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DZULKIFLY MAT HASHIM HALAL PRODUCTS RESEARCH INSTITUTE UNIVERSITI PUTRA MALAYSIA 43400 SERDANG SELANGOR MALAYSIA
NOT HALAL The following food products are included in this category: The Haram food products that are made with pork-by-product ingredients and wine. The products that are made from natural and artificial flavors which are not Halal or Kosher certified with or with out alcohol as a solvent. The products that are made with alcoholic fermentation and may contain 2-3 % alcohol such as naturally brewed soy sauce.
PRODUCTION OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGE AND INDUSTRIAL ETHANOL
emt-india.BEER PRODUCTION PROCESS Source : www.net/process/distillery/Brewery .
) .(Courtesy of Fermpro Sdn Bhd.
2. Indirect hydration through addition of sulfuric acid Direct catalytic hydration of ethylene Agricultural Alcohol – Derived from Biological Fermentation Process of Carbohydrate Source • Fermentation of Sugar • Fermentation of Starch .INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL (ETHANOL) Synthetic Alcohol – Chemically synthesized from Ethylene – Process: 1.
LOCAL FERMENTED PRODUCTS • Vinegar – Nipah vinegar • Fermented palm sap • Tapai • Rice wine (tuak) • Soy sauce • Budu • Cincalok • Tempoyak • Belacan • Fermented milk products .
shrimps (belacan and cincalok).ISSUE # 1 If ethanol is produced using the same process as an intoxicating alcoholic beverage (i.e. anchovies (budu). fermentation). soya beans (soy sauce) Fermentation will not necessarily produce an intoxicating product The permissibility from a religious perspective and hence its halal compliance of such a product will depend on the intention ( Is it to produce an intoxicant?) and utilisation of the product . does it make it non-halal? Fermentation is a common preservation process subjected on wheat flour (sour dough). durian (tempoyak).
D.JABIR IBN HAYYAN Ibn Hayyan was the first person to discover alcohol from distillation of wine Kitab Ikhraj Ma Fi AlQuwwa Ila Al-fi`l 0721 – 0815 A. .
.MUHAMMAD IBN ZAKARIYA AR-RAZI Ar-Razi was the first person to introduce the use of alcohol (Al- Kuhl) for medical purposes 0850 – 0932 A.D.
ISSUE # 2 Is ethanol (alcohol) the same as an intoxicating alcoholic beverage (khamr)? The misunderstanding was due to the incorrect translation of term khamr (Arabic) to alcohol (English) The term alcohol from the chemistry perspective is more than just ethanol The permissibility from a religious perspective and hence its halal compliance of such product will depend on the intention and utilisation of the product Ethanol is not necessarily khamr although the intoxicating substance in khamr is ethanol .
ALCOHOL IN FOODS AND FOOD PREPARATIONS .
Malaysia National Islamic Fatwa Committee (JAKIM) Cordials which contain any flavouring substances with a certain amount of alcohol added as a stabiliser for the purpose as a drink. 24 November 1988 . is allowed on the condition that : The alcohol is not derived from ‘khamr (intoxicating alcoholic beverage = liquor) production The quantity of alcohol in the flavour is small (insignificant) such that it will not intoxicate Decision of the 22nd National Fatwa Committee Meeting.
0 0.5 0.% ALCOHOL PERMITTED IN FOODS COUNTRY Malaysia (JAKIM) Indonesia (MUI) Thailand (AOI) Singapore (MUIS) Brunei (BIRC) Europe UK Canada % ALCOHOL 0.5 Not allowed Not allowed AOI = ADMINISTRATION OF ORGANIZATIONS OF THE ISLAMIC ACT JAKIM = DEPARTMENT OF ISLAMIC DEVELOPMENT MALAYSIA MUI = MAJELIS ULAMA INDONESIA MUIS = MAJLIS UGAMA ISLAM SINGAPURA BIRC = BRUNEI ISLAMIC RELIGIOUS COUNCIL .0 < 0.0 1.01 1.
