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GEOMETRY

for JEE (Main & Advanced)

VOL. 4

Mathematics

GEOMETRY

for JEE (Main & Advanced)

VOL. 4

Reader and HOD of Maths (Retd.)

Rajah R. S. R. K. R. R. College, Bobbili, Andra Pradesh, India

Mathematics

GEOMETRY

for JEE (Main & Advanced)

VOL. 4

Copyright © 2013 by Wiley India Pvt. Ltd., 4435-36/7, Ansari Road, Daryaganj, New Delhi-110002.

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by

any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or scanning without the written permission of the

publisher.

Limits of Liability: While the publisher and the author have used their best efforts in preparing this book, Wiley and the

author make no representation or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this book,

and specifically disclaim any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for any particular purpose. There are no

warranties which extend beyond the descriptions contained in this paragraph. No warranty may be created or extended

by sales representatives or written sales materials.

Disclaimer: The contents of this book have been checked for accuracy. Since deviations cannot be precluded entirely,

Wiley or its author cannot guarantee full agreement. As the book is intended for educational purpose, Wiley or its author

shall not be responsible for any errors, omissions or damages arising out of the use of the information contained in the

book. This publication is designed to provide accurate and authoritative information with regard to the subject matter

covered. It is sold on the understanding that the Publisher is not engaged in rendering professional services.

Other Wiley Editorial Offices:

John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030, USA

Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, Pappellaee 3, D-69469 Weinheim, Germany

John Wiley & Sons Australia Ltd, 42 McDougall Street, Milton, Queensland 4064, Australia

John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte Ltd, 1 Fusionopolis Walk #07-01 Solaris, South Tower Singapore 138628

John Wiley & Sons Canada Ltd, 22 Worcester Road, Etobicoke, Ontario, Canada, M9W 1L1

ISBN: 978-81-265-3583-5

ISBN:978-81-265-8073-6 (ebk)

www.wileyindia.com

Printed at: Beekam Print & Pack (P) Ltd., Delhi

Dedication

Dedicated to

Sri. Poojya Ganapati Sachchidananda Swamyjee,

Dattanagar, Mysore, Karnataka

Dr. G. S. N. Murti

Acknowledgments

1. My special thanks to Mr. Paras Bansal, Publisher and Ms. Meenakshi Sehrawat, Senior Developmental

Editor, of Wiley India for their constant help and support.

2. My sincere and heartful thanks to Wiley India Pvt. Ltd. for giving me the opportunity to write this

textbook.

Dr. G. S. N. Murti

Features and Benefits

at a Glance

Feature Benefit to student

Chapter Opener Peaks the student’s interest with the chapter opening vignette, definitions

of the topic, and contents of the chapter.

Clear, Concise, and Inviting Students are able to Read this book, which reduces math anxiety and

Writing Style, Tone and Layout encourages student success.

Theory and Applications Unlike other books that provide very less or no theory, here theory is

well matched with solved examples.

Theorems Relevant theorems are provided along with proofs to emphasize

conceptual understanding.

Solved Examples Topics are followed by solved examples for students to practice and

understand the concept learned.

Examples Wherever required, examples are provided to aid understanding of

definitions and theorems.

Quick Look Formulae/concepts that do not require extensive thought but can be

looked at the last moment.

Try It Out Practice problems for students in between the chapter.

Subjective Problems Solved subjective problems for the preceding sections.

Summary Key formulae, ideas and theorems are presented in this section in

each chapter.

Worked Out Problems The problems are presented in the form of

Single Correct Choice Type Questions

Multiple Correct Choice Type Questions

Matrix-Match Type Questions

Comprehension-Type Questions

Integer Answer Type Questions

In-depth solutions are provided to all problems for students to

understand the logic behind.

Exercises Offer self-assessment. The questions are divided into subsections which

include large number of Multiple Choice Questions as per requirements

of JEE (Main & Advanced).

Answers Answers are provided for all exercise questions for students to validate

their solution.

Note to the Students

The JEE (Main & Advanced) is one of the hardest exams to crack for

students, for a very simple reason – concepts cannot be learned by rote,

they have to be absorbed, and IIT believes in strong concepts. Each

question in the JEE (Main & Advanced) entrance exam is meant to push

the analytical ability of the student to its limit. That is why the questions

are called brainteasers!

Students find Mathematics the most difficult part of JEE (Main &

Advanced). We understand that it is difficult to get students to love

mathematics, but one can get students to love succeeding at mathematics.

In order to accomplish this goal, the book has been written in clear, concise,

and inviting writing style. It can be used as a self-study text as theory is well

supplemented with examples and solved examples. Wherever required,

figures have been provided for clear understanding.

If you take full advantage of the unique features and elements of this

textbook, we believe that your experience will be fulfilling and enjoyable.

Let’s walk through some of the special book features that will help you in

your efforts to crack JEE (Main & Advanced).

To crack mathematics paper for JEE (Main & Advanced) the five things

to remember are:

1. Understanding the concepts

2. Proper applications of concepts

3. Practice

4. Speed

5. Accuracy

The picture on the cover is Jatiyo Smriti Soudho or National Martyrs'

Memorial – a monument located in Savar, Bangladesh – which is built

to commemorate the valour and the sacrifice of those killed in the

Bangladesh Liberation War of 1971. The monument is composed of seven

isosceles triangular pyramid shaped towers, with the middle one being the

tallest, that is, 150 feet. The arrangement of the seven towers is unique. The

planes are arranged uniquely so that one can see its distinctive patterns

when looking at it from different angles.

A. PEDAGOGY

CHAPTER OPENER

Rectangular

Each chapter starts with an opening vignette,

Coordinates, Basic

Formulae, Locus and

Change of Axes

1 definition of the topic, and contents of the

chapter that give you an overview of the

chapter to help you see the big picture.

y Contents

1.1 Rectangular Coordinates

1.2 Basic Formulae

Basic Formulae, Locus and

1.3 Locus

−x x

Rectangular Coordinates,

Worked-Out Problems

−y

Summary

Exercises

y

Answers

−z x

−x

Change of Axes

when it moves according to a

given rule (or rules). In other

−y

words, a locus is the path of

90°

a single moving point that

obeys certain conditions.

180° 0°

270°

Equiangular spiral

g p p g y

Special attention has been paid to present an DEFINITION 4.1 Cone Let S be a non-empty set of Fpoints

HHE in the space. Then, S is called a cone if there ex-

ists a point V S such that the line VP is Fcontained in S for all points P in S. This point V is

HHE

engaging, clear, precise narrative in the layout called the vertex of the cone and the line VP where P S is called generator of the cone S.

(1) Every line is a cone with every point on the line as (3) Two intersecting planes form a cone with every point

math anxiety students may have. vertex and the line is the only generator. on their line of intersection as vertex.

(2) Every plane is a cone with all of its points as vertices.

DEFINITION 4.2 Degenerate and Non-degenerate Cones The cones described in the examples of Definition 4.1

are called degenerate cones. Generally, cones that are having more than one vertex are called

DEFINITIONS degenerate cones. Cones which do not degenerate are called non-degenerate cones. Using the

three-dimensional analytic geometry (Chapter 6), we can verify that the locus represented by the

equation x 2
y2 z2 0 is a cone with origin as the vertex.

DEFINITION 4.3 Base Curve or Guiding Curve If a plane is not passing through the vertex and intersects all

the generators of a cone, then the intersection of the plane and the cone are called base curve

Every new topic or concept starts with or guiding curve.

defining the concept for students. Related DEFINITION 4.4 Circular Cone and Right Circular Cone If the base curve is a circle, then it is called a circular

cone (see Fig. 4.1). If the base curve is a circle and the line connecting the centre of the base

and the vertex of the cone is perpendicular to the plane of the circle, then the cone is called

examples to aid the understanding follow the right circular cone.

definition.

EXAMPLES

Example 2.13

Write 2x 3y 5 0 in the normal form. What is the dis- To make the RHS positive, we multiply both sides with

tance of the line from origin? (−1). Thus, the normal form is

¥
2 ´ ¥
3 ´ 5

Examples pose a specific problem using

Solution: In 2x 3y 5 0, the constant 5 should be ¦§ µ x ¦§ µy

taken to the RHS of the equation, that is

where

13 ¶ 13 ¶ 13

concepts already presented and then work

2x 3y −5

cos A

2

13

and sin A

3

13

through the solution. These serve to enhance

get

2 3 5

Now, the distance of the line from the orgin is the students’ understanding of the subject

x y c 5 5

13 13 13 p

a 2 b2

13

13 matter.

Example 2.14

distance from the origin.

3 4

cos A and sin A

Solution: The equation 3x 4y − 10 0 can be 5 5

written as 3x 4y 10. Dividing both sides with

Now the distance of the line from the origin is

a 2 b2 32 4 2 5, we get

10 10

3 4 p 2

x y 2 5 5

5 5

¥ a ´ ¥ b ´
c

1. ¦ µ x¦ 2 µy is the normal form of the given line if c 0.

§ a 2 b2 ¶ § a b2 ¶ a 2 b2

¥
a ´ ¥
b ´ c

2. ¦ µ x¦ 2 µy is the normal form of the given line if c 0.

§ a 2 b2 ¶ § a b2 ¶ a 2 b2

PROOF Suppose x cos A y sin A p is the normal form of ax by c 0. Therefore, by Theorem 2.10,

there exists a real K x 0 such that cos@ Ka, sin@ Kb and −p Kc. Now,

cos2@ sin2@ 1

1

implies K±

a 2 b2

Also −Kc p 0 (since p is the distance of the line from origin) implies that

« 1

® 2 if c 0

® a b2

L¬

®
1

THEOREMS ® a 2 b2

if c 0

¥ a ´ ¥ b ´
c

x¦ µ y¦ 2 µ

§ a 2 b2 ¶ § a b2 ¶ a 2 b2

Relevant theorems are provided along with or if c 0, the normal form of the line is

x¦

a ´ ¥

µ y¦ 2

b ´

µ

c

§ a 2 b2 ¶ § a b2 ¶ a 2 b2

ing rather than rote learning.

QUICK LOOK 1

x2 y2 5. b a.

The properties of the curve 1 are as follows:

QUICK LOOK

a2 b2 6. If P(x, y) is a point on the ellipse

2. For any point (x, y) on the curve, we have a b x b a a2 b2

and b b y b b. then we have

3. The x-axis meets the curve at A(a, 0) and Aa(−a, 0).

The y-axis meets the curve at B(0, b) and Ba(0, −b).

SP e(PM) e(NZ) e(CZ − CN)

¥a ´

Some important formulae and concepts that

4. For each value of x, e ¦ xµ a ex

y pb 1

x 2

§e ¶

7. Since the curve is symmetric about both axes, there

do not require exhaustive explanation, but

a2 must be second focus and directrix. Another focus

and for each value of y,

Sa(−ae, 0) and its corresponding directrix is their mention is important, are presented in

a

x pa 1

y2 x

e this section. These are marked with a magni-

b2

fying glass.

TRY IT OUT Try it out Try Example 5.15 for the hyperbola x 2 y2 a 2 whose asymptotes are x p y 0.

problems to reinforce and check their under-

standing. This would help build confidence

as one progresses in the chapter. These are

marked with a pointed finger.

1. If p1 and p2 are the distances between the opposite Also

sides of a parallelogram and @ is one of its angles,

then show that the area of the parallelogram is p1p2 a1a2 b1b2

cos A

cosec@. (a12 b12 )(a22 b22 ) Since geometry requires a lot of practice, some

Solution: ABCD is a parallelogram (see Fig. 2.18). AM Therefore

p1, DN p2 and BAD @.

(a1a2 b1b2 ) 2 chapters in addition provide numerous solved

sin 2 A 1 cos2 A 1

Area of the parallelogram (AB) p2 (2.17) (a12 b12 )(a22 b22 )

Now from $AMP, sin@ p1/AB and hence we have AB (a1b2 a2 b1 )2

examples in the pattern of Subjective Problems.

p1 cosec@. Therefore, from Eq. (2.17), the area of the par- (2.18)

(a12 b12 )(a22 b22 )

allelogram p1p2 cosec@.

Now the area of the parallelogram (by Problem 1) is

We have provided such problems within the

D C

p2

a

p1 p2 (cosec A )

d1
c1

d2
c2

(a12 b12 )(a22 b22 ) chapter, near to the concept.

p-a a12 b12 a22 b22 a1b2
a2 b1

a 90°

B

A N a

[from Eq. (2.18)]

p1 90° (d1
c1 )(d2
c2 )

M

a1b2
a2 b1

FIGURE 2.18

3. Prove that the area of the parallelogram formed by the

2. Show that the area of parallelogram whose sides are lines 4y − 3x − a 0, 3y − 4x a 0, 4y − 3x − 3a 0 and

a1x b1y c1 0, a1x b1y d1 0, a2x b2y c2 0 and 3y − 4x 2a 0 is 2a2/7.

a2x b2y d2 0 is

Solution: Rewriting the equations of the sides of the

(d1
c1 )(d2
c2 ) parallelogram, we have

a1b2
a2 b1 3x − 4y a 0

4x − 3y − a 0

Solution: Consider Fig. 2.18. Let the equations of the

3x − 4y 3a 0

sides be a1x b1y c1 0, a1x b1y d1 0, a2x b2y

c2 0 and a2x b2y d2 0. Therefore, and 4x − 3y − 2a 0

p1 4 and b2 −3. Therefore, by Problem 2,

a12 b12

(d1 c1 )(d2 c2 )

d2 c2 Area

p2 a1b2 a2 b1

a22 b22

SUMMARY

2.1. Slope of line: Let l be a non-vertical line (i.e., l is not 4. Intercept form: If a and b are x and y intercepts of a

parallel to y-axis) making an angle P with the posi- x y

At the end of every chapter, a summary is pre- tive direction of x-axis. Then, tan P is called the slope

of the line l. Generally, the slope of a line is denoted

line (ab x 0), then the line equation is 1.

a b

Note: Area of the triangle formed by the coordi-

sented that organizes the key formulae and by m.

Caution: The concept of slope is followed only for nate axis and the line

x y 1

1 is ab sq. unit.

a b 2

non-vertical lines.

theorems in an easy to use layout. The related Note: Slope of a horizontal line (which is parallel to

5. Slope–intercept form: The equation of a non-

vertical line which is having slope m and

x-axis) is always zero.

topics are indicated so that one can quickly 2.2. If A(x1, y1) and B(x2, y2) are two points on a non-

y-intercept c is

y mx c

FHHHE y
y1

summarize a chapter. vertical line, then the slope of the line AB is 2

x2
x1

. Note: Equation of any line (except the y-axis)

passing through origin is the form y mx.

6. Normal form: Let l be a line whose distance from

2.3. Intercepts on the axes: If a line l meets x-axis at

(a, 0) and y-axis at (0, b), then a is called x-intercept the origin is ON ( p) and ON make an angle @

and b is called y-intercept of the line l. with the positive direction of the x-axis. Then, the

equation of the line l is x cos @ y sin @ p.

2.4. Equations of the axis: The equation of x-axis is y 0

and the equation of y-axis is x 0. 2.6. Definition (first-degree equation): If a, b and c are

real and either a or b is not zero, then ax by c is

2.5. Various forms of straight line equations: called first-degree expression in x and y and ax by

c 0 is called first-degree equation in x and y.

1. Two-point form: Equation of the line passing

through two points (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) is 2.7. Theorem: Every first-degree equation in x and y rep-

(x – x1) (y1 – y2) (y – y1) (x1 – x2) resents a straight line and the equation of any line in

the coordinate plane is a first-degree equation in x

2. Point–slope form: Equation of the line which is and y.

having slope m and passing through the point

(x1, y1) is 2.8. General equation of a straight line: First-degree

equation in x and y is called the general equation of

y – y1 m(x – x1) a straight line.

3. Symmetric form: If a non-vertical makes an angle

2.9. Various forms of ax by c 0, where abc x 0:

P with the positive direction of x-axis and passes

through a point (x1, y1), then its equation is 1. Slope–intercept form:

x
x1 y
y1 ¥
a ´ ¥
c ´

y ¦ µ x¦ µ

cos Q sin Q § b¶ § b¶

Note: In the above relation, if we consider that

2. Intercept form:

each ratio is equal to r (real number), then every

point on the line is of the form (x1 rcosP, y1 x y

rsinP). Also r gives the distance of the point (x, y) 1

(
c / a) (
c / b)

on the given line from the fixed point (x1, y1).

B. WORKED-OUT PROBLEMS AND ASSESSMENT

Mere theory is not enough. It is also important to practice and test what

has been proved theoretically. The worked-out problems and exercise at

the end of each chapter will enhance the concept building of students. The

worked-out problems and exercises have been divided into:

1. Single Correct Choice Type Questions

2. Multiple Correct Choice Type Questions

3. Matrix-Match Type Questions

4. Comprehension-Type Questions

5. Integer Answer Type Questions

WORKED-OUT PROBLEMS

In-depth solutions are provided to all worked-out problems for students to understand the logic behind

and formula used.

Single Correct Choice Type Questions

1. If the line 3ax 5y a 2 0 passes through the point 1 4c

c 24 c2 36 c p6

TYPE QUESTIONS

( 1, 4), then value of a is 2 3

(A) 9 (B) 7 (C) −9 (D) −7 Since y-intercept is positive, the value c is 6 and the equa-

Solution:

have

Since the line passes through (
1, 4), we

tion of the line is 3x 4y
24 0.

Answer: (B) These are the regular multiple choice ques-

3a(
1) 5(4) a
2 0 3. A non-horizontal line passing through the point (4,
2)

and whose distance from the origin is 2 units is

tions with four choices provided as asked in

2a 18 0

Hence, a 9 and the line is 27x 5y 7 0.

(A) 3x 4y
10 0

(C) 4x 3y
10 0

(B) x y
2 0

(D) 2x 3y
2 0

JEE (Main & Advanced). Only one among

Answer: (A)

Solution: Let the slope of the line be m. Now the

equation of the line, by Theorem 2.2, is

the four choices will be the correct answer.

a triangle of area 24 sq. units with coordinate axes.

Then, the equation of the line is y 2 m( x 4)

(C) 3x 4y 25 0 (D) 3x 4y 25 0 m(0 4) 0 2

2

Solution: Let the line be m2 1

¥ 3´ (2 m 1)2 m2 1

y ¦ µ xc

§ 4¶

3m 2 4 m 0

so that the intercepts on the x and y axes, respectively, are 4

4c/3 and c. Therefore, the area of the triangle (by Quick m 0,

3

Look 4) is

1. For the hyperbola 9 x 2 16 y2 18 x 32 y 151 0, 2. If the circle x2 y2 a2 cuts the hyperbola xy c2 at

which of the following are true? four points (xk, yk) (where k 1, 2, 3 and 4), then

5 (A) x1 x2 x3 x4 0 (B) y1 y2 y3 y4 0

(A) Eccentricity is

4 (C) x1 x2 x3 x4 c4 (D) y1 y2 y3 y4 c4

(B) Foci are (−4, 1) and (6, 1)

Solution: The abscissa xk (where k 1, 2, 3 and 4) are

(C) Centre is (1, −1) the roots of the equation

9

(D) Length of the latus rectum is

2 c4

x2 a2

Solution: The given equation is x2

x 4 a2 x 2 c4 0

9( x 2 2 x) 16( y2 2 y) 151 0

Therefore

9( x 1)2 16( y 1)2 151 9 16 144

x1 x2 x3 x4 0

2 2

( x 1) ( y 1)

1 Since the coefficient of x3 is zero, we have

16 9

¤ x1 x2 a 2 , ¤ x1 x2 x3 0, ¤ x1 x2 x3 x4 c 4

X2 Y2

1

16 9 Now,

eccentricity e is given by y1 y2 y3 y4 c 2 ¦

§ x1 x2 x3 x4 ¶µ

9 25 c 2 ( ¤ x2 x3 x4 )

9 16(e 2 1) or e 2 1

16 16 x1 x2 x3 x4

e

5

c 2 (0)

c4

0

4

TYPE QUESTIONS

Finally

The centre is given by c 2 c 2 c 2 c 2 c8

y1 y2 y3 y4 c4

( X 0, Y 0) ( x
1 0, y 1 0) (1,
1) x1 x2 x3 x4 c 4

The foci is given by Answers: (A), (B), (C), (D)

Multiple correct choice type questions have ( X p ae, Y 0) ( x
1 p 5,
1) (6,
1) and (
4,
1) 3. On the ellipse 4x2 9y2 1, the points at which the

tangents are parallel to the line 9y 8x are

The latus rectum is given by

four choices provided, but one or more of the 2b2 2(9) 9

¥ 2 1´

(A) ¦ , µ

§ 5 5¶

2 1

(B) ¥¦ , ´µ

§ 5 5¶

a 4 2

choices provided may be correct. Answers: (A), (C), (D)

MATRIX-MATCH TYPE QUESTIONS

Matrix-Match Type Questions These questions are the regular “Match the

1. Match items of Column I with those of Column II. a b

xx1 y(0)
( x x1 )
( y 0) x12
ax1

2 4 Following” variety. Two columns each con-

Column I Column II 4 xx1
2ax
2ax1
by 4 x12
4ax1

(A) If x-axis bisected (p) (
d,
2) (2, d)

each of two chords

2(2 x1
a) x
by 2ax1
4 x12 0 taining 4 subdivisions or first column with

drawn from the point

(a, b/2) on the circle

This passes through the point (a, b/2). This implies

that four subdivisions and second column with

2x(x
a) y(2y
b)

0 (ab x 0), then a/b

belongs to (q) (
2, 2)

¥ b´

2(2 x1
a)a
b ¦ µ 2ax1
4 x12 0

§ 2¶ more subdivisions are given and the student

¥ b2 ´

(B) If the circles x2 y2

10x 16 0 and

4 x12 6ax1
¦ 2a 2 µ 0

§ 2¶ should match elements of column I to that of

x2 y2 r2 intersect

in two distinct

points, then r lies in

(which has two distinct real roots)

¥ b2 ´

column II. There can be one or more matches.

4 x12
6ax1 ¦ 2a 2 µ 0

the interval (r) (
d,
2 ) ( 2, d) § 2¶

(C) If the line y x 0 (which has two distinct real roots)

bisects chords drawn

from the point (1

¥ b2 ´

(6a)2 4(4) ¦ 2a 2 µ

a 2 /2, 1
a 2 /2) § 2¶

to the circle 2x2 9a 2 2(4a 2 b2 )

(s) (
3, 3)

2y2
(1 a 2 )x

a 2 2b2

(1
a 2 )y 0, then

a belongs to a

2

(D) Point (2, K) lies b

inside the circle x2

y2 13 if and only if (t) (2, 8) Therefore

K belongs to a a

2 or 2

b b

Solution:

Answer: (A) m (r)

(A) The given circle equation is

(B) O (0, 0) and A (5, 0) are the centres and r, 3 are

S y 2 x 2 2 y2
2ax
by 0 the radii of the circles. The two circles intersect in

b two distinct points. So

S y x 2 y2
ax
y 0

2 r
3 OA r 3

Let (x1, 0) be the midpoint of a chord of the circle. r
3 5r3

Therefore, the equation of the chord is

COMPREHENSION-TYPE QUESTIONS

Comprehension-Type Questions

Comprehension-type questions consist of 1. Passage: Consider the straight line 3x y 4 0. An- (A) x
3 y 4 0 (B) x
3y 5 0

swer the following questions.

x
3y
4 0 (D) x
3 y 2 0

a small passage, followed by three multiple (i) The point on the line 3 x y 4 0 which is

equidistant from the points (
5, 6) and (3, 2) is

(C)

(iii) If the line y 5 k( x
3) is parallel to the given

line then the area of the triangle formed by this

choice questions. The questions are of single (A) (
1,
1) (B) (
2, 2)

1

line and the coordinate axes (in sq. units) is

(C) (
3, 5) (D) (
,
3) 8 16

correct answer type. 3

(ii) Equation of the line passing through the point

(A)

3

(B)

3

(C) 4 (D) 5

(1, 1) and perpendicular to the given line is

Solution:

(ii) Line perpendicular to the given line is of the form

(i) Let A (
5, 6) and B (3, 2). The slope of AB is

1

6
2
1 y xc

3

5
3 2

This line passes through (1, 1). It implies that

and the midpoint of AB (
1, 4). Hence, the per-

pendicular bisector of the segment AB is 1 2

1 c c

y
4 2( x 1) or 2 x
y 6 0 . Solving this equa- 3 3

tion and the given line equations, we have x
2

Thus, the required line is

and y 2. Thus, (
2, 2) is the point on the given

line which is equidistant from both A(
5, 6) and x 2

y or x
3 y 2 0

B(3, 2). 3 3

Answer: (B) Answer: (D)

1. The area of the quadrilateral formed by the lines 3. The orthocentre of the triangle formed by the lines

x y 1 is __________ sq. unit. x y 1, 2x 3y 6 and 4x – y 4 0 lies in the quad-

rant whose number is __________.

Solution: The given quadrilateral is a square with ver-

tices (1, 0), (0, 1), ( 1, 1) and (0, 1), and hence its area

is ( 2 )2 2.

Solution: Solving the above equations taken two by

two, the vertices of the triangle are

The questions in this section are numerical

Answer: 2 ¥ 3 8 ´

§ 5 5¶

¥ 3 16 ´

A ¦ , µ , B 3, 4 , and C ¦ , µ

§ 7 7¶

problems for which no choices are provided.

2. Two rays in the first quadrant, x y a and ax – y

1, intersect each other in the interval a (a0 , d). The

value of a0 is __________. (IIT-JEE 2006)

The equation of the altitude drawn from A to the side The students are required to find the exact

BC is

Solution: Solving the given two equations, we have

y

8 3¥ 3´

¦x µ

answers to numerical problems and enter the

1 a a(1 a ) a a 1 5 2§ 5¶

x

1 a

and y ax 1

1 a

1

1 a 3 x 2 y 5 (2.126) same in OMR sheets. Answers can be one-

Since the two rays intersect each other in the first quad- Again the equation of the altitude from B onto CA is

rant, we have x 0 and y 0 which implies that 1

y 4 ( x 3)

digit or two-digit numerals.

1 a 0 and a a 1 0 4

Therefore, if 1 a 0, then the a( a) 1 0 which is not x 4 y 13 (2.127)

sensible. Hence, a ( 1, 0). If a 0, then the lines x y 0 Solving Eqs. (2.126) and (2.127), the coordinates of the

and y 1 intersect in fourth quadrant. Thus, a x 0. orthocentre are

Hence, a 0 and a 2 1 0 a 1. Therefore, a0 1.

Answer: 1

EXERCISES

For self-assessment, each chapter has ad-

equate number of exercise problems where

EXERCISES

the questions have been subdivided into

Single Correct Choice Type Questions

1. Equation of the line through (0, 3) and having slope ¥ 19 5 ´

(A) ¦ , ¥ 19 5 ´

(B) ¦ , µ

various categories which include Multiple

2 is § 8 4 µ¶ § 8 4¶

(A) y 2 x 3 0 (B) y 2x 3 0

¥ 5 19 ´ ¥ 5 19 ´

Choice Questions as asked in JEE (Main &

(C) ¦ , µ (D) ¦ ,

(C) y 2x 3 0 (D) y 2 x 3 0 § 4 8¶ § 4 8 µ¶

2. Equation of the line passing through (
5, 2) and (3, 2) 5. If the area of the triangle formed by the line 2x

Advanced).

is 3y c 0 with coordinate axes is 27 sq. units, then

c is equal to

(A) x
2 0 (B) y
2 0

(C) x 2 0 (D) y 2 0 (A) p16 (B) p15 (C) p8 (D) p18

1. If the distance of the line 8x 15y K 0 from the 3

point (2, 3) is equal to 5 units, then the value of L is (A) the slope of l

2

(A) 24 (B) 24 (C) 146 (D) 146 (B) the line l passes through (0, 0)

(C) the intercept on the axes are 2, 3

2. If the line 3 x y – 9 0 is reduced to the form xcos@ (D) the line l forms a triangle of area 5 sq. units with

ysin @ p, then the coordinate axes

(A) A 60o (B) A 30o

4. If l is the line passing through the point (2, 3) and is

9 parallel to the line joining the points (4, 1) and ( 2, 3),

(C) p (D) p 9

2 then

3. If l is the line passing through the point (
2, 3) and (A) (
10,
1) is a point on l

perpendicular to the line 2x
3y 6 0, then (B) the slope of l is 6

In each of the following questions, statements are given in 1. Let S be the system of lines passing through the

two columns, which have to be matched. The statements in intersection of the lines x y – 1 0 and x – y – 1

column I are labeled as (A), (B), (C) and (D), while those 0. Match the items of Column I with those of Col-

in column II are labeled as (p), (q), (r), (s) and (t). Any umn II.

given statement in column I can have correct matching with

one or more statements in column II. The appropriate bub- Column I Column II

bles corresponding to the answers to these questions have

(A) Equation of the line (p) 2x – y – 2 0

to be darkened as illustrated in the following example.

belonging to S and

Example: If the correct matches are (A) m (p), (s), (B) m passing through the

(q), (s), (t), (C) m (r), (D) m (r), (t), that is if the matches point (2, 3) is

are (A) m (p) and (s); (B) m (q), (s) and (t); (C) m (r); (B) Equation of the line (q) x y – 1 0

and (D) m (r), then the correct darkening of bubbles will belonging to S and

look as follows: parallel to the line y

t 2 1i

1. Passage: Let u y x y 0, A (1, 2) and B (3, –1). (i) Area of the triangle in square units is

Answer the following questions.

1 2 1 1

(A) (B) (C) (D)

(i) If M is a point on the line u 0 such that AM 3 3 2 3 2 2

BM is minimum, then the reflection of M on the

line y x is (ii) The gradients of the two sides AB and AC are

(A) (2, –2) (B) (–2, 2) 1 1

(A) 3, (B) 2,

(C) (1, –1) (D) (–1, 1) 3 2

(ii) If M is a point on u 0 such that AM BM is (C) 2 1, 2 1 (D) 2 3 , 2 3

maximum, then the distance between M and the (iii) The circumradius of the triangle is

point N(1, 1) is

1 2 1 1

(A) 3 5 (B) 5 2 (C) 7 (D) 10 (A) (B) (C) (D)

3 3 3 2

(iii) If M i i 0 h h AM BM i

The answer to each of the questions in this section is a 4. In $ABC, the equations of the madians AD and BE,

non-negative integer. The appropriate bubbles below the respectively, are 2x 3y – 6 0 and 3x – 2y– 10 0.

respective question numbers have to be darkened. For 1

If AD 6, BE 11, then (Area of $ABC ) is

example, as shown in the figure, if the correct answer to 11

________.

the question number Y is 246, then the bubbles under Y

labeled as 2, 4, 6 are to be darkened.

5. P(1, 2), Q(4, 6), R(5, 7) and S(a, b) are the vertices

X Y Z W of the parallogram PQRS. Then, a b is equal to

0 0 0 0 _______.

1 1 1 1

6. The area of the triangle formed by the line x

2 2 2

y 3 and the angle bisectors of the pair of lines

3 3 3 3

x 2 y2 2 y 1 0 is ______ sq. unit.

