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AMITY UNIVERSITY

Rajasthan

A
TRAINING REPORT ON
PLC AND SCADA

SUBMITTED TO
Ms. Pushpa Gothwal

S UBMITTED BY
Indira Kundu

B.tech(ECE) 7th semester

October 31, 2014


CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that this project report on PLC and SCADA is submitted by
Indira Kundu, who carried out the project work under my supervision.I approve
this project for submission of the Bachelor of Engineering in the Department
of Electronics and Communication, Amity School of Engineering and Technol-
ogy, Amity University Rajasthan, affiliated to UGC.

FACULTY
Ms. Pushpa Gothwal
ASET(AUR)

i
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
It gives me immense pleasure to express my deepest sense of gratitude and sin-
cere thanks to my highly respected and esteemed guide Ms.Pushpa Gothwal,
Faculty of Amity School of Engineering and Technology, for her valuable guid-
ance, encouragement and help for completing this work. Her useful suggestions
for this whole work and co-operative behavior are sincerely acknowledged.

Indira Kundu
(Student)

ii
Contents
CERTIFICATE i

ACKNOWLEDGMENT ii

1 INTRODUCTION TO AUTOMATION 1

2 Programmable Logic Controller 2


2.1 Features of PLCS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2.2 History of PLCS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2.3 Components of PLC: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2.4 PLC OPERATION AND PLC SCAN CYCLE: . . . . . . . . . 4
2.5 Ladder Logic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.6 Ladder Logic Programming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

3 SCADA 8
3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3.2 WONDERWARE-INTOUCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.3 Manufacturers of SCADA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.4 Features of SCADA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.4.1 Dynamic Process Graphics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.4.2 Real-time and Historical Trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3.4.3 Alarms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3.4.4 Recipe Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
3.4.5 Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
3.4.6 Device Connectivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
3.4.7 Database Connectivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
3.4.8 Scripts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
3.5 Potential benefits of SCADA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
3.6 Where SCADA is used ? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

iii
4 Project Using PLC: Glowing of four LED using START, STOP and
SELECTOR Switches 17
4.1 Project Objective: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
4.2 Hardware and Software Used: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
4.3 Working of Project: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
4.4 Programming: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
4.5 Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
4.6 Future Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

5 Project Using SCADA: Sewage Water Treatment 25


5.1 Project Objective: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
5.2 Software Used: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
5.3 Working of Project: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
5.4 Programming: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
5.5 Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
5.6 Future Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

6 CONCLUSION 33

REFERENCES 34

iv
List of Figures
1 PLC scan cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2 Basic Ladder Logic Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3 Basic Ladder Logic Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
4 Basic Program to show input and output . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
5 Examine if Closed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
6 Output energize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
7 Examine if open . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
8 Schematic of DPG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
9 Schematic of Trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
10 Schematic of Alarm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
11 Schematic of Receipe management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
12 Receipe manager window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
13 Schematic of Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
14 Schematic of PLC-1000 micrologix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
15 Flowchart of Ladder logic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
16 Start button is pressed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
17 B3:0/0 is high and Red LED glows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
18 B3:0/1 is high and Green LED glows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
19 B3:0/2 is high and Yellow LED glows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
20 Counters get Reset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
21 Schematic of Object Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
22 Window in develpoment mode in Window maker . . . . . . . . 28
23 Schematic of Window Script used . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
24 Sedimentation of water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
25 Oxygenation and chlorination of water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
26 Passing water through filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

v
1 INTRODUCTION TO AUTOMATION
Automation is the use of control systems such as computers to control indus-
trial machinery and process,reducing the need for human intervention. In the
scope of industrialization, automation is a step beyond mechanization. Whereas
mechanization provided human operators with machinery to assist them with
physical requirements of work, automation greatly reduces the need for human
sensory and mental requirements as well. Processes and systems can also be
automated.
Automation Impacts:

1. It increases productivity and reduce cost.


2. It gives emphasis on flexibility and convertibility of manufacturing pro-
cess. Hence gives manufacturers the ability to easily switch from manu-
facturing Product A to manufacturing product B without completely re-
built the existing system/product lines.
3. Automation is now often applied primarily to increase quality in the man-
ufacturing process, where automation can increase quality substantially.
4. Increase the consistency of output.
5. Replacing humans in tasks done in dangerous environments.

Advantages of Automation:

1. Replacing human operators in tasks that involve hard physical or monotonous


work.Also task done in dangerous environments.
2. Performing tasks that are beyond human capabilities of size, weight, speed,
endurance, etc.
3. Economy improvement: Automation may improve in economy of enter-
prises, society or most of humanity.

