BOOTP) http://www.com/networkstation/ 980612 IBM: AIX 4.nts. 68040. Open Transport 1. and/or Microsoft Windows 3.1 included in Cisco TCP/IP Suite 100 for Windows (formerly MultiNet for Windows) V2.0 For Windows 95.ibm. .0 for Windows http://www.
21(4) and 10. Wellfleet/Bay (from Wellfleet FAQ) DHCP is supported by enabling BOOTP support (with transmission and/or reception as needed).2 (about 1994) and later support DHCP relaying. I haven't found out anything about support for the broadcast flag. Proteon/Digital I'm not sure what is the first version that has this support. 11. Starting with version 9.Note that in general. It is likely that many other routers also support BOOTP forwarding. ACC Version 7. What Routers include DHCP servers? DHCP requires disk storage (or some other form of reliable non-volatile storage).6 and later. Cisco (from Cisco FAQ) Routers running GSYS version 9. Xyplex Version 5. This includes Novell servers and computers running Unix. ALANTEC The switches' "router" function has have been handling BOOTP forwarding since around 1993. IBM 2210 I've confirmed that Version 1 Release 2 has a BOOTP relay agent. but lacked the support for the BOOTP broadcast flag (see "broadcast flag" under What are the Gotcha's? above).0(3) as well as later releases. Version 8.00 of their routing software BayRs. 3Com Netbuilder Version 7. There are also units designed to handle two or more aspects of your Internet connection.g.5 of their software and is in version 2. One example is . e. But there are a number of types of servers that can be configured to route and serve DHCP. making the task of DHCP service more compatible with servers than with dedicated routers. Fore) don't an will probably never will have a DHCP server function. The large-scale routers (i. these routers probably already had BOOTP forwarding.2 software can support DHCP relaying through the use of its generic UDP Helper service. Bay. IBM 6611 Supports BOOTP forwarding.0 and later officially supports DHCP. Novell MPR The same as for their server.e. routing between a LAN and a leased line as well as doing other functions to allow computers on the LAN to reach the Internet (or corporate intranet as the case may be). Support for the broadcast flag introduced in a maintenance release of 2.5 of their routing software supports DHCP.. those of Cisco.
Warp Server Version 4. 14.Farallon's Netopia Internet Router mentioned above under commercial servers. Clients Microsoft Windows NT . the DHCP server that comes with NetWare/IP 2.usu.2 can be configured to be just a BOOTP/DHCP forwarding agent. The "BOOTPFWD NLM" is included in NetWare 4. AIX. Also.novell.exe and on Netwire. through its dhcprd daemon. The reason is that in maintaining and troubleshooting routers.usu. For Novell servers.11 and 3. it is important to know its exact configuration rather than leaving that to be automatically done. and also that you do not want your router's operation to depend upon the working of yet another server. there are remote access servers.1.edu/misc/bootpfd. Which implementations support or require the broadcast flag? The broadcast flag is an optional element of DHCP. You can get this support in NetWare 3.edu/misc/bootp311. thus DHCP requests. What Servers forward DHCP requests? Windows NT's 3. 1991) Also for Novell servers.zip(unsupported Novell software. 12. but a client which sets it works only with a server or relay that supports it. Two other such NLMs (possibly old versions of the same) that are available online: ftp://netlab2. which use DHCP to acquire addresses to hand out to their clients. 13. there are NLMs that forward BOOTP requests. It may be possible to configure some types of more general-purpose computers or servers to get their addresses from DHCP and to act as routers. 3.zip(unsupported Novell software.51).com/updates/inet/mpr211/tcpn01.51 Service Pack 3 (and 4) includes a BOOTP (& DHCP) relay agent as part of "Multi Protocol Router".12 also by applying the TCPN01. What Routers use DHCP to configure their IP addresses? The DHCP RFC specifically says that DHCP is not intended for use in configuring routers.EXE patch which is located at ftp://ftp. often which are usually not true routers. 1993) ftp://netlab2.
but version 3. tcp/ip-32 for Microsoft Windows for Workgroups (WFW) Version 3.11a sets it.0 ISC JOIN QDHCP The following cannot support secondary subnet numbers: Microsoft Windows NT 3. Microsoft Windows 95 Does not set the broadcast flag. What servers support RFC-based dynamic DNS update? The following DHCP servers include the ability to make use of the RFC 2136/2137 DNS feature to make dynamic updates to the DNS. To make use of this ability.5 sets the broadcast flag. Version 3.2 Cisco (previously TGV) NetID Microsoft Windows NT 4.51 and 4. A likely use is to create temporary DNS records that associate a fully qualified DNS name derived from the client's netbios name with the . 15.11B doesn't.51 and later no longer set it.DHCP client support added with version 3.0 (through RC1) WIDE Sonic DHCP Server 16.0 ISC JOIN SGI's DHCP Server under IRIX 6.0 (since service pack 2) Sonic QDHCP ipLease IBM Warp Server Version 4 IBM AIX The following can serve manually allocated addresses on secondary subnet numbers: IPTrack version 2. you need a DNS server that supports this feature. What servers support secondary subnet numbers? (These are not complete lists) The following servers can handle dynamic allocation on secondary subnet numbers: IPTrack version 2. The exception is in the remote access support: it sets the flag when it uses DHCP to acquire addresses to hand out to its PPP clients.