4 4 4

5 5 5 5 7. A straight line through the origin O meets the par-

ll l li 4 2 9 d2 6 i P d

ANSWERS

ANSWERS

The Answer key at the end of each chapter Single Correct Choice Type Questions

contains answers to all exercise problems. 1. (A) 11. (D)

6. (D) 16. (B)

10. (B) 20. (C)

1. (B), (C) 4. (A), (B), (C)

2. (A), (C) 5. (A), (B), (C)

3. (A), (C)

1. (A) m (q); (B) m (t); (C) m (p), (r); (D) m (s) 3. (A) m (t); (B) m (p); (C) m (q); (D) m (r)

1. (i) m(A); (ii) m (C); (iii) m (A) 3. (i) m(C); (ii) m (B); (iii) m (A)

1. 4 4. 1

2. 5 5. 3

3. 3 6. 3

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Contents

1 Rectangular Coordinates, Basic Formulae, Locus and Change of Axes 1

1.1 Rectangular Coordinates ................................................................................................................................. 2

1.2 Basic Formulae................................................................................................................................................. 3

1.3 Locus ................................................................................................................................................................ 6

1.4 Change of Axes................................................................................................................................................ 7

Worked-Out Problems ................................................................................................................................... 11

Summary ........................................................................................................................................................ 18

Exercises ........................................................................................................................................................ 19

Answers .......................................................................................................................................................... 20

2.1 Straight Line ................................................................................................................................................... 22

2.2 Pair of Lines .................................................................................................................................................... 42

Worked-Out Problems ................................................................................................................................... 72

Summary ...................................................................................................................................................... 115

Exercises ...................................................................................................................................................... 118

Answers ........................................................................................................................................................ 123

3 Circle 125

3.1 Introduction.................................................................................................................................................. 126

3.2 Relation Between a Circle and a Line in its Plane ........................................................................................ 128

3.3 Classiﬁcation of Points in a Plane w.r.t. a Circle in the Same Plane ............................................................. 133

3.4 Relation Between Two Circles ...................................................................................................................... 150

3.5 Common Tangents to Two Circles ............................................................................................................... 159

Worked-Out Problems ................................................................................................................................. 170

Summary ...................................................................................................................................................... 205

Exercises ...................................................................................................................................................... 208

Answers ........................................................................................................................................................ 210

4 Parabola 211

4.1 Conic Section ............................................................................................................................................... 212

4.2 Parabola ....................................................................................................................................................... 213

Worked-Out Problems ................................................................................................................................. 249

Summary ...................................................................................................................................................... 276

Exercises ...................................................................................................................................................... 278

Answers ........................................................................................................................................................ 283

xx Contents

5.1 Ellipse........................................................................................................................................................... 286

5.2 Inverted Ellipse ............................................................................................................................................ 287

5.3 Hyperbola .................................................................................................................................................... 322

Worked-Out Problems ................................................................................................................................. 345

Summary ................................................................................... ..................................................................373

Exercises ..................................................................................................................................................... 377

Answers ....................................................................................................................................................... 383

6.1 Pre-Requisites .............................................................................................................................................. 386

6.2 Coordinates, Direction Cosines and Direction Ratios .................................................................................. 399

6.3 Plane ............................................................................................................................................................ 410

6.4 Line .............................................................................................................................................................. 421

Worked-Out Problems ................................................................................................................................. 430

Summary ................................................................................... ..................................................................454

Exercises ..................................................................................................................................................... 456

Answers ....................................................................................................................................................... 461

Index 463

Rectangular

Coordinates, Basic

Formulae, Locus and

Change of Axes

1

y Contents

1.1 Rectangular Coordinates

1.2 Basic Formulae

Basic Formulae, Locus and

1.3 Locus

−x x

Rectangular Coordinates,

Worked-Out Problems

−y

Summary

Exercises

y

Answers

−z x

−x

Change of Axes

when it moves according to a

given rule (or rules). In other

−y

words, a locus is the path of

90°

a single moving point that

obeys certain conditions.

180° 0°

270°

Equiangular spiral

2 Chapter 1 Rectangular Coordinates, Basic Formulae, Locus and Change of Axes

Geometry is a thought-provoking subject for any genuine mathematics student. Geometry was initially pursued by the

Indians and Greeks. That kind of geometry is called pure geometry. Even though pure geometry is very interesting,

sometimes the proofs needed constructions and also they were cumbersome. At this stage, the concept of studying

geometry by using algebra was introduced by Rene Descartes (1596 1650 AD). Thus, the modern analytic geometry

emerged and is called “Cartesian geometry” named after Rene Descartes. In the following section, we discuss the

rectangular Cartesian coordinates.

FHHHHHHE FHHHHHHE

Select a plane and in that plane, let X aOX and Y aOY be two perpendicularly intersecting lines (intersecting at O).

FHHHHHHE FHHHHHHE HHHHE HHHHE

X aOX is called

HHHHHE x-axis, YE aOY is called y-axis and O is called the origin. Further, OX and OY are called positive direc-

HHHHH

tions, and OX a and OY a are called negative directions. Let P be a point in the plane. From P, draw perpendicular PL

to x-axis and PM perpendicular to y-axis (see Fig. 1.1).

Y

M P

X O L X

Y

FIGURE 1.1

HHHE HHHHE HHHHE HHHHE

1. If OL and OM are in the directions of OX and OY , then we say that x is the x-coordinate of P and y is the

y-coordinate of P and we write P (x, y).

HHHE HHHHHE HHHHE HHHHE

2. If OL is in the direction of OX a and OM is in the direction of OY , then we write P ( x, y).

HHHE HHHHE HHHHHE HHHHHE

3. If both OL and OM are in the directions of OX a and OY a, then we write P ( x, y).

HHHE HHHHE HHHHE HHHHHE

4. If OL is in the direction of OX and OM is in the direction of OY a, then we write P (x, y).

QUICK LOOK 1

O (0, 0), P (x, 0) lies on the x-axis, Q (0, y) lies on the y-axis.

DEFINITION 1.1 Quadrants The regions bounded by ( OX , OY ), ( OX a , OY ), ( OX a , OY a ) and ( OX , OY a )

are the first, second, third and fourth quadrants, respectively.

Sign of the Coordinates

1. (x, y) lies in the first quadrant x 0, y 0.

2. (x, y) lies in the second quadrant x 0, y 0.

3. (x, y) lies in the third quadrant x 0, y 0.

4. (x, y) lies in the fourth quadrant x 0, y 0.

From the above list one can conclude that ( 2 , 1), ( 3, 2 ), ( 2, 3/2) and (1/2, 3 ) belong to the first, second,

third and fourth quadrants, respectively.

1.2 | Basic Formulae 3

In this section, we recall some of the basic formulae which have been discussed in your earlier mathematics classes in

school. We state such formulae without proofs.

1. The distance between two points A(x1, y1) and B(x2, y2) is given by

AB ( x1 x2 )2 ( y1 y2 )2

OP ( x
0)2 ( y2
0)2 x 2 y2

3. If A (x1, 0) and B (x2, 0), then

AB x1
x2

Also if A (0, y1) and B (0, y2) then

AB y1 y2

1.2.2 Notation

Let AFHHH

E B be two points. Thus, the line segment

and HHHHE connecting A and B is denoted by AB and the line through A Hand

HHHE

B by AB . The ray from A to B is denoted by AB (readers please observe the arrowheads in all cases). In vectors AB

means a line segment AB having direction from A to B.

1. Let A and B be two points and P be a point on AB lying between A and B. Then we say that P divides AB inter-

nally in the ratio AP:PB (see Fig. 1.2).

A P B

FIGURE 1.2

FHHHE

2. If P lies on the line AB (not in between A and B), then we say that P divides externally the segment AB and we

write the ratio as –(AP):PB or AP:–PB. The minus sign indicates external division.

3. The coordinates of a point P which divides the segment joining A(x1, y2) and B(x2, y2) in the ratio m:n (m n ≠ 0)

are

P¦ , µ

§ m n mn ¶

If m/n is positive, then division is internal division and if m/n is negative, the division is external division.

QUICK LOOK 2

The coordinates of the midpoint of the segment joining A(x1, y1) and B(x2, y2) are

¥ x1 x2 y1 y2 ´

¦§ , µ

2 2 ¶

4 Chapter 1 Rectangular Coordinates, Basic Formulae, Locus and Change of Axes

Examples

¥ 1´ ¥ 1´ 1 ¥ 1´

is 2 2

(2 2) (3 2) 17 . a 2 ¦ t 2 2 µ 4a 2 ¦ t µ a t ¦t µ 4

§ t ¶ § t¶ t § t¶

2. The distance between the points P(cos @, cos A ) 2

and Q (sin @, sin A ) is 1 ¥ 1´

a t ¦t µ

t § t¶

(cos A sin A )2 (cos B sin B )2 2 sin 2A sin 2B

2

¥ 1´

a ¦t µ

3. The distance between the points A(at2, 2at) and § t¶

B(a/t 2 , 2a/t ) is 2

¥ 1´

a¦t µ if a 0

§ t¶

Examples

1. The coordinates of the point which divides the seg- 2. If P divides AB in the ratio 2:1, then

ment joining A(2,
3) and B(3, 2) in the ratio 1:2

are ¥ 8 1´

P¦ , µ

¥ 2 s 2 1 s 3 2 s
3 1 s 2 ´ ¥ 7
4 ´ § 3 3¶

¦§ , µ¶ ¦§ , µ¶

1 2 1 2 3 3

Convention: If a point P divides the line joining A and B internally in the ratio 1:2 or 2:1, then P is called point of

trisection of AB .

The area of the triangle whose vertices are A(x1, y1), B(x2, y2) and C(x3, y3) is

1 1

x1 ( y2 y3 ) x2 ( y3 y1 ) x3 ( y1 y2 ) det A

2 2

¨ x1 x2 x3 ·

where A ©© y1 y2 y3 ¸¸ is a 3 × 3 matrix.

©ª 1 1 1 ¹¸

QUICK LOOK 3

Three points A(x1, y1), B(x2, y2), C(x3, y3) are collinear if and only if

x1 x2 x3

y1 y2 y3 0

1 1 1

QUICK LOOK 4

1.2 | Basic Formulae 5

In this section, we will discuss some important terms associated with a triangle. The vertices of the triangle would be

considered as A, B, C.

Centroid

The point of concurrence of the medians of a triangle is called the centroid of the triangle and is denoted by G. The

coordinates of the centroid of the triangle with vertices (x1, y1), (x2, y2) and (x3, y3) are

¥ x1 x2 x3 y1 y2 y3 ´

¦§ , µ¶

3 3

Incentre

The internal bisectors of the angles of a triangle are concurrent. This point is called the incentre of the triangle and is

denoted by I. The incentre is equidistant from three sides and this equal distance r is called the inradius of the triangle.

If a circle is drawn with centre at I and radius r, then this circle touches the sides of the triangle internally. (For more

details, see Chapter 4, Vol. 2.)

Incentre formulae

Let A(x1, y1), B(x2, y2) and C(x3, y3) be the vertices of a triangle and BC a, CA b and AB c. Thus, the incentre is

I¦ 1 , µ

§ abc abc ¶

Excentre

The point where the external bisectors of two angles and the internal bisector of one angle are concurrent is called the

excentre. Thus, there are three excentres, namely, excentre opposite to the vertex A (denoted by I1), excentre opposite

to the vertex B (denoted by I2) and excentre opposite to the vertex C (denote by I3). Also

I1 ¦ , µ

§ a b c a b c ¶

¥ ax bx2 cx3 ay1 by2 cy3 ´

I2 ¦ 1 , µ

§ a bc a bc ¶

¥ ax bx2 cx3 ay1 by2 cy3 ´

I3 ¦ 1 , µ

§ ab c ab c ¶

The point where the perpendicular bisectors of the sides of a triangle are concurrent is called the circumcentre of

the triangle. It is equidistant from the vertices of the triangle. This equal distance is denoted by R and is called the

circumradius. Thus, if a circle is drawn with the circumcentre as centre and circumradius R as radius, then that circle

will pass through the vertices of the triangle. Such a circle is called the circumcircle of the triangle.

Orthocentre

The point of concurrence of the three altitudes of a triangle is called the orthocentre of the triangle.

Note: The circumcentre and orthocentre lie inside the triangle if the triangle is acute.

6 Chapter 1 Rectangular Coordinates, Basic Formulae, Locus and Change of Axes

In a triangle, the feet of the altitudes, the midpoints of the three sides and the midpoints of the segments joining the

orthocentre and the vertices are concyclic. Such a circle is called the nine-point circle and its centre is called the nine-

point centre of the triangle. Also the nine-point centre N is the midpoint of the segment joining the circumcentre and

the orthocentre. The radius of the nine-point circle is half of the circumradius of the triangle because if $DEF is the

pedal triangle of $ABC, then the angles of $DEF are 180o 2A, 180o 2B and 180o 2C and the sides are a cos A,

b cos B and c cos C (see Theorem 4.23, page 223, Chapter 4, Vol. 2). If we use sine rule to $DEF, then we obtain that

R/2 is the circumradius of $DEF which is the radius of the nine-point circle.

QUICK LOOK 5

Nine-point circle of $ABC is the circumcircle of the pedal triangle of $ABC as well as the circle passing through

the midpoints of the sides.

IMPORTANT NOTE

In a triangle ABC, 2. The centroid G divides the segment joining the cir-

cumcentre and orthocentre in the ratio 1:2.

1. The circumcentre, the centroid, the nine-point cen-

tre and the orthocentre are collinear in the given or- 3. The nine-point centre is the midpoint of the segment

der (see Definition 4.7, page 228, Chapter 4, Vol. 2). joining the circumcentre and the orthocentre.

T H E O R E M 1.1 The feet of the perpendiculars drawn from a point on the circumcircle of a triangle onto its sides

are collinear. This line is called Pedal line or Simson’s line of the triangle. The converse of this theo-

rem is also true. That is, if from any point in the plane of a triangle, the feet of the perpendiculars

onto the sides are collinear, then the point lies on the circumcircle.

We can prove these two results by using plane geometry or what is called pure geometry. The

line LMN is the Pedal line (see Fig. 1.3).

N

A

P

M

L

B

FIGURE 1.3

1.3 Locus

In pure geometry, using congruent triangles property, it was proved that all the points on a line bisecting perpendicu-

larly the segment joining two given points are equidistant from the two given points and this line is called the perpen-

dicular bisector of the segment joining the two points. Of course, any point which is equidistant from these two given

points lies on this line. Thus, describing a set of points satisfying a certain geometrical condition(s) is difficult in pure

1.4 | Change of Axes 7

geometry. That is why mathematicians introduced analytical geometry (a combination of algebra and pure geometry)

and described the locus by algebraic equations. In this section, we introduce the concept of locus, equation of a locus

and few examples.

DEFINITION 1.2 Locus Let P be a geometrical condition(s) and S be the set of all points in the plane which

satisfy P. Then S is called a locus.

QUICK LOOK 6

S is the locus of a geometrical condition(s) P every point of S satisfies the condition P and every point

satisfying P belongs to S.

DEFINITION 1.3 Equation of the Locus Let S be a locus and f(x, y) 0 be an algebraic equation in x and y. If

every point P(x, y) belonging to S satisfies the equation f(x, y) 0 and any point in the plane

satisfying the equation f(x, y) 0 belongs to S, then f(x, y) 0 is called the equation of the

locus S.

Here afterwards, we will describe a locus by its algebraic equation.

In analytical plane, selection of the rectangular coordinate axes is arbitrary. When the axes change, the coordinates of

the point also change. The study of the relations between the original coordinates and the changed coordinates is

called change of axes. This change of axes is sometimes necessary to make the equation of a curve as simple as possible

to prove certain properties. Not that the same properties could not be proved otherwise, but the working out of the

proof would be more complicated. It is by experience that the student will learn the best method for change of axes.

In the following, we discuss three types of change of axes. We begin with shifting of the origin.

y Y

X O N X

x O (0, 0) L M x

Y

y

FIGURE 1.4

FHHHHE FHHHHE FHHHHHHHE FHHHHE

Let x aOx and y a Oy be the coordinate axes. Let Oa( x1 , y1 ) be a point. Through Oa draw lines X aOa X parallel to xa Ox

FHHHHHHE FHHHHE FHHHHHHE FHHHHE FHHHHE FHHHHE

and Y aOa Y parallel to ya Oy . Suppose Y aOaY meets x aOx in L. We call ( x aOx , y a Oy ) as the old system of axes and

FHHHHHHHE FHHHHHHE

( X aOa X , Y aOa Y ) as the new system of axes. Now, every point in the coordinate plane will have two systems of coor-

dinates, namely old coordinates (with respect to old axes) and new coordinates (with respect to new axes).

Suppose P is a point whose old and new coordinates are (x, y) and (X, Y), respectively. Draw PM perpendicular to

old x-axes meeting the new X-axes in N. Now

x OM OL LM OL Oa N x1 X X x1

8 Chapter 1 Rectangular Coordinates, Basic Formulae, Locus and Change of Axes

and

y PM PN NM PN Oa L Y y1

Thus, the relations between old and new coordinates of the point P are

x X x1

y Y y1 (1.1)

QUICK LOOK 7

1. Shifting of the origin is also called TRANSLA- 2. Equation f(x, y) 0 of a curve will be changed to

TION of axes. The effect on the coordinates is f(X x1, Y y1) 0.

Old coordinate New coordinate Corresponding

coordinate of the new origin

Note: The new origin Oa may be in any quadrant. Still the relation between old and new coordinates is the same.

FHHHHE FHHHHE HHHE

Let x aOx and y a Oy be original axes (old axes) (see Fig. 1.5). Rotate Ox about O through an angle P in the anticlock-

FHHHHHHE FHHHHHHE HHHHHE HHHHHE

wise sense. Let the new axes be X aOX and Y aOY ( OX a and OY a are not shown in the figure). Let P be a point in

FHHHHE

the plane and let its old and new coordinates be (x, y) and (X, Y), respectively. Draw PL perpendicular to x aOx (old

FHHHHHHE

x-axis) and PM perpendicular to X aOX (new X-axis). Draw MQ perpendicular to old x-axis and MN perpendicular

PL. Now

QOM Q NMO PMN 90B Q

x OL OQ
LQ
MN OQ
MN (1.2)

From $MOQ,

OQ

cos Q

OM

y

Y

P(x, y )

(X, Y ) X

q

N M

q

x O L Q x

y

FIGURE 1.5

1.4 | Change of Axes 9

Therefore

OQ OM cos Q X cos Q (1.3)

Also, from $PNM,

MN

sin Q

PM

Therefore

MN PM sin Q Y sin Q (1.4)

Hence from Eqs. (1.2), (1.3) and (1.4), we have

x X cos Q
Y sin Q

Again,

y PL

PN NL

PN MQ

MQ PN

X sin Q Y cos Q

Therefore

y X sin Q Y cos Q

The above-mentioned relations (in color screen) can be written in the form of a matrix equation as follows:

¨cos Q
sin Q · ¨ X · ¨ x ·

© sin Q

ª cos Q ¸¹ ©ªY ¸¹ ©ª y ¸¹

Notes:

1. If the origin is shifted to the point (x1, y1) and the axes are rotated through P in the anticlockwise sense, then the

old coordinates (x, y) will be transformed to

x X cos Q
Y sin Q x1 , y X sin Q Y cos Q y1

2. If the rotation is clockwise, then we have to replace P with –P.

DEFINITION 1.4 If a, b, h are real and at least one of a, h, b is not zero, then ax 2 2hxy by2 is called second

degree homogeneous expression and ax 2 2 hxy by2 0 is called second degree homogeneous

equation.

DEFINITION 1.5 If a, h, b, g, f, c are real and at least one of a, h, b is not zero, then ax 2 2 hxy by2 2 gx 2 fy c

is called second degree general expression and ax 2 2 hxy by2 2 gx 2 fy c 0 is called

second degree general equation.

Examples

1. 2 x 2 xy y2 3. 2 x 2 3 xy y2 x
y 1

2. x 2 2 xy y2 4. x 2 2 xy y2
x y 1

DEFINITION 1.6 In the second degree general expression, ax2, 2hxy, by2 are called second degree terms; gx, fy

are called first degree terms; and c is called constant term.

10 Chapter 1 Rectangular Coordinates, Basic Formulae, Locus and Change of Axes

T H E O R E M 1.2 If h2 ≠ ab, then to remove the first degree terms of the equation ax 2 2 hxy by2 2 gx 2 fy

¥ hf
bg gh
af ´

c = 0, the origin is to be shifted to the point ¦ , .

§ ab
h2 ab
h2 µ¶

PROOF Suppose that the origin is shifted to the point (x1, y1) and let x X x1, y Y y1. Therefore, the

given equation is transformed to

a( X x1 )2 2 h( X x1 )(Y y1 ) b(Y y1 )2 2 g( X x1 ) 2 f (Y y1 ) c 0

This implies

aX 2 2 hXY bY 2 2(ax1 hy1 g ) X 2(hx1 by1 f )Y

ax12 2 hx1 y1 by12 2 gx1 2 fy1 c 0

This further implies

aX 2 2 hXY bY 2 2(ax1 hy1 g ) X 2(hx1 by1 f )Y

(ax1 hy1 g ) x1 (hx1 by1 f ) y1 ( gx1 fy1 c) 0 (1.5)

hf bg gh af

x1 2

and y1

ab h ab h2

¥ hf bg gh af ´

Therefore, the origin is to be shifted to the point ¦ , so that Eq. (1.5) will be

§ ab h2 ab h2 µ¶

where x1 and y1 are as defined above.

IMPORTANT NOTE

1. Under shifting of origin, the second degree terms of 2. Under change of axes, only the coordinates of the

a second degree equation will not change. points will change, but the distance between two

points as well as the areas will not change.

T H E O R E M 1.3 To remove the xy-term from the equation ax 2 2 hxy by2 0, the axes are to be rotated through

the angle (1/2) Tan
1 [2 h/(a
b)] when a x b and through the angle P /4 when a b.

PROOF Suppose axes are rotated through an angle P in the anticlockwise sense. Let x X cos Q
Y sin Q

and y X sin Q Y cos Q . Therefore, the given equation will be transformed to

In this equation, the coefficient of xy is

2a sin Q cos Q 2 h(cos2 Q sin 2 Q ) 2b sin Q 0

(b a)sin 2Q 2 h cos 2Q 0

2h

tan 2Q , if a x b

a b

1 ¥ 2h ´

Q Tan 1 ¦ , if a x b

2 § a b µ¶

Worked-Out Problems 11

WORKED-OUT PROBLEMS

Since this chapter is only to recall what the students have 4. Show that the three points P(a, b c), Q(b, c a) and

learnt in their junior classes and practice the important R(c, a b) are collinear.

formulae, we give a combination of both subjective and

Solution: We have

objective type questions here. Students should practice

all questions. 1 a(c a
a
b) b(a b
b
c)

Area of $PQR

2 c(b c
c
a)

1

Questions Based on Basic ac
ab ba
bc
cb
ca

2

Formulae

1

1. Find the area of the triangle whose vertices are 0

2

A(2,
3), B(4, 2) and C(
5,
2). 0

Solution: We have Therefore P, Q, R are collinear (see Quick Look 3).

1

Area x1 ( y2
y3 ) x2 ( y3
y1 ) x3 ( y1
y2 ) 5. If the three points A(3, 1), B(2K, 3K) and C(K, 2K) are

2

collinear, find the value of K.

1

2[2
(
2)] 4[
2
(
3)]]
5(
3
2)

2 Solution: A, B and C are collinear implies

1 Area of $ABC 0

8 4 25

2

1

37 3(3L
2 L ) 2 L (2 L
1) L (1
3L ) 0

sq. units 2

2

1

3L 4 L 2
2 L L
3L 2 0

2. Show that the area of the triangle with vertices 2

A(
3, 4), B(6, 2) and C(4,
3) is 24.5 sq. units. L 2 2L 0

Solution: We have L 0 or L
2

1 Now

Area x1 ( y2
y3 ) x2 ( y3
y1 ) x3 ( y1
y2 )

2 K 0 B C so that A, B and C are collinear.

1 K
2 A (3, 1), B (
4,
6) and C (
2,
4)

3(2 3) 6(
3
4) 4(4
2)

2

1 6. If the three points (a, 0), (0, b) and (2, 2) are collinear,

15
42 8

2 then show that

1

49 1 1 1

2

a b 2

24.5 sq. units

Solution: By hypothesis

3. Prove that the points A(x, x – 2), B(x 3, x) and C(x 2,

1

x 2) form a triangle whose area is independent of x. a(b
2) 0(2
0) 2(0
b) 0

2

Solution: We have ab
2a
2b 0

1 2a 2b ab

Area of $ABC x[ x
( x 2)] ( x 3)[ x 2
( x
2)]

2 1 1 1

( x 2)( x
2
x) a b 2

1

2 x 4 x 12
2 x
4 7. The points (1, 2), (2, 4) and (t, 6) are collinear. Find t.

2

8 Solution: By hypothesis the area of the triangle is zero.

2 Therefore

4 sq. units which is independent of x

12 Chapter 1 Rectangular Coordinates, Basic Formulae, Locus and Change of Axes

1(4 6) 2(6 2) t(2 4) 0 That is, AC and BD have the same point as their mid-

2

1 point.

2 8 2t 0 Therefore

2

6 2t 0 ¥ x1 x3 y1 y3 ´ ¥ x2 x y2 y ´

¦§ , µ ¦ , µ

t4 2 2 ¶ § 2 2 ¶

x1 x3 x2 x, y1 y3 y2 y

8. If O is the origin and Q( 2, 4) is a point on OP such

x x1 x2 x3 , y y1 y2 y3

that OQ (1/3)OP, find the coordinates of P.

Solution: Let P (x, y). See Fig. 1.6. Now, D C(x 3, y3)

OQ (1/3)OP OP 3OQ

OQ:QP 1:2

Therefore A(x 1, y1) B(x 2, y2)

¥ x y´ FIGURE 1.7

( 2, 4) Q ¦ , µ

§ 3 3¶

x y Note: The student can remember it easily.

2, 4

3 3

x 6, y 12 11. If P(1, 2), Q(4, 6), R(5, 7) and S(a, b) are the verti-

ces of a parallelogram PQRS, then find the values of

P ( 6, 12) a and b. (IIT-JEE 1998)

1 2 Solution: According to the above formula (Problem

O (0, 0) Q (−2, −4) P (x , y ) 10), we have

FIGURE 1.6 a15–42

b27–63

9. If x1, x2, x3 as well as y1, y2, y3 are in GP with the same

common ratio, then show that the points (x1, y1), 12. Show that the four points A( a, b), O(0, 0), B(a, b)

(x2, y2) and (x3, y3) are collinear. (IIT-JEE 1999) and C(a2, ab) are collinear.

Solution: Let x2 x1k, x3 x1k2 and y2 y1k, y3 y1k2. Solution: Since O(0, 0) is the midpoint of AB it fol-

Then lows that

Points A, O and B are collinear (1.6)

x1 x2 x3 x1 x1k x1k 2

Now,

y1 y2 y3 y1 y1k y1k 2

1 1 1 1 1 1 a 0 a 2 1 0 a

b 0 ab ab 1 0 a 0 (& two rows are identical)

1 k k2 1 1 1 1 1 1

x1 y1 1 k k 2

Points A, O and C are collinear (1.7)

1 1 1

Statements (1.6) and (1.7) A, O, B, C are collinear.

0 (sin

nce two rows are identical)

13. Let O(0, 0), P(3, 4), Q(6, 0) be the vertices of the tri-

Hence, the points are collinear (by Quick Look 3).

angle OPQ. The point R lies inside the $OPQ such

10. In a parallelogram ABCD if (x1, y1), (x2, y2) and

that the triangles OPR, PQR, OQR are of equal area.

(x3, y3) are the coordinates of A, B, C, respectively, The coordinates of R are

then show that the coordinates of D are (x1 x3 – x2, (A) (4/3, 3) (B) (3, 2/3)

y1 + y3 – y2).

(C) (3, 4/3) (D) (4/3, 2/3)

Solution: Suppose the coordinates of D are (x, y). See

(IIT-JEE 2007)

Fig. 1.7. It is known that in a parallelogram the diagonals

Worked-Out Problems 13

Solution: A point inside a triangle divides the triangle Solution: Suppose C (x, y). Then

into three triangles of equal areas if and only if the point

is the centroid of the triangle. Hence, R must be the cen- ¥ 4
5 x
3 2 y ´

(0, 0) ¦ , µ¶

troid of $OPQ. Therefore § 3 3

4
5 x
3 2 y

¥ 0 3 6 0 4 0´ ¥ 4´ 0 and 0

R¦ , µ ¦ 3, µ 3 3

§ 3 3 ¶ § 3¶ x 1, y 1

Answer: (C) So the coordinates of C are (1, 1).

14. An integral point means that both coordinates of 17. If A(a, b), B(a r cos @, b r sin @ ) and C(a r cos A,

the point are integers. The number of integral points b r sin A ) are the vertices of an equilateral triangle,

exactly in the interior of the triangle with vertices then

(0, 0), (0, 21) and (21, 0) (see Fig. 1.8) is

(A) A
B π/4 (B) A
B π/2

(A) 133 (B) 190 (C) 233 (D) 105

(C) A
B π/6 (D) A
B π/3

Solution: The integral points must be on the vertical

lines x 1, 2, 3, …, 20. The number of integral points on Solution: $ABC is an equilateral triangle implies

x 1 inside the triangle are (1, 1), (1, 2), (1, 3), …, (1, 19)

(total number is 19). Similarly, the number of points on AB BC CA

x 2 is 18, on x 3 is 17, etc. Finally, the number of points r 2 (cos2 A sin 2 A ) r 2 (cos2 B sin 2 B )

on x 19 is 1 and on x 20 is 0.

r 2 (cos A
cos B )2 r 2 (sin A sin B )2

Therefore, the total number of integral points inside

the triangle is 2r 2 [1
cos(A
B )] r 2

19 s 20 1

19 18 17 ! 1 0 190 cos(A
B )

2 2

P

A
B

P(0, 21) 3

(1, 20)

Answer: (D)

and C (0, b), then

x=1 Q(21, 0)

(C) a 13, b 2 (D) a 2, b 13

FIGURE 1.8

Solution: By hypothesis

Answer: (B)

4a0 80b

2 and 7

15. A line segment AB is of length 10 units and A 3 3

(2, 3). If the abscissa of B is 10, then there will be two

This implies a 2, b 13.

values for the coordinate of B whose sum is equal to

Answer: (B)

(A) 3 (B) –3 (C) 6 (D) –6

Solution: Suppose B (10, y). Then 19. If the point P(x, y) is equidistant from the points

A (6, 1) and B(2, 3), then find a relation between

AB 10 (10 – 2)2 (y 3)2 102 x and y.

(y 3)2 36

Solution: By hypothesis

y 3 ±6

PA PB

y 3 or –9

PA2 PB2

Therefore, the sum of the values of y 3 – 9 –6.

(x 6)2 (y 1)2 (x 2)2 (y 3)2

Answer: (D)

x2 12x 36 y2 2y 1 x2 4x 4 y2 6y 9

16. Origin is the centroid of a triangle ABC. If A (4, –3) 8x 8y 24

and B (–5, 2), then find the coordinates of C. x y 3

14 Chapter 1 Rectangular Coordinates, Basic Formulae, Locus and Change of Axes

20. If the area of the triangle whose vertices are (a, 0), Absolute value of

(3, 4) and (5,
2) is 10, then m1 m2 m2 m1

a2

(A) a 1 or 22/3 (B) a 1 or 13/3 (m3
m1 )(m3
m2 ) m1 m2 1 1

2

(C) a 1 or 23/3 (D) a 2 or 23/3 1 0 0

Solution: By hypothesis 1 2

a (m1
m2 )(m2
m3 )(m3
m1 )

6a
26 p 20 2

a 46/6 or 6/6

23. If a, b, c are the roots of the equation x3 – 6x2 11x –

a 1 or 23/3

6 0, then find the centroid of the triangle whose ver-

Answer: (C) tices are (ab, 1/ab), (bc, 1/bc), (ca, 1/ca).