Disadvantages of Automation:

1. Technology limits: Current technology is unable to automate all the de-


sired tasks.
2. Unpredictable development costs: The research and development cost of
automating a process may exceed the cost saved by the automation itself.
3. High initial cost: The automation of a new product or plant requires a
huge initial investment in comparison with the unit cost of the product.

1
2 Programmable Logic Controller
A programmable logic controller, PLC is a digital computer used for automation
of typically industrial electromechanical processes, such as control of machin-
ery on factory assembly lines etc.It is a solid state user programmable control
system with functions to control logic, sequencing, timing, arithmetic data ma-
nipulation and counting capabilities. It can be viewed as an industrial computer
that has a central processor unit, memory, input output interface and a pro-
gramming device. The central processing unit provides the intelligence of the
controller. It accepts data, status information from various sensing devices like
limit switches, proximity switches, executes the user control program stored in
the memory and gives appropriate output commands to devices such as solenoid
valves, switches etc.
A constant demand for better and more efficient manufacturing and process
machinery has led to the requirement for higher quality and reliability in control
techniques. With the availability of intelligent, compact solid state electronic
devices, it has been possible to provide control systems that can reduce mainte-
nance, down time and improve productivity to a great extend.One of the latest
techniques in solid state controls that offers flexible and efficient operation to
the user is programmable controllers.

2.1 Features of PLCS


1. PLC is an industrial computer control system that continuously monitors
the state of input devices and makes decisions based upon a custom pro-
gram to control the state of output devices.

2. It is designed for multiple inputs and output arrangements, extended tem-


perature ranges, immunity to electrical noise, and resistance to vibration
and impact.

3. Almost any production process can greatly enhanced using this type of
control system, the biggest benefit in using a PLC is the ability to change
and replicate the operation or process while collecting and communicat-
ing vital information.

4. It is modular i.e. one can mix and match the types of input and output
devices to best suit one’s application.

2
2.2 History of PLCS
1. The first PLCS were designed and developed by Modicon as a relay re-
placer for GM and Landis.

2. The primary reason for designing such a device was eliminating the large
cost involved in replacing the complicated relay based machine control
systems for major U.S. car manufacturers.

3. These controllers eliminated the need of rewiring and adding additional


hardware for every new configuration of logic.

4. The first PLC, model 084, was invented by Dick Morley in 1969.

5. The first commercial successful PLC, the 184, was introduced in 1973
and was designed by Michel Greenberg.

2.3 Components of PLC:


The PLC mainly consists of a CPU, memory areas, and appropriate circuits to
receive input/output data. We can actually consider the PLC to be a box full
of hundreds or thousands of separate relays, counters, timers and data storage
locations.Each component of a PLC has a specific function:

1. The CPU is the brain of a PLC system. It consists of the microprocessor,


memory integrated circuits and circuits necessary to store and retrieve
information from memory. It also includes communication ports to the
peripherals, other PLCs or programming terminals. The job of the pro-
cessor is to monitor status or state of input devices, scan and solve the
logic of a user program, and control on or off state of output devices.

2. Counters - These are simulated counters and they can be programmed to


count pulses. Typically these counters can count up, down or both up and
down. Since they are simulated they are limited in their counting speed.
Some manufacturers also include high-speed counters that are hardware
based. We can think of these as physically existing.

3. Timers - These come in many varieties and increments. The most com-
mon type is an on-delay type. Others include off-delay and both retentive
and non-retentive types. Increments vary from 1 millisecond to 1 second.

4. Output Relays (coils) - These are connected to the outside world. They
physically exist and send on/off signals to solenoids, lights, etc. They can
be transistors, relays depending upon the model chosen.

3
5. Data Storage - Typically there are registers assigned to simply store data.
They are usually used as temporary storage for math or data manipulation.
They can also typically be used to store data when power is removed from
the PLC. Upon power-up they will still have the same contents as before
power was removed

2.4 PLC OPERATION AND PLC SCAN CYCLE:


There are four basic steps in the operation of all PLCS which continually take
place in a repeating loop.

1. Input Scan: Detects the state of all input devices that are connected to the
PLC.

2. Program Scan: Executes the user created program logic.

3. Output Scan: Energizes or de-energize output devices that are connected


to the PLC. Depending on the PLC design, this process of updating the
output devices may be done at the end of program execution or updated
immediately upon execution of its corresponding logic statement in the
user program

4. Housekeeping: This step includes communications with programming


terminals, internal diagnostics etc.

