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110 3. Orientation Kinematies 3.3 % Determination of Euler Parameters Assume a transformation matrix is given. Re=| ra rm ras (3.148) It is then possible to find the Euler parameters ¢o,¢1,¢2,¢3 and indicate the axis and angle of rotation by utilizing one of the following four sets of equations: 1 6 = t5vittm Fett a5vitn te Arye — ras Ans ray Ang = riz 7% OG Te 1 e: = t5vltm oes 45vTT Ira +r Ta La + ras a= Ta (3.150) 1 @ = t5vlon tno 45 + 1 ga + ray Ins-rn 0) dra tr a5 ro % ee RE (ous) 1 es = 45vToon tn tis a5vT F Ara rie Te Ursa + ras (3.152) Although Equations (3.149)-(3.152) present four different sets of solutions, their resulting Euler parameters e0,¢1,€2,¢9 are identical, Therefore, i= merical inaccuracies can be minimized by using the set with maximum divisor. ‘The plus and minus sign indicates that rotation @ about @ is equivalent to rotation —¢ about —i. Proof. Comparing (3.82) and (3.148) shows that for the first set of Equa- tions (8.149), eo can be found by summing the diagonal elements ri, 722, and rss to got tr (Ry) = de? —1. To find es, e2, and es we need to simplify 132 —Taa, T13 — Tai, and ra — m2, respectively. ‘The other sets of solutions (3.150)-(3.152) can also be found by compar- ison.