Solution: By hypothesis

21. If the points (x, 2
2x), (1
x, 2x) and (
4
x, 6
2x)

are collinear, find x. abc6

ab bc ca 11

Solution: By hypothesis,

and abc 6

1 x(2 x
6 2 x) (1
x)(6
2 x
2 2 x)

0 Therefore

2
(4 x)(2
2 x
2 x)

x(4 x
6) 4(1
x) (4 x)(4 x
2) 0 ab bc ca 11

3 3

4 x 2
6 x 4
4 x 4 x 2 14 x
8 0

8x2 4x
4 0 and

2x2 x
1 0 1¥ 1 1 1 ´ abc 6 1

¦ µ

(2 x
1)( x 1) 0 3 § ab bc ca ¶ 3abc 3s6 3

1 Hence, the centroid of the triangle is

x ,
1

2 ¥ 1 1 1´

Note: ¦ ab bc ca ab bc ca µ ¥ 11 1 ´

¦ 3

,

3 µ ¦§ 3 , 3 µ¶

1 ¥1 ´ ¦§ µ¶

x ( x, 2
2 x) (1
x, 2 x) ¦ , 1µ

2 §2 ¶

Caution: First, we have to check whether a, b, c are real

22. Show that the area of the triangle whose vertices or not. In the present case, the roots of the given equa-

are (am1m2, a(m1 m2)), (am2m3, a(m2 m3)) and tion are 1, 2 and 3.

(am3m1, a(m3 m1)) is

24. Find the area of the triangle having midpoints of its

1 2

a (m1
m2 )(m2
m3 )(m3
m1 ) sides at (2, 1), (
1,
3) and (4, 5).

2

Solution: Area of the triangle is four times the area of

Solution: Let $ be the area of the determinant so that

the triangle formed by the midpoints of its sides. There-

the value of $ is the numerical value (i.e., absolute value)

fore

of the determinant

1

am1 m2 am2 m3 am3 m1 Area of the triangle 4 s 2(
3
5)
1(5
1) 4(1 3)

1 2

a(m1 m2 ) a(m2 m3 ) a(m3 m1 ) 2
16
4 16

2

1 1 1 8 sq. units

m1 m2 m2 m3 m3 m1

a2 25. O(0, 0) is one of the vertices of triangle whose cir-

Absolute value of m1 m2 m2 m3 m3 m1

2 cumcentre is S(3, 4) and centroid G(6, 8). Then, the

1 1 1

Absolute value of triangle

m1 m2 m2 (m3
m1 ) m1 (m3
m2 ) (A) is right angled

a2

m1 m2 m3
m1 m3
m2 (B) must be equilateral

2

1 0 0 (C) must be right-angled isosceles

(By C2
C1 and C3
C1) (D) is isosceles

Worked-Out Problems 15

Fig. 1.9). Hence OG is the median through as well as the ¥ ax bx2 cx3 ay1 by2 cy3 ´

perpendicular bisector of the side opposite to the vertex Incentre ¦ 1 , µ

§ abc abc ¶

O. Hence the triangle is isosceles.

where

O(0, 0)

ax1 bx2 cx3 5 5 (2) 3 5( 2) 4 5( 4)

abc 12 5

S(3, 4) 10 5 22 5

1

12 5

ay1 by2 cy3 5 5 (3) 3 5 ( 5) 4 5 (6)

G(6, 8)

abc 12 5

FIGURE 1.9

39 5 15 5

Answer: (D) 2

12 5

26. Find the circumcentre and circumradius of the Hence, the incentre of the triangle is ( 1, 2).

triangle whose vertices are A(1, 1), B(2, 1) and

C(3, 2). 28. Find the ratio in which the point ( 2, 9) divides the

Solution: Let S(x, y) be the circumcentre of $ABC so segment joining the points A(1, 3) and B(2, 7).

that SA SB SC. Now Solution: Suppose P ( 2, 9) and AP:PB m:1. Then

using section formula we have

SA SB (x 1)2 (y 1)2 (x 2)2 (y 1)2

2x 2y 2 4x 2y 5 ¥ 2m 1 7m 3 ´

( 2, 9) ¦ ,

§ m 1 m 1 µ¶

2x 4y 3 (1.8)

This implies

SB SC (x 2)2 (y 1)2 (x 3)2 (y 2)2

2m 1 7m 3

4x 2y 5 6x 4y 13 2 and 9 (1.11)

m1 m1

2x 6y 8 (1.9)

Solving the first equality in Eq. (1.11), we get

SC SA (x 3)2 (y 2)2 (x 1)2 (y 1)2

2m 2 2m 1

6x 4y 13 2x 2y 2

4 m 3

4x 2y 11 (1.10)

m 3 / 4

Solving Eqs. (1.8) and (1.9), we have x 5/2 and y 1/2

which also satisfy Eq. (1.10). Hence Solving the second equality in Eq. (1.11), we get

¥ 5 1´
9m
9 7m 3

Circumcentre of the triangle ¦ , µ

§ 2 2¶ 16 m
12

2 2

m
3/4

¥5 ´ ¥1 ´ 9 1 5

Circumradius, SA ¦§
1µ¶ ¦§
1µ¶ We can see from both cases that the ratio is –3:4 or 3: –4.

2 2 4 4 2

The division is external division.

27. Find the incentre of the triangle whose vertices are

A (2, 3), B(
2,
5) and C(
4, 6). 29. Show that the points (
3,
4), (2, 6) and (
6, 10) form

a right-angled triangle.

Solution: We have

Solution: Let the vertices be A, B and C, respectively.

2 2 Then

a BC (
2 4) (
5
6) 4 121 5 5

(BC)2 (2 6) 2 (6 – 10)2 64 16 80

c AB (2 2)2 (3 5)2 16 64 4 5

(CA)2 ( 6 3)2 (10 4)2 9 196 205

Therefore

Now, by Pythagoras theorem, we have

a b c 12 5

(AB)2 (BC) (AC)2

16 Chapter 1 Rectangular Coordinates, Basic Formulae, Locus and Change of Axes

moves such that its distance from the origin is twice

Hence, $ABC is a right-angled triangle. its distance from the point A(1, 2).

30. The circumcentre of a triangle lies at the origin and Solution: We have

the centroid is the midpoint of the segment joining

(2, 2) and (2, 2). Find the orthocentre. OP 2PA (OP)2 4(PA)2

x2 y2 4[(x 1)2 (y 2)2]

Solution: In a triangle, circumcentre, centroid and

orthocentre are collinear and the centroid divides the x2 y2 4x2 4y2 – 8x 16y 20

line joining the circumcentre and orthocentre in the ra- 3x2 3y2 – 8x 16y 20 0

tio 1:2. Hence, the equation of the locus is 3x2 3y2 8x – 16y

Suppose H(x, y) is the orthocentre. Then 20 0.

OG:GH 1:2

34. Find the locus of the point P such that the distance

Now, O (0, 0), G (2, 0) and H (x, y) (see Fig. 1.10). of P from the point A(4, 0) is twice the distance of P

Therefore from the x-axis.

OG:GH 1:2 (2, 0) G (x/3, y/3) Solution: Let P (x, y). Distance of P from the x-axis

x 6, y 0 is y . Therefore

So H (6, 0). AP 2 y ( AP )2 4 y2

1 2 ( x 4) 2 y 2 4 y 2

O (0, 0) G (2, 0) H (x, y ) x 2 3 y2 8 x 16 0

FIGURE 1.10

Hence the equation of the locus is x2 3y2 8x 16 0.

such that the area of $PAB is 17/2 sq. units, then find

31. Find the locus of the point which is equidistant from the locus of P.

the points ( 3, 1) and (7, 5).

Solution: Let P (x, y). Then

Solution: Let A ( 3, 1) and B (7, 5). Let P (x, y).

Then 17

Area of $PAB

2

AP PB (AP)2 (PB)2 1 17

(x 3)2 (y 1)2 (x 7)2 (y 5)2 x(3 4) 2(4 y) 3( y 3)

2 2

6x 2y 10 14x 10y 74 x 5 y 17 17

20x 8y 64 0 x 5 y 17 p17

5x 2y – 16 0 Therefore the equation of the locus is

Hence, the equation of the locus is 5x 2y – 16 0. (x 5y) (x 5y – 34) 0

32. Let A(5, 4) and B(7, 6) be two points. Find the

36. Find the equation of the locus of the point which is

locus of the point P such that PA:PB 2:3. at a constant distance of 5 units from the fixed point

Solution: Let P be (x, y). Then ( 2, 3).

PA:PB 2:3 3PA 2PB Solution: Let A (
2, 3) and let P (x, y). Now

9(PA)2 4(PB)2 AP 5 (AP)2 25

9[(x – 5)2

(y 4)2]

4[(x – 7)2 (x 2)2 (y – 3)2 25

(y – 6)2] x2 y2 4x – 6y – 12 0

5x2 5y2
34x 120y 29 0

The equation of the locus is x2 y2 4x – 6y – 12 0.

Hence, the equation of the locus is 5x2 5y2
34x 120y Later in Chapter 3, we will see that this equation repre-

29 0. This equation represents circle (which will be dis- sents circle with centre at the point (
2, 3) and radius 5

cussed in Chapter 3). units.

Worked-Out Problems 17

Change of Axes
X Y

and y X sin(
45B ) Y cos(45B )

37. Suppose the origin is shifted to the point (
1, 2). Find 2

the new coordinates of the point (2, 3). Now,

Solution: Let (X, Y) be the new coordinates. Therefore 2 2

by the formula [Eq. (1.1)], we have ¥ X Y´ ¥Y
X´

x 2
y2 a 2 ¦ µ
¦ µ a

2

§ 2 ¶ § 2 ¶

2 x
1, 3 y 2

4 XY 2a 2

x 3, y 1

a2 a

Hence, (3, 1) are new coordinates of the point (2, 3). XY or XY c 2 where c

2 2

38. Find the transformed form of the equation 2x2 4xy Note: When we deal with hyperbola (conic section), we

3y2 0 if the origin is shifted to the point (1, 1). see that x 2
y2 a 2 is the standard equation of rectan-

Solution: Put x X 1, y Y 1 in the given equation. gular hyperbola and xy c 2 is the rectangular hyperbola

We get in the simplest form.

2(X 1)2 4(X 1) (Y 1) 3(Y 1)2 0 41. Find the point to which origin is to be shifted so as

2X 2 4XY 3Y 2 8X 10Y 9 0 to remove the first degree terms of the equation

2 x 2 4 xy
5 y2 20 x
22 y
14 0.

39. When the axes are rotated through 30o in the anti-

Solution: In the given equation, a 2, h 2, b
5,

clockwise sense without changing the origin, find the g 10, f
11, c
14. Therefore

new coordinates of the point (
2, 4). ab – h2
10 – 4
14

hf – bg 2(
11) – (
5)(10)
22 50 28

Solution: Let (x, y) be the old coordinates and (X, Y)

gh – af 10(2) – 2(
11) 42

be the new coordinates. Therefore

Therefore

x X cos Q
Y sin Q (1.12)

¥ hf
bg gh
af ´

and y X sin Q Y cos Q (1.13) New origin ¦ ,

§ ab
h2 ab
h2 µ¶

Solving Eq. (1.12), we get

¥ 28 42 ´

¦ ,

2 X cos 30B
Y sin 30B §
14
14 µ¶

3X
Y (

2,
3)

2

2 42. Find the angle through which the axes are to be

3 X
Y
4 (1.14) rotated so as to remove the xy-term from the equation

Solving Eq. (1.13), we get x 2 2 3 xy
y2
2a 2 0.

b 1 so that a x b. Therefore

X 3Y

4

2 1 ¥ 2h ´

Required angle of rotation Tan 1 ¦

X 3Y 8 (1.15) 2 § a b µ¶

Tan 1 ¦ µ

Y 1 2 3 are the new coordinates of ( 2, 4). 2 § 2 ¶

1

40. If the axes are rotated through 45o in the clockwise Tan 1 ( 3 )

2

sense, then find the transformed form of the equa-

1¥P´

tion x 2 y2 a 2. ¦ µ

2 § 3¶

Solution: Let (x, y) and (X, Y) be the old and the new P

coordinates, respectively. Therefore

6

X Y

x X cos( 45B ) Y sin( 45B )

2

18 Chapter 1 Rectangular Coordinates, Basic Formulae, Locus and Change of Axes

SUMMARY

1.1 Distance between two points: If A(x1, y1) and (2) Excentre

B(x2, y2) are two points, then the distance ¥
ax1 bx2 cx3
ay1 by2 cy3 ´

between the two points is given by I1 ¦ , µ

§
a b c
a b c ¶

AB ( x2
x1 )2 ( y2
y1 )2 (3) Excentre

¥ ax
bx2 cx3 ay1
by2 cy3 ´

1.2 Section formula: If A(x1, y1) and B(x2, y2) are two I2 ¦ 1 , µ

§ a
bc a
bc ¶

points and P(x, y) is a point on the line AB dividing

(4) Excentre

the segment AB in the ratio l:m, where l m x 0,

then ¥ ax bx2
cx3 ay1 by2
cy3 ´

I3 ¦ 1 , µ

§ ab
c ab
c ¶

lx2 mx1 ly my1

x and y 2

lm lm 1.8 Nine-point centre: In any triangle, the midpoints

of the sides, the feet of the altitudes and the

This formula is valid for both internal and external

midpoints of the segments joining the vertices with

divisions.

the orthocentre are concyclic. This circle is called

1.3 Midpoint: If A(x1, y1) and B(x2, y2) are two points, the nine-point circle whose centre is known as the

then the coordinates of the midpoint of AB are nine-point centre which is denoted by N.

given by 1.9 In any triangle, the circumcentre S, the centroid

¥ x1 x2 y1 y2 ´ G, the nine-point centre N and the orthocentre H

¦§ , µ are collinear in the given order (that is, SGNH).

2 2 ¶

Further, G divides SH in the ratio 1:2 and N is

1.4 Centroid coordinates: If G(x, y) is the centroid of the midpoint of SH. Further, the radius of the

a triangle whose vertices are (x1, y1), (x2, y2) and nine-point circle is half of the circumradius of the

(x3, y3), then triangle.

x1 x2 x3 y y2 y3 1.9* Pedal line: Let ABC be a triangle and P be a point

x and y 1 on the circumcircle of the triangle other than the

3 3

vertices. Then the feet of the perpendiculars drawn

1.5 Area of a triangle: The area of the triangle whose from P on to the sides of the triangle are collinear.

vertices are (x1, y1), (x2, y2) and (x3, y3) is the abso- This line is called the Pedal line of the point P or

lute value of the determinant Simson’s line.

x1 y1 1 1.10 If A(x1, y1), B(x2, y2) and C(x3, y3) are three

1 consecutive vertices of a parallelogram ABCD,

x2 y2 1

2 then the fourth vertex D is given by (x1 x3 – x2,

x3 y3 1

y1 y3 – y2).

1.6 Condition for collinearity of three points: Three 1.11 Locus: Let P be a geometrical condition(s) and S

points (x1, y1), (x2, y2) and (x3, y3) are collinear if and be the set of all points in the plane which satisfy P.

only if Then S is called a locus.

x1 y1 1 1.12 Equation of the locus: Let S be a locus and

x2 y2 1 0 f(x, y) 0 be an algebraic equation in x and y.

x3 y3 1 If every point (x, y) belonging to S satisfies the

equation f(x, y) 0, and any point in the plane

1.7 Coordinates of incentres and excentres: Let A(x1, satisfying the equation f(x, y) 0 belongs to S, then

y1), B(x2, y2) and C(x3, y3) be the vertices of a tri- f(x, y) 0 is called the equation of the locus S. The

angle and suppose the lengths BC, CA, and AB are locus is generally given by its equation.

a, b, c, respectively, then 1.13 Shifting of origin without changing the direction of

¥ ax bx2 cx3 ay1 by2 cy3 ´ the axes: Suppose the origin O (0, 0) is shifted to the

(1) Incentre I ¦ 1 , µ point Oa(h, k ). Let the old and the new coordinates

§ abc abc ¶

of a point be (x, y) and (X, Y), respectively. Then x

X h and y Y k give the relations between the

old and the new coordinates.

Exercises 19

1.14 Rotation

FHHHHE of the Faxes

HHHHE without changing the origin: are called the first degree terms and c is called the

Let x aOx and y a Oy be the original axes. Rotate constant term.

these axes through an angle P in the anticlockwise

1.17 Theorem: To remove the first degree terms from

direction about the origin

FHHHHHHE O. Let the

E new position

FHHHHHH the second degree general equation, the origin is to

of the axes be X aOX and Y aOY . If (x, y) and

be shifted to the point

(X, Y) be the coordinates of a point with respect to

the old and the new axes, then ¥ hf
bg gh
af ´

¦§ , µ

x X cos P – Y sin P and y X sin P Y cos P ab
h2 ab
h2 ¶

If the rotation is in the clockwise sense, then in the provided h2 x ab.

above relations, replace P with –P.

1.18 To remove the xy term from the second degree

1.15 Second degree homogeneous and general general equation, the axes are to be rotated through

equations: the angle

(1) Homogeneous equation: If a, h, b are real and 1 ¥ 2h ´

Tan
1 ¦

atleast one of them is not zero, then ax2 2hxy 2 § a
b µ¶

by2 0 is called second degree homogeneous

equation in x and y. provided a x b. When a b, the angle of rotation is

P /4.

(2) General equation: If a, h, b, g, f and c are real and

atleast one of a, h, b is not zero, then the equa- 1.19 When the origin is shifted, the second degree terms of

tion ax2 2hxy by2 2gx 2fy c 0 is called the second degree general equation will not change.

second degree general equation in x and y.

1.20 In the change of axes, only the coordinates of a

1.16 In the second degree general equation, ax2, 2hxy, point will change, but the distance between two

by2 are called the second degree terms, 2gx, 2fy points and the areas will not change.

EXERCISES

1. Show that the points (1,
1), ( 3 , 3 ) and (0, 3
1 ) 10. Show that the four points (0,
1), (2, 1), (0, 3), (
2, 1),

form the vertices of an isosceles right-angled triangle. taken in this order, form a square.

2. Let ABCD be a rectangle and P any point in the plane 11. Find the area of the triangle whose vertices are (5, 2)

of the rectangle. Then, prove that (
9,
3) and (
3,
5).

(PA)2 (PC)2 (PB)2 (PD)2 12. Show that the area of the triangle whose vertices are

HHHHE HHHHE (a cos A , bsin A ), (a cos B, bsin B ) and (a cos G ,

(Hint: Take A as origin, AB and AD as axes.) bsin G ), where a, b are positive, is

3. Prove that the points (3, 6), (2, 1) and (1,
4) are col- ¥ A
B´ ¥ B
G ´ ¥G
A´

2ab sin ¦ µ sin ¦ µ sin ¦

linear. § 2 ¶ § 2 ¶ § 2 µ¶

4. Show that the points (1, 4), (3,
2) and (
3, 16) are

13. O is the origin, P1 (x1, y1), P2 (x2, y2) and P1OP2 Q .

collinear. Show that OP1 OP2 cos Q x1 x2 y1 y2 .

5. Show that the points (a, a), (
a,
a) and (
a 3 , a 3)

14. Find the incentre of the triangle whose vertices are

are the vertices of an equilateral triangle. (7, 9), (3,
7) and (
3, 3).

6. Let A (3,
5), B (
5,
4), C (7, 10) and D (15, 9).

15. Find the centroid of the triangle with vertices (2, 7),

In the given order, show that the points form a paral- (3,
1) and (
5, 6).

lelogram.

16. Find the incentre of the triangle whose vertices are

7. If A (2,
3), B (6, 5), C (
2, 1) and D (
6,
7),

(3, 2), (7, 2) and (7, 5).

then show that ABCD is a rhombus.

17. Let A (2, 3) and B (
1, 5). If P is a variable point

8. Show that (1, 6), (5, 2), (12, 9), (8, 13), taken in this

such that the segment AB subtends right angle at P,

order, form a rectangle.

then find the equation of the locus of P.

9. If A (5, 3), B (11,
5) and C (12, K) are such that

18. Let A (1, 1) and B (
2, 3). If P is a variable point

ABC 90o, then show that K equals either
4 or 2.

such that the area of $PAB is 2 sq. units, then show

20 Chapter 1 Rectangular Coordinates, Basic Formulae, Locus and Change of Axes

that the equation of the locus of P is (2x 3y
1) 28. (2, 3), (3, 4) and (6, 8) are the vertices of a triangle.

(2x 3y
9) 0. Find its centroid, circumcentre and orthcentre.

19. O(0, 0), A(6, 0) and B(0, 4) are three points. P is a (Hint: To find the orthocentre, refer the note under

variable point such that the area of $POB is twice Quick Look 4.)

that of $POA. Show that the equation of the locus of 29. If the origin is shifted to the point (1,
1), then find

P is x2
9y2 0. the transformed equation of x2 y2 – 2x 2y – 4 0.

20. A(2, 3), B(1, 5) and C(
1, 2) are three points. P is 30. Show that the equation 2x2 y2 – 8x 4y 1 0 will

a variable point such that (PA)2 (PB)2 2(PC)2. be transferred to 2X 2 Y 11 if the origin is shifted

Show that the locus of P is 10x 8y
29 0. to the point (2,
2).

21. Let A (2, 3) and B (2,
3). Find the locus of the 31. Find the point to which the origin is to be shifted so

point P such that PA PB 8. as to remove the first degree terms of the following

22. Show that the equation of the locus of the point equations:

equidistant from the points (a b, a
b) and (a
b, (i) x2 y2 8x – 6y – 25 0

a b) is x
y 0.

(ii) 4x2 9y2 – 8x 36y 4 0

23. Find the incentre of the triangle with vertices (1, 3 ), (iii) 14x2
4xy 11y2 – 36x 48y 41 0

(0, 0) and (2, 0).

32. When the axes are rotated through an angle 45o in

(Hint: The triangle is equilateral.)

the anticlockwise sense, then show that the equation

24. A point moves such that the sum of its distances 3x2 10xy 3y2 – 9 0 will be transformed to the

from two fixed points (ae, 0) and (
ae, 0) is always form 8x2 – 2y2 – 9 0.

2a. Prove that the equation of the locus is x2/a2

33. When the axes are rotated through an angle O /4 in

y2/b2 1 where b2 a2(1 – e2) or a2(e2
1) according

the anticlockwise sense, the transformed equation of

as 0 e 1 or e 1.

a curve is 17x2 – 16xy 17y2 225. Find the original

25. Show that the equation of the locus of the point equation of the curve.

which is equidistant from the points (a b, b – a) (Hint: Solve the equation x X cos Q
Y sin Q ,

and (a – b, a b) is bx – ay 0. y X sin Q Y cos Q for X and Y after replacing P

26. A bar of length a b is moving such that its extremi- with O /4 and substitute the values of X and Y in the

ties lie on the coordinate axes. Show that the locus of given equation.)

the point dividing the bar in the ratio a:b (the direc- 34. Find the angle through which the axes are to be

tion is from y-axis tip towards x-axis tip) is x2/a2 rotated so as to remove the xy term of the equation

y2/b2 1. x2 y2 4xy – 2x 2y – 6 0.

27. (@, A ), ( x , y ) and (p, q) are the circumcentre, 35. Find the angle of rotation of the axes so as to remove

centroid and orthocentre of a triangle. Prove that the xy term from the equation x 2 2 3 xy
y2 2a 2

3 x 2A p and 3 y 2B q . and also find the transformed form.

(Hint: See the note given under Quick Look 4.)

ANSWERS

11. 29 sq. units 28. G (11/3, 5); Circumcentre (
27/2, 39/2); Orthocen-

tre (38,
24)

14. ( 13
8 2 , 2 2
1 )

29. x2 y2 6

15. (0, 4)

31. (i) (
4, 3); (ii) (1,
2); (iii) (1,
2)

16. (6, 3)

33. 25x2 9y2 225

17. x2 y2 – x
8y 13 0

34. 45o

21. 16x2 7y2 – 64x – 48 0

35. 30o, x2 – y2 a2

23. (1, 1/ 3 )

Straight Line and Pair

of Lines 2

Contents

2.1 Straight Line

2.2 Pair of Lines

Straight Line and Pair of Lines

y

14

Worked-Out Problems

Summary

12

Exercises

Answers

10

6

straight line which is a line segment

joining any two points.

4

Two lines, that is, pair of lines, can be

2 related each other by different ways

such as intersecting lines, perpendic-

ular lines and parallel lines.

−4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 x

−2

Intersecting lines

22 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

In this chapter, we discuss various types (forms) of equations of a straight line, angle between two lines, conditions for

two lines to be parallel and perpendicular, sides of straight lines, concurrency of lines, etc. ‘Subjective Problems’ sec-

tion provides subjective worked-out problems for the preceding sections. Students are advised to solve each and every

problem to grasp the topics.

When areas of coordinates are selected, any line parallel to x-axis (including x-axis) is called a horizontal line and any

line perpendicular to x-axis is called a vertical line. First, we discuss the concept of an ‘slope of a non-vertical line’.

DEFINITION 2.1 Slope If a non-vertical line l makes an angle P with the positive direction of the x-axis (that is

measured in counterclock sense), then the value of tanP is called the slope of line l. Generally,

slope of a line is denoted by m.

Note: Slope is defined for non-vertical lines only. We do not talk about the slope of a vertical line.

QUICK LOOK 1

1. Since the angle made by a horizontal line with 3. The slope of a line is positive the line makes acute

x-axis is 0 or O, its slope is always zero. angle with the positive direction of the x-axis.

2. Two non-vertical parallel lines make the same angles 4. The slope of line is negative the line makes ob-

with the x-axis implies that their slopes are equal; tuse angle with the positive direction of the x-axis.

however, if the slopes of two lines are equal, then

the lines are parallel lines.

T H E O R E M 2.1 The slope of line passing through two points A(x1, y1) and B(x2, y2) is

y2
y1 ¥ y1
y2 ´

x2
x1 ¦§ x1
x2 µ¶

PROOF Case 1: If the line is horizontal, then

y1
y2

y1 y2 0

x1
x2

Case 2: If the line is not horizontal, then we consider the following: Let the line make an angle P

with the positive direction of the x-axis (see Fig. 2.1). Draw AL and BM perpendicular to x-axis

and AN perpendicular to BM. Clearly, NAB P. Therefore, it is clear that

BN BN BM MN

tan Q

AN LM OM OL

BM AL y2 y1

OM OL x2 x1

y

B

A q N

q

O L M x

FIGURE 2.1

2.1 Straight Line 23

DEFINITION 2.2 Intercepts of a Line Suppose a line meets x-axis in the point (a, 0) and y-axis in the point

(0, b). Then a is called x-intercept of the line and b is called the y-intercept of the line.

QUICK LOOK 2

1. A vertical line has x-intercept only. 3. For a line through origin, both intercepts are zero.

2. A horizontal line has y-intercept only.

T H E O R E M 2.2 Equation of a line passing through point A(x1, y1) and having slope m (see Fig. 2.2) is

(P O I N T –S L O P E

y
y1 m( x
x1 )

FORM)

PROOF Suppose P(x, y) is any point on the given line. Then, by Theorem 2.1, the slope of the line is

y
y1

m

x
x1

Therefore,

y
y1 m( x
x1 )

Conversely, let Q(xa, ya) be a point such that

y a
y1 m( x
x1 )

y a
y1

m (slope of the line)

x
x1

FHHHE

This implies that the line AQ coincides with the given line which, in turn, implies that Q lies on

the given line. Therefore, equation of the line is y
y1 m( x
x1 ).

y

A (x1, y1)

q

x

FIGURE 2.2

Example 2.1

and having slope 1.

x y0

Solution: We have m 1 and x1 2 y1. Therefore,

the equation of the line is

Example 2.2

angle O/3 with the positive direction of the x-axis and ¥P´

passing through the point (1, −2). m tan ¦ µ 3

§ 3¶

24 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

line is

3 x y (2 3 ) 0

(S L O P E –

INTERCEPT FORM)

PROOF Since c is the y-intercept of the line, the line passes through the point (0, c) and has slope m.

Therefore, by Theorem 2.2, the equation of the line is

y c m( x 0)

y mx c

QUICK LOOK 3

Equation of any line passing through origin (excluding y-axis) is of the form y mx (i.e., c 0).

Example 2.3

y-intercept 1. y x1

2

Solution: We have m 1/2 and c 1 so that the equa- x 2y 2 0

tion of the line is

Example 2.4

Write the equation of the line having slope 2 and at (3/2, 0) and (0, −3). Hence, the vertices of the triangle

y-intercept −3 and hence find the area of the triangle are (0, 0), (3/2, 0) and (0, −3). Therefore, area of the tri-

formed by this line and the two coordinate axes. angle is

0 0 3 3 0 0 0 0 sq. unit

equation of the line is y 2 x 3 . The line meets the axes 2 2 4

T H E O R E M 2.4 If a and b are non-zero intercepts of a line on x- and y-axis, respectively, then the equation of these

(I N T E R C E P T two intercepts is

FORM)

x y

1

a b

PROOF This line passes through the points (a, 0) and (0, b) (see Fig. 2.3) so that its slope is

b
0 b

0
a a

Therefore, by Theorem 2.3, the equation of the line is

b

y ( x
a)

a

2.1 Straight Line 25

y x

1

b a

x y

1

a b

B (0, b)

O A (a, 0) x

FIGURE 2.3

QUICK LOOK 4

Area of the triangle formed by the line and the coordinate axes is equal to

x y 1 1 1

1 (OA OB) a b ab sq. unit

a b 2 2 2

Example 2.5

or 1

ically equal. a a

That is,

Solution: Suppose the intercepts are a and −a or −a

and a. Then the equation is x ya

x y or x
y
a

1

a
a

Example 2.6

Find the equation of the line whose sum of the intercepts Now,

on the axes is 3 and their product is 2.

ab 3

Solution: The equation of a line is and ab 2

1 and b 2. Therefore, equation of the lines is

a b

x y

1

2 1

26 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

or 1

1 2 x 2y 2 0

or 2x y 2 0

T H E O R E M 2.5 Equation of the line passing through two points A(x1, y1) and B(x2, y2) is

(T W O -P O I N T

( x
x1 )( y1
y2 )
( y
y1 )( x1
x2 ) 0

FORM)

FHHHE

PROOF Case 1: Suppose the line AB is vertical. Hence, x1 x2 and y1 x y2 . If P(x, y) is any point on

FHHHE

the line AB, then x1 x2 x so that

( x
x1 )( y1
y2 ) ( y
y1 )( x1
x2 )

FHHHE

Case 2: AB is not a vertical line. Therefore, by Theorems 2.1 and 2.2, its equation is

( y1
y2 )

y
y1 ( x
x1 )

( x1
x2 )

( x x1 )( y1 y2 ) ( y y1 )( x1 x2 )

Example 2.7

Write the equation of the line passing through the points [ x
(a b)][a
b
(a b)] [ y
(a
b)][a b
(a
b)]

(a b, a
b) and (a
b, a b).