PLC SCAN CYCLE: The completion of a cycle of the controller is called


a Scan. The scan time needed to complete a full cycle by the controller gives
the measure of the speed of execution for the PLC.

Figure 1: PLC scan cycle

4
SCAN TIME Time taken by PLC to execute these three steps (Checking
Input status, Executing Program, Updating Output Status) is denoted by its scan
time.

2.5 Ladder Logic


Ladder logic is one form of drawing electrical logic schematics, and is a graph-
ical language very popular for programming PLCS. Ladder logic was originally
invented to describe logic made from relays. The name is based on the observa-
tion that programs in this language resemble ladders, with two vertical ”rails”
and a series of horizontal ”rungs” between them.

Figure 2: Basic Ladder Logic Program

2.6 Ladder Logic Programming


Introduction
Ladder logic are the most common programming language used to program
a PLC. Ladder logic was one of the first programming approaches used in PLCS
because it borrowed heavily from the relay diagrams that plant electricians al-
ready knew.
A program in ladder logic, also called a ladder diagram, is similar to a
schematic for a set of relay circuits. Ladder logic is widely used to program

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Figure 3: Basic Ladder Logic Program

PLCS, where sequential control of a process or manufacturing operation is re-


quired. Ladder logic is useful for simple but critical control systems, or for
reworking old hardwired relay circuits. As programmable logic controllers be-
came more sophisticated it has also been used in very complex automation sys-
tems.A simplified ladder logic circuit with one input and one output. The logic
of the rung above is such:

Figure 4: Basic Program to show input and output

1. If Input1 is ON (or true) - power (logic) completes the circuit from the
left rail to the right rail - and Output1 turns ON (or true).

2. If Input1 is OFF (or false) - then the circuit is not completed and logic
does not flow to the right - and Output 1 is OFF (or false).

With just a handful of basic symbols such as a normally open contact, normally
closed contact, normally open coil, normally closed coil, timer and counter most
logical conditions can be represented.
Examine if Closed

Figure 5: Examine if Closed

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This can be used to represent any input to the control logic such as a switch
or sensor, a contact from an output, or an internal output. When solved the
referenced input is examined for a true (logical 1) condition. If it is true, the
contact will close and allow logic to flow from left to right. If the status is
FALSE (logical 0), the contact is open and logic will NOT flow from left to
right.
Output energize
This can be used to represent any discrete output from the control logic.
When ”solved” if the logic to the left of the coil is TRUE, the referenced output
is TRUE (logical 1).

Figure 6: Output energize

Examine if open
When solved the referenced input is examined for an OFF condition. If the
status is OFF (logical 0) power (logic) will flow from left to right. If the status
is ON, power will not flow.

Figure 7: Examine if open

Basic Timers and Counters


A timer is simply a control block that takes an input and changes an output
based on time. It is used for providing delay. There are two basic types of
timers. An On-Delay Timer takes an input, waits a specific amount of time,
allows logic to flow after the delay. An Off-Delay Timer allows logic to flow
to an output and keeps that output true until the set amount of time has passed,
then turns it false, hence off-delay.
A counter simply counts the number of events that occur on an input. There
are two basic types of counters called up counters and down counters. As its
name implies, whenever a triggering event occurs, an up counter increments the
counter, while a down counter decrements the counter whenever a triggering
event occurs.

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3 SCADA

3.1 Introduction
SCADA stands for Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition. As the name
indicates, it is not a full control system, but rather focuses on the supervisory
level. As such, it is a purely software package that is positioned on top of hard-
ware to which it is interfaced, in general via PLC. SCADA systems are now
also penetrating the experimental physics laboratories for the controls of ancil-
lary systems such as cooling, ventilation, power distribution, etc. More recently
they were also applied for the controls of smaller size particle detectors such as
the L3 moon detector and the NA48 experiment, to name just two examples at
CERN.
SCADA systems have made substantial progress over the recent years in
terms of functionality, scalability, performance and openness such that they are
an alternative to in house development even for very demanding and complex
control systems as those of physics experiments.
The process can be industrial, infrastructure or facility based as described
below:

1. Industrial Process: it includes those of manufacturing, production, power


generation, fabrication and refining and process may be in continuous,
batch, repetitive or discrete modes.

2. Infrastructure Process: it may be public or private, and water treatment


and distribution, wastewater collection and treatment, oil and gas pipelines,
electrical power transmission and distribution, and large communication
systems.

3. Facility Process: it occur both in public facilities and private ones, in-
cluding buildings, airports, ships and space stations. They monitor and
control HVAC, access and energy consumption.