What analyzers decode DHCP? Release 5. American Internet Corp Net Registrar QDHCP IBM's Warp Server (version 4 and after) IBM's AIX server (version 4. software that runs under Windows NT adn 95.0 of Network General Corporation's Sniffer software. Some choices: Use no server at all for the Windows 95 clients: set the addresses in each client's setup. Install a non-Microsoft TCP/IP stack for Windows 95 that supports BOOTP. Microsoft's SMS includes a protocol analyzer called "Network Monitor" that decodes DHCP. What administration tools administer DHCP configurations? . Switch from your current BOOTP server to one that supports both BOOTP and DHCP. SerialView (PPP and SLIP).html PacketView (LAN). How can I run Windows 95 without a DHCP server? Not really a DHCP question. Do any servers limit the MAC addresses that may roam? IBM's AIX and OS/2 WARP DHCP servers.com/ 20. http://ngcwebgate. NetXRay. but it has been asked a lot.edu/~llurch/win95netbugs/faq. ISC. and ISDNView (PPP over ISDN) all are DOS programs that fully decode DHCP packets. I believe one of the free Unix implementations has included in its distribution a program that captures and decodes BOOTP and DHCP negotiations. A Document that addresses this question is the Windows 95tm Networking FAQ. http://wwwleland.com/~perin/ (note: it also works with Windows NT).ngc.stanford. The 'billgPC' program uses BOOTP (instead of DHCP) to configure Windows 95's native IP stack: http://www. particularly by sites for which changing from BOOTP represents a lot of work. Another use might be to associate DNS names with MAC addresses.klos.1 and after) 17. All NT software includes a remote agent for it.panix. href="http://www.com/product_info/netxray/netxray.html 18. These products might support one or both of these uses. 19.client's leased IP number.
but I've heard occasional word on client DHCP implementations that do not implement the entire protocol.00.386 02/12/96 27. once available through the following patch: File: File Last Modified Date: File Size: File Version Information: Vdhcp. For a Win95 client. How do I make a client give up its lease? This is a general question. I hate to cast wide suspicions. new releases have solved the problems that have been identified with various DHCP implementations. you could find such a server unusable. Doing so requires that the software module be able to wake up again after a specified period of time and "renew the lease". but the answer is of necessity specific to the client-implementation. If your client requires certain parameters. 21.1. 22.EXE to patch this problem.951 . Microsoft is rumored to have developed an updater named VDHCPUPD.e. A specific complaint about Microsoft's Windows 95 dhcp client: it times out its requests much more quickly than the times specified by RFC1541 section 4. Among the circumstances that can turn this into a practical problem are the latencies due to relay agents and a server's use of ICMP echo to doublecheck the address. An extra server feature is required to handle the allocation of addresses on the secondary IP addresses associated with a router port.exe program can do it. What are the Gotcha's specific to various implementations? In many cases. the problem prevents interoperation with some other DHCP servers under some conditions. the winipcfg.985 bytes 4. While it works with Microsoft's own NT-based server. i. One method mentioned is to temporarily change the clock on the client. ask to continue using the IP number. This is at least one feature of DHCP that is very hard to implement in some simpler systems.. Naturally.Quadritek's QIP network administration product includes an interface to Competitive Automation's JOIN DHCP server and IBM's DHCP server and their own server. You may find out after the fact that you have such secondary addresses There have been servers that are inflexible as to the list of configuration parameters they were able to serve. one way to avoid the problem is to keep leases short enough that you are not obliged to do this.
The very first announced release of Carnegie Mellon's server. renewal time and prebinding time will be rubbish.com/cerelli/software/vdhcpupd. I've heard a report that some combinations of versions of Unix & the ISC server will transmit packets to the subnet broadcast address rather than the default broadcast address (255. circa March 1996 has shown signs of needing to be shaken out to be more easily compiled outside of its development environment.954. . Current ones do not. Pre 1. which impedes interoperability with some clients. the DHCP lease time.' 'Unless you set "dl" to some value in the bootptab file. Early Apple Open Transport implementations did not always fill out packets to BOOTP's 300-byte minimum.3: 'When run from inetd.halcyon. which is their default.3. even if configured to do so. I've since been told that a newer version is 4.255. Report: Novell's NetwareIP 2. These have been reported to re DD2. Windows NT server v3. dhcp-3.1 fixes this. I don't know why.2 server refuses to hand out dynamic bootp assignments to hosts mentioned in the local /etc/hosts file.51 allows the administrator to specify addresses within its assignment range to be excluded. and the problem went away when bootpd is run as a daemon. Open Transport 1.exe and vdhcpupd.exe There are a number of issues regarding the patched bootp servers.It consists of 2 files. I've also been told that the exe file is on the net at http://www.txt. I could use details. which will cause occasional renewal problems.6. I had problems with "Could not bind port" and DHCP request failure.00. Windows 95 DHCP client answers pings from an IP address even after the the client's lease has expired. but does not always exclude them. Early Microsoft DHCP client implementations required the broadcast bit.255.4. causing some of the functions to fail. Thus a server that uses ping to check to see that an IP number is unused before reassigning it may find that it is still in use.255). Other implementations may not run at all.1 versions of Open Transport experienced interoperability problems with the Microsoft NT DHCP server.' One symptom you might see is Microsoft DHCP implementations using 5-minute leases. vdhcpupd. thus BOOTP forwarding agents that follow the BOOTP RFC and discard such packets end up discarding such DHCP packets. I have heard a vague complaints about the Microsoft implementations of DHCP: that it does not follow the standards.
" The reports suggest that Windows 95 implementations won't allow this statement to be assumed. even when renewal requests have been turned down. I can tell which addresses are not being used by the clients simply by checking the server to see which IP addresses have no outstanding leases. With properly behaving clients. I've heard reports that Windows 95. or at least some versions will use an address after the lease has expired under some circumstances. Some clients have no way to configure a class option. which can be a showstopper if you need to use the class option to help decide what pool of addresses the client uses. . an IP administrator can safely make the following statement: "As long as all the clients are set to get their addresses through DHCP. Windows 95 DHCP client cannot handle a lease renewal offered by a different server.
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