2b[ x
(a b)] 2b[ y
(a
b)]

Solution: We have x1 a b, y1 a
b, x2 a
b and
x a b y
a b

y2 a b. Therefore, equation of the line is Therefore

x y 2a

Example 2.8

(a cos A , a sin A ) and (a cos B, a sin B ) where a 0. ( x a cos A )2 sin ¦ cos ¦ ( y a sin A )

§ 2 µ¶ § 2 µ¶

Solution: Equation of the line is ¥ AB A B´

¦§ 2 sin sin µ

2 2 ¶

( x a cos A )(a sin A a sin B ) ( y a sin A )

(a cos A a cos B )

A B ¥ A B´ ¨ A B

x cos y sin ¦ a ©cos A cos

2 § 2 µ¶ ª 2

( x a cos A )(sin A sin B ) ( y a sin A )(cos A cos B )

A B·

sin A sin

2 ¸¹

A B A B ¥A B´

x cos y sin a cos ¦

2 2 § 2 µ¶

Note: One can see in Example 2.8 that (a cos A , a sin A ) and (a cos B, a sin B ) are the points on a circle with centre at

origin and radius a. In the above chord equation, if B A , then x cos A y sin A a is the equation of the tangent to

the circle with centre (0, 0) and radius a.

2.1 Straight Line 27

Example 2.9

Show that the equation of the line joining two points 2at2
2at1 2

(at12 , 2at1 ) and (at22 , 2at2 ) is

at22
at12 t1 t2

2

y
2at1 ( x
at12 ) Hence, the equation of the line is

t1 t2

2

Solution: The slope of the line joining the two points is y
2at1 ( x
at12 )

t1 t2

Note: In Chapter 4, we will discuss and show that for all real values of t, the locus of the point (at 2, 2at ) is the parabola

y2 4ax and the equation of the tangent at (at 2, 2at ) is ty x at 2 which can be obtained by substituting t1 t2 t

in the equation of the line joining the points (at12, 2at ) and (at22, 2at ) which is also discussed in Example 4.3.

T H E O R E M 2.6 A E l is such that its perpendicular distance ON (O is the origin) from the origin is p and the ray

line

FHHH

(E Q U A T I O N O F ON makes angle @ with the positive direction of the x-axis (measured in counterclock sense).

STRAIGHT LINE Then the equation of the line l is

IN NORMAL

x cos A y sin A p

FORM)

PROOF Case 1: Suppose that the given line l is a vertical line meeting positive x-axis at point N [see Fig.

2.4(a)] so that ON p and @ 0. Therefore, if p(x, y) is any point on l, then x p and the equation

of the line l is x p which is equivalent to

x cos A y sin A p (& A 0)

Similarly, if l meets the negative x-axis at point N [see Fig. 2.4(b)], then the equation of the line l

is x −p so that

x cos A y sin A p (& A P )

y l l y

O p N (p, 0) x N (−p, 0) O x

(a) (b)

FIGURE 2.4

Case 2: Suppose the line l is horizontal and meets positive y-axis at point N so that N (0, p) and

@ O/2 [see Fig. 2.5(a)]. Since its equation is y p, it is also given by

x cos A y sin A p (& A P /2)

Similarly, if N lies on the negative y-axis, then N (0, −p) and @ −3O/2 [see Fig. 2.5(b)] so that its

equation is y −p. The equation of the line can be written as

x cos A y sin A p

28 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

y y

a = 3p

l N (0, p) 2

p x

p

p =a

2

O x l N (0, −p)

(a) (b)

FIGURE 2.5

Case 3: Suppose l is an inclined line meeting positive coordinate axes at points A and B, respec-

tively [see Fig. 2.6(a)]. So the coordinates are A (p sec@, 0) and B (0, p cosec@). By Theorem 2.4,

the equation of the line l is

x y

1

p sec A p cosec A

Hence

x cos A y sin A p

Similarly, for other cases, namely,

P 3P 3P

A P or P A or A 3P

2 2 2

we can show that its equation is

x cos@ y sin@ p

These three cases are shown in Figs. 2.6(b), 2.6(c) and 2.6(d), respectively.

l y

N

p

a p a

O A x

p <a <p

l 2

(a) (b)

y y

l l

a

O x O p x

a

N N

2 2

(c) (d)

FIGURE 2.6

2.1 Straight Line 29

Example 2.10

Find the equation of the line whose distance from origin Solution: We have p 2 at @ O /4. Hence, the equation

is 2 and the normal ray through origin makes an angle O /4 of the line is

with the positive direction of the x-axis measured in coun-

terclock sense. P P

x cos y sin 2 or x y 2 2

4 4

Example 2.11

¥ 1´

origin is 4 and the normal ray through origin makes an x cos y sin 4 or x¦ µ y¦ µ 4

3 3 § 2¶ § 2 ¶

angle (2O )/3 with the positive direction of the x-axis mea-

sured in counterclock sense. That is,

Solution: We have p 4 and @ (2O)/3. Hence the equa- x 3 y 8

tion of the line is

T H E O R E M 2.7 The equation of the straight line passing through (x1, y1) and making an angle P with the positive

(S Y M M E T R I C direction of the x-axis measured in counterclock sense is

FORM OF LINE)

( x
x1 ) : cos Q ( y
y1 ) : sin Q

Case 1: The line L is vertical so that P O /2. Since the equation of L is x x1 which is written as

( x x1 ) : cos Q ( y y1 ) : sin Q

because cosP 0 and sinP 1.

Case 2: Suppose L is non-vertical so that P xO /2. Hence by Theorem 2.2, its equation is

( y y1 ) tan Q ( x x1 )

( x x1 )sin Q ( y y1 )cos Q

Thus

( x x1 ) : cos Q ( y y1 ) : sin Q

( x x1 )2 ( y y1 )2 G

which shows that G represents the distance of the point (x, y) on the line from the given point (x1, y1). Therefore, if

(x, y) is any point on the line and F is any real parameter, then the locus of the point (x1 F cosP, y1 F sinP ) is the

straight line

( x
x1 ) : cos Q ( y
y1 ) : sin Q

Also, F takes positive values for points on the line on one side of (x1, y1) and takes negative values for the points on the

other side of (x1, y1). For a given positive value of F , there will be two points on the line which are equidistant from (x1,

y1). Further, the equations

x x1 F cosP and y y1 F sinP

(P is a fixed and F is a parameter) are called the parametric equations of the line passing through (x1, y1) and making

angle P with the positive direction of the x-axis measured in counterclock sense.

30 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

Example 2.12

the point (3, 2) and making an angle 120° with the posi- and y y1 G sin Q 2 G ¦ µ

tive direction of the x-axis measured in counterclock § 2 ¶

sense and also find the coordinates of the points on the Solving these equations, we get

line which are at unit distance from the point (3, 2). x 3 −F /2

Solution: We have (x1, y1) (3, 2), cosP cos 120° −1/2 and y 2 F( 3 /2)

and sinP sin 120° 3 /2. Therefore, the parametric Substituting F 1 and F −1 in the above coordinates,

equations of the line are the points on the line which are at a distance of 1 unit

from the point (3, 2) are obtained, respectively, as

¥ 1´

x x1 G cos Q 3 G ¦
µ ¥ 5 4 3´ ¥ 7 4
3´

§ 2¶

¦ 2 , 2 µ and ¦ 2 , 2 µ

§ ¶ § ¶

DEFINITION 2.3 If a, b and c are real and either a or b is non-zero, then the expression ax by c is called first-

degree expression in x and y and the equation ax by c 0 is called first-degree equation in x

and y.

Examples

1. 2 x
y 3 0 3. 2y
1 0 5. x cos A y sin A p

2. x 2 0 4. 3x 4 y 1 0

T H E O R E M 2.8 Every first-degree equation in x and y represents a straight line and conversely, the equation of a

straight line is a first-degree equation in x and y.

PROOF Suppose ax by c 0 is a first-degree equation so that either a or b is non-zero. Now, either b 0

or b x 0. If b 0, then the equation reduces to ax c 0 where a x 0 which represents the vertical line

x −c/a. If b x 0, then the equation can be written as y (−a/b)x (−c/b) which represents straight

line having slope (−a/b) and y-intercept −c/b. In any case, ax by c 0 represents a straight line.

Conversely, let L be a straight line in the coordinate plane. Therefore, L is either a vertical line

or a non-vertical line. Suppose L is a vertical line meeting x-axis at the point (a, 0), the equation

of L is x−a 0 which is a first-degree equation in x and y. If L is non-vertical, then it meets y-axis

at some point, say (0, c), and has slope, say, m, then the equation of L is y mx c (see Theorem

2.3) which is a first-degree equation as coefficient of y is −1 (x0).

DEFINITION 2.4 General Equation of a Straight Line First-degree equation in x and y is called the general

equation of a straight line. Suppose ax by c 0 is a first-degree equation, then we have the

following conditions:

1. If c 0, then the line passes through (0, 0).

2. If b x 0, then the first-degree equation represents a line having slope (−a/b) and y-intercept (−c/b).

3. If b 0, ax by c 0 represents a vertical line.

4. If abc x 0, then the first-degree equation represents a line with x-intercept (−c/a) and y-intercept (−c/b).

T H E O R E M 2.9 Two first-degree equations a1x b1y c1 0 and a2x b2y c2 0 represent parallel lines if and

only if a1b2 a2b1 (i.e., a1:b1 a2:b2).

2.1 Straight Line 31

PROOF When two lines are parallel, both are either vertical or non-vertical. If both are vertical, then b1

b2 0 [by point (3) below Definition 2.4] so that a1b2 a2b1 0. If both are non-vertical, their

slopes are equal [by point (2) below Definition 2.4]. Thus,

a1 a

2

b1 b2

Hence, a1b2 a2b1or a1:b1 a2:b2

Conversely, when a1b2 a2b1 and if b1 0, then a1x 0 so that b2 0. Therefore, b1 0 b2 0 and

hence if one of the lines is vertical, then the other is also vertical so that the given lines are parallel.

If both b1 and b2 are non-zero, then

a1 a2

a1b2 a2 b1

b1 b2

a a

1
2

b1 b2

Since the slopes are equal, the lines are parallel.

QUICK LOOK 5

1. Equation of any line parallel to the line ax by 2. In particular, equation of the line passing through

c 0 is of the form ax by ca 0. the point (x1, y1) and parallel to the line ax by

c 0 is a(x−x1) b(y−y1) 0.

T H E O R E M 2.10 Two first-degree equations a1x b1y c1 0 and a2x b2y c2 0 represent the same straight line

if and only if a1:b1:c1 a2:b2:c2.

PROOF Suppose the two equations represent the same straight line. Since every line is parallel to itself, by

Theorem 2.9, a1b2 a2b1 and hence a1:b1 a2:b2. If b1 0, then b2 0 so that a1 and a2 are non-zero.

This implies that

c1 c

2

a1 a2

Therefore

a1 : b1 : c1 a2 : b2 : c2

If b1x 0, then b2x 0 (since a1b2 a2b1). Let

b1

L

b2

Therefore,

a2 b2 1

a1b2 a2 b1

a1 b1 L

a1 L a2 (2.1)

Also (0, −c1/b1) is a point on a1x b1y c1 0 which implies that (0,
c1 /b1 ) also lies on

a2x b2y c2 0. Therefore

¥
c ´

b2 ¦ 1 µ c2 0

§ b1 ¶

c2 b2 1

(2.2)

c1 b1 L

32 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

a1:b1:c1 a2:b2:c2

Conversely, suppose a1:b1:c1 a2:b2:c2. Therefore, for some real K x 0, we have a1 Ka2, b1 Kb2,

c1 Kc2. Hence

a1 x b1 y c1 0 L (a2 x b2 y c2 ) 0

a2 x b2 y c2 0

¥ a ´ ¥ b ´
c

1. ¦

2 2

µ x¦ 2 2

µy is the normal form of the given line if c 0.

§ a b ¶ § a b ¶ a b2

2

¥
a ´ ¥
b ´ c

2. ¦ µ x¦ µy is the normal form of the given line if c 0.

§ a 2 b2 ¶ § a 2 b2 ¶ a b2

2

PROOF Suppose x cos A y sin A p is the normal form of ax by c 0. Therefore, by Theorem 2.10,

there exists a real K x 0 such that cos@ Ka, sin@ Kb and −p Kc. Now,

cos2@ sin2@ 1

1

implies K±

a b2

2

Also −Kc p 0 (since p is the distance of the line from origin) implies that

« 1

® 2 if c 0

® a b2

L¬

®
1 if c 0

® a 2 b2

¥ a ´ ¥ b ´ c

x¦ µ y¦ µ

§ a 2 b2 ¶ § a 2 b2 ¶ a 2 b2

or if c 0, the normal form of the line is

¥ a ´ ¥ b ´ c

x¦ µ y¦ µ

§ a 2 b2 ¶ § a 2 b2 ¶ a b2

2

QUICK LOOK 6

2. p p is the distance of the line ax by

constant c to the right-hand side (RHS), divide both a b2

2

sides with a 2 b2 and then make RHS positive. c 0 from the origin. That is,

c

p

a 2 b2

2.1 Straight Line 33

Example 2.13

Write 2x 3y 5 0 in the normal form. What is the dis- To make the RHS positive, we multiply both sides with

tance of the line from origin? (−1). Thus, the normal form is

¦§ µ¶ x ¦§ µ¶ y

taken to the RHS of the equation, that is 13 13 13

where

2x 3y −5

2 3

2 2 2 2 cos A and sin A

Dividing both sides with a b 2 3 13 , we 13 13

get

Now, the distance of the line from the orgin is

2 3 5

x y c 5 5

13 13 13 p

2 2

a b 13 13

Example 2.14

distance from the origin.

3 4

cos A and sin A

Solution: The equation 3x 4y − 10 0 can be 5 5

written as 3x 4y 10. Dividing both sides with

Now the distance of the line from the origin is

a 2 b2 32 4 2 5, we get

10 10

3 4 p 2

x y 2 5 5

5 5

T HEOREM 2.12 If 0 P O/2 is the angle between the lines a1x b1y c1 0 and a2x b2y c2 0, then

(A N G L E

BETWEEN TWO

a1a2 b1b2

cos Q

LINES) (a12 b12 )(a22 b22 )

or equivalently

¥ a1a2 b1b2 ´

Q Cos
1 ¦ µ

¦§ (a 2 b2 )(a 2 b2 ) µ¶

1 1 2 2

PROOF Let the lines represented by the given equations (in the order written) be l1and l2, respectively. If

l1 and l2 are parallel lines, then we consider that Pis equal to 0 or O and also

a1a2 b1b2

1

(a12 b12 )(a22 b22 )

¥ a1a2 b1b2 ´

Cos
1 ¦ µ Cos
1 (1) 0

¦§ (a 2 b2 )(a 2 b2 ) µ¶

1 1 2 2

Therefore, without loss of generality, we assume that l1 and l2 are intersecting so that a1:b1 xa2:b2.

FHHHE FHHHHE

Let OL1 and OL2 be the lines through origin O and parallel to the lines l1 and l2, respectively

34 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

FHHHE FHHHHE

(see Fig. 2.7). Therefore, from Quick Look 5, part (2), the equations of OL1 and OL2 are, respec-

FHHHE FHHHHE

tively, a1x b1y 0 and a2x b2y 0. Let P1 and P2 be the angles made by OL1 and OL2 with the

positive direction of the x-axis so that Q1
Q 2 is the measure of the angle between the lines. We

FHHHE FHHHHE

know that P(b1, −a1) lies on OL1 and Q(b2, −a2) lies on OL2 . Draw PL and QM perpendicular

to x-axis. Now,

cos Q cos(Q1
Q 2 ) cos Q1 cos Q 2 sin Q1 sin Q 2

¥ b1 ´¥ b2 ´ ¥
a ´ ¥
a ´

1 2

¦ µ¦ µ ¦ µ¦ µ

¦§ a 2 b2 µ¶ ¦§ a 2 b2 µ¶ ¦§ a 2 b2 µ¶ ¦§ a 2 b2 µ¶

1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1

a1a2 b1b2

(a12 b12 )(a22 b22 )

P Q1
Q 2 and 0 PO/2.

a1a2 b1b2

cos Q

(a12 b12 )(a22 b22 )

y

L1

P(b1, −a1) L2

Q(b2, −a2)

q1

q2

O L M x

FIGURE 2.7

Note: If both lines are non-vertical and P is the angle between them, then

m1
m2

tan Q

1 m1 m2

QUICK LOOK 7

1. (a) The lines a1x b1y c1 0 and a2x b2y c2 0 2. The equation of any line perpendicular to the line

are at right angles a1a2 b1b2 0 (since ax by c 0 is of the form bx−ay ca 0.

P 90°). 3. In particular, the equation of the line passing

(b) Product of the slopes is −1 provided the lines through the point (x1, y1) and perpendicular to the

are at right angles. line ax by c 0 is b (x−x1) − a (y−y1) 0.

DEFINITION 2.5 Image or a Reflection of Point Let l be a straight line and P be a point on the plane of the

line, but not on the line. A point Q in the same plane is called the image or reflection of P in

the line l if l is the perpendicular bisector of the segment PQ.

2.1 Straight Line 35

QUICK LOOK 8

dicular to the line l and produce it to Q such that PM

90°

MQ (see Fig. 2.8). l

M

FIGURE 2.8

T H E O R E M 2.13 Let l be a line whose equation is ax by c 0 and P(x1, y1) be a point on the plane of the line,

but not on l. Suppose M(h, k) is the foot of the perpendicular drawn from point P onto l and

Q(x1a, y1a) is the image of point P in the line. Then

h
x1 k
y1 (ax1 by1 c)

1.

a b a 2 b2

x1a
x1 y1a
y1 (ax1 by1 c)

2.
2

a b a 2 b2

PROOF 1. See Fig. 2.9. The line PM is perpendicular to the line ax by c 0, so by Quick look 7, part

(2), we have

¥ k
y1 ´ ¥
a ´

¦§ h
x µ¶ ¦§ b µ¶
1

1

h
x1 k
y1

L (say)

a b

h x1 L a, k y1 L b (2.3)

Since M(h, k) lies on the line, we have ah bk c 0, which implies that

a( x1 L a) b( y1 L b) c 0

(ax1 by1 c)

L
(2.4)

a 2 b2

Therefore, from Eqs. (2.3) and (2.4), we get

h
x1 k
y1 (ax1 by1 c)

a b a 2 b2

2. Since M is the midpoint of PQ, we can see that

x a1
x1 ya1
y1 (ax1 by1 c)

2

a b a 2 b2

P (x1, y1)

Q (x1, y1 )

FIGURE 2.9

36 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

Note: Theorem 2.13 gives the formulae for the foot of the perpendicular drawn from a point onto the given line and

the image of a point on the given line.

Example 2.15

(1, 2) onto the line 3x 4y − 1 0 and also find the image ¦§ , µ¶

5 5

of (1, 2) on the given line.

2. Suppose (@, A ) is the image of (1, 2). From Theorem

Solution: We have (x1, y1) (1, 2) and the line is 3x 2.13, we have

4y − 1 0.

A 1 B 2 [3(1) 4(2) 1] 20 4

1. Suppose (h, k) is the foot of the perpendicular. There- 2

3 4 32 4 2 25 5

fore, from Theorem 2.13, we have

Hence

h 1 k 2 [3(1) 4(2) 1] 10 2

2 2

12 7

3 4 3 4 25 5 A 1

5 5

Hence

16 6

B 2

6 1 5 5

h 1

5 5 Thus, the image is

8 2

k 2 ¥ 7 6´

5 5 ¦§ , µ¶

5 5

Therefore, foot of the perpendicular from (1, 2) is

T H E O R E M 2.14 The distance of the line ax by c 0 from the point P(x1, y1) is

ax1 by1 c

a 2 b2

PROOF See Fig. 2.10. Shift the origin to the point P(x1, y1) and let the new coordinates of any point be

denoted by (X, Y). Hence, by Section 1.4.1, we have x X x1 and y Y y1 so that P becomes

(0, 0) and the equation of the given line is a(X x1) b(Y y1) c 0. That is,

aX bY ax1 by1 c 0 (2.5)

Hence, by Quick Look 6, part (2), the distance of the line [Eq. (2.5)] from P(0, 0) is equal to

ax1 by1 c

a 2 b2

Y

y P X

ax

+b 90°

y+

c=

0

O x

FIGURE 2.10

2.1 Straight Line 37

c ca

a 2 b2

PROOF See Fig. 2.11. Let P(x1, y1) be a point on ax by ca 0 so that

ax1 by1 c a 0 (2.6)

Now, the distance between the two parallel lines is equal to the distance of the line ax by c 0

from the point P(x1, y1), which is given by

ax1 by1 c

(by Theorem 2.14)

a 2 b2

ca c

[from Eq. (2.6)]

a 2 b2

ax by c 0 P(x1, y1)

ax by c 0

M

FIGURE 2.11

T H E O R E M 2.16 If a1x b1y c1 0 and a2x b2y c2 0 are two intersecting lines, then their point of intersection

is

¥ b1c2
b2 c1 c1a2
a1c2 ´

¦§ a b
a b , a b
a b µ¶

1 2 2 1 1 2 2 1

PROOF Since the lines are not parallel, we have a1b2 xa2b1. Let (@, A ) be the point of intersection of the

lines. Therefore,

Solving Eqs. (2.7) and (2.8) for @ and A, we get

b1c2 b2 c1

A

a1b2 a2 b1

c a a c

B 1 2 1 2

a1b2 a2 b1

Notation: The line ax by c 0 is denoted by L so that L 0 represents a straight line if either a or b is not zero.

L y ax by c

L11 ax1 by1 c

L22 ax2 by2 c

T H E O R E M 2.17 Let L yax by c be a line and A(x1, y1) and B(x2, y2) be the two points on the same plane, but

not on the line L 0, then L 0 divides the line segment AB in the ratio −L11:L22.

38 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

FHHHE

PROOF Suppose L 0 meets the line AB in point P(x, y) and AP:PB K:1. Therefore

x1 L x2

x

L 1

y1 L y2

y

L 1

Since P(x, y) lies on the line L 0, we have

( x1 L x2 ) ( y L y2 )

a b 1 c 0

L 1 L 1

That is, ax1 by1 c K(ax2 by2 c) 0. That is, L11 KL22 0.Therefore,

L11

L

L22

QUICK LOOK 9

L11

L11 0

0 L22

L22

L11 and L22 are opposite signs L11

0

L22

Therefore, points A and B lie on the opposite sides

of line L 0 L11 and L22 are of opposite signs. Therefore, L11 and L22 have the same sign.

DEFINITION 2.6 Origin and Non-Origin Sides Let L be a straight line in the coordinate plane which is not

passing through the origin. The side of the region in which the origin lies is called the origin

side of the line and the other is called the non-origin side of the line L (see Fig. 2.12).

y

L Non-origin

side

Origin side

O x

FIGURE 2.12

T H E O R E M 2.18 Let L yax by c 0 be a line which is not passing through the origin. Then a point A(x1, y1)

(not on the line L 0) lies

(a) on the non-origin side of L 0 c and L11 are of opposite signs

(b) A(x1, y1) lies on the origin side of L 0 c and L11 have the same sign

PROOF In Quick Look 9, take B (x2, y2) (0, 0). Hence, points A and B (which is equal to the origin)

lie on the opposite sides of L 0 so that L11 and L22 c have the opposite signs and points A and

(0, 0) are on the same side. Hence, L11 and L22 c have the same sign.

2.1 Straight Line 39

QUICK LOOK 10

Let ax by c 0 be a line and c x 0. 2. If c 0, then for all points on the origin side L11 0

and L11 0 for all points on the non-origin side.

1. If c 0, then for all points on the origin side L11 0

and for all points on the non-origin side L11 0.

Example 2.16

Check whether the point (2, 1) lies on the origin side or L11 2(2) − 3(1) 1 2

non-origin side of the line 2x − 3y 1 0.

and c1

Solution: We have Ly 2x − 3y 1, A(x1, y1) (2, 1) and That is, L11 and c have the same origin. Hence, (2,1) lies

c 1. That is, on the origin side of L 0.

Example 2.17

Find the ratio in which the line L yx 2y − 3 0 divides and L22 3 2(2) − 3 4

the line joining the points A(1, 2) and B(3, 2).

Therefore, L 0 divides AB in the ratio

Solution: A(1, 2) (x1, y1) and B(3, 2) (x2, y2) so that −L11:L22 −2:4 −1:2

L11 1 2(2) − 3 2 That is, L 0 divides AB externally in the ratio 1:2.

T H E O R E M 2.19 Suppose U1 ya1x b1y c1 0 and U2 ya2x b2y c2 0 are two parallel lines. Then for any real

values of K1 and K2 such that L1 L 2 x 0 , the equation K1U1 K2U2 0 represents the line paral-

lel to each of the lines U1 0 and U2 0.

PROOF From Quick Look 5, U2 0 can be written as U2 ya1x b1y c1a 0. Therefore,

K1U1 K2U2 y (K1 K2) [a1x b1y] K1c1 K2c1a 0

which represents the line parallel to U1 ya1x b1y c1 0.

T H E O R E M 2.20 If U1 ya1x b1y c1 0 and U2 ya2x b2y c2 0 are intersecting lines, then the equation K1U1

K2U2 0 ( L1 L 2 x 0) represents the lines passing through the intersection of U1 0 and U2 0.

Conversely, the equation of any line passing through the intersection of U1 0 and U2 0 is of the

form K1U1 K2U2 0 for some K1 and K2 such that L1 L 2 x 0.

PROOF Suppose U1 ya1x b1y c1 0 and U2 ya2x b2y c2 0 are intersecting lines so that a1b2 − a2b1x 0.

Let p(@, A ) be the point of intersection of U1 0 and U2 0. Therefore,

a1A b1B c1 0 (2.9)

and a2A b2 B c2 0 (2.10)

Now, L1 L 2 x 0 implies that atleast one of K1 and K2 is not zero. Consider that

K1U1 K2U2 (K1a1 K2a2)x (K1b1 K2b2)y K1c1 K2c2 0

If both K1a1 K2a and K1b1 K2b2 are zero, then

a1 L b

1 1

a2 L 2 b2

40 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

which is a contradiction of the hypothesis a1b2 xa2b1. Therefore, K1U1 K2U2 0 is a first-degree

equation and hence it represents a straight line. Also, from Eqs. (2.9) and (2.10), it follows that

K1U1 K2U2 0 passes through (@, A ). Conversely, suppose U yax by c 0 is a line passing

through (@, A ), then

aA bB c 0 (2.11)

Since either a or b is not zero [i.e., (a, b) x (0, 0)] and a1b2−a2b1x 0, it follows that the equations

a1x a2y a and b1x b2y b

have unique solution, say, x K1 and y K2 and L1 L 2 x 0. Therefore,

K1a1 K2a2 a and K1b1 K2b2 0

Now, from Eq. (2.11), we get

c
aA
B b
(L1a1 L 2 a2 )A
(L1b1 L 2 b2 )B

L1 (a1A b1B )
L 2 (a2A b2 B )

L1 (
c1 )
L 2 (
c2 ) [from Eqs. (2.9) and (2.10)

L1c1 L 2 c2

Therefore

ax by c (L1a1 L 2 a2 ) x (L1b1 L 2 b2 ) y L1c1 L 2 c2

L1 (a1 x b1 y c1 ) L 2 (a2 x b2 y c2 )

L1U 1 L 2U 2

Thus, the equation of any line passing through the intersection of the lines U1 0 and U2 0 is of

the form K1U1 K2U2 0 where L1 L 2 x 0.

Note: If U1 0 and U2 0 are two intersecting lines, then K1U1 K2U2 0, where eitherK1 or K2 is non-zero, represents

all the lines passing through their point of intersection including U1 0 and U2 0. If K1 x0, then the equation can be

written as U1 (K2/K1) U2 0 which is of the form U1 KU2 0, where K is K2/K1. The equation U1 KU2 0 represents

all lines passing through the intersection of U1 0 and U2 0 including U1 0, but excluding U2 0. Hence, for all

practical purposes, we consider the equation U1 KU2 0, where K is a real parameter in solving the problems.

QUICK LOOK 11

Suppose U1 0 and U2 0 are two lines, then 2. If U1 0 and U2 0 are intersecting lines, then U1

KU2 0 represents a line passing through the inter-

1. If U1 0 and U2 0 are parallel lines, then U1 KU2

section of U1 0 and U2 0.

0 represents a line parallel to each of U1 0 and

U2 0.

T H E O R E M 2.21 If U1 0 and U2 0 are two intersecting lines, then every line in the plane of U1 0 and U2 0 is

of the form K1U1 K2U2 K3 0.

PROOF Let U 0 be a line in the plane of U1 0 and U2 0. Therefore, either U 0 passes through the

intersection of U1 0 and U2 0 or it does not. In the former case, U 0 must be of the form K1U1

K2U2 0 for some real K1and K2, such that L1 L 2 x 0. In this case, K3 0. Suppose U 0 does

not pass through the intersection of U1 0 and U2 0. Hence, there is one and only one line L in

the plane passing through the intersection of U1 0 and U2 0 and parallel to the line L. Hence,

by Theorem 2.20, the equation of L must be of the form K1U1 K2U2 0. Since L is parallel to U

0, then U 0 is of the form K1U1 K2U2 K3 0 for some real constant K3. Thus, the theorem is

proved.

2.1 Straight Line 41

Example 2.18

Find the equation of the line passing through the inter- (2x − y 5) − 5 (x y 1) 0

section of the lines 2x − y 5 0 and x y 1 0 and the

3 x
6 y 0

origin.

x 2y 0

Solution: By Theorem 2.20 and the Note mentioned Direct Method: Solving the equations 2x − y 5 0 and

below it, the required line is of the form x y 1 0, we get the point of intersection (−2, 1).

(2x − y 5 0) K(x y 1) 0 Therefore, the equation of the line joining (−2, 1) and

(0, 0) is

Since this also passes through (0, 0), we have K −5.

Hence the required line is 0
1

y x or x 2y 0

02

Example 2.19

section of the lines x − 2y − 3 0 and x 3y − 6 0 and

2 3L 4

parallel to the line 3x 4y − 7 0.

4 4K −6 9K K 2

Solution: We have U1 yx − 2y − 3 0 and U2 yx 3y Hence, the required line is 3x 4y− 15 0.

− 6 0. The required line is Direct Method: The point of intersection of the lines x−

U1 KU2 (1 K) x (−2 3K) y − 3 − 6K 0 2y − 3 0 and x 3y − 6 0 is (21/5, 3/5). Hence, from Quick

Look 5, part (2), the equation of the required line is

Since this line is parallel to 3x 4y − 7 0, the slopes

must be equal.Therefore ¥ 21´ ¥ 3´

3¦ x µ 4 ¦ y µ 0

§ 5¶ § 5¶

3x 4y− 15 0

Example 2.20

Find the equation of the line passing through the inter- Thus, the required line equation is

section of the lines x 3y − 1 0 and x − 2y 4 0 and

¥ 11´ ¥ 22 ´ 44

perpendicular to the line 2x 3y 0. ¦§ 1 µ¶ x ¦§ 3
µ¶ y
1 0

4 4 4

Solution: We have U1 yx 3y − 1 0 and U2 yx − 2y 15 x
10 y 40 0

4 0. Equation of the required line is

3x
2 y 8 0

U 1 LU 2 y (1+L )x (3
2L )y
1 4L 0

Direct Method: Let U1 yx 3y − 1 0 and U2 yx− 2y

Since this line is perpendicular to the line 2x 3y 0, we 4 0. Therefore, the point of intersection of the lines

have U1 0 and U2 0 is (−2, 1). Hence, from Quick Look 7,

part (3), the equation of the required line is

(1 L ) ¥
2 ´

s ¦ µ
1

3
2L § 3 ¶ 3(x 2) − 2(y − 1) 0

9 6 L 2 L 2 3x − 2y 8 0

11

L

4

T H E O R E M 2.22 Let U1 ya1x b1y c1 0, U2 ya2x b2y c2 0 and U3 ya3x b3y c3 0 be three lines such

that no two lines are parallel. Then, these lines are concurrent if and only if

42 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

a1 b1 c1

a2 b2 c2 0

a3 b3 c3

PROOF Let P be the point of the intersection of the lines U2 0 and U3 0. Therefore, by Theorem 2.16,

we have

¥ b c
b2 c3 c3 a2
c2 b3 ´

P¦ 3 2 ,

§ a3 b2
a2 b3 a3 b2
a2 b3 µ¶

Point P also lies on U1 0. So

¥ b c
b2 c3 ´ ¥ c a
c b ´

a1 ¦ 3 2 b1 ¦ 3 2 2 3 µ c1 0

§ a3 b2
a2 b3 µ¶ § a3 b2
a2 b3 ¶

a1 (b3 c2
b2 c3 ) b1 (c3 a2
c2 a3 ) c1 (a3 b2
a2 b3 ) 0

a1 (b2 c3
b3 c2 )
b1 (a2 c3
a3 c2 ) c1 (a2 b3
a3 b2 ) 0

a1 b1 c1

a2 b2 c2 0

a3 b3 c3

T H E O R E M 2.23 Let U1 ya1x b1y c1 0, U2 ya2x b2y c2 0 and U3 ya3x b3y c3 0 be three lines such

that no two are parallel. If there exists non-zero real numbers K1, K2 and K3 such that K1U1 K2U2

K3U3 0, then the three lines U1 0, U2 0 and U3 0 are concurrent.