A SCADA System usually consists of the following Subsystems:

1. A Human-Machine Interface (HMI) is the apparatus which presents pro-


cess data to a human operator, and through this, the human operator mon-
itors and controls the process.

2. A supervisory (computer) system, gathering (acquiring) data on the pro-


cess and sending commands (control) to the process.

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3. Remote Terminal Units (RTU) connecting to sensors in the process, con-
verting sensor signals to digital data and sending digital data to the super-
visory system.

4. Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) used as field devices because they


are more economical, versatile, flexible, and configurable than special-
purpose RTUs.

5. Communication infrastructure connecting the supervisory system to the


Remote Terminal Units.

3.2 WONDERWARE-INTOUCH
Intouch is worlds leading supervisory control and data acquisition software.
The InTouch software package consist of Tags (Memory + I/O). The package is
available in 64, 256, 1000 and 64,000 Tags with the three options:

1. D+R+N ( Development +Run + Networking)

2. R+N ( Run +Networking )

3. Factory focus

With DRN package one can develop as well as run the application but in case
of RN one cannot develop/modify the application. The application can be de-
veloped by using DRN package and can be installed on RN package.

3.3 Manufacturers of SCADA


1. Allen Bradley : RS View

2. Siemens: win cc

3. Wonderware : Intouch

3.4 Features of SCADA


1. Dynamic Process Graphic

2. Alarm summary

3. Alarm history

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4. Real time trend

5. Historical time trend

6. Security (Application Security)

7. Data base connectivity

8. Device connectivity

9. Scripts

10. Recipe management

3.4.1 Dynamic Process Graphics

1. Using this feature, one can develop graphics which can resemble the
plant.

2. The graphic can include Reactor, Valves, Pumps, agitators, conveyors as


well as other equipment and machinery used in the plant.

3. The status of the equipment running / stopped can be shown using differ-
ent color / animations.

4. Typically the SCADA Software will have many ready to use symbols for
proper representation which can be used in any type of industry.

Figure 8: Schematic of DPG

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3.4.2 Real-time and Historical Trends

1. This facility is used for representing the data in graphical form.

2. Typically the trends plots the value with reference to the time.

3. Real-time data will plot the real-time value fixed period of time while
historical data stored value which can be viewed on demand.

4. Depending upon the storing capacity of the hard-disk on can specify the
no of days the data can be stored .

5. Some SCADA software show real-time and historical trends in single


graphics while few others use separate tools.

Figure 9: Schematic of Trends

3.4.3 Alarms

1. Every plant need proper monitoring and control of the process parame-
ters.

2. Alarms represent warnings of process conditions that could cause prob-


lems, and require an operator response.

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3. Generally alarms are implemented by using the lamps or hooters in field
but in SCADA it can be represented using animation.

4. In many SCADA software, four type of alarm limits are used ie HI, HIHI,
LOW, LOW LOW.

Figure 10: Schematic of Alarm

3.4.4 Recipe Management

1. In many case we use the same plant for manufacturing different prod-
uct range. for example an oil blending plant can manufacture power oil,
transformer oil, automobile oil.

2. The recipe management is facility is used to maintain various recipes of


different products and implement it on the process.

3. The recipe can be stored in a single server and it can be fetched by any
client server from any area to run the process.

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Figure 11: Schematic of Receipe management

Figure 12: Receipe manager window

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3.4.5 Security

1. Every SCADA Software has various levels of security for securing the
application by avoiding unauthorized access.
2. Depending upon the access level given the operator / engineers is allowed
to do the task. In the most of the case, operators are allowed only to op-
erate the plant while maintenance engineers can do the application modi-
fications.
3. The security can be given for individuals as well as for groups.

Figure 13: Schematic of Security

3.4.6 Device Connectivity

1. Every Control hardware has its own communication protocol for commu-
nicating with different hardware / software. Some of the leading com-
munication protocol include Modbus, Profibus, Ethernet, Dh+, DH 485,
Devicenet, Control net.
2. The Scada Software needs device driver software for communication with
PLC or other control hardware.
3. More the driver software available better is the device connectivity. Most
of the SCADA software used in the industry have connectivity with most
of the leading control system.

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3.4.7 Database Connectivity

1. In many plants, it is important to download the real-time information to


the Management information system. In this case the database connectiv-
ity is must.
2. Many SCADA software don’t have their own database. Hence for storage
and reporting they use third party database like MS Acess or SQL.

3.4.8 Scripts

1. Script is a way of writing logic in SCADA software, every SCADA soft-


ware has its own instruction and way of writing programme.
2. Use scripts, one can develop complex applications. You can create your
own functions to suit the requirement. execution.
3. Various types of scripts make project execution simpler for programmer.