Vinegar Dyna Tonic Dyna Tonic (Ten Shae Theng) Teriyaki W. 10. 15. 3. 16.07 0.No 1 2.1 0. Name of Samples Curry Sauce Sweet ‘n’ Sour Sauce Barbeque Sauce Dark Soy Sauce Lea & Perrins Rice Vinegar Sauce (Brand A1) Asian Sesame Dressing Burgess Mint Jelly Melon Flavour Wine Vinegar Tabasco Pepper Sauce Yee Tonic (Ten Shae Theng) Alcohol Content (% v/v) 0. 6.8 17. 5.1 0. 7. 17. 25. Clear Soy Sauce (Ajinomoto) Kikkoman Teriyaki Marinade & Sauce *Cough Syrup (medicine) Gourmet Cooking (Shao Hsing Hua Tiao Chiew) *Mouth Wash A (Personal Care Product) *Mouth Wash B (Personal Care Product) 3.1 0.26 0.1 0. 21.6 0. 9.7 1. 23. 14.0 3.1 4.J. 2006) 8. 19.09 0.5 0. 12. 11.3 0.5 2. 4.1 20.9 4.S Carbonated Drink Soy sauce (Kikkoman) 0.5 ALCOHOL CONTENT IN FOODS (JAKIM.3 0.22 0.6 18 35 * Not food 24.07 0. 18. . 13.4 0. 22.
et al (2010).V.ALCOHOL CONTENT IN FOODS Lau S. Unpublished Data) .
01% to 0.ISSUE # 3 What should be the level of alcohol allowed to be present in food and beverage (for halal certification)? Setting the permissible level at 0.1%) such as energy drinks. higher a ethanol content may be allowed in such intermediate products .05% is not practical as most foods and beverage have alcohol contents in excess of 0.01%. There are foods that have relatively higher alcohol contents (up to 0. Intermediate products (flavour and colouring) have higher ethanol contents but they are not for direct consumption. fermented or cultured drink and vinegar but the inherent nature of products such as vinegar or sauces and the manner it is used would not lead to any possibility of intoxication. Hence.
DRINK AND FOOD PREPARATION .KHAMR IN FOOD.
Berita Minggu 17 Feb 2008 ISSUE .
ALCOHOL BURN-OFF CHART
Preparation Method Alcohol added to boiling liquid & removed from heat Alcohol flamed No heat, stored overnight Baked, 25 minutes, alcohol not stirred into mixture Percent Retained 85% 75% 70% 45%
Baked/simmered dishes with alcohol stirred into mixture: 15 minutes cooking time 30 minutes cooking time 1 hour cooking time 1.5 hours cooking time 2 hours cooking time 2.5 hours cooking time 40% 35% 25% 20% 10% 5%
DRINKS WITH KHAMR
Shandy = Beer + Lemon Juice Alcohol content = 0.5% v/v
Alcoholic Energy Drink = Beer Added Alcohol content = 6 -10 % v/v
drink or food preparation as this will be seen as contaminating the food with a prohibited substance Some khamr will remain in food even after it has been subjected to the most severe heating or cooking .ISSUE # 3 Is it permissible for alcohol (khamr) to be added in food. drink or food preparation drink? Will the alcohol be totally evaporated off during cooking? It is not permissible to add khamr to any food.
ALCOHOL INTOXICATION .
INTOXICATION EFFECTS .
MODEL FOR ETHANOL INTOXICATION AND METABOLISM • Introduced by Erik Matteo Prochet Widmark (1889 – 1945). Principles and Applications of Medico-legal Alcohol Determination (1932) . a physiology expert from Sweden • He wrote a book.
oz.82 = Density of ethanol (oz. EtOH/drink) Where: N = Number of drinks W = Body weight in ounces r = Widmark rho (L/kg) Ct = BAC at time t (kg/L) β = Elimination rate (Kg/L/hr) t = Time in hours from first drink 0.) .82(fl.WIDMARK’S FORMULA Wr( C t + t) N= 0./fl.oz.
Source : faculty. Washington State University. A Harm Reduction Approach. G. L..A. D. Baer.html . Kivlahan.R. and Marlatt.S.A.INTOXICATION CHART Source : Dimeff.edu/chudler/alco. (2005). J..washington.
BAC is 2 times higher in an empty stomach .APPLICATION OF WIDMARK’s FORMULA • • BAC depends on the rate of food intake.
05 0.5 1 Alcohol Content (%) * Based on Widmark’s Formula .1 0.05 % w/v) * 100000 ASSUMPTIONS Gender = Female 10000 Weight = 55kg Time = 1 hr Volume (ml) 1000 100 10 0.01 0.VOLUME (ml) CONSUMED IN 1 HOUR BEFORE INTOXICATION LIMIT (BAC = 0.
CONSUMPTION BEFORE LIMIT OF INTOXICATION (BAC = 0.000 NO.130 2430 1350 19 9 5 Not Possible (X) Possible (/)/Not possible (/) Possible (/) Volume of one glass (mug) = 270 ml .000 24.300 200 90 Not Possible (X) Not Possible (X) 0.0 2.1 54.05 0.01 (ML) 243.5 1.05% w/v) ALCOHOL CONTENT (%) 0. OF GLASSES 900 COMMENT Not Possible (X) 0.0 5.