PROOF Suppose K1U1 K2U2 K3U3 0 where K1, K2 and K3 are non-zero real numbers. Therefore

¥
L ´ ¥
L ´

U3 ¦ 1 µ ¦ 2 µ U2

§ L3 ¶ § L3 ¶

which is of the form KU1 LU2 0. Hence, by Theorem 2.20, the line U3 0 passes through the

point of intersection of the lines U1 0 and U2 0. Therefore, the three lines are concurrent.

Note: Direct method of showing three lines to be concurrent: (a) Find the point of intersection of two of the three

given lines. (b) Verify whether the point lies on the remaining third line or not.

In this section, we obtain the equation of the angle bisectors of the angle between two intersecting lines. Also we will

study the condition for a second-degree homogeneous equation and general equation to represent pair of lines, and

the properties of these lines.

T H E O R E M 2.24 If a1x b1y c1 0 and a2x b2y c2 0 are intersecting lines, then the equations of their angle

bisectors are

a1 x + b1 y + c1 (a2 x + b2 y + c2 )

p

a12 b12 a22 b22

PROOF Let the lines represented by the given equations be L1 and L2, respectively (see Fig. 2.13) and

A be their point of intersection. Now

2.2 Pair of Lines 43

the perpendicular distances drawn from P on to the lines are equal

a1 x1 + b1 y1 + c1 a2 x1 + b2 y1 + c2

(by Theorem 2.14)

a12 b12 a12 b12

a1 x + b1 y + c1 (a2 x + b2 y + c2 )

p

a12 b12 a22 b22

a1 x + b1 y + c1 (a2 x + b2 y + c2 )

p

a12 b12 a22 b22

L2

L1

y

a1

0

P

x+

c2 =

b1

2y +

y+

c1

+b

=0

a2 x

O x

FIGURE 2.13

Note: Identification of Acute Angle Bisector Suppose L1 and L2 are not at right angles and let L1a and L2a be their

angle bisectors. Let P be the angle between L1 and L1a . If 0 tan Q 1, then L1a is the angle bisector; if tan Q 1 ,

then L2a is the acute angle bisector.

The following theorems are also useful in identifying acute or obtuse angle bisectors of two lines.

T H E O R E M 2.25 SupposeU1 ya1x b1y c1 0 and U2 ya2x b2y c2 0, where c1 x 0 and c2 x 0, be two intersecting

lines. If c1 and c2 are of same sign, then the equation

a1 x + b1 y + c1 (a2 x + b2 y + c2 )

a12 b12 a22 b22

PROOF Suppose the lines represented by U1 0 and U2 0 are L1 and L2, respectively, and L1a and L2a are

their angle bisectors (see Fig. 2.14). Point P(x1, y1) lies on the origin angle bisector L1 either

both the origin and P are on the same sides for both L1 and L2 or lie on opposite sides for both

L1 and L2. Since c1 and c2 are of same sign, it follows that (by Quick Look 10) L11 a1x

b1y c1 and L22 a2x b2y c2 are of same sign. Therefore

44 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

a1 x + b1 y + c1 (a2 x + b2 y + c2 )

a12 b12 a22 b22

y

L1

L2

L1

L2

P(x1, y1)

O x

FIGURE 2.14

T H E O R E M 2.26 Suppose U1 ya1x b1y c1 0 and U2 ya2x b2y c2 0 are two lines that do not pass through

origin and let c1 and let c2 have the same sign. Then

a1 x + b1 y + c1 (a2 x + b2 y + c2 )

1. is the acute angle bisector if a1a2 b1b2 0.

a12 b12 a22 b22

a1 x + b1 y + c1 (a2 x + b2 y + c2 )

2.
if a1a2 b1b2 0.

a12 b12 a22 b22

PROOF Let L1 and L2 be the lines represented by U1 0 and U2 0, respectively. Draw OM and ON per-

pendicular to L1 and L2, respectively. Let NOM @ so that MPN O −@ (see Fig. 2.15). Now,

@ is acute or obtuse according to whetherO −@ is obtuse or acute. Also

a1a2 + b1b2

cos A 0 or > 0

(a12 b12 ) (a22 b22 )

a1a2 b1b2< 0 or > 0

@ is acute or obtuse

Therefore,

1. If a1a2 b1b2 0, then the origin angle bisector is the acute angle bisector and hence its equa-

tion is

a1 x + b1 y + c1 (a2 x + b2 y + c2 )

(by Theorem 2.25)

a12 b12 a22 b22

2. If a1a2 b1b2 0, then O – @ is obtuse and hence origin angle bisector is the obtuse angle bisec-

tor so that its equation is

a1 x + b1 y + c1 (a2 x + b2 y + c2 )

(by Theorem 2.25)

a12 b12 a22 b22

2.2 Pair of Lines 45

y L2

L1

P a

a 2x + b 2

p-a

=0 M

y + c2 =

c 1

y+ N

b1 a

x+

a 1

0

O x

FIGURE 2.15

Let U1 ya1x b1y c1 0 and U2 ya2x b2y c2 0 be represents origin angle bisector (Theorem 2.25). The

intersecting lines and c1x 0 x c2. First, make both c1 and origin angle bisector (that is with sign) is the acute

c2 of same sign (or c1 and c2 are positive). Then angle or obtuse angle bisector according to whether

a1a2 b1b2 is negative or positive.

a1 x + b1 y + c1 (a2 x + b2 y + c2 )

a12 b12 a22 b22

Example 2.21

Find the angle bisectors of the angle between the lines x
y+1 7x + y + 3

x−y 1 0 and 7x y 3 0 and identify the acute angle

1 5

bisector.

5 x
5 y 5
7 x
y
3

Solution: We have U1 yx − y 1 0 and U2 y 7x y 12 x
4 y 8 0

3 0. Here, c1 1 and c2 3 are of the same sign.There- 3x
y 2 0

fore, the angle bisectors are is the acute angle bisector.

x
y+1 7x + y + 3 Aliter: Consider the line x − y 1 0 and the bisector 3x

p

2 2 − y 2 0 and let P be the angle between them.Hence

1 1 7 2 12

x
y+1 7x + y + 3 m1
m2 1
3 1

p tan Q 1

1 5 1 m1 m2 1 3 2

Since a1a2 b1b2 1(7) (−1)(1) 6 0, the bisector with Therefore, 3x − y 2 0 is the acute angle bisector.

sign is obtuse angle and hence

DEFINITION 2.7 Let a, h, b, g, f and c be real numbers and atleast one of the real numbers a, h and b be non-zero.

Then, the expression ax2 2hxy by2 is called second-degree homogeneous expression and ax2

2hxy by2 2gx 2fy c is called second-degree general expression in x and y. At the same

time, ax2 2hxy by2 0 is called second-degree homogeneous equation and ax2 2hxy

by2 2gx 2fy c 0 is called second-degree general equation.

Examples

1. 2x2 xy by2 0 3. x2 2 xy y2 0 5. x2 xy y2 − x y − 1 0

2. x2 − y2 0 4. 3x2 − 6xy y2 20x − y 3 0

46 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

T H E O R E M 2.27 If h2 rab, then the locus represented by the equation ax2 2hxy by2 0 is a pair of lines passing

through the origin.

PROOF Since a is real, either a 0 or a x 0.

Case 1: a 0. In this case, the given equation becomes

y(2 hx by) 0 (2.12)

Since a 0, atleast one of the values of h and b is not zero so that 2hx by 0 is a first-degree

equation and hence it represents a straight line. Also, y 0 represents x-axis. Hence, Eq. (2.12)

represents pair of lines, namely, y 0 (i.e., x-axis) and the line 2hx by 0.

Case 2: a x 0. In this case, the equation is written as

a 2 x 2 2ahxy aby2 0

(ax hy)2
(h2
ab) y2 0

Therefore

The locus represented by the given equation is the pair of lines ax (h p h2
ab ) y 0 and both

these lines pass through origin. When h2 ab or h b 0, these two lines are identical (coincide)

with each other.

1. When h2 rab, let the lines represented by ax2 2hxy by2 0 be l1x m1y 0 and l2x m2y 0 so that ax2 2hxy

by2 y (l1x m1y) (l2x m2y). Equating the corresponding coefficients on both sides, we have

l1l2 a, l1m2 l2m1 2h

and m1m2 b

2. If both the lines represented by ax2 2hxy by2 0 are non-vertical having slopes m1 and m2, then

¥ 2h ´ ¥ a´

y2 ¦ µ xy ¦ µ x 2 y ( y m1 x)( y m2 x)

§ b¶ § b¶

so that m1m2 a/b and m1 m2 −(2h)/b.

QUICK LOOK 13

To find the lines represented by the second-degree so that the corresponding linear equations are the

homogeneous equation ax2 2hxy by2 0, factorise required equations.

the expression ax2 2hxy by2 into two linear factors

Example 2.22

Find the lines represented by the equation x2− 5xy pair of lines passing through origin. Further,

6y2 0.

x2− 5xy 6y2 y (x− 2y)(x− 3y)

Solution: We have a 1, h −5/2 and b 6. Also h2 The lines are x − 2y 0 and x − 3y 0

25/4 6 ab. Therefore, x2− 5xy 6y2 0 represents a

2.2 Pair of Lines 47

T H E O R E M 2.28 If ax2 2hxy by2 0 represents a pair of lines and @ is the angle between them, then

ab

cos A

(a
b)2 4 h2

PROOF Suppose the lines are l1x m1y 0 and l2x m2y 0. Therefore, from Theorem 2.27, Note (1),

l1l2 a, l1m2 l2m1 2h and m1m2 b. From Theorem 2.12, we have

l1l2 m1 m2

cos A

(l12 m12 )(l22 m22 )

ab

l12 l22 m12 m22 l12 m22 l22 m12

ab

(l1l2
m1 m2 )2 (l1 m2 l2 m1 )2

ab

(a
b)2 4h 2

Note:

ab

1. gives the acute angle.

(a
b)2 4 h2

2 h2
ab

2. tan A also gives the acute angle between the lines.

ab

3. ax2 2hxy by2 0 represents a pair of perpendicular lines a b 0 (i.e., coefficient of x2 coefficient of

y2 0).

T H E O R E M 2.29 Suppose ax2 2hxy by2 0 represents a pair of lines and (x1, y1) is a point in the plane. Then,

1. The equation of the pair of lines passing through (x1, y1) and parallel to these lines is a(x−x1)2

2h(x−x1) (y−y1) b(y−y1)2 0.

2. The equation of the pair of lines passing through (x1, y1) and perpendicular to the given lines

is b(x−x1)2− 2h(x−x1) (y−y1) a(y−y1)2 0.

PROOF Suppose the lines represented by ax2 2hxy by2 0 are l1x m1y 0 and l2x m2y 0. Hence,

from Theorem 2.27, Note (1), l1l2 a, l1m2 l2m1 2h and m1m2 b.

1. From Quick Look 5, part (2), the equations of the lines through (x1, y1) and parallel to the lines

l1x m1y 0 and l2x m2y 0 are l1 (x − x1) m1 (y − y1) 0 and l2 (x − x1) m2 (y − y1) 0.

Hence, their combined equation is

[l1 (x − x1) m1 (y − y1)][l2 (x − x1) m2 (y − y1)] 0

l1l2 (x − x1)2 (l1m2 l2m1) (x − x1) (y − y1) m1m2 (y − y1)2 0

a (x − x1)2 2h (x − x1) (y − y1) b (y − y1)2 0

2. From Quick Look 7, part (3), the equations of the lines through (x1, y1) and perpendicular to

the lines are m1 (x − x1) −l1 (y − y1) 0 and m2 (x − x1) −l2 (y − y1) 0. Hence, their combined

equation is

[m1 (x − x1) −l1 (y − y1)][m2 (x − x1) −l2 (y − y1)] 0

m1m2 (x − x1)2− (l1m2 l2m1) (x − x1) (y − y1) l1l2 (y − y1)2 0

b (x − x1)2− 2h (x − x1) (y − y1) a (y − y1)2 0

48 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

Example 2.23

Find the equation of the pair of lines passing through the 1. Equation of the pair of lines passing through (1, 1) and

point (1, 1) and parallel to the lines x − 2y 0 and x − 3y 0 is

1. parallel to the lines x2 − 5xy 6y2 0. (x − 1)2 −5 (x − 1) (y − 1) 6(y − 1)2 0

2. perpendicular to the lines x2 − 5xy 6y2 0. x2 − 5xy 6y2 3x − 7y 2 0

2. Equation of the pair of lines passing through (1, 1) and

Solution: The lines represented by x2 − 5xy 6y2 0 are

perpendicular to the lines is

x − 2y 0 and x − 3y 0. Therefore, from Theorem 2.29,

we get the following: 6(x − 1)2 5 (x − 1) (y − 1) (y − 1)2 0

6x2 5xy y2− 17x − 7y 12 0

T H E O R E M 2.30 If ax2 2hxy by2 0 represents two intersecting lines, then the combined equation of the pair of

angle bisectors of the angle between the lines is

h( x 2
y2 ) (a
b) xy

PROOF Suppose the lines are l1x m1y 0 and l2x m2y 0 so that l1l2 a, l1m2 l2m1 2h and m1m2 b.

By Theorem 2.24, the angle bisectors are

l1 x m1 y l2 x m2 y

p

l12 m12 l22 m22

(l22 m22 )(l1 x m1 y)2 (l12 m12 )(l2 x m2 y)2

(l12 m22
l22 m12 ) x 2
(l12 m22
l22 m12 ) y2 2 ¨ªl2 m2 (l12 m12 )
l1 m1 (l22 m22 )·¹ xy

(l12 m22
l22 m12 )( x 2
y2 ) 2[(l1 m2
l2 m1 )(l1l2
m1 m2 )]xy

Since the lines are intersecting, l1m2 − l2m1 x 0. Hence, cancelling l1m2 − l2m1 on both sides, we have

(l1 m2 l2 m1 )( x 2
y2 ) 2 (l1l2
m1 m2 ) xy

2 h( x 2
y2 ) 2 (a
b) xy

h( x 2
y2 ) (a
b) xy

T H E O R E M 2.31 The second-degree general equation S yax2 2hxy by2 2gx 2fy c 0 represents a pair of

lines if and only if

1. abc 2fgh − af 2 − bg2 − ch2 0.

2. h 2 rab, g 2 rac and f 2 rbc.

PROOF Suppose S 0 represents pair of lines and let the lines be l1x m1y n1 0 and l2x m2y n2 0.

Therefore

S y (l1x m1y n1) (l2x m2y n2)

Equating the corresponding coefficients on both sides, we have l1l2 a, l1m2 l2m1 2h and

m1m2 b, l1n2 l2n1 2g, m1n2 m2n1 2f, n1n2 c.

1. 8 fgh (2 f )(2 g )(2 h) (m1 n2 m2 n1 )(l1 n2 l2 n1 )(l1 m2 l2 m1 )

l1l2 (m12 n22 m22 n12 ) m1 m2 (l12 n22 l22 n12 ) n1 n2 (l12 m22 l22 m12 ) 2l1l2 m1m2 n1 n2

a [(m1 n2 m2 n1 )2
2 m1 m2 n1 n2 ] b[(l1 n2 l2 n1 )2
2l1l2 n1 n2 ]

c [(l1 m2 l2 m1 )2
2l1l2 m1 m2 ] 2abc

a(4 f 2
2bc) b(4 g 2
2ca) c(4 h2
2ab) 2abc

4(af 2 bg 2 ch2
abc)

2.2 Pair of Lines 49

Therefore

a h g

$ h b f

g f e

Similarly, g2 rca

and f 2 rbc.

The proof of the converse part is a bit lengthy and beyond the scope of this book. Hence, we

assume the validity of the converse part.

T H E O R E M 2.32 If S yax2 2hxy by2 2gx 2fy c 0 represents a pair of lines, then the homogeneous equa-

tion ax2 2hxy by2 0 also represents pair of lines passing through origin and parallel to the

lines S 0.

PROOF Let the lines represented by S 0 be l1x m1y n1 0 and l2x m2y n2 0. Therefore

l1l2 a, l1m2 l2m1 2h, m1m2 b, l1n2 l2n1 2g, m1n2 m2n1 2f, n1n2 c, h2rab.

Now,

y (l1 x m1 y)(l2 x m2 y)

Therefore, the lines represented by ax2 2hxy by2 0 are l1x m1y 0 and l2x m2y 0 which

are, respectively, parallel to the l1x m1y n1 0 and l2x m2y n2 0.

QUICK LOOK 14

1. If h2 ab, then ax2 2hxy by2 0 represents pair 2. If S yax2 2hxy by2 2gx 2fy c 0 represents

of coincidental lines so that in this case, S ax2 a pair of distinct intersecting lines, this pair together

2hxy by2 2gx 2fy c 0 represents a pair of with the pair represented by ax2 2hxy by2 0 form

parallel lines. a parallelogram with the origin as one of the vertices.

Example 2.24

Prove that the equation S yx2 4xy 3y2 − 4x − 10y 3 0 2. h2 4, ab 3, h2 ab, g2 4, ac 3, g2 ac and f 2 25,

represents a pair of lines and find the equations of the lines. bc 9, f 2 bc.

Therefore, the given equation S yx2 4xy 3y2 − 4x −

Solution: We have a 1, h 2, b 3, g −2, f −5 and 10y 3 0 represents a pair of intersecting lines (by

c 3. Now, Theorem 2.31). Consider the equation x2 4xy

3y2 0. Therefore

1.

x 2 xy 3 xy 3 y2 0

a h g 1 2
2

x( x y) 3 y( x y) 0

$ h b f 2 3
5

( x y)( x 3 y) 0

g f e
2
5 3

1 (9
25)
2 (6
10)
2 (
10 6) Since S 0 represents lines parallel to x y 0 and x

16 8 8 0 3y 0, we have

50 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

x 2 4 xy 3 y2
4 x
10 y 3 y ( x y m)( x 3 y n) 3m n
10 (2.14)

and mn 3 (2.15)

Equating the coefficients of x and y and the constant

Solving Eqs. (2.13) and (2.14), we get m −3, n −1 so

terms, we have

that mn 3. Therefore, the lines represented by S 0

m n
4 (2.13) are x y− 3 0 and x 3y− 1 0.

2.2.1 Procedure to Find the Lines Represented by the Second-Degree General Equation

S y ax2 2hxy by2 2gx 2fy c 0

Step 1: Factorise the homogeneous part ax2 2hxy by2 and suppose

ax2 2hxy by2 (l1x m1y) (l2x m2y)

Step 2: S y(l1x m1y n1)(l2x m2y n2)

Step 3: Equate the corresponding coefficients of x and y and also the constant terms on both sides and solve

for n1 and n2.

Theorem 2.33 is the last result which is very useful in solving some locus problems. This theorem is called homogenis-

ing the second-degree curve equation with a straight line equation.

T H E O R E M 2.33 Suppose that the straight line lx my 1 meets the curve represented by the second-degree gen-

eral equation S yax2 2hxy by2 2gx 2fy

FHHE c 0 at E points A and B. If O is the origin, then

FHHtwo

the combined equation of the pair of lines OA and OB is

PROOF Clearly the coordinates of both points A and B satisfy the line equation lx my 1 as well as

S 0 and hence points A and B satisfy Sa 0. Also (0, 0) satisfies Sa 0. That is, Sa 0 passes through

A, B and origin (see Fig. 2.16). On simplification, we can see that Sa 0 is a homogeneous equation

FHHE FHHE

of second degree representing pair of lines, which are nothing but the lines OA and OB.

y

B

2x

+

m

y=

1

O x

FIGURE 2.16

Example 2.25

Show that the lines joining the origin to the points of Solution: Suppose that the line [( x
y)/ 2 ] 1 meets

intersection of the curve x2 − xy y2 3x 3y − 2 0 and the curve at points A and B (see Fig. 2.17). Therefore, the

the line x − y − 2 0 are mutually perpendicular. FHHE FHHE

combined equation of the pair of lines OA and OB is

2.2 Pair of Lines 51

2 y

2 2 ¥ x
y´ ¥ x
y´

x
xy y (3 x 3 y) ¦
2¦ 0 (2.16)

§ 2 µ¶ § 2 µ¶

B

[1 –(3/ 2 ) – 1] O x

0

Therefore, from Theorem 2.28, Note (3), it implies that

AOB 90°. FIGURE 2.17

Subjective Problems

1. If p1 and p2 are the distances between the opposite Also

sides of a parallelogram and @ is one of its angles,

then show that the area of the parallelogram is p1p2 a1a2 b1b2

cos A

cosec@. (a12 b12 )(a22 b22 )

p1, DN p2 and BAD @.

(a1a2 b1b2 )2

sin 2 A 1 cos2 A 1

Area of the parallelogram (AB) p2 (2.17) (a12 b12 )(a22 b22 )

Now from $AMP, sin@ p1/AB and hence we have AB (a1b2 a2 b1 )2

p1 cosec@. Therefore, from Eq. (2.17), the area of the par- (2.18)

(a12 b12 )(a22 b22 )

allelogram p1p2 cosec@.

Now the area of the parallelogram (by Problem 1) is

D C

a

p2 d1 c1 d2 c2 (a12 b12 )(a22 b22 )

p1 p2 (cosec A )

p-a a12 b12 a22 b22 a1b2 a2 b1

a 90°

B

A N a

[from Eq. (2.18)]

p1 90° (d1 c1 )(d2 c2 )

M

a1b2 a2 b1

FIGURE 2.18

3. Prove that the area of the parallelogram formed by the

2. Show that the area of parallelogram whose sides are lines 4y − 3x − a 0, 3y − 4x a 0, 4y − 3x − 3a 0 and

a1x b1y c1 0, a1x b1y d1 0, a2x b2y c2 0 and 3y − 4x 2a 0 is 2a2/7.

a2x b2y d2 0 is

Solution: Rewriting the equations of the sides of the

(d1 c1 )(d2 c2 ) parallelogram, we have

a1b2 a2 b1 3x − 4y a 0

4x − 3y − a 0

Solution: Consider Fig. 2.18. Let the equations of the

3x − 4y 3a 0

sides be a1x b1y c1 0, a1x b1y d1 0, a2x b2y

c2 0 and a2x b2y d2 0. Therefore, and 4x − 3y − 2a 0

p1 4 and b2 −3. Therefore, by Problem 2,

a12 b12

(d1 c1 )(d2 c2 )

d2 c2 Area

p2 a1b2 a2 b1

a22 b22

52 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

3( 3) (4)( 4) 7 BD CE AF

1

DC EA FB

4. Let p and q be non-zero real numbers and x1, x2 and

x3 be non-zero real roots of the equation x3 − 3px2 l A(x1, y1)

3qx − 1 0. Then show that the centroid of the tri-

angle whose vertices are [x1, (1/x1)], [x2, (1/x2)] and F

[x3, (1/x3)] is (p, q). E

hypothesis,

x1 x2 x3 3p B(x2, y2) C(x3, y3) D

x1x2 x2x3 x3x1 3q

FIGURE 2.19

x1x2x3 1

Therefore Note: Either the line l meets all three sides externally or

two sides internally and one side externally. That is why

x1 x2 x3 3 p product of the ratios is equal to −1.

p (2.19)

3 3

Now, Try it out The converse of Menelaus’ theorem

is also true.

y1 y2 y3 1 ¥ 1 1 1´

¦

3 3 § x1 x2 x3 µ¶

6. (Ceva’s Theorem) In the plane of $ABC, let O be a

1 ¥ x x x3 x1 x1 x2 ´ point (not on any side). If the lines AO, BO and CO

¦ 2 3 µ¶

3§ x1 x2 x3 meet the opposite sides BC, CA and AB at points D,

E and F, respectively, then show that

1 ¥ 3q ´

¦ µ q (2.20)

3§ 1 ¶ BD CE AF

1

DC EA FB

From Eqs. (2.19) and (2.20), the centroid of the triangle is

(p, q). Solution: Without loss of generality, we may assume

that O is the origin and points A, B and C are (x1, y1), (x2,

5. (Menelaus’ Theorem) Suppose a straight line meets

y2) and (x3, y3), respectively. See Fig. 2.20. Observe that ei-

the sides BC, CA and AB of a triangle at points D, E FHHHE FHHHE FHHE

and F, respectively. Then show that ther all the three lines AO , BO and CO divide the sides

BC, CA and AB internally or two of them divide two sides

BD CE AF externally and one dividesFthe

1 HHHE third

FHHHE side internally.

FHHE Now,

DC EA FB the equations of the lines AO , BO and CO are, respec-

tively, xy1−x1y 0, xy2−x2y 0 and xy3 − x3y 0. Therefore,

Solution: Let the coordinates of A, B and C be (x1, y1), by Theorem 2.17, we get

(x2, y2) and (x3, y3). See Fig. 2.19. Suppose L is the line

whose equation is L yax by c 0 meeting the sides in BD ( x y x1 y2 )

2 1

D, E and F. Therefore, by Theorem 2.17, we get DC x3 y1 x1 y3

BD L22 CE ( x y x2 y3 )

3 2

DC L33 EA x1 y2 x2 y1

CE L33 AF ( x y x3 y1 )

1 3

EA L11 FB x2 y3 x3 y2

AF L11 Hence

FB L22 BD CE AF

1

DC EA FB

2.2 Pair of Lines 53

90°

M 2, 3

I

F

45°

O E

C (1, −1) D

FIGURE 2.21

B(x2, y2) D C (x3, y3)

Aliter (Using Complex Numbers): Let A 3 4i, C 1

FIGURE 2.20 − i, M midpoint of AC 2 3/2i. Let B denote Z. Rotate

HHHHE

MA about M through 90° in the anticlockwise sense so

that

Try it out Converse of Ceva’s theorem is also

true. Z
; 2 (3 / 2)i =

i

(3 4i)
[2 (3 / 2)i]

i

a square ABCD, then find the equations of the sides 2 5i

of the square. 1 5i

Z

2

Solution: See Fig. 2.21. Equation of the line AC is

¥ 1 5´

B ¦ , µ

41 § 2 2¶

y 4 ( x 3)

3 1

Similarly,

2y − 8 5x − 15

¥ 1 5´ ¥ 9 1´

5x − 2y − 7 0 D ¦ 3 1 ,4 1 µ =¦ , µ

§ 2 2¶ § 2 2¶

Its slope is 5/2. Let the slope of side CD be m. Then

Now, we can write the sides equations because the verti-

m (5 / 2) ces are obtained as A(3, 4), B(−1/2, 5/2), C(1, −1), D(9/2,

DAC 45o 1 tan 45o 1/2).

1 (5m / 2)

1

5m 2 point (2, 3) and making an angle 45° with the line 3x −

y 5 0.

5m 2 p(2 m 5)

7 3 Solution: See Fig. 2.22. Let m be the slope of a side.

m or ABC 45° so that we have

3 7

Therefore, equations of CB and CD are m 3

1 tan 45o

1 3m

7

y1 ( x 1) 7 x 3 y 4 0

3 Therefore,

3

y 1 ( x 1) 3 x 7 y 10 0 3m 1 p(m 3)

7

1

Similarly, the equations of AB and BD, respectively, are m 2 or

2

3 Therefore, the equations of the lines are

y 4 ( x 3) 3 x 7 y 19 0

7

y − 3 − 2(x− 2) x y − 7 0

7

y 4 ( x 3) 7 x 3 y 33 0 1

3 y 3 ( x 2) x 2 y 4 0

2

Therefore, the equations of the sides are 3x − 7y − 10 0,

7x 3y − 4 0, 3x − 7y − 19 0 and 7x 3y − 33 0.

54 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

er three sides.

where A is (−3, 1) and the equation of AD is 3x 7y

45° 2 0. Since the line joining (−3, 1) and (1, 1) is hori-

B 3x − y + 5 = 0 C zontal, the point (1, 1) must be the end of the diagonal

through A (−3, 1). Therefore, C is (1, 1) and the equation

FIGURE 2.22 of BC is

y 1 ( x 1)

and 7x 2y 0 and one diagonal is 11x 7y − 9 0. 7

Find the equations of the other sides and the second 3 x 7 y 10 0

diagonal.

Equation of AB is

Solution: Solving the equations 4x 5y 0 and 11x 7

7y − 9 0, we have x 5/3, y −4/3. Let A (5/3, −4/3). y 1 ( x 3)

3

Solving the equations 7x 2y 0 and 11x 7y− 9 0, we 7 x 3 y 24 0

have x −2/3, y 7/3. Let C (−2/3, 7/3). Therefore,

Equation of the side CD is

¥ 2 7´ ¥ 5 4´

C ¦ , µ , O(0, 0) and A¦ , µ 7

§ 3 3¶ § 3 3¶ y 1 ( x 1) 7 x 3 y 4 0

3

are the three consecutive vertices of the parallelogram. Therefore, the other three sides are 3x 7y − 10 0, 7x

So its fourth vertex B (see Fig. 2.23) is − 3y 24 0 and 7x − 3y − 4 0.

¥ 2 5 7 4´

¦§ , µ¶ (1, 1) C(1, 1)

B

3 3 3 3

Therefore, the vertices of the parallelogram OABC are

O(0, 0), A(5/3, −4/3), B(1, 1) and C(−2/3, 7/3). Since the D A(−3, 1)

side BC is parallel to OA and passes through (1, 1), its 3x + 7y + 2 = 0

equation is

FIGURE 2.24

4

y 1 ( x 1) or 4 x 5 y 9 0

5 11. The three lines x 2y 3 0, x 2y − 7 0 and 2x −

y − 4 0 form the three sides of two squares. Find the

Also, the equation of the side AB is

equations of fourth side of each square.

7

y 1 ( x 1) or 7 x 2 y 9 0

2 Solution: Let the squares be ABCD and ADEF

with AD as common side (see Fig. 2.25). Solving x

and the second diagonal is x−y 0.

2y 3 0 and 2x − y − 4 0, we have A (1, −2). Solv-

y ing the equations x 2y − 7 0 and 2x − y − 4 0,

B

we have D (3, 2). The length of the sides of squares

C

AD (3 1)2 (2 2)2 4 16 2 5 . Let B (h, −

0

=

2y

+

A AB 2 5. Therefore,

7x

= 0

4x + 5y 2

¥ 3 h ´

O x (h
1)2 ¦
2µ 20

§ 2 ¶

4(h
1)2 (h
1)2 80

FIGURE 2.23 (h
1)2 16

h
1 p4

10. One side of a rectangle lies along the line 3x 7y h 5 or
3

2 0 and (−3, 1) is a vertex on it. If (1, 1) is another

2.2 Pair of Lines 55

Therefore, B (5,
4) and F (
3, 0). Hence, the equa- 13. The vertices B and C of $ABC lie on the line 4x − 3y

tion of the side BC is y 4 2(x − 5) or 2x − y − 14 0 and 0 and x-axis, respectively, BC passes through (2/3,

the equation of the side FE is y − 0 2(x 3) or 2x − y − 2/3) and ABOC is a rhombus where O is the origin.