3.5 Potential benefits of SCADA


The benefits one can expect from adopting a SCADA system for the control of
experimental physics facilities can be summarised as follows:

1. The amount of specific development that needs to be performed by the


end-user is limited, especially with suitable engineering.
2. Reliability and robustness: These systems are used for mission critical
industrial processes where reliability and performance are paramount.
In addition, specific development is performed within a well-established
framework that enhances reliability and robustness.
3. Technical support and maintenance by the vendor.

3.6 Where SCADA is used ?


1. Electric power generation, transmission and distribution: Electric utilities
use SCADA systems to detect current flow and line voltage, to monitor
the operation of circuit breakers etc.
2. Water and sewage: State and municipal water utilities use SCADA to
monitor and regulate water flow, reservoir levels, pipe pressure and other
factors. Industrial Processes such as Manufacutring.

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4 Project Using PLC: Glowing of four LED using
START, STOP and SELECTOR Switches

4.1 Project Objective:


To design a system using Programmable Logic Controller with the specifica-
tions given: There are four LEDs red, green, yellow and blue. Two push-button
switches are there for START, STOP and for LED selection there is SELECT
switch.The START button is pressed after that:

1. Condition 1:If SELECT switch is pressed once then red LED glows.
2. Condition 2:If SELECT switch is pressed twice then green LED glows.
3. Condition 3:If SELECT switch is pressed thrice then yellow LED glows.
4. Condition 4:If SELECT switch is pressed four times then blue LED glows.

4.2 Hardware and Software Used:


1. PLC:Allen Bradley Micro Logix 1000 with 10 Input / Output.
The MicroLogix 1000 programmable controller is a packaged controller
containing a power supply, input circuits, output circuits, and a processor.
The controller is available in 10 I/O, 16 I/O and 32 I/O configurations, as
well as an analog version with 20 discrete I/O and 5 analog I/O.

Figure 14: Schematic of PLC-1000 micrologix

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2. Programming Software: Rockwell software RS Logix 500 English
This family of products has been developed to operate on Microsoft Win-
dows operating systems.It Supports the Allen-Bradley SLC 500 and Mi-
cro Logix families of processors. RSLogix 500 benefits include:
(a) Cross-reference information
(b) Drag-and-drop editing
(c) Diagnostics
(d) Dependable communications
3. Communication Software: RS Linx.
4. Programming Language: Ladder Logic.
5. Communication Protocol: RS 232
6. Other Hardware: Push Buttons, Light Emitting Diode.

4.3 Working of Project:

Figure 15: Flowchart of Ladder logic

As specified in the objective there are four conditions under which LEDs
of different colors will glow. Once the STOP button is button is pressed the
process will stop. This whole idea is implemented in the ladder logic.

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4.4 Programming:
1. Figure with explanation

Figure 16: Start button is pressed

Rung 0000:

(a) The SELECTOR switch is indicated by I:0/0 which is connected


to four parallel UP counters C5:0(preset = 1), C5:1 (preset = 2),
C5:2(preset = 3),C5:4 (preset = 4). All the counters have their accu-
mulator value set to zero.
(b) These counters work on discrete pulses and count the number of
times the SELECTOR switch is pressed. Each time when the SE-
LECTOR switch is pressed the accumulator value of each counter is
incremented by 1 until the reaches the value of its preset.
(c) When the accumulators value = preset value, the DN bit of the
counter goes HIGH.

2. Figure with explanation


Rung 0001:

(a) The input XIC I:0/1 (START switch) is connected with XIC C5:0/DN,
XIO I:0/2 (STOP switch), XIO C5:1/DN, XIO C5:2/DN,XIO C5:3/DN
and the binary output B3:0/0.
(b) Except C5:0/DN all the DN bits are XIO because the condition 1 is
checked where except C5:0/DN none of the DN bits should be high.

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Figure 17: B3:0/0 is high and Red LED glows

(c) The output B3:0/0 is connected as input parallel to I:0/1 to make a


holding circuit, so that even if the START button is released B3:0/0
remains high.
(d) When the SELECTOR switch is pressed only once, the accumula-
tor value of all the counters becomes 1 and the C5:0/DN becomes
HIGH. Next when the START switch is pressed then all the inputs
in the rung are HIGH, therefore, the output B3:0/0 will be energized
i.e. it goes HIGH.

Rung 0002:

(a) B3:0/0 is connected as input to the output O:0/0. The output O:0/0
indicates the red LED.
(b) As soon as the B3:0/0 goes HIGH the output O:0/0 is energized.
Hence the output red LED glows.