136: 629-635 . H. British Journal of Pharmacology.POTENCY FOR INTOXICATION OF VARIOUS ALIPHATIC ALCOHOLS Source : Akinshola.Y. British Journal of Pharmacology. T.E. (2001). Source : Liang. (2002). B. and Jiang.133(5): 651–658.
ISSUE # 4 Can medico-legal principles of intoxication be used to set the benchmark for a permissible alcohol content in drinks and foods? Arbitrarily setting benchmarks of permissible alcohol contents of foods and drinks does not appear to be a prudent approach Principles of intoxication adopted in the medico-legal field can possibly be used to assist in setting benchmarks on permissible alcohol content in food and drinks .
SETTING BENCHMARKS OF ETHANOL CONTENT FOR HALAL APPLICATION .
If anything was left out of that he gave it to his servant.HADITH Ibn Abbas reported that nabidh was prepared for Allah's Messenger (May Peace Be Upon Him) in the beginning of the night and he would drink it in the morning and the following night and the following day and the night after that up to the afternoon. From: Sahih Muslim. or gave orders for it to be poured out. Book 23 (4971.4974) .
Abdullah al-Ansari reported that Allah's Messenger (May Peace Be Upon Him) prohibited the preparation of Nabidh by mixing grapes and fresh dates and he forbade the preparation of Nabidh by mixing unripe dates with fresh dates.HADITH (SAYING OF THE PROPHET) Jabir b. .
FERMENTATION OF DATES (NABIDH) Nabidh from Fresh Dates Nabidh from Dried dates .
GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY MASS SPECTROMETER HEADSPACE ANALYSER (GC-MS-HS) .
010 0.004 0.061 0.ALCOHOL CONTENT IN FERMENTED DATES DAY (DRIED DATES) Amount of Ethanol (%) Amount of Methanol (%) Total Alcohol (%) DAY (FRESH DATES) Amount of Ethanol (%) Amount of Methanol (%) Total Alcohol (%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 0.000 0.10 0.00 0 1 2 Days 3 4 5 S.064 0.004 0.002 0.R.048 0.06 0.034 0.12 0.013 0.036 0.14 0.000 0.086 0.02 0.004 0.131 0.000 0. Munira. Unpublished Data .000 0.006 0.000 0.009 0.003 0.000 0.051 0 1 2 3 4 5 0.033 0.016 0.006 0.000 0.090 0.003 0.018 0.003 0. et al (2010).001 0.009 0.16 0.08 0.04 0.134 Fresh Dates sample Dry Dates Sample % Alcohol 0.000 0.040 0. A.
H. A.6 Nurul Hayati.8 1.0 0. et al (2010).8 *Tapai pulut is ready to be consumed after 72 hours fermentation Commercial Samples 1 2 3 4 Alcohol content (% v/v) 0.ALCOHOL CONTENT OF LAB AND COMMERCIAL TAPAI (FERMENTED GLUTINOUS RICE) Fermentation (hr) 24 48 72* Alcohol content (% v/v) 0.8 1.3 0. Unpublished Data .1 0.
COMPOUNDS DETECTED IN FERMENTED GLUTINOUS RICE (TAPAI) Compounds Acetaldehyde Propanal 2-methyl-propanal 3-methyl-butanal Ethanol 1-propanol 2-methyl-1-propanol 3-methyl-1-butanol Ethyl acetate 24 hours / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / Nurul Hayati.H. Unpublished Data 48 hours / 72 hours / 96 hours / . A. et al (2010).
70 Ethanol… 0 0 5 10 15 Days of Fermentation 14 6.40 5.03 Ethanol Content (%) 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 4 5 6 7 8 5. et al (2010). R.72 6.12 Nur Aimi. Unpublished Data .03 0.87 5.77 5.04 5.ETHANOL CONTENT IN FERMENTED NIPAH (PALM) SAP DAYS OF FERMENTATION 0 1 2 3 ETHANOL CONTENT (%) 0.29 6.
COMPOUNDS IN FERMENTED NIPAH SAP DAYS COMPOUNDS Formic acid. R. ethyl ester 0 7 14 21 28 35 42 50 + + + + + + Ethyl acetate Ethanol 1-propanol 2-methyl1propanol 3-methyl1-butanol Propanoic acid Acetic acid + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + Nur Aimi. Unpublished Data . et al (2010).