6 0. Equations of the fourth side of the square are 2x − Find the equation of the line BC and the coordinates

y − 14 0 and 2x − y − 6 0. of the vertex A.

x + 2y − 7 = 0

E C Solution: See Fig. 2.27. OB OC CA AB and the di-

D agonals OA and BC are at right angles. Let OC a. Sup-

2x − y = 4 pose B [x1, 4x1/3]. Equation of the side AB is y (4x1)/3

and the coordinates of A are [a x1, (4x1)/3]. Hence

F B

A (CA)2 a 2

x + 2y + 3 = 0

16 x12

FIGURE 2.25

x12 a2

9

5x

12. Each side of a square is of length 4. The centre of the ap 1

square is (3, 7) and one of its diagonals is parallel to the 3

line y x. Find the coordinate of the vertices of square. y

the centre of the square. AC is parallel to the line y x. B

2,2 A

Therefore, the equation of the diagonal AC is 3 3

x

y − 7 1(x − 3)

=4

3y

x
y4 0 (2.21)

Hence, the equation of the diagonal BD is O C x

y − 7 −1 (x − 3)

x y
10 0 (2.22) FIGURE 2.27

Since the length of the side is 4, the lengths of the diago-

Case 1: If a 5 x1 /3, we have

nals are 4 2. Let A (h, h 4) and MA 2 2. This

implies that ¥ 5x ´ ¥ 8x 4x ´ ¥ 4 x1 ´

C¦ 1, 0µ , A ¦ 1 , 1 µ , B ¦ x1 , µ and O (0, 0)

§ 3 ¶ § 3 3 ¶ § 3 ¶

(h
3)2 (h 4
7)2 8

By hypothesis, points B, (2/3, 2/3) and C are collinear.

(h
3)2 4

This implies that

h 3p 2

4 x1

h 5 or 1 x1 1

3

Hence, A (5, 9) and C (1, 5). Let B (k, 10 −k) and 2 2

1 0

MD 2 2. This implies that 3 3

(k
3)2 (10
k
7)2 8 5 x1

0 1

k
3 p2 3

k 5 or 1 5 x1 ¥ 4 x1 2 ´ ¥ 2x 8x ´

¦§
µ 1¦ 1
1 µ 0

3 3 3¶ § 3 9 ¶

Hence, B (5, 5) and D (1, 9). Therefore, the vertices of

the square are (5, 9), (5, 5), (1, 5), (1, 9). 5 x1 (4 x1
2) (6 x1
8 x1 ) 0

D C 20 x12
12 x1 0

3

x1 0,

5

(3, 7)

Now, x1 0 B (0, 0), which is actually not the origin.

Hence, x1 3 / 5. Therefore,

A 4 B

¥ 3 4´ ¥ 8 4´

O (0, 0), B ¦ , µ , A ¦ , µ and C (1, 0)

FIGURE 2.26 § 5 5¶ § 5 5¶

56 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

Case 2: a we need to verify the following:

3

1. The incentre I(1, 0) is inside $ABC.

2. The distance of I(1, 0) from the three sides must be

Try it out Try case 2 mentioned above, that is, equal.

a 5 x1 /3.

15. Determine all values of @ for which the point (@, @ 2)

lies inside the triangle formed by the lines 2x 3y −

14. In $ABC, A (−4, 1). The internal bisectors the 1 0, x 2y − 3 0 and 5x − 6y − 1 0.

angles B and C are, respectively, x − 1 0 and x − (IIT-JEE 1992)

y − 1 0. Find the coordinates of B and C and the

equations of the sides AB and AC. Solution: Let L y 2x 3y − 1 0, Layx 2y − 3 0 and Lq y

5x − 6y − 1 0. Vertices are A (5/4, 7/8), B (1/3, 1/9) and

Solution: See Fig. 2.28. Let BE and CF be the bisectors C (−7, 5). See Fig. 2.29.

of the angles B and C whose equations are, respective-

ly, x − 1 0 and x – y − 1 0. Suppose M and N are the 1. For the side BC (L 0), the points A(5/4, 7/8) and

reflections of the vertex A in the bisectors BE and CF, (@, @ 2) must be on the same side (by Quick Look 9).

respectively. Hence, M and N lie on the line BC. Let M ¥ 5´ ¥ 7´ 20 21 8

(h, k).Therefore, by Theorem 2.13, we have L11 2 ¦ µ 3 ¦ µ 1 0.

§ 4¶ § 8¶ 8

h 4 k1 (4 1) ¥ k1 ´

2 ¦§ here means k 1µ L22 2(A ) 3A 2 1 0

1 0 1 0 ¶

h 2 and k 1 3A 2 2A 1 0

ha
4 k a 1 (4 1
1) Therefore,

2 2
4

1
1 1 12 1

h a 0 and k a 3 A
1 or A (2.26)

3

Hence, N (0, 3) . Therefore, equation of the side BC is 2. For the side CA (La 0), the points B(1/3, 1/9) and (@,

@ 2) are on the same side. Therefore

¥ 3 1´

y
3 ¦ ( x
0)

§ 0 2 µ¶ 1 2 3 2
27

a

L11
3 0

2x − y 3 0 3 9 9

Equations of BE is and a A 2A 2
3 0

L22 (by Quick Look 9)

Equation of CF is 3

A 1 (2.27)

x
y1 (2.24) 2

Equation of BC is 3. For the side AB (Lq 0), the points C and (@, @ 2) are

on the same side. Therefore

2 x
y
3 (2.25)

aa 5(
7)
6(
5)
1 0

L11

Solving Eqs. (2.23)–(2.25), we have B (1, 5) and C

(−4, −5). and aa 5A
6A 2
1 0

L22

A(4, −1) 6A 2
5A 1 0

(3A
1)(2A
1) 0

F

E 1 1 (2.28)

A or A

x=1 3 2

FIGURE 2.28

2.2 Pair of Lines 57

A

5,7 Therefore

4 8

4 m
16

x

4m 3

x

=

+

1

2y

−

−

6y

m(4 m 16)

3

−

=

x (a, a 2) and y 5
m

5x

0

4m 3

B

1,1 2x + 3y − 1 = 0 C (−7, 5) 4 m2
16 m
4 m2 17 m 15

3 9

4m 3

FIGURE 2.29 m 15

4m 3

16. If the sum of the distances of a point from two per-

pendicular lines in a plane is 1, then prove that its Hence

locus is a square. (IIT-JEE 1992) ¥ 4 m
16 m 15 ´

Q¦ ,

§ 4 m 3 4 m 3 µ¶

Solution: Take the two perpendicular lines as coordi-

nate axes. P(x, y) is a point on the locus |x| |y| 1. This Since M(1, 5) is the midpoint of PQ, we have

implies that

1 ¥ 9
m 4 m
16 ´

1 ¦ µ (2.30)

xy1 2 § 5
m 4m 3 ¶

x−y 1

1 ¥ 25
m m 15 ´

−x y 1 and 5 ¦ µ (2.31)

2 § 5
m 4m 3 ¶

−x−y 1

From Eq. (2.31), we get

These lines form a square.

2(5
m)(4 m 3) (9
m)(4 m 3) (5
m)(4 m
16)

17. A line meets the straight lines 5x − y − 4 0 and 3x

2(
4 m2 17 m 15) (
4 m2 33m 27) (
4 m2

4y − 4 0 at points P and Q. If (1, 5) is the midpoint

of PQ, find the equation of the line PQ. 36 m
80)

8m2 34 m 30
8m2 69m
53

Solution: See Fig. 2.30. Let the line PQ be 35m 83

y
5 m( x
1) (2.29) 83

m

Substituting y mx 5
m in the equation 5 x
y
4 0, 35

we have Substituting the value of m 83/35 in Eq. (2.29), equa-

5 x
mx
5 m
4 0 tion of line PQ is obtained as

(5
m) x m
9 0 83

y
5 ( x
1)

Therefore 35

83 x
35 y 92 0

9
m ¥ 9
m´ 25
m

x and y m¦ 5
m The value of m obtained from Eq. (2.31) is also equal to

5
m § 5
m µ¶ 5
m

83/35.

Hence

¥ 9
m 25
m ´

P¦ ,

§ 5
m 5
m µ¶ Q

=4

4y

we have

+

4

y= P

3x

3 x 4(mx 5 m) 4 0 5x −

(3 4 m) x 16
4 m 0 20, 8

23 23

FIGURE 2.30

58 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

Try it out

2 0, 2x y 4 0 and x − y − 5 0 at the points B,

We can take the equation of the line PQ as C and D, respectively. If

x 1 y 5 2 2 2

G ¥ 15 ´ ¥ 10 ´ ¥ 6 ´

cos Q sin

i Q ¦§ µ ¦§ µ ¦§ µ

AB ¶ AC ¶ AD ¶

and substitute x 1 F cosP and y 5 F sinP in both then find the equation of line.

the line equations and obtain the coordinates of P (IIT-JEE 1993)

and Q. Finally, use that (1, 5) is the midpoint of PQ.

Solution: Let the line through A(−5, −4) be

18. The line joining two points A(2, 0) and B(3, 1) is rotat- x5 y4

G (by Theorem 2.7)

ed about A through an angle 15° in the counterclock cos Q sin Q

sense. Find the equation of the line in the new posi- Therefore, every point on the line is of the form x −5

tion and the coordinates of the new position of B. F cosP, y −4 F sinP. Let AB F1, AC F2 and AD F3.

Since B (−5 F1 cosP, −4 F1 sinP ), we have

Solution: See Fig. 2.31. Let XAB @ so that

(
5 G 1 cos Q ) 3 (
4 G 1 sin Q ) 2 0

1
0

tan A 1 or A 45o ( & B lies on x 3 y 2 0)

3
2

Therefore

Since XAC @ 15° 60°, the equation of the line AC

(point C is the new position of point B) is 15

G1

cos Q 3 sin Q

y
0 tan 60o( x
2) 3 ( x
2) Hence

Therefore, equation of the line AB in its new position is 15

cos Q 3 sin Q (& G 1 AB) (2.32)

3x
y
2 3 0 AB

Similarly, points C and D lie on 2x y 4 0 and x − y

Since C (x, 3 (x− 2)) and AC AB 2, we have − 5 0, respectively. We have

( x
2)2 3( x
2)2 ( AC )2 2 10

2 cos Q sin Q (2.33)

1 AC

( x
2) p

2 6

1 and cos Q
sin Q (2.34)

x 2p AD

2

Now, by hypothesis,

Hence 2 2 2

¥ 15 ´ ¥ 10 ´ ¥ 6 ´

¥ ¦§ µ¶ ¦§ µ¶ ¦§ µ

1 3´ AB AC AD ¶

C ¦2 , µ

§ 2 2¶

Hence, from Eqs. (2.32)–(2.34), we have

The value of x 2 − 1/ 2 gives the position of point B,

(cos Q 3 sin Q )2 (2 cos Q sin Q )2 (cos Q
sin Q )2

when AB is rotated about point A through angle 15° in

clockwise sense. 5 cos2 Q 10 sin 2 Q 10 sin Q cos Q cos2 Q sin 2 Q

y
2 sin Q cos Q

C 4 cos2 Q 9 sin 2 Q 12 sin Q cos Q 0

B(3, 1)

(2 cos Q 3 sin Q )2 0

15

Therefore,

O A(2, 0) x

2

2 cos Q 3 sin Q 0 or tan Q

3

FIGURE 2.31 Hence, the equation of the line is

2.2 Pair of Lines 59

2 x
2 y
2

y 4
( x 5) or 2 x 3 y 22 0 G (by Theorem 2.7)

3 cos Q sin Q

See Fig. 2.33. Let BP F 1, BQ F 2 and BR F . Therefore

20. One diagonal of a square is the portion of the line 7x

5y 35 intercepted between the axes. Determine P (2 G 1 cos Q , 5 G 1 sin Q )

the extremities of the other diagonal.

and Q (2 G 2 cos Q , 5 G 2 sin Q )

Solution: See Fig. 2.32. A(5, 0) and B(0, 7) are the ex- Since point P lies on x − 2y 0, we have

tremities of the given diagonal. Therefore, the slope of

(2 G 1 cos Q )
2(5 G 1 sin Q ) 0

the diagonal AB is −7/5. Hence, the slope of the other

diagonal, say, CD is 5/7. Therefore 8

G1 (2.35)

5 cos Q
2 sin Q

tan Q

7 Similarly, Q lies on 2x − y 0, we have

so that 1

7 5

G2 (2.36)

cos Q and sin Q 2 cos Q
sin Q

74 74 By hypothesis,

The equation of the diagonal CD is 1 1 2

x
(5 / 2) y
(7 / 2) G1 G2 G

G (say)

7 / 74 5 / 74

Therefore, from Eqs. (2.35) and (2.36), we get

Since, G 74 / 2, the other vertices of the diagonal are

cos Q
2 sin Q 2

(2 cos Q
sin Q )

¥5 7 74 7 5 74 ´ 8 G

C¦ s , s (6, 6)

§2 74 2 2 74 2 µ¶ 16

17 cos Q
10 sin Q (2.37)

G

¥5 74 7 7 74 5 ´

and D¦
s ,
s µ Let R (x, y) so that

§2 2 74 2 2 74 ¶

x 2 F cosP F cosP x − 2

¥ 5 7 7 5´ y 5 F sinP F sinP y – 5

¦
,
µ (
1, 1)

§ 2 2 2 2¶

Therefore, from Eq. (2.37),

y 16 17G cos Q
10G sin Q

B(0, 7) 17( x
2)
10( y
5)

The locus of R is 17x− 10y 0.

5,7

M y

2 2

Q

B(2, 5)

A(5, 0)

0 P

2y =

FIGURE 2.32 x−

the lines 2x2 − 5xy 2y2 0 at P and Q. Find the locus

of the point R such that the distances BP, BR and FIGURE 2.33

BQ are in harmonic progression (HP).

22. ABC is an equilateral triangle in which B (1, 3) and

Solution: The given equation 2x2 − 5xy 2y2 0 rep- C (−2, 7). Find the coordinates of the vertex A.

resents the pair of lines 2x − y 0 and x − 2y 0. Let the

equation of the line through B(2, 5) be

60 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

y 5

7 3 4 2

2 1 3 Hence

Therefore, the slope of perpendicular bisector of BC is ¥ 1 3 3 ´ ¥ 1 3 3´

3/4 and its equation is A ¦2 3 , 5µ or ¦ 2 3 , 5

§ 2 2 ¶ § 2 2 µ¶

3¥ 1´

y 5 ¦ x µ¶

4§ 2 A

BC (7 3)2 ( 2 1)2 5, we have

5 3 60° 60°

Altitude AM = (sin 60o) AB C(−2, 7)

2 B(1, 3) −1,

M 5

2

The equation of the altitude AM is

FIGURE 2.34

3

y (2 x 1) 5 (2.38)

8 Aliter (Using Complex Numbers): B 1 3i and C −2

Now, 7i. Rotate CB about C through an angle 60° in anti-

clockwise sense (see Fig. 2.35). Thus

75

( AM )2

4 Z
(
2 7i)

cos 60o i sin 60o

¥ 1´

2 (1 3i)
(
2 7i)

¦ x µ ( y
5)2 [where A ( x, y)]

§ 2¶ Therefore

2

¥ 1´ ¨3 · ¥ 1 i 3´ 3 4 3 i(3 3
4)

¦ x µ © (2 x 1) 5
5¸ [by Eq. (2.38)] Z 2
7i ¦

§ 2 ¶ ª8 ¹ 2 µ ( 3
4i ) 2

§ ¶

(2 x 1)2 9 This gives

(2 x 1)2

4 64

3 4 3 i(3 3
4)

25(2 x 1) 2 Z
2 7i

2

64 3 4 3 i(3 3
4)
4 14i

Therefore 2

(2 x 1)2 48 4 3 i(3 3 10)

2

2 x 1 p4 3

¥ 1´ ¥ 3 3 ´

1 p 4 3 ¦2 3
µ i¦ 5µ

x § 2 ¶ § 2 ¶

2

Therefore

1 ¥ 1´

x2 3
and
¦ 2 3 µ ¥ 1 3 3 ´

2 § 2¶ A ¦2 3
, 5µ

§ 2 2 ¶

When x 2 3
(1/2) we have Similarly, if we rotate CB in clockwise sense about C

3¥ 1´ through an angle 60°, we get the second position of A.

y ¦x µ 5

4§ 2¶ A( Z )

3¥ 1 1´

¦2 3
µ 5 60°

4 § 2 2¶

3 3

5 60° 60°

2

C(−2, 7) B(1, 3)

and when x
2 3
(1/ 2) we have

FIGURE 2.35

2.2 Pair of Lines 61

y D

Try it out Solve the same problem by taking

the equation of the altitude AM

M as

1

x

2 y
5 G A(0, k)

cos Q sini Q

where cosP 4/5 and sinP 3/5. (1,

2)

C

equilateral triangles, squares, etc., the method of using x

complex numbers is easier than the method of using

coordinates. B

FIGURE 2.36

2x 3 and y 7x 2. The diagonals intersect at (1, 2).

If one vertex lies on the y-axis, then find the coordi-

24. A ray of light is sent along the line x − 2y 5 0. Upon

nates of this vertex.

reaching the line 3x − 2y 7 0, the ray is reflected

Solution: See Fig. 2.36. Let ABCD be the rhombus from it. Find the equation of the reflected ray.

where A (0, k). AB and CD are parallel to y 7x 2

whereas BC and AD are parallel to y 2x 3. Hence, the Solution: See Fig. 2.37. We have

equation of AB is x 2y 5 0 (Incident ray) (2.41)

y 7x k (2.39) 3x 2 y 7 0 (Surface line) (2.42)

Since (1, 2) is the midpoint of AC and A (0, k), it fol- P (−1, 2) is the point of incidence of the lines given in

lows that C (2, 4 − k). Also, BC is parallel to 2x 3 and Eqs. (2.41) and (2.42). Hence, the equation of the normal

passes through C (2, 4 − k). Hence, the equation of BC is at P(−1, 2) is

y (4 k ) 2( x 2) 2

y 2 ( x 1)

y 2x k (2.40) 3

Solving Eqs. (2.39) and (2.40), we have 2 x 3y 4 0 (2.43)

B ¦ , µ at P makes equal angles with the incident line and

§ 5 5¶

reflected line, we have

¥ 2k 9k ´

Since A (0, k ), B ¦ , µ , C (2, 4 k ) and AB 2 2 1

§ 5 5¶ m

BC, we have 3 3 2

2m ¥ 2 ´ ¥ 1 ´

2 2 2 2 1 1 ¦ µ ¦ µ

¥ 2k ´ ¥ 9k ´ ¥ 2k ´ ¥ 9k ´ 3 § 3 ¶ § 2¶

¦§ µ¶ ¦§ k µ¶ ¦§ 2 µ¶ ¦§ 4 k µ¶

5 5 5 5 3m 2 7

2 2

10k k 5 3 2m 4

k 5 p 10k 3m 2 7

p

5 5 5 3 2m 4

k ( 10 1), ( 10 1)

10 1 9 9 1 29

m ,

Therefore 2 2

A ¦ 0, ( 10 1)µ , ¦ 0, ( 10 1)µ

§ 9 ¶ § 9 ¶ 29

y 2 ( x 1)

2

62 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

Normal Solution: See Fig. 2.39. The distance between the par-

allel lines is

=0

+5

12 7 19

2y

2 2 13

x−

q q 2 3

3x − 2y + 7 = 0 Let P (3, −5). Let p1 be the distance from the first line,

P which is given by

2 2 13

2 3

25. Straight lines 3x 4y 5 and 4x − 3y 15 intersect at

the point A. Points B and C are chosen on those lines and p2 be the distance from the second line, which is

such that AB AC. Determine the possible equa- given by

tions of the line BC passing through the point BC.

2(3) 3( 5) 12 3

Solution: See Fig. 2.38. The two lines intersect at A(−3, 2

2 3 2 13

1). Clearly, the lines 3x 4y 5 and 4x − 3y 15 are at right

angles to each other and AB AC implies that $ABC is a Therefore

right-angled isosceles triangle with its right angle at ver- 19

tex A. Let m be the slope of the line BC. Hence p1 p2

13

3 This implies that P(3, 5) lies in between the two lines. Let

m

4 4m 3 m be the slope of a line through P (3, −5). Therefore, by

1 tan 45o

3m 4 3m hypothesis, we have

1

4

2

4 m 3 p(4 3m) m

1 tan 45o 3

Two cases arise: 2m

1

3

1

Case 1: 4 m 3 (4 3m) m .

7 3m 2

p1

Case 2: 4 m 3 4 3m m 7. 3 2m

1

1 Case 1: 3m 2 3 2 m m .

y 2 ( x 1) x 7 y 13 0 5

7 Case 2: 3m 2 (3 2 m) m 5.

or y 2 7( x 1) 7 x y 9 0

Therefore, the required lines are

C 1

y5 ( x 3) x 5 y 28 0

45° 5

4x − 3y = 15

and y 5
5( x
3) 5 x y
10 0

(1, 2)

2x + 3y = 7 45°

90° 45°

A 3x + 4y = 5 B (3, −5)

45°

FIGURE 2.38

2x + 3y = −12

26. Show that the point (3, −5) lies between the parallel FIGURE 2.39

lines 2x 3y 7 and 2x 3y −12 and find the equa-

tion of the lines through (3, −5) cutting the above 27. A(10, 0) and B(
5,
5) are two vertices of a triangle

lines at an angle 45°. whose incentre is the origin. Find the coordinates of

the third vertex.

2.2 Pair of Lines 63

Solution: See Fig. 2.40. Let C(h, k) be the third vertex. Two cases arise:

Since O(0, 0) is the incentre, BO and AO are the bisec-

Case 1: 4 m 3 3m
4 m
7.

tors of the angles B and A, respectively. The equation of

BO is 1

Case 2: 4 m 3
(3m
4) m .

7

x
y0 (2.43)

Therefore, the equations of the sides AB and AC are

The equation of AO is

y
2
7( x
2) 7 x y
16 0

y0 (2.44)

1

and y
2 ( x
2) x
7 y 12 0

Equation of the side AB is 7

05 C

y ( x
10)

10 5

45°

3x

x
3 y
10 0 (2.45)

+

4y

Since BO is the angle bisector of B, the image of C(h, k)

=

4

in the line BO lies on the line AB. Since the equation of

45°

BO is y x, the image of C(h, k) in BO is (k, h) and this

A(2, 2) B

lies on AB. Therefore

FIGURE 2.41

k
3h 10 (2.46)

The image of C(h, k) in the angle bisector AO lies on the 29. The points (1, 3) and (5, 1) are two opposite vertices

side AB. That is, (h,
k) lies on the side AB. Therefore, of a rectangle. The other two vertices lie on the line

from Eq. (2.45), we get y 2x c. Find c and the other remaining vertices.

h
3(
k ) 10 (2.47)

Solution: See Fig. 2.42. ABCD is the rectangle in which

Solving Eqs. (2.46) and (2.47), we get h
2 and k 4. A (1, 3), C (5, 1). Points B and D lie on the line y

Hence, the third vertex is (
2, 4). 7x c. The diagonals intersect in (3, 2) which lies on the

y line y 7x c. Therefore, 2 2(3) c or c
4. That is, the

equation of the diagonal BD is

y 2x
4 (2.48)

C

Suppose M (3, 2) is the midpoint of the diagonals.

Therefore,

MD MB (1/ 2) AC 5

O A(10, 0) x

Let B be (x, 2x
4). Therefore

B(−5, −5) MB 5

(MB)2 5

FIGURE 2.40 (3
x)2 (2
2 x 4)2 5

( 3
x ) 2 (6
2 x ) 2 5

28. Find the equations of the sides of a right-angled isos-

celes triangle whose hypotenuse is the line 3x 4y 5 x 2
30 x 40 0

4 0 and the right angle vertex is the point (2, 2). x2
6x 8 0

x 2, 4

Solution: See Fig. 2.41. Let the slope of AB be m.

Therefore Hence, B (2, 0) and D (4, 4).

CBA 45o D C(5, 1)

¥
3 ´ M(3, 2)

m
¦ µ

§ 4¶

1 tan 45o

¥
3 ´

1 m¦ µ

§ 4¶ A(1, 3) B

64 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

30. The ends of a straight line segment AB of constant 31. A variable straight line through the point of intersec-

length c move on two perpendicular lines OX and tion of the lines

OY which are the coordinate axes. If the rectangle x y x y

OAPB is completed, then show that the locus of the 1 and 1

a b b a

foot of the perpendicular drawn from P on to AB is meets the coordinate axes at A and B. Show that the

x 2/3 y2/3 c 2/3. locus of the midpoint of AB is the curve

that the equation of the line AB is

Solution: Equation of any line through the intersec-

x y tion of the given lines is of the form

1 (2.49)

a b

x y ¥x y ´

and also 1 L ¦ 1µ 0

a b §b a ¶

a 2 b2 c 2 (2.50)

This line meets the x-axis at

Let M(x1, y1) be the foot of the perpendicular drawn

from P onto the line AB. Since M(x1, y1) lies on AB, we ¥ ab(1 L ) ´ ¥ ab(1 L ) ´

A¦ , 0µ and B ¦ 0, µ

have § b aL ¶ § a bL ¶

x1 y1

1 (2.52) Let M(x1, y1) be the midpoint of AB. Therefore

a b

Since P (a, b) and PM is perpendicular to AB, we ab(1 L ) ab(1 L )

2 x1 and 2 y1

have b aL a bL

Therefore, 1 1 (b aL ) (a bL ) (a b)(1 L ) a b

2 x1 2 y1 ab(1 L ) ab(1 L ) ab

¥ b
y1 ´ ¥ b
0 ´

¦§ a
x µ¶ ¦§ 0
a µ¶
1 Hence

1

From Eqs. (2.52) and (2.53), we get Therefore, the locus of (x1, y1) is

a3 b3 2(a b) xy (ab)( x y)

x1 , y1

a2 b 2

a 2 b2 32. The equations of the perpendicular bisectors of the

Therefore sides AB and AC of the triangle ABC are x
y 5

0 and x 2y 0, respectively. If the point A is (1,
2),

a 2 b2 then find the equation of the side BC.

x12/3 y12/3 2 2 2/3

(a 2 b2 )1/3 c 2/3

(a b )

Solution: See Fig. 2.44. Perpendicular bisectors of the

[by Eq. (2.50)]

sides AB and AC, respectively, are

Therefore, the locus of M(x1, y1) is

x
y5 0 (2.54)

x 2/3 y2/3 c 2/3

and x 2y 0 (2.55)

y

Solving Eqs. (2.54) and (2.55), the circumcentres of

B P (a, b) $ABC is
10/ 3, 5/ 3 . Also, the equation of AB is

y 2
1( x
1)

M

x y1 0

Suppose B (x,
x
1). We have

O A x SA SB

2 2 2 2

¥
10 ´ ¥5 ´ ¥ 10 ´ ¥ 5´

¦
1µ ¦ 2µ ¦ x µ ¦
x
1
µ

FIGURE 2.43 § 3 ¶ §3 ¶ § 3¶ § 3¶

2.2 Pair of Lines 65

A(1, −2)

132 112 (3 x 10)2 (3 x 8)2

18 x 2 108 x
126 0 x−y y =0

+5= +2

0

2 x 2 12 x
14 0 x

x2 6x
7 0 −10 , 5

S

( x 7)( x
1) 0 3 3

x 1,
7 B C

Hence FIGURE 2.44

x 1 ( x,
x
1) (1,
2) A Aliter: A (1,
2) and the perpendicular bisector of AB

and x
7 B (
7, 6) is

Therefore x
y5 0 (2.56)

B (
7, 6) Hence, B is the image of A in the given line in Eq. (2.56).

If B (h, k), then by Theorem 2.13, we have

Similarly, equation of AC is

h
1 k 2
2[1
(
2) 5]

y 2 2 ( x
1)
8

1
1 12 (
1)2

y 2x
4

Suppose C (h, 2h
4), we have Therefore

SC SA h
7, k 6

2 2 2 2 Hence

¥
10 ´ ¥ 5´ ¥ 10 ´ ¥5 ´

¦
hµ ¦ 2 h
4
µ ¦
1µ ¦ 2µ

§ 3 ¶ § 3¶ § 3 ¶ §3 ¶ B (
7, 6)

2

3h 10 (6 h
17)2 132 112 Similarly, C (x1, y1) is the image of A in the line x 2y 0

which implies that

45h2
144 h 99 0

x1
1 y1 2
2(1
4) 6

5h2
16 h 11 0 2

1 2 1 22 5

5h2
5h
11h 11 0 6 11

5h(h
1)
11(h
1) 0 x1 1

5 5

11 12 2

h 1, and y1
2

5 5 5

Now

Therefore

h 1 the point (h, 2h
4) (1,
2) A

¥ 11 2 ´

11 ¥ 11 2 ´ C¦ , µ

h C ¦ , µ § 5 5¶

5 § 5 5¶

Thus, the equation of the side BC is

Hence

14 x 23 y
40 0

¥ 11 2 ´

B (
7, 6) and C ¦ , µ

§ 5 5¶ 33. A line cuts x-axis at A(7, 0) and y-axis at B(0,
5). A

variable line PQ is drawn perpendicular to AB cut-

This implies that the equation of the side BC is

ting the x-axis at P and the y-axis at Q. If AQ and BP

6
(2 / 5) intersect at R, then find the locus of R.

y
6 ( x 7)

7
(11/ 5) (IIT-JEE 1990)

28 FHHHE

( x 7) Solution: See Fig. 2.45. The slope of AB is

46

14
5
0 5

( x 7)

23 0
7 7

14 x 23 y
40 0

66 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

which QP is the altitude from Q onto AB and AP is the gx2 fy2 0 (2.59)

altitude from A onto BQ. These two intersect at P. Hence,

BP is the third altitude of $ABQ. Therefore, BR is per- Therefore, g f 0 because x1 y2 x2 y1 x 0 or the

pendicular to AR. Hence, if R (h, k), then matrix

Slope of BR s Slope of AR
1 ¨ x1 y1 ·

©x y2 ¸¹

¥ k 5´ ¥ k ´ ª 2

¦
1

§ h µ¶ ¦§ h
7 µ¶ is a non-singular matrix. Equations (2.58) and (2.95)

h2 k 2
7 h 5k 0 have zero solution only so that g 0 and f 0.

Therefore, the locus of R(h, k) is

35. If S y a x 2 2 hxy by2 2 gx 2 fy c 0 represents

2 2

x y
7 x 5y 0 a pair of distinct lines (h2 ab), then prove that their

point of intersection satisfies the equations ax hy g

y 0, hx by f 0 and gx fy c 0, and the point of

Q intersection is

¥ hf
bg gh
af ´

¦§ , µ

ab
h2 ab
h2 ¶

R

Solution: Since S 0 represents a pair of lines, we

have

P

O A (7, 0) x $ abc 2 fgh
af 2
bg 2
ch2 0 (by Theorem 2.31)

90°

and h2 ab implies that the lines are distinct intersecting

lines. Let P(x1, y1) be the point of intersection (see Fig.