3. Figure with explanation


Rung 0003:

(a) The input XIC I:0/1 (START switch) is connected with XIC C5:0/DN,
XIO I:0/2 (STOP switch), XIC C5:1/DN, XIO C5:2/DN,XIO C5:3/DN
and the binary output B3:0/0.

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Figure 18: B3:0/1 is high and Green LED glows

(b) Except C5:0/DN and C5:1/DN all the DN bits are XIO because here
condition 2 is checked where except C5:0/DN and C5:1/DN none of
the DN bits should be high.
(c) The output B3:0/1 is connected as input parallel to I:0/1 to make a
holding circuit, so that even if the START button is released B3:0/1
remains high.
(d) When the SELECTOR switch is pressed twice, the accumulator
value of all the counters becomes 2. The C5:0/DN and C5:1/DN
becomes HIGH.
(e) When the START switch is pressed then all the inputs in the rung
0003 are HIGH, therefore, the output B3:0/1 will be energized i.e.
it goes HIGH.
(f) Since, XIC C5:1/DN is now HIGH , therefore, XIO C5:1/DN in
rung 0001 goes LOW, therefore, B3:0/0 goes LOW and hence the
red LED stops glowing.

Rung 0004:

(a) B3:0/1 is connected as input to the output O:0/1. The output O:0/1
indicates the green LED.
(b) As soon as the B3:0/1goes HIGH the output O:0/1 is energized.
Hence the output green LED glows.

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4. Figure with explanation
Rung 0005:

(a) The input XIC I:0/1 (START switch) is connected with XIC C5:0/DN,
XIO I:0/2 (STOP switch), XIC C5:1/DN, XIC C5:2/DN,XIO C5:3/DN
and the binary output B3:0/2.
(b) Except C5:3/DN all the DN bits are XIC because here condition 3
is checked where C5:0/DN ,C5:1/DN and C5:2/DN bits should be
high.

Figure 19: B3:0/2 is high and Yellow LED glows

(c) The output B3:0/2 is connected as input parallel to I:0/1 to make a


holding circuit, so that even if the START button is released B3:0/2
remains high.
(d) When the SELECTOR switch is pressed thrice, the accumulator
value of all the counters becomes 3. The C5:0/DN, C5:1/DN and
C5:2/DN becomes HIGH.
(e) When the START switch is pressed then all the inputs in the rung
0005 are HIGH, therefore, the output B3:0/2 will be energized i.e.
it goes HIGH.
(f) Since, XIC C5:2/DN is now HIGH, therefore, XIO C5:2/DN in rung
0001 and 0003 goes LOW, therefore, the red and green LED stops
glowing.

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Rung 0006:

(a) B3:0/2 is connected as input to the output O:0/2. The output O:0/2
indicates the yellow LED.
(b) As soon as the B3:0/2goes HIGH the output O:0/2 is energized.
Hence the output yellow LED glows.

Rung 0007:

(a) The input XIC I:0/1 (START switch) is connected with XIC C5:0/DN,
XIO I:0/2 (STOP switch), XIC C5:1/DN, XIC C5:2/DN,XIC C5:3/DN
and the binary output B3:0/2.
(b) All the DN bits are XIC because here condition 4 is checked where
all DN bits should be high.
(c) The output B3:0/3 is connected as input parallel to I:0/1 to make a
holding circuit, so that even if the START button is released B3:0/3
remains high.
(d) When the SELECTOR switch is pressed four times, the accumula-
tor value of all the counters becomes 4. The C5:0/DN, C5:1/DN,
C5:2/DN and C5:3/DN becomes HIGH.
(e) When the START switch is pressed then all the inputs in the rung
0007 are HIGH, therefore, the output B3:0/3 will be energized i.e.
it goes HIGH.
(f) Since, XIC C5:3/DN is now HIGH, therefore, XIO C5:3/DN in rung
0001, 0003 and 0005 goes LOW, therefore, the red, green and yel-
low LED stops glowing.

5. Figure with explanation


Rung 0008:

(a) B3:0/3 is connected as input to the output O:0/3. The output O:0/3
indicates the blue LED.
(b) As soon as the B3:0/3goes HIGH the output O:0/3 is energized.
Hence the output blue LED glows.

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Figure 20: Counters get Reset

4.5 Results
All the conditions mentioned in the objective are obtained

4.6 Future Scope


1. The project based on glowing different LEDs can be extended in industry
environment for doing different automated tasks by usage of same set of
hardware, just by changing the program or logic stored in the PLC.