ISSUE # 5 What should be the alcohol contents in fermented foods? The maximum alcohol content in nabidh (fermented dates) at 3 days is around 0. Tapai has registered values higher than 1% but no record of intoxication exists. The effect of the density of the food matrix or substrate will need to be investigated further.06 %. The alcohol content of nipah (palm) sap is considerably higher .
EA-IRMS ANALYSIS OF ETHANOL .
RESULTS 13C OF ETHANOL SAMPLES .
13C OF ETHANOL STANDARDS SUCROSE CELLULOSE .
13 C OF RED AND WHITE WINES CELLULOSE .
13C OF INDUSTRIAL ETHANOL SUCROSE .
SUMMARY Samples are referenced vs.IRMS ON ETHANOL .1 permil Industrial ethanol is apparently derived from C4-plant products Cooking wine may be mixed with C4-plant derived ethanol Fermented glutinous rice ethanol does not show C4-plant isotopic signature . two international standards C3 (cellulose) and CH-6 (sucrose) Overall standard deviation is well below 0.
GC-GC TOF MASS SPECTROMETER .
GC GC CHROMATOGRAMS OF ETHANOL .
PCA PLOT OF ETHANOLS FROM DIFFERENT BOTANICAL SOURCE Nipah ethanol ne ne ne pe3 pe3 pe3 pe2 pe2 pe2 Pineapple ethanol pe1 pe1 pe1 se2 se2 se3 se1 se1 se2 Sugarcane ethanol ce ce Cassava ethanol ce .
cassava.MS ON ETHANOL : SUMMARY Ethanols from various plant sources can be clearly distinguished based on the congeners that present Treatment such as heating will alter the PCA regions but will still lie in the same latitude in the PCA plot Nipah.GC X GC. sugar cane and pineapple ethanols were analysed Fermented rice ethanol (?) .TOF.
USE OF ETHANOL VS. PROPYLENE GLYCOL IN FLAVOURS .
If alcohol is converted to another chemical then it would be Halal but other Islamic scholars recommend to consume product under this category because they said that the large or small quantity of this product do not intoxicate a person.HALAL IF NO ALCOHOL IS USED IN FLAVORS The criteria for food products under this category is the same as the Halal category except the food products here are made with natural or artificial flavors. The natural and artificial flavors used in these food products may or may not contain alcohol as a solvent but these flavors are not made with animal derived ingredients and they are Halal or genuine kosher certified We may even find the industry to respond to our Islamic dietary needs by using alternate solvents such as Propylene Glycol. Source : Muslim Consumer Group . Some Islamic scholars would not consider a food product Halal if alcohol or if flavor in which alcohol was used as a solvent even if it was completely evaporated during processing.
a flavor portion and a diluent portion.FLAVOUR COMPONENT A flavor compound is basically is composed of two parts. 61 .
FLAVOUR COMPONENT USE OF ALCOHOL IN FLAVOUR 1. As solvent/ Carrier In diluent portion facilitates the inclusion of several colouring. Matrix Flavours 62 . flavoring and/or aromatic compound 2. As flavouring agent In flavour portion to enhance the flavor impression and it's acceptability particularly the expression of top note 3. In extraction particularly of citrus/ essential oil Alter the miscibility property from oil to aqueous phase Source : Ms Maizatulanizah..
Matrix Flavours 63 .FLAVOUR COMPONENT Circle represents flavour as a whole Green triangle represents the flavour portion which Diluent Portion is further divided into Top Flavour Portion Note. Middle/ Spine/ Frame Note and Base/ Foundation note Blue area represents diluents Source : Ms Maizatulanizah..
Vanillin Maltol Diluent Source : Ms Maizatulanizah.g.FLAVOUR COMPONENT E..g. Acetaldehyde Ethyl Alcohol Ethyl Formate E.g. Matrix Flavours 64 . Diacetyl Ethyl propionate Top note Volatile component Middle /Spine/Frame note Body component Base/Foundation note Solid component E.
ISSUE # 6 Is propylene glycol a suitable alternative to ethanol in flavour applications? Propylene glycol can be a suitable alternative to ethanol as a solvent and carrier for flavour compounds In the extraction of essential oils. ethanol can result in a wider selection of flavour notes. This is the area that will matter most if ethanol is selected as a solvent in the extraction process .
CONCLUSION It is proposed that a scientific approach is adopted assisting scholars to obtain a benchmark for permissible alcohol contents in food and drinks Explore medico-legal principles as possibility in setting benchmark for alcohol content Scientific methods can be further developed to be a robust method for traceability of the source of alcohol in foods and drinks To resolve and harmonise the alcohol issue is imperative to enable the industry to expand further .