2.46). Shift the origin to the point P(x1, y1) and let the

B (0, −5) new coordinates be (X, Y) so that by Section 1.4.1, x X

x1, y Y y1. Therefore, S 0 is transformed to

S y a ( X x1 )2 2 h ( X x1 )(Y y1 ) b (Y y1 )2

FIGURE 2.45 2 g ( X x1 ) 2 f (Y y1 ) c 0

S y aX 2 2hXY bY 2 2 (ax1 hy1 g )X

34. Let S yax2 2hxy by2 2gx 2fy c 0 where h2

ab represent a pair of lines both passing through 2 (hx1 by1 f )Y ax12 2 hx1 y1 by12

origin. Prove that g f c 0. 2 gx1 2 fy1 c 0 (2.60)

Solution: Since S 0 passes through (0, 0) we have Since Eq. (2.60) represents a pair of lines through origin

c 0. Let P(x1, y1) and Q(x2, y2) be points on one of the P, by Problem 34, we have

lines other than the origin so that area of $OPQ x 0. This ax1 hy1 g 0 (2.61)

implies that

hx1 by1 f 0 (2.62)

x1 y2
x2 y1 x 0

and S11 ax12 2 hx1 y1 by12 2 gx1 2 fy1 c 0 (2.63)

x1 y2
x2 y1 x 0 (2.57)

Solving Eqs. (2.61) and (2.62) for x1 and y1, we get

P(x1, y1) lies on one line which passes through origin.

This implies that (
x1,
y1) also lies on the line. There- hf
bg

x1

fore, ab
h2

gh
af

ax12 2 hx1 y1 by12 2 gx1 2 fy1 0 y1

ab
h2

and ax12 2 hx1 y1 by12
2 gx1
2 fy1 0 Therefore, the point of intersection is

imply that ¥ hf
bg gh
af ´

¦§ , µ

gx1 fy1 0 (2.58) ab
h2 ab
h2 ¶

2.2 Pair of Lines 67

(ax1 hy1 g ) x1 (hx1 by1 f ) y1 gx1 fy1 c 0 ¥ 12 2 ´

¦§ , µ

Since ax1 hy1 g 0 and hx1 by1 f 0, we have 7 7¶

gx1 fy1 c 0

37. Show that the equation of the pair of lines passing

The point of intersection of the lines represented by S 0 through origin and perpendicular to the lines repre-

satisfy the following three equations: sented by the equation ax2 2hxy by2 0 is bx2

2hxy ay2 0.

ax1 hy1 g 0 º

®

hx1 by1 f 0» (2.64) Solution: Suppose the lines represented by ax2 2hxy

gx1 fy1 c 0 ®¼ by2 0 are l1x m1y 0 and l2x m2y 0 so that we

have

Y l1l2 a º

®

y l1 m2 l2 m1 2 h» (2.65)

and m1 m2 b ®¼

P X of the lines passing through the origin and perpendicular

to the lines l1x m1y 0 and l2x m2y 0, respectively,

are m1x l1y 0 and m2x l2y 0 and hence their com-

bined equation is

(m1 x l1 y)(m2 x l2 y) 0

O x

(m1m2) x2 (l1m2 l2m1) xy (l1l2) y2 0

From Eq. (2.65), we have

QUICK LOOK 15 of the lines ax2 2hxy by2 0 from a point (x0, y0)

Solving any two equations given in Eq. (2.64), we get is

the point of intersection of lines represented by

S 0. ax02 2 hx0 y0 by02

(a b)2 4 h2

36. Find the point of intersection of the lines represent-

ed by S y3x2 xy 4y2 10x 4y 8 0.

Solution: Suppose the given lines are l1x m1y 0 and

l2x m2y 0 so that

Solution: Comparing the given equation with the

second-degree general equation, we have a = 3, h = 1/2, l1l2 a

b 4, g 5, f 2 and c 8. So

l1 m2 l2 m1 2 h

1 and m1 m2 b

hf bg (2) ( 4)5 21

2 See Fig. 2. 47. Let d1 and d2 be the distances of the lines

¥ 1´ 7 from P(x0, y0). Therefore, by Theorem 2.14, we have

gh af 5 ¦ µ (3)2

§ 2¶ 2

l1 x0 m1 y0

Therefore d1

l12 m12

hf bg 21 21 s 4 12

2

ab h (49 / 4) 49 7 l2 x0 m2 y0

and d2

gh af 7 4 2

s l22 m22

ab h2 2 49 7

68 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

(l1 x0 m1 y0 )(l2 x0 m2 y0 ) 1 l1 m2
l2 m1

d1d2 (by Section 1.2.4)

2 (lm1
l1 m)(lm2
l2 m)

(l12 m12 )(l22 m22 )

(l1l2 m1 m2 )2 (l1 m2 l2 m1 )2 2 l 2 m1m2 (l1 m2 l2 m1 )lm l1l2 m2

(a b)2 4 h2 2 bl 2 2hlm am2

y h2
ab

bl 2
2 hlm am2

P(x0, y0)

l2 x 0

d1

+

m d2 y= y

2y m1

=

0 x+

l1

lx + my

B =1

O x

O x

39. Find the area of the triangle formed by the lines Note: If the given line is lx my n 0 (n ≠ 0), then

ax2 2hxy by2 0 and lx my 1 write

¦§ µ¶ x ¦§ µy1

0 so that n n ¶

l1 m2 l2 m1 2 h n2 h2 ab

and m1 m2 b bl 2 2 hlm am2

Suppose the line lx my 1 meets these lines at A and B

(see Fig. 2.48). Substituting y l1 / m1 in lx my 1, we 40. If n≠ 0, then show that the triangle formed by the

have lines (lx my)2 3(mx ly)2 and lx my n 0 is

equilateral and find its area.

m1 l1

x and y

lm1 l1 m lm1 l1 m Solution: See Fig. 2.49. The equation of the sides pass-

Thus, ing through origin is

A¦ ,

§ lm1 l1 m lm1 l1 m µ¶ Let P be the angle between these sides. Therefore, by

and similarly, Theorem 2.28, Note (3), we have

B¦ , tan Q

§ lm2 l2 m lm2 l2 m µ¶ (l 2 3m2 ) (m2 3l 2 )

2.2 Pair of Lines 69

2 16l 2 m2 10l 2 m2 3(l 4 m4 ) ing through the origin of the parallelogram formed

2(l 2 m2 ) by the lines ax 2 2 hxy by2 2 gx 2 fy c 0

and ax 2 2 hxy by2 0 is 2 gx 2 fy c 0

3 l 4 m4 2l 2 m2 and the diagonal passing through the origin is

l 2 m2 y(hf bg ) x( gh af ).

3 (l 2 m 2 )

Solution: Suppose the lines

l 2 m2

3 S y ax 2 2 hxy by2 2 gx 2 fy c 0 (2.67)

That is, the angle between the sides represented by the and the lines

equation of the sides provided in Eq. (2.66) is 60o. Also, ax 2 2 hxy by2 0 (2.68)

the combined equation of the pair of angle bisectors of

equation of the sides passing through origin given in Eq. intersect in A(x1, y1) and B(x2, y2). Hence, both A and B

(2.66) is satisfy Eqs. (2.67) and (2.68) and hence they satisfy their

difference 2gx 2fy c 0 which is first-degree equation

4lm( x 2
y2 ) [l 2
3m2
(m2
3l 2 )]xy in x and y. Hence, 2gx 2fy c 0 represents a straight

(by Theorem 2.30) line passing through points A and B. Thus, AB is the

2 2 2

lm (x
y ) (l
m ) xy2 diagonal represented by 2gx 2fy c 0. Since

(lx my) (mx
ly) 0 ¥ hf
bg gh
af ´

(0, 0) and ¦§ , µ

The angle bisectors of the angle at the vertex origin are lx ab
h2 ab
h2 ¶

my 0 and mx
ly 0 which, respectively, are parallel

are the ends of the diagonal passing through origin, its

and perpendicular to the base line lx my n 0. Hence,

equation is

the triangle formed by the lines is equilateral. Suppose a

is the length of the sides and p is the length of the altitude ¥ gh
af ´

from origin onto the base lx my n 0 so that y¦ x

§ hf
bg µ¶

n y hf
bg gh
af x

p (by Theorem 2.14)

2 2

l m

42. Show that the area of parallelogram formed by the lines

and

3

sin 60o

p ax 2 2 hxy by2 2 gx 2 fy c 0 and ax2 2hxy

2 a by2 0 is

2p 2 n c

a

3 3 2 2

l m 2 h2
ab

Therefore, area of the triangle is

Solution: Suppose the sides of the parallelogram are

3 2 3 4n2 (by Theorem 2. 32)

a

4 4 3(l 2 m2 )

l1x m1y n1 0

n2

l2x m2y n2 0

3 (l 2 m 2 )

l1x m1y 0

and l2x m2y 0

y

Therefore, l1l2 a, l1m2 l2m1 2h, m1m2 b, l1n2 l2n1

2g, m1n2 m2n1 2f and n1n2 c. Now, by Problem 2, the

lx

+

m

y+

(n1
0)(n2
0) n1 n2

n

=

0

l1 m2
l2 m1 (l1 m2 l2 m1 )2
4l1l2 m1 m2

O x

c c

4 h2
4ab 2 h2
ab

FIGURE 2.49

70 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

g 2 ac

4xy y2 0 and the line x y 3 0 is an equilat- 2

eral triangle and find its area. a(a b)

Solution: The equation of the lines x2
4xy y2 0 can If we use n1 n2 2 f /m2 , then the distance between the

be written as parallel lines is

2

Hence, by Problem 40, the pair of lines x2 4xy y2 0 b a b

and the line x y 3 0 form an equilateral triangle

whose area is 45. Show that the pair of lines a 2 x 2 2 h(a b) xy

b2y2 = 0 are equally inclined to the pair of lines

n2 3 3 ax 2 2 hxy by2 0.

sq. units

3 (l 2 m 2 ) 2 FHHE FHHE FHHE FHHE

Solution: Two pairs of lines ( PA, PB ) and ( PC , PD )

44. If S y ax 2 2 hxy by2 2 gx 2 fy c 0 represents are said to be equally inclined to each other if both pairs

a pair of lines, then show that h2 ab, af 2 bg2 and have the same angle bisectors at point P. Now, for the

the distance between these lines is given pairs of lines, origin is the common point. By Theo-

rem 2.30, the equation of the pair of angle bisectors of

g 2 ac

2 the lines a 2 x 2 2 h(a b) xy b2 y2 0 is

a(a b)

h(a b)( x 2 y2 ) (a 2 b2 ) xy

which is also equal to

h( x 2 y2 ) (a b) xy

f 2 bc

2 which also represents the pair of angle bisectors of the

b(a b)

line ax 2 2 hxy by2 0. Hence, both pairs are equally

inclined to each other.

Solution: Suppose the pair of parallel lines are lx my

n1 0 and lx my n2 0. Therefore,

46. Find the equation of the pair of lines passing through

l 2 a, 2lm 2h, m2 b origin which are at a distance d units from a point

(x1, y1) x (0, 0).

l(n1 n2) 2g, m(n1 n2) 2f, c n1n2

Solution: See Fig. 2.50. Let P be (x1, y1) and y mx the

Now, h2 l 2 m2 ab line whose distance from P is equal to d. That is,

¨ m2 (n1 n2 )2 · y1
mx1

and af 2 l 2 © d (by Theorem 2.14)

¸ 1 m2

ª 4 ¹

2

¨ l(n n2 )2 · ( y1
mx1 )2 d 2(1 m2 )

m2 © 1 ¸ bg

2

2

ª 2 ¹ ¥ y ´ ¥ y2 ´ ¥ y´

¦ y1
x1 µ d 2 ¦ 1 2 µ ¦§& m µ¶

§ x ¶ § x ¶ x

Also, the distance between the two parallel lines is (by

Theorem 2.15) ( xy1
x1 y)2 d 2( x 2 y2 )

n1
n2 (n1 n2 )2
4 n1 n2 y

2 2 2 2

l n l m

N d P(x1, y1)

4g 2

4c d

l2

M

l 2 m2

O x

g 2
ac

2

a(a b)

FIGURE 2.50

2.2 Pair of Lines 71

47. If the equation x2 5xy 4y2 3x 2y c 0 repre- and y(hf
bg) x(gh
af)

sents a pair of lines, then find the value of c and also

The parallelogram is a rhombus if the diagonals are at

the angle between the lines.

right angles (see Fig. 2.51). That is, if the product of their

slopes is equal to
1:

Solution: By Theorem 2.31, we have

g ¥ gh
af ´

a h g
1

2 2 2

f ¦§ hf
bg µ¶

$ abc 2 fgh
af
bg
ch h b f 0

g f c g 2 h
afg f 2 h
bfg

5 3

1 y

2 2

5

4 1 0 90°

2

3

1 c

2

2 5 3 O x

5 8 2 0

3 2 2c

FIGURE 2.51

2(16c
4)
5(10c
6) 3(10
24) 0

18c
20 0 49. Show that the four lines given by the equations 2x2

3xy
2y2 0 and 2x2 3xy
2y2 3x y 1 0 form

10 a square.

c

9

If @ is the angle between the lines, then Solution: We know that the lines represented by the

equations are

ab 2x
y 0

cos A (by Theorem 2.28)

2 2

(a
b) 4 h x 2y 0

2x
y 1 0

1 4 5 and 2x 2y 1 0

¥ 25 ´ 9 25 Solving 2x
y 0 and x 2y 1 0, we have

(1
4)2 4 ¦ µ

§ 4¶

3 1

x
and y

Hence 5 5

¥ 5 ´ so that the slope of diagonal through origin is 1/3. Since

A Cos
1 ¦

§ 34 µ¶ the other diagonal is 3x y 1 0, the diagonals are at

right angles. Therefore, the parallelogram is a square.

48. Show that the straight lines ax 2 2 hxy by2 0 and

the straight lines ax 2 2 hxy by2 2 gx 2 fy c 0 50. Find the centroid of the triangle formed by the lines

form a rhombus if (a
b)fg h(f 2
g2) 0. 12x2
20xy 7y2 0 and 2x
3y 4 0.

form a parallelogram. Also, by Problem 41, the diagonals 12 x 2 20 xy 7 y2 y (2 x y)(6 x 7 y)

of the parallelogram are

Therefore, the sides of the triangle are

2gx 2fy c 0

2x y 0 (2.69)

72 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

6x
7y 0 (2.70) l1 n2 l2 n1 2 g

2 x
3 y
4 (2.71) m1 n2 m2 n1 2 f

Solving Eqs. (2.69) and (2.71), we get (1, 2) as the n1 n2 c

vertex. Solving Eqs. (2.70) and (2.71), we obtain (7, 6) as

another vertex.By hypotheses, (0, 0) is the third vertex. By hypothesis,

Hence, the centroid of the triangle is

n1 n2

¥ 0 1 7 0 2 6´ ¥ 8 8´

¦§ , µ ¦ , µ l12 m12 l22 m22

3 3 ¶ § 3 3¶

n12 (l22 m22 ) n22 (l12 m12 )

2 2

51. If S y ax 2 hxy by 2 gx 2 fy c 0 represents

a pair of lines equidistant from the origin, then show (squaring and crross- multiplying)

that f 4
g 4 c(bf 2
ag 2 ). l12 n22
l22 m12 m22 n12
m12 n22

(l1n2 l2 n1 )(l1 n2
l2 n1 ) (m2 n1 m1 n2 )(m2 n1
m1 n2 )

Solution: Suppose the lines are l1x m1y n1 0 and

l2x m2y n2 0. Therefore 2 g(l1 n2
l2 n1 ) 2 f (m2 n1
m1 n2 )

l1l2 a g 2(4 g 2
4ac) f 2(4 f 2
4bc)

l1 m2 l2 m1 2 h f 4
g 4 bcf 2
cag 2 c(bf 2
ag 2 )

m1 m2 b

WORKED-OUT PROBLEMS

Single Correct Choice Type Questions

1. If the line 3ax 5y a
2 0 passes through the point 1 4c

(
1, 4), then value of a is c 24 c2 36 c p6

2 3

(A) 9 (B) 7 (C) −9 (D) −7 Since y-intercept is positive, the value c is 6 and the equa-

tion of the line is 3x 4y
24 0.

Solution: Since the line passes through (
1, 4), we

Answer: (B)

have

3a(
1) 5(4) a
2 0 3. A non-horizontal line passing through the point (4,
2)

and whose distance from the origin is 2 units is

2a 18 0

(A) 3x 4y
10 0 (B) x y
2 0

Hence, a 9 and the line is 27x 5y 7 0.

Answer: (A) (C) 4x 3y
10 0 (D) 2x 3y
2 0

Solution: Let the slope of the line be m. Now the

2. A line has slope
3 / 4, positive y-intercept and forms equation of the line, by Theorem 2.2, is

a triangle of area 24 sq. units with coordinate axes.

Then, the equation of the line is y 2 m( x
4)

(C) 3x 4y 25 0 (D) 3x 4y 25 0 m(0 4) 0 2

2

Solution: Let the line be m2 1

¥ 3´ (2 m 1)2 m2 1

y ¦ µ xc

§ 4¶

3m 2 4 m 0

so that the intercepts on the x and y axes, respectively, are 4

4c/3 and c. Therefore, the area of the triangle (by Quick m 0,

3

Look 4) is

Worked-Out Problems 73

When m 0, the line is 7. Let A(h, k), B(1, 1) and C(2, 1) be the vertices of a

Worked-Out Problems

right-angled triangle with AC as its hypotenuse. If the

y20

area of the triangle is 1, then the set of values of k is

which is horizontal. When m
4/3, the line is given by

4 (A) {0, 2} (B) {
1, 3} (C) {
3,
2} (D) {1, 3}

y 2
(x
4)

3

4x 3y
10 0 Solution: See Fig. 2.52. Since BC is horizontal line (y

1) and AB is perpendicular to BC, it follows that AB

Answer: (C) is a vertical line passing through B(1, 1). Hence, h 1.

Therefore

4. The positive value of k such that the distance of the

line 8x 15y k 0 from the point (2, 3) is 5 units is 1 Area of $ABC ( AB)( BC )

1

(A) 12 (B) 6 (C) 8 (D) 24 k
1 (1)

2

Solution: By Theorem 2.14, we have

So, k
1 p2 or k –1, 3.

8(2) 15(3) k

5 A(h, k)

8 2 152

61 k p(5 s 17) p85

k 24 or
146

Since k 0, its value is 24.

Answer: (D)

B(1, 1) C(2, 1)

and parallel to the line joining the points (4, 1) and

( 2, 2) is FIGURE 2.52

(C) x 6y 16 0 (D) x 6y 16 0 8. If the perpendicular bisector of the line segment join-

Solution: Slope of the line joining the points (4, 1) and ing P(1, 4) and Q(@, 3) has y-intercept 4, then a pos-

(−2, 2) is sible value of k is

2 1 ¥ 1´ (A) 2 (B) 4 (C) 1 (D) 2

¦ µ¶

2 4 § 6 Solution: Since every point (x, y) on the perpendicu-

Hence, by Theorem 2.2, the equation of the given line is lar bisector of PQ is equidistant from both P and Q we

have

1

y 3 ( x 2) ( x 1)2 ( y 4)2 ( x A )2 ( y 3)2

6

2 x 8 y 17 2A x 6 y A 2 9

x 6y 16 0

Answer: (D) Therefore, equation of the perpendicular bisector of PQ is

2(A 1) x 8 2 y A 2

6. Equation of the line passing through the point ( 2, 3)

and perpendicular to the line 2x 3y 6 0 is Hence

4 y-intercept

(C) 3x 2y 0 (D) 2x 3y 0 2

Solution: By Quick Look 7, part (3), the equation of Therefore, @ 2 16 or @p4.

the line is Answer: (B)

−3(x 2) −2(y − 3) 0

9. The lines

3x 2y 0

K(K2 1)x y b 0

Answer: (C)

74 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

and (K2 1)2x (K2 1)y 2b 0 Solving the equations which are taken pairwise, the ver-

tices of the triangle are

are perpendicular to a common line for

A(
p, 0), B(
q, 0) and C[pq, (p 1)(q 1)]

(A) exactly one value of K

(B) exactly two values of K Since the side AB is along the x-axis, altitude CN, drawn

from C to the side, is a vertical line so that the equation

(C) more than two values of K

of CN is

(D) no value of K

x pq (2.75)

Solution: By hypothesis, the given lines are parallel.

Hence Equation of altitude AM is

( pq q)

(L 2 1)2 y
0
( x p)

L (L 2 1) ( p 1)(q 1)

L2 1

q (2.76)

Therefore K
1. y ( x p)

q1

Answer: (A)

Solving Eqs. (2.75) and (2.76), we get the orthocentre as

10. The number of integral values of m for which the
q

x-coordinate of the point of intersection of the lines y ( pq p)
pq

q1

3x 4y 9 and y mx 1 is also an integer is

If (x, y) is the orthocentre, then we have x pq and y
pq

(A) 2 (B) 0 (C) 4 (D) 1

so that the locus of the orthocentre is y
x or x y 0

(IIT-JEE 2001)

C (pq, (p + 1)(q + 1))

Solution: Solving the given equations, the x-coordinate

of their point of intersection is

5

5,
1

3 4m M

90°

when m
1 and
2, respectively. That is for m
1 and

2, the x-coordinate is also an integer. Hence, the number

of integral values is 2.

Answer: (A) 90°

A(−p, 0) N B(−q, 0)

11. The locus of the orthocentre of the triangle formed

FIGURE 2.53

by the lines y 0 (i.e., x-axis) and the lines

Answer: (A)

(1 p)x
py p(1 p) 0

(q 1)x
qy q(1 q) 0 12. Two adjacent sides of a parallelogram are 4x 5y 0

and 7x 2y 0. If the equation to one diagonal is

where pxq, is

11x 7y
9 0, then the equation of the other di-

(A) the line x y 0 agonal is

(B) the line x
y 0 (A) x y 0 (B) x
y 0

(C) the curve y2 4pq(p q)(
pq)q (C) 2x
11y 9 0 (D) x
y
9 0

1

p( p q) q( p q) 4x 5y 0 (2.77)

(IIT-JEE 2009) 7x 2y 0 (2.78)

Solution: The given lines are 11x 7y 9 (2.79)

y0 (2.72) Solving Eqs. (2.77) and (2.79), we get

(1 p) x py p(1 p) 0 (2.73) ¥ 5 4´

A¦ , µ

(1 q) x qy q(1 q) 0 (2.74) § 3 3¶

Worked-Out Problems 75

¥ 2

C ¦ ,

7´ OB2 OC 2

§ 3 µ

3¶ 9x2

x2 h2

Now 16

25x 2

¥ 5 4´ ¥ 2

A¦ , µ , O(0, 0) and C ¦ ,

7´ h2

§ 3 3¶ § 3 µ 16

3¶

25 400 h2

are three consecutive vertices of a parallelogram. The h2

16 (20 3h)2

fourth vertex B is

252 (20 3h)2

¥5 2 4 7´ 20 3h p25

¦§ 0 , 0 µ¶ (1, 1)

3 3 3 3

5

Hence, the other diagonal is y x. h , 15

3

−2 , 7

C

3 3 When h 5 / 3

B

¥ 5´

20 ¦ µ

20 h § 3¶ 100 4

x

0

11

y=

20 3h 5

¥ ´ 75 3

x+

20 3 ¦ µ

+2

§ 3¶

7y

7x

=9

When h
15

20(
15)
300

5 , −4 x 12

O 4x + 5y = 0

A

3 3 20 3(
15)
25

FIGURE 2.54

Hence, the coordinates of B and C, respectively, are

4 5

Answer: (B) either ¥¦ , 1´µ and ¥¦ , 0´µ or (12, 9) and (
15, 0).

§3 ¶ §3 ¶

13. The vertices B and C of $ABC lie on the lines 4y
Two cases arise:

3x 0 and y 0, respectively, and the side BC passes 4 ¥5 ´

through the point P(0, 5). If ABOC is a rhombus Case 1: B ¥¦ , 1´µ , P (0, 5) and C ¦ , 0µ

§3 ¶ §3 ¶

where O is the origin and P is an internal point to

the rhombus, then the vertex A is P is an inside point and B, P and C are collinear.

This implies

(A) (3, 9) (B) (9, 3)

(C) (3,
9) (D) (
3, 9) BP PC BC

16 25

Solution: See Fig. 2.55. Let B ( x, 3 x /4) and C (h, 0). BP PC 16 25

9 9

Since B, P and C are collinear, from Quick Look 2,

Chapter 1, we have 4 10 5 10

3 10

3 3

x 0 h

1 10

3x and BC 1

5 0 0 9 3

4

1 1 1 ¥4 ´ ¥5 ´

Therefore, B x ¦ , 1µ and C x ¦ , 0µ

§3 ¶ §3 ¶

¥ 3x ´

5x h ¦
5µ 0

§ 4 ¶ Case 2: B (12, 9), P (0, 5) and C (
15, 0). Now

20 x h(3 x
20) 0 BP 12 2 4 2 160 4 10

x(20 3h) 20h PC 225 25 250 5 10

20 h

x (2.80) BC 27 2 9 2 729 81 810 9 10

20 3h

76 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

BP PC 9 10 BC x1 y1 1 x1 y1 1

Hence x2 y2 1 x2 y2 1

x3 y3 1 0 0 1
(sin Q cos Q )

A (12
0
15, 9
0
0) (
3, 9)

(1
sin Q
cos Q )( x1 y2
x2 y1 ) 0

O

This implies that x1y2
x2y1 0 or sinP cosP 1. Since

0 P P / 4, sinP cosP x 1. Therefore, x1y2
x2y1 0.

This implies that

C

P(0, 5)

B cos(B A B ) 0

and A P /4. Therefore

2B A x P / 2

A

non-collinear.

FIGURE 2.55 Answer: (D)

Answer: (D)

15. Let O(0, 0), P(3, 4) and Q(6, 0) be the vertices of a

14. Consider the points triangle OPQ. A point R is inside the triangle such

that the triangles OPR, PQR and OQR are of equal

P [ sin(A @), cosA ]

areas. Then, the coordinates of R are

Q [cos(A @ ), sinA ]

¥4 ´ ¥ 2´

and R [cos(A @ P ), sin(A P )] (A) ¦ , 3µ (B) ¦ 3, µ

§3 ¶ § 3¶

where 0 @, A, P P /4. Then 4´

¥ ¥2 4´

(C) ¦ 3, µ (D) ¦ , µ

(A) P lies on the segment RQ § 3¶ §3 3¶

(B) Q lies on the segment PR (IIT-JEE 2007)

(C) R lies in the segment QP Solution: Let $ABC be any triangle. P is an inside

(D) P, Q and R are non-collinear point such that the triangles PBC, PCA and PAB are

(IIT-JEE 2008) of equal areas if and only if P is the centroid of ΔABC.

Hence, R must be the centroid of ΔOPQ and so

Solution: It is known that three points (x1, y1), (x2, y2)

and (x3, y3) are collinear if and only if ¥ 4´

R ¦ 3, µ

x1 y1 1 § 3¶

x2 y2 1 0 Answer: (C)

x3 y3 1

16. If none of two lines among the following three lines

Take P (x1, y1), Q (x2, y2) and R (x3, y3). Therefore,

ax by (a b) 0

x3 cos(A @ P ) cosP cos(A @) sinP sin(A @) bx (a b)y a 0

x2cosP x1sinP and (a b) x ay b 0

y3 sin(A P) sin A cosP sinP cosA (A) are concurrent

y2cosP y1sinP (B) form a right-angled triangle

Worked-Out Problems 77

(C) form an equilateral triangle 19. Sum of the slopes of the lines which make 45o with

(D) form a triangle with circumcentre (a b, a b) the line 3x
y 5 0 is

3 3 1

Solution: By adding C1 and C2 to C3, we get (A) (B)
(C)
2 (D)

2 2 2

a b
(a b) a b 0 Solution: Let m be the slope of the required line.

b
(a b) a b
(a b) 0 0 Therefore

ab
a
b a b
a 0

m
3

1 tan 45o

Hence by Theorem 2.22, the lines are concurrent. 1 m(3)

Answer: (A) 3m 1 p(m
3)

17. If the line 2x 3y 4 K(6x
y 12) 0 is perpendicu- Hence, m
2, 1/ 2 so that their sum is

lar to the line 7x 5y
4 0, then the value of K is

1 3

29 25
25
29
2

(A) (B) (C) (D) 2 2

37 27 27 37

Answer: (B)

Solution: Slope of the given line is

(2 6 L ) 20. Let PS be the median of the triangle with vertices

3
L P(2, 2), Q(6,
1) and R(7, 3). The equation of the line

passing through (1,
1) and parallel to PS is

This line is perpendicular to the line 7x 5y
4 0. This

implies that (A) 2x
9y
7 0 (B) 2x
9y
11 0

(C) 2x 9y
11 0 (D) 2x 9y 7 0

(2 6 L ) ¥
7 ´

s ¦ µ
1 (IIT-JEE 2000)

3
L § 5¶

Solution: See Fig. 2.57. P (2, 2) and S (13 / 2, 1).

14 42 L
15 5L

Therefore, the slope of the median PS is

37 L
29

2
1
2

29

L
2
(13 / 2) 9

37

Answer: (D) Hence, the equation of the line through the point (1,
1)

and having slope
2 / 9 is

18. The points A(1, 3) and C(5, 1) are extremities of a di-
2

agonal of a rectangle ABCD. The other two vertices B y1 ( x
1)

9

and D lie on the line y 2x c. Then, the value of c is

2x 9y 7 0

(A) 2 (B) 4 (C)
4 (D)
2

Solution: See Fig. 2.56. Let M (3, 2) be the intersec- P(2, 2)

tion of the diagonals. Since M(3, 2) lies on the diagonal

BD whose equation is given as y 2x c, we have

2 2(3) c

c −4

D C(5, 1)

Q(6, −1) S

13 , 1 R(7, 3)

2

A(1, 3) B(h, k)

FIGURE 2.57

FIGURE 2.56 Answer: (D)

Answer: (C)

78 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

21. The orthocentre of the triangle formed by the lines Thus, from Eq. (2.82), we have

xy 0 and x y 1 is

3
cotP

¥1 1´ ¥ 1 1´

(A) ¦ , µ (B) ¦ , µ ¥P ´

§2 2¶ § 3 3¶ tan ¦ Q µ

§2 ¶

¥ 1 1´ tan( D E) [by Eq.(2.83)]

(C) (0, 0) (D) ¦ , µ

§ 4 4¶

tan D tan E

(IIT-JEE 1995) 1
tan D tan E

Solution: See Fig. 2.58. By hypothesis, the sides of the ( AC / DC ) ( BC / EC )

triangle are y 0, x 0 and x y 1. Therefore, the trian- 1
( AC / DC ) ( BC / EC )

gle is a right-angled triangle at the origin. Now for a right- (2b / a) (2a / b)

angled triangle, the right-angled vertex is its orthocentre.