2. If the PLC is connected with SCADA using ”Device Connectivity” fea-


ture, various other features like Recipe Management, Alarms etc. can be
used to make the system more reliable for the industrial environment.

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5 Project Using SCADA: Sewage Water Treatment

5.1 Project Objective:


To design ”Sewage Water Treatment System” in Wonderware Intouch SCADA.

5.2 Software Used:


Wonderware Intouch version 9.0
Wonderware is a brand of industrial software sold by Schneider Electric.
Wonderware was part of Invensys PLC, and Invensys PLC was acquired in
January 2014 by Schneider Electric. Wonderware software is used in diverse
industries, including: Facilities Management, Food and Beverage, Mining and
Metals, Power, Oil and Gas, and Water and Waste water. Wonderware Intouch
software is an open and extensible Supervisory HMI and SCADA solution that
enables the rapid creation of standardized, reusable visualization applications
and deployment across an entire enterprise. InTouch SCADA consists of three
major programs:

1. Application Manager,
2. Window Maker
3. Window Viewer

The InTouch Application Manager organizes the applications created by the


user. InTouch Application Manager is used to create new applications, open
existing applications in either WindowMaker or Window Viewer, delete appli-
cations, and run the InTouch DBDump and DBLoad Tagname Dictionary utility
programs. It also is used to configure Window Viewer as an NT service, to con-
figure Network Application Development (NAD) for client-based and server-
based architectures etc.
Window Maker is the development environment, where object-oriented graph-
ics are used to create animated, touch-sensitive display windows. These display
windows can be connected to industrial I/O systems and other Microsoft Win-
dows applications.
Window Viewer is the run time environment used to display the graphic
windows created in Window Maker. Window Viewer executes InTouch Quick
Scripts, performs historical data logging and reporting, processes alarm logging
and reporting, and can function as a client and a server for DDE communication
protocols.

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5.3 Working of Project:
The project is made in Window Maker and executed in Window Viewer. In
window viewer, the project would run as:
When the START switch is turned on, water from the storage tank flows
to the sedimentation tank after passing through the screening filter. As soon
as the sedimentation tank is filled the rotator inside the tank is turned on so
as to deposit the sediments at the bottom of the tank. Next, clean water from
the sedimentation tank is transferred to the chlorine tank where the water is
chlorinated to kill the germs and make it fit for drinking. Next, the water is
oxygenated by passing oxygen gas into it in the chlorine tank. The water from
the chlorine tank is filtered and stored in another tank for usage.

5.4 Programming:
1. In the Intouch Application Manager, we select file → New → Create new
Application. This creates a new Intouch application.
2. When we double click on this application, it opens Intouch Window maker.
3. In Window maker we select File →New Window. A dialog box appears
asking for name, window type, window color and other properties.
4. We name the window as ”sewage water treatment”, window type as re-
place, frame style as single and click on OK. A window appears as per
defined by us.
5. Next we click on the wizard icon. The Wizard Selection window appears
in which there are various options of the graphical objects.
6. We select fixture switches from the Switches option of the Wizard selec-
tion window. The rest all other graphical objects will be picked from the
symbol factory option.
7. In the Wizard Selection window, we select symbol factory option and then
double click it. This opens the symbol factory window.
8. In the symbol factory window there are various categories of the graphical
objects like Tanks, agitator wheels etc. We select the different objects as
per our requirement.
9. For all the objects taken from the symbol factory, we perform ”Break
Cell” operation so that we are able to change their properties as per our re-
quirement Following is the figure showing the list of the properties avail-
able for each object from Symbol Factory:

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Figure 21: Schematic of Object Properties

10. For our project we require tanks, pipes, valves, agitators etc. these objects
are picked up the symbol factory and other objects like screening filter etc.
are built by us using the basic shapes and some like the oxygen bubbles
and the sediments are picked by performing ”break symbol” operation on
various objects of general manufacturing option (e.g. coal mining).

11. Next we place the objects as per the setup required for water treatment and
modify the objects property. For example, when water is to be transferred
from one tank to the other the source tank must be full initially and the
liquid level of the source tank should decrease steadily and water level in
the destination tank should increase steadily in the destination tank.

12. For this we double click on the tank, select ”vertical” under ”fill” option.
We give the tag name A and then specify the values of maximum and
minimum fill percentages along with the values of the ’A’.

13. Similarly other properties of the objects are changed.

14. The finished window is shown as below:

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Figure 22: Window in develpoment mode in Window maker

15. We see that we need to use duplicate of the tanks and rotators in case
of sedimentation and oxidation tank because a tank once filled cannot
be emptied and a rotator once rotated cannot be stopped. Hence their
duplicates are used keeping in mind their visibility.

16. Visibility is a property which is required when we want to use the same
properties of an object for more than once with different values of tag
name. In Intouch this is not allowed, therefore we make duplicate of the
object, then modify their properties and apply the visibility property.

17. Visibility comes under the category of miscellaneous property. Other mis-
cellaneous property which we have used in this project is ”orientation”.
We have used this property to show the rotation of the agitators. Other
property called ”blink” is used to show oxygenation of water by produc-
ing blinking effect in the bubbles.

18. Moreover, the pipe color needs to be grey initially, blue when water passes
through it and then again it should be grey. This is done by applying the
property ”analog fill color”. This property enables us to define color at
various break points.

19. Since there is no manual work i.e. no slider is being used, window script
has to be used for incrementing the value of the counter, whose tag name
is used as the expression for all other objects.

20. The script written for this project is shown below:

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Figure 23: Schematic of Window Script used

(a) There are two parts in the script:


(b) On Show: how the things should appear as soon as the window
viewer is started.
(c) While showing: how things will appear once the task starts to run
on window viewer.

21. As shown in the figure the window script follows simple ”if- else if- else”
with logical operators ”and-or-not”.

22. In the script we can see that the value of A is incremented when its value
is less than 105, the START switch is kept on and the STOP is off. The
increment is done in 1000 millisecond period. This can also be decreased
to increase the speed of execution.

23. As soon as the value of A becomes equal to 105, the value of A is reset to

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0 and the process repeats itself in an infinite loop until the STOP switch
is pressed on.

24. Now, we test our project in window viewer. For this we click on ”Run-
time!” icon at the top right corner of the tool bar.

25. This option takes us to the run- time environment. As soon as Window
Viewer is started we see that it follows the instructions of ”On Show” until
the switch is turned on. As soon as the switch is turned on, it follows the
instructions of ”While Showing”.

26. In case we find some anomaly in execution, we need to first switch to


Window Maker for rectifying it. For this we click on the ”development!”
icon placed at the top right corner of the Window Viewer.

27. We can change our script and properties of the various objects used in
Window Viewer but test its execution in Window Maker. The functions
of both are different.

28. The following snapshot shows the execution of the program:

(a) Transfer of sewage water from the storage tank to the sedimentation
tank.

Figure 24: Sedimentation of water

(b) Oxygenation and chlorination of water in the chlorine tank after its
sedimentation.

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Figure 25: Oxygenation and chlorination of water

(c) Chlorinated water is being passed through a filter and stored in an-
other tank for usage.

Figure 26: Passing water through filter

29. This process continues to execute repeatedly until the STOP switch is
turned on.

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5.5 Results
The design of ”Sewage Water Treatment System” is successfully implemented
in Intouch SCADA.

5.6 Future Scope


1. This project can be implemented practically when SCADA is connected
with PLC. More enhanced features can be added up to it. For e.g. Reverse
Osmosis purification system can be added.

2. The project based on sewage can be extended to water purification sys-


tems, oil refinery systems in industries.

3. The project can also be extended to packaged drinking water industries


where water is first purified, then filled into bottles, capped, labelled and
then sold in bottles.

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6 CONCLUSION
With the speed of changing technology today it is easy to lose sight or knowl-
edge of the basic theory or operation of programmable logic. Most people sim-
ply use the hardware to produce the results they desire. Hopefully, this report
has given the reader a deeper insight into the inner workings of programmable
logic and its role in mechanical operations. The idea of programmable logic is
very simple to understand, but it is the complex programs that run in the lad-
der diagrams that make them difficult for the common user to fully understand.
Hopefully this has alleviated some of that confusion.
SCADA is used for the constructive working, using a SCADA system for
control ensures a common framework not only for the development of the spe-
cific applications but also for operating the detectors. Operators experience the
same ”look and feel” whatever part of the experiment they control. However,
this aspect also depends to a significant extent on proper engineering.

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References
[1] Richard A. Cox, ”Technicians Guide to Programmable Controllers” , 4th
edition, Vikash Publishing House, New Delhi.

[2] J. R. Hackworth, F.D. Hackworth, ”Programmable Logic Controllers Pro-


gramming Methods and Applications” Pearson Education, New Delhi

[3] J. W. Webb, R A Reis , ”Programmable Logic Controllers Principle and


Applications” 5th edition, Prentice Hall of India ltd., New Delhi

[4] literature.rockwellautomation.com/idc/groups

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