Hence, origin is the orthocentre of the given triangle. (1
4)

2(a 2 b2 ) 2(60)2

y (2.84)

3ab
3ab

Therefore, from Eq. (2.84), the area of $ABC is

1 60 2

ab 400

x+

2 9

1 y=

1 A

O 1 x

60

FIGURE 2.58 E

Answer: (C) G

q

22. In $ABC, C 90o and the side AB is of length 60

units. The equations of the medians AD and BE, re-

spectively, are y x 3 and y 2x 4. Then the area 90°

of $ABC (in square units) is B D C

(A) 200 (B) 300 (C) 400 (D) 500 FIGURE 2.59

a2 b2 602 (2.81) 23. A straight line L with negative slope passes through

the point (8, 2) and cuts the positive coordinate

Let P be the acute angle between the medians AD and axes at points P and Q. Then the absolute mini-

BE. Therefore mum value of OP OQ as L varies (where O is the

2
1 1 origin) is

tan Q (2.82)

1 2(1) 3 (A) 6 (B) 9 (C) 12 (D) 18

(IIT-JEE 2002)

From the quadrilateral DGEC, we have

Solution: Let the equation of the line L, by hypothesis,

DGE GDC 90o GEC 360o be

y
2 m(x
8)

Hence

P where m 0. Therefore

(O
P) GDC GEC 2O

2 ¥ 2 ´

p ¦ 8
, 0µ and Q (0, 2
8m)

P § m ¶

GDC GEC P (2.83)

2

Worked-Out Problems 79

lelogram are x2 5x 6 0 and y2 6y 5 0. The

¥ 2´ equations of its diagonals are

OP OQ ¦ 8 µ (2 8 m) (& m 0)

§ m¶

(A) x 4y 13, y 4x 17

¥2 ´ 2

10 ¦ 8 mµ r 10 2 s ( 8 m) (B) 4x y 13, 4y x 7

§m ¶ m

(C) 4x y 13, y 4x 7

10 8 (& AM r GM )

(D) y 4x 13, y 4x 7

and equality occurs if and only if Solution: See Fig. 2.61. We have

2 1 x2 − 5x 6 y (x − 2)(x− 3)

8m or m

m 2

y2 − 6y 5 y (y − 1)(y − 5)

Hence, the absolute minimum of OP OQ is 12 6 18.

Therefore, the sides of the parallelogram are

Answer: (D)

x 2, x 3 and y 1, y 5

24. A straight line through the origin O meets the par- Therefore, the vertices of the rectangle are A(2, 1), B(3, 1),

allel lines 4x 2y 9 and 2x y 6 0 at points C(3, 5) and D(2, 5). Hence, the equation of AC is

P and Q, respectively. Then the point O divides the

segment PQ in the ratio 5 1

y 1 ( x 2) 4( x 2)

3 2

(A) 1:2 (B) 3:4 (C) 2:1 (D) 4:3

4x y 7 0

Solution: See Fig. 2.60. The line 4x 2y 9 has positive

interception coordinates while the line 2x y 6 0 has Equation of BD is

negative interception on the axes. Hence, origin O lies in 5 1

between the axes. Suppose OM and ON, respectively, are y 1 ( x 3) 4( x 3)

2 3

drawn perpendicular to the given two lines. Observe O,

M and N are collinear (see Fig. 2.60). Now, 4x y 13

9 6

OM and ON

2 5 5

If any line through O meets the parallel lines in P and Q, D C(3, 5) y=5

then by pure geometry, we have

9 6

OP : OQ OH : ON : 3:4

2 5 5

y=1

A(2, 1) B

4x

+

2y

x=2

x=3

=

9

M

FIGURE 2.61

Answer: (C)

2x O

+

y= 26. The line x
y
2 0 divides the segment joining the

−6

points A(3,
1) and B(8, 9) in the ratio

N

(A) 2:3 (B) 2:1 (C) 1:2 (D) 3:4

Solution: See Fig. 2.62. Suppose the line x − y − 2 0

meets the line joining A and B in P and AP:PB K:1.

Therefore,

FIGURE 2.60

Answer: (B) ¥ 8 L 3 9 L
1´

P¦ ,

§ L1 L 1 µ¶

80 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

Since P lies on the line x
y
2 0, we have diameter 4y − x − 7 0. If O is the centre of the circle,

then we know that

8L 3 9L
1

20

L1 L1 AD 2(OM) (2.85)

FHHHE FHHHE

3L 3 1
2 0 Since AB is a horizontal

FHHHEline, OM is a vertical line and

2 hence the equation of OM is x 1. Therefore, the line OM

L and the diameter intersect at O and we have O (1, 2).

3

Now

Hence, AP:PB 2:3.

AD 2(OM) 2(2) 4

By hypothesis, AB is 8. Thus, the area of the rectangle

ABCD 8 s 4 32.

l 1

A(3, −1) P B(8, 9)

D C

x−y−2=0

0

7=

− x−

FIGURE 2.62 4y O(1, 2)

L11:L22where M(1, 4) B(5, 4)

Now,

FIGURE 2.63

L11 3 ( 1) 2 Answer: (B)

and L22 8 9 2 3

29. The vertices of a triangle are A( 1, 7), B(5, 1) and

so that C(1, 4). The equation of the bisector of the angle

AP:PB L11:L22 ABC is

AP:PB ( 2):( 3) 2:3 (A) 2y x 7 (B) 7y x 2

(C) 3y x 7 (D) 7y x 3

27. The ratio in which the line 3x y 6 0 divides the

line joining the points A(3, 4) and B( 2, 1) is Solution: We have

(A) 2:11 (B) 9:2 (C) 11:1 (D) 1:12

AB (5 1)2 (1 7)2 100 10

Solution: L y 3x − y 6 0, A (3, 4), B (−2, 1)

L11 3(3) 4 6 11, L22 3( 2) 1 6 1 and BC (5 1)2 (1 4)2 25 5

Hence, by Theorem 2.17, the ratio AP:PB is Suppose the bisector of ABC meets the side AC at D

L11:L22 (
11):(
1) 11:1 (see Fig. 2.64). Therefore, CD:DA BC:BA 5:10 1:2.

Hence

Answer: (C)

¥ 2
1
7 8 ´ ¥ 1 1 ´

28. One of the diameters of the circle circumscribing the D¦ , µ ¦ , µ

§ 3 3 ¶ § 3 3¶

rectangle ABCD is 4y x 7. If A and B are the

points (
3, 4) and (5, 4), respectively, then the area of

Since B (5, 1) and D (1/ 3, 1/ 3), the equation of the

the rectangle in square units is

bisector BD of ABC is

(A) 22 (B) 32 (C) 42 (D) 26 1
(1 / 3)

y
1 ( x
5)

Solution: See Fig. 2.63. Let M be the midpoint of AB 5
(1 / 3)

so that M (1, 4). Clearly, A and B do not lie on the

Worked-Out Problems 81

y 1 ( x 5) ( x 5) line L3 at R. Consider the following two statements:

14 7

Hence, 7y x 2. 1. S1: The ratio PR:RQ 2 2: 5 .

2. S2: In any triangle, bisector of an angle divides

A(−1, −7) the triangle into two similar triangles.

Then

(A) both S1 and S2 are true

(B) both S1 and S2 are false

10 2 (C) S1 is true while S2 is false

(D) S2 is true while S1 is before

D (IIT-JEE 2007)

Solving L2 0 and L3 0, we get that Q (1, −2). There-

fore, OP 2 2 and OQ 5 where O is the origin. In

B(5, 1) 5 C(1, 4)

any triangle, the internal angle bisector of an angle di-

FIGURE 2.64 vides the opposite side internally in the ratio of the other

Answer: (B) two sides. Hence

PR:RQ OP :OQ 2 2 : 5

30. Let the algebraic sum of the perpendicular distances

from the points (2, 0), (0, 2) and (1, 1) onto a variable Hence S1 is true. S2 is false because in a triangle whose

line be zero. Then, the line passes through a fixed angles are 90o, 60o and 30o, the bisector of 90o cannot

point whose coordinates are divide the triangle into two similar triangles.

Answer: (C)

(A) (1, 1) (B) ( 1, 1)

¥2 1´ ¥1 2´ 32. If the lines 2x 3y k 0, 3x 4y 13 0 and

(C) ¦ , µ (D) ¦ , µ 8x 11y 33 0 are concurrent, then the value of k is

§3 3¶ §3 3¶

(A) 7 (B) 6 (C) 7 (D) 6

Solution: Algebraic distance of a point (x1, y1) from a

line ax by c 0 is Solution: By Theorem 2.22, we have

ax1 by1 c 2 3 k

a 2 b2 3 4 13 0

Suppose the variable line is ax by c 0. Therefore, by 8 11 33

hypothesis, 2(132 143) 3( 99 104) k( 33 32) 0

2a 0 c 0 2b c abc 22 15 k 0

0

2 2 2 2 2 2

a b a b a b k 7

3a 3b 3c 0 Direct Method: Solving 3x 4y 13 0 and 8x 11y

a b c 0 33 0, we obtain x 11 and y 5 so that (11, 5) is the

intersection of these lines. The third line 2x 3y k 0

Hence, the line ax by c 0 passes through the point

also passes through (11, 5). This implies (11.5) satisfying

(1, 1).

the equation of the third line. So

Answer: (A)

2(11) 3(5) k 0 k 7

Note: If the algebraic distances of the points (xr, yr) Answer: (C)

(r 1, 2, ..., n) from a straight line l are zero, then the line

l passes through the point ( x , y ) where 33. If the lines ax by c 0, bx cy a 0 and

cx ay b 0 are concurrent and a b c x 0, then

x1 x2 xn y y2 yn

x and y 1 the quadratic equation ax2 bx c 0 has

n n

(A) equal roots (B) rational roots

31. Lines L1: y x 0 and L2: 2x y 0 intersect the line (C) irrational roots (D) no real roots

L3: y 2 0 at P and Q, respectively. The bisector

82 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

Solution: By Theorem 2.22, we have 35. The straight line 2x 3y 1 0 bisects the angle be-

tween two straight lines of which one line is 3x 2y

a b c

4 0. Then, the equation of the other line is

b c a 0

(A) 9x 26y 48 (B) 9x 46y 28

c a b

(C) 9x 26y 28 (D) 3x 26y 48

3abc
a3
b3
c3 0

Solution: See Fig. 2.65. Let L1 y 3x 2y 4 0, L y 2x

(a b c)(a2b2 c2
ab
bc
ca) 0 3y 1 0 and L2 y 0 be the required lines. Since the line

The condition a b c x 0 implies a2 b2 c2
ab
bc
ca L2 0 passes through the intersection of the lines L1 0

0 which in turn implies that and L 0, L2 0 is of the form (by Theorem 2.20)

1 L2 y (3x 2y 4) K(2x 2y 1) 0

[(a
b)2 (b
c)2 (c
a)2] 0 a b c

2 Suppose (@, A ) (x the intersection of L1 0 and L 0) is

Hence, the quadratic equation is x2 x 1 0 whose a point on the line L 0 so that

roots are

2@ 3A 1 0 (2.85)

1 p i 3

But L 0 is an angular bisection of L1 0 and L2 0

2 which implies that

Answer: (D)

(3A 2B 4) L (2A 3B 1) 3A 2B 1

34. The equation of the line passing through the inter-

2 2

section of the lines 2x
5y 1 0 and 3x 2y
8 0, (2 L 3) (3L 2) 32 2 2

and having equal non-zero intercepts on the axes, is 13L 2 24 L 13 13 [from Eq. (2.85)]

(A) x y 3 (B) x y 2 24

L 0 or

(C) x y 1 (D) x y
3 13

Solution: By Theorem 2.20, any line passing through Therefore, K 0 gives the line L1 0 and K
24 / 13 gives

the intersection of the given lines is of the form

the line

(2x
5y 1) K(3x 2y
8) 0

24

On simplification we get L2 y (3x 2y 4)
(2x 3y 1) 0

13

(2 3K)x (2K
)y 1
8K 0

y
9x
46y 28 0

whose intercepts on the axes are

Therefore, the required line is L2 y 9x 46y
28 0.

8L
1 8L
1

,

2 3L 2 L
5

Therefore,

8L
1 8L
1

0

2 3L 2 L
5

1

y

2 0

3

2x

1

L

L

K or
7 0

8

4

2y

If K 1 / 8, then the line is x
2y 0 which is not the x

3

L1

case. Hence x
7 and the required line is
19x
19y

q

57 0 or x y
3 0. q

lines is (2, 1). Any line having equal intercepts on the FIGURE 2.65

coordinates axes is of the form x y a. This line passes Answer: (B)

through the point (2, 1) which implies that a 3. Hence

the equation of the required line is x y 3. 36. A variable straight line passes through the point

Answer: (A) P(@, A ) and cuts the axes of coordinates in points

Worked-Out Problems 83

completed, then the locus of the vertex C (O is the 2

origin) is lm lm

x y B A n2 lm

(A) 1 (B) 1

B A x y Answer: (B)

A B

(C) 1 (D) @ x A y (@ A )xy 38. Consider the family of lines 2x y 4 K(x
2y

x y

3) 0 where K is a parameter. Then, the number of

Solution: See Fig. 2.66. Let the line AB be lines belonging to this family whose distance from

the point (2,
3) is 10 is

x y

1

a b (A) 4 (B) 2 (C) 1 (D) 0

where A (a, 0) and B (0, b). This line passes through Solution: The given family of lines can be written as

P(@, A ) which implies that (2 K )x (1
2K)y (4
3K) 0

A B By hypothesis, the distance of this line from (2,
3) is

1 (2.86)

a b

Let C(h, k) be the fourth vertex. Therefore, h a and k b. (2 L )(2) (1
2 L )(
3) (4
3L )

10

Hence, from Eq. (2.86), we have (2 L )2 (1
2 L )2

A B

1 (5K 5)2 10(5K2 5)

h k

(K 1)2 2(K2 1)

Therefore, the locus of C is

K2
2K 1 0

A B

1 K 1

x y

Hence, the required line is 3x
y 1 0.

y Answer: (C)

B C(h, k) units measured parallel to the line x y 1 in the

decreasing direction of ordinates to reach a point B.

The image of the point B in the line x y 1 is

P(a, b ) (A) (0, 0) (B) (0, 1)

(C) ( 3, 2) (D) (3, 4)

Solution: See Fig. 2.67. Let A (2, 1). By hypothesis, A

is translated along the line

O A x

y − 1 −1(x − 2)

x y 3 (2.87)

FIGURE 2.66 Therefore abscissa of B is given by the equation

Answer: (C)

(2 x)2 (2 x)2 18

37. If the area of the rhombus enclosed by the lines lx 2 x p3

my n 0, lx my n 0, lx my n 0 and x 1, 5

lx my n 0 is 2 sq. unit, then

Hence, the point B ( 1, 4) or (5, 2). However, A(2,

(A) m2 ln (B) n2 lm 1) is translated in the decreasing sense of ordinates.

(C) m ln (D) n lm Thus, B (5, 2). Hence, the image of B(5, 2) in the

line x 5 1 is Ba(3, 4) because the slope of BBa is 1

Solution: From Problem 2 of the section ‘Subjective and the midpoint of BBa is (4, 3) which lies on the line

Problems’, the area of the rhombus is x y 1 0.

84 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

line y x, whose equation is

y − 12 1(x − 5)

A(2, 1)

(0, 1)

x x−y70

+

y Answer: (C)

=

1

3p 3p

4 4 42. Consider the following two families of lines repre-

O (1, 0) sented by the equations (x y 6) K(2x y 3) 0

B(5, −2)

and (x 2y 4) L(3x 2y 4) 0. If these families

of lines are at right angles to each other, then their

points of intersection lie on the curve

FIGURE 2.67

(A) x2 y2 3x 4y 3 0

Answer: (D) (B) x2 y2 5x 2y 3 0

40. If a, b and c are real such that a2 9b2 4c2 6ab

(C) x2 y2 3x 4y 3 0

0, then the line ax by c 0 always passes through (D) x2 y2 3x 4y 3 0

the point with negative ordinate Solution: By Theorem 2.20, the equation (x − y − 6)

¥ 1 3´ ¥ 1 3´ K(2x y − 3) 0 represents the family of lines passing

(A) ¦ , µ (B) ¦ , µ through the intersection of the lines x − y− 6 0 and 2x

§ 2 2¶ § 2 2¶

y − 6 0 which is (3, −3). Similarly, the second equation

¥ 1 3´ ¥ 1 3´ represents a family of concurrent lines which is concur-

(C) ¦ , µ (D) ¦ , µ

§ 2 2¶ § 2 2¶ rent at the point of intersection of the lines x 2y −4

0 and 3x − 2y − 4 0 which is (2, 1). Suppose the line

Solution: We have through the point (3, −3) is

a 2 9b2 4 c2 6 ab 0 y 3 m(x 3) (2.88)

2 2

(a 3b) 4c 0 Then the line through the point (2, 1) and perpendicular

(a 3b 2c)(a 3b 2c) 0 to the line given in Eq. (2.88) is

1

¥a 3 ´ ¥ a 3b ´ y 1 ( x 2) (2.89)

¦ b cµ ¦ cµ 0 m

§2 2 ¶§ 2 2 ¶

From Eqs. (2.88) and (2.89), we have

Therefore, the line ax by c 0 passes through the

points y3 ( x 2)

m

x 3 y 1

¥ 1 3´ ¥ 1 3´

¦§ , µ¶ and ¦§ , µ ( x 3)( x 2) ( y 1)( y 3) 0

2 2 2 2¶

Since the ordinate is negative, the point is x 2 y2 5 x 2 y 3 0

Answer: (B)

¥ 1 3´

¦§ , µ¶

2 2

Note: In Chapter 3, we will see that the equation

Answer: (C) x2 y2 3x 4y 3 0 represents a circle describable

on the segment joining (3, 3) and (2, 1) as ends of a

41. Let A(5, 12), B( 13cosP, 13sinP ) and C(13sinP, diameter.

13cosP ) where P is real be the vertices of $ABC.

Then, the orthocentre of $ABC lies on the line 43. The line 3x 2y 24 0 meets x-axis at A and

(A) x y 7 0 (B) x y 7 0 y-axis at B. The perpendicular bisector of AB meets

the line through (0, 1) parallel to x-axis at C. Then,

(C) x y 7 0 (D) x y 7 0

the area of the $ABC is

Solution: Observe that B and C are images of each

(A) 91 sq. unit (B) 12 sq. unit

other on the line y x and hence the side BC varies and

is perpendicular to the line y x. Hence, the orthocentre (C) 36 sq. unit (D) 48 sq. unit

Worked-Out Problems 85

form is

5 (23 / 2)

x y y 5 ( x 8)

1 8 5

8 12

33

y 5 ( x 8)

so that A (8, 0) and B (0, 12). Equation of the perpen- 6

dicular bisector of the segments AB is 11

y 5 ( x 8)

2 2

y 6 ( x 4) Therefore, p r 11 78 89.

3

2x 3y 10 0 A(−8, 5)

A A

Therefore, the area of the triangle ABC is 2 2

8 0 1 8 0 1

1 1

0 12 1 0 12 1

2 4

13
13
2 2

1 1

2

5 3

8 0 1 B(−15, −19) D C(1, −7)

1

0 12 1 FIGURE 2.68

4

13
2 2 Answer: (D)

1

8(24 2) 1(0 156) 45. The equations of the sides AB, BC and CA of $ABC

4 are, respectively, 2x y 0, x by c and x
y 3.

364 If G(2, 3) is the centroid of $ABC, then the value of

91

4 b c is

Answer: (A) (A) 50 (B) 47 (C) 74 (D) 57

Solution: See Fig. 2.69. We have

and C(1, 7). The internal bisector of the angle A has 2x y 0 (2.90)

the equation px 2y r 0. Then, p r is equal to

x by c (2.91)

(A) 78 (B) 88 (C) 98 (D) 89

x–y3 (2.92)

Solution: See Fig. 2.68. We have

Solving Eqs. (2.90) and (2.92), we get A (1, 2). Solving

2 2

AB 7 24 625 25 Eqs. (2.90) and (2.91), we get

¥ c 2c ´

BC 16 2 12 2 400 20 B¦ ,

§ 1 2b 1 2b µ¶

CA 9 2 12 2 225 15 Solving Eqs. (2.91) and (2.93), we get

Suppose the internal bisector of the angle A meets the ¥ 3b c c 3 ´

C¦ ,

side BC at D so that BD:DC AB:AC 25:15 5:3. § 1 b 1 b µ¶

Therefore

Suppose D(x, y) is the midpoint of BC. Then

¥ 15 s 3 5(1) 19 s 3 5 s ( 7) ´

D¦ , µ¶ 2x 1 2y 2

§ 53 53 AG:GD 2:1 2 and 3

3 3

¥ 92 ´ ¥ 23 ´

¦ 5, µ ¦ 5, µ ¥ 5 11´

§ 8 ¶ § 2 ¶ D¦ , µ

§2 2 ¶

86 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

D lies on BC. So 6 56

and k 2

5 ¥ 11´ 25 25

b¦ µ c

2 § 2¶ Hence

11b
2c
5 (2.93) ¥ 17 56 ´

Ha ¦ , µ

Again, if E is the midpoint of AC and BG:GE 2:1, then § 25 25 ¶

E¦ ,

§ 2(1 2b) 2(1 2b) µ¶ R OH a

Since E lies on the side CA, we have 2 2

¥ 17 ´ ¥ 56 ´

6 12b c 9 18b 2c ¦2 µ ¦3 µ

3 § 25 ¶ § 25 ¶

2(1 2b) 2(1 2b)

3 6b 3c 6 12b 332 19 2

6b c 3 (2.94) 25

Hence, b c 74. 1450 25 58

25 5 5

A(1, −2)

A

2

=0

x−

O(2, 3) H(1, 2)

+y

y=

2x

G(2, 3)

4x − 3y + 3 = 0

1 B C

x + by = c D

B C HÄ

46. In an acute-angled triangle ABC, equation of the 47. A ray of light emanating from the point (3, 4) meets

side BC is 4x – 3y 3 0, orthocentre H is (1, 2) and the y-axis at (0, b) and reflects towards the x-axis

the circumcentre O is (2, 3). Then the value of the which meets it at (a, 0) and again reflects from

circumradius R is x-axis to pass through the point (8, 2). Then the val-

ue of a is

28 58 23

(A) (B) (C) 23 (D) 13 9 17 14

5 5 5 (A) (B) (C) (D)

3 2 3 3

Solution: See Fig. 2.70. Suppose the image of the or-

thocentre H(1, 2) on the side BC is Ha. It is known that the Solution: Suppose P (3, 4), B (0, b), A(a, 0) and

images of the orthocentre of a triangle in the sides lie on the Q (8, 2) (see Fig. 2.71). From the figure, we can see

circumcircle. Hence, Ha lies on the circumcircle. Suppose that

Ha (h, k). Therefore, by Theorem 2.13, part (2) we have

2 4
b b 4
bb 4

h
1 k
2 2(4
6 3)
2 8
a 3
0 a 3 a 3 a

4
3 4 2 32 25 2(3 a) 4(8
a)

Therefore 6a 26

8 17 13

h 1
a

25 25 3

Worked-Out Problems 87

P(3, 4)

are the interior angle bisectors of angles B and C,

respectively, then the equation of the side BC is

(A) 2 x y 3 0 (B) 2 x y 3 0

B(0, b)

(C) x 2y 3 0 (D) x 2 y 3 0

Q(8, 2) Solution: Let Aa and Aaa be the images of A(4, −1)

in the bisectors x − 1 0 and x y 1 0, respectively.

Therefore, Aa and Aaa lie on the line BC (see Problem 27

q

O A(a, 0) x of the section ‘Subjective Problems’). Hence, the equa-

tion of BC is the equation of AaAaa. Now, Aa (−2, −1)

and Aaa (0, 3). Therefore, the equation of the side BC is

FIGURE 2.71

31

Answer: (A) y 3 ( x 0)

02

48. Let P be the point (3, 2). Q is the image of P in the x- 2x – y 3 0

axis and R is the image of Q in the line y x. Finally, Answer: (B)

S is the image of R through the origin and PQRS is a

convex quadrilateral. Then, the area of PQRS is Note: The main tool used here is that if L 0 is the angle

(A) 15 (B) 16 (C) 18 (D) 5 bisector of ABC , then the image of A on the line L 0

lies on the line BC (see Fig. 2.73).

Solution: See Fig. 2.72. By hypothesis, P (3, 2), Q (3,

−2), R (2, −3) and S (−2, 3).

0

L=

Area of PQRS Area of DPQR Area of DPRS A

90°

1

3( 2 3) 3( 3 2) 2(2 2)

2

B AÄ C

1

3( 3 3) 2(3 2) 2(2 3)

2 FIGURE 2.73

1 1

3
15 8
18 2
10 50. The equations of the sides AB and AC of $ABC,

2 2 respectively, are 2x – y 0 and x y 3 and the

2 13 15 centroid G is (2, 3). Then, the slope of the side BC is

y

Solution: See Fig. 2.74. Solving the equations 2 x y 0

and x y 3, we have A (1, 2). Equation of the median

2 P(3, 2)

through A(1, 2) is

1 2
3

y
2 ( x
1) x
1

1
2

x – y –1 (2.95)

O 1 2 3 x

Let B (h, 2h) and C (k, 3 – k). Therefore, the midpoint

Area of ΔPRS −1 of BC is

y=

−x

−2 Q(3, −2) ¥ h k 2h
k 3 ´

¦§ , µ¶ (2.96)

2 2

Also, let D be the midpoint of BC. Since AG:GD 2:1, we

have

R(2, −3)

¥ 5 7´

FIGURE 2.72 D¦ , µ (2.97)

§ 2 2¶

Answer: (A)

From Eqs. (2.95) and (2.97), we have

88 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

and that the point of intersection of these two lines as

2 2 2 2

which implies that ¥ 1 5´

¦§ , µ¶

3 3

h k 5 and 2 h k 4

The line ax by c 0 also passes through the point

Solving these equations, we get h 3 and k 2. Hence, (1/ 3, 5 / 3) implies that

B (3, 6) and C (2, 1). Thus, the slope of BC is

¥ 1´ ¥ 5´

6 1 a ¦ µ b¦ µ c 0

5 § 3¶ § 3¶

3 2

¥ 1´ ¥ 5´

A(1, 2) 2a ¦ µ 3b ¦ µ c 0

§ 6¶ § 9¶

y= ¥ 1 5´

0

3 ¦§ , µ¶ .

y=

6 9

2x −

G(2, 3)

Answer: (D)

C 53. If a, b and c are real and satisfy the equation 4a2 9b2

12ab – 9c2 0, then ax by c 0 represents two

families of concurrent lines. The distance between

B

their points of concurrence is

FIGURE 2.74 2

(A) 1 (B) 3 3 (C) 13 (D) 2 13

Answer: (D) 3

Solution: From the given relation we have

51. If a, b and c are real and a b c 0, then the line

3ax 4by c 0 passes through the point whose (2a 3b)2
(3c)2 0

coordinates are

(2a 3b 3c)(2a 3b
3c) 0

¥ 1 1´ 2a 3b 3c 0 or 2a 3b
3c 0

(A) (1, 1) (B) ¦ , µ

§ 3 4¶

¥ 2´ ¥
2 ´

¥ 1 1´ a ¦ µ b(1) c 0 or a ¦ µ b(
1) c 0

(C) (3, 4) (D) ¦ , µ § 3¶ § 3¶

§ 4 3¶

which implies that ax by c 0 passes through

Solution: We have

¥ 2 ´ ¥
2 ´

¥ 1´ ¥ 1´ ¦§ , 1µ¶ or ¦§ ,
1µ¶

a b c 0 3a ¦ µ 4b ¦ µ c 0 3 3

§ 3¶ § 4¶

whose distance between them is

which implies that the line 3ax 4by c 0 passes through

the point 2 13

3

¥ 1 1´

¦§ , µ¶ Answer: (C)

3 4

Answer: (B) 54. Let A be (1, 1). A line through A meets the x-axis in

B. A line through A and perpendicular to AB meets

52. If the lines ax by c 0 (a, b, c are non-zero and the y-axis in C. Then the locus of the midpoint of the

real), x y – 2 0 and 2x – y 1 0 are concurrent, segment BC is

then the lines 2ax 3by c 0 are passing through

a fixed point given by (A) x y 2 (B) x y 2 xy

1

¥ 1 1´ (C) x y (D) x y 1

(A) ¦ , µ (B) (2, 3) 2

§ 2 3¶

¥ 2
7 ´ ¥ 1 5´ Solution: See Fig. 2.75. Let the line passing through the

(C) ¦ , µ (D) ¦ , µ point A(1, 1) be y – 1 m(x – 1). Therefore

§3 5 ¶ § 6 9¶

Worked-Out Problems 89

¥ m
1 ´ l
m

B¦ , 0µ h 2 2

and k 2

§ m ¶ l
m l
m2

The equation of the line through the point A(1, 1) and l 2 m2 1

h2 k 2 2 2 2

2 (2.98)

perpendicular to AB is (l
m ) (l
m 2 ) 2

1 Also

y
1 ( x
1)

m

l 2
m2 1

Therefore, h2
k 2 (2.99)

(l 2
m 2 ) 2 (l 2
m 2 )

¥ 1 m´ From Eqs. (2.98) and (2.99), we have

C ¦ 0, µ

§ m ¶

h 2 k 2 ( h 2
k 2 )2

Let m(h, k) be the midpoint of BC. Therefore,

Hence (h, k) lies on the curve we get

m
1 m1

h and k

2m 2m x 2 y 2 ( x 2
y 2 )2

This gives Answer: (B)

h 1 k hk

2m triangle ABC are (2, 0) and (0, 1), respectively. The

Hence, the locus of M(h, k) is the line x y 1. vertex A lies on the line x 2. The orthocentre of

$ABC is

y

¥5 ´ ¥3 ´

(A) ¦ , 1µ (B) ¦ , 1µ

§4 ¶ §4 ¶

A(1, 1)

¥ 3 3´ ¥ 4 5´

(C) ¦ , µ (D) ¦ , µ

90° § 2 2¶ § 3 3¶

Solution: See Fig. 2.76. A (2, k), B (2, 0), C (0, 1).

O B x Now

M

C

AB AC

2 2 (k
1)2 k 2

5
2k 0

FIGURE 2.75 5

Answer: (D) k

2

triangle and the third side is a variable line whose ¥ 5´

equation is lx my 1 where l2 m2 1. Then the A ¦ 2, µ

§ 2¶

circumcentre of the triangle lies on the curve

Now, the equation of the altitude through A 2, 5 / 2 is

(A) x 2 y2 ( x 2 y2 )2 (B) x 2 y2 ( x 2 y2 )2

5 ¥ 1´

(C) x 2 y2 x 2 y2 (D) x 2 y2 4 y 2( x 2) ¦&slope of BC µ

2 § 2¶

Solution: The vertices of the triangle are

2 y 5 4( x 2)

¥ 1 1 ´ ¥ 1 1 ´

O(0, 0), A ¦ , and B ¦ , 4x 2y 3 (2.100)

§ l m l m µ¶ § l m l m µ¶

Altitude through C(0, 1) is

Since the lines y x and y x are at right angles, AOB

90o. Therefore, the circumcentre of $OAB is the midpoint y1 (2.101)

of the hypotenuse AB. Let S(h, k) be the circumcentre of Therefore, from Eqs. (2.100) and (2.101), the orthocentre

$OAB. Therefore, of $ABC is

1¥ 1 1 ´ 1¥ 1 1 ´ ¥5 ´

h ¦§ µ¶ and k ¦§ µ ¦§ , 1µ¶

2 lm l m 2 l m l m¶ 4

90 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

y

A(2, K)

a cos A b sin A 0

sin A
cos A 0 0

a b p

x=2

C(0, 1)

a cos A b sin A 1 0 (2.102)

Since the angle between xcos@ ysin@ p and xsin@

ycos@ is P /4, by Theorem 2.12, we have

O B(2, 0) x

1 P a cos A b sin A

cos

2 4 cos A sin 2 A a 2 b2

2

1

FIGURE 2.76 [by Eq . (2.102)]

Answer: (A) a b2

2

a 2 b2 2

57. Let A (3,
4), B (1, 2) and P (2 L
1, 2 L 1). If Answer: (A)

the sum PA PB is minimum, then the value of K is

7 7 3 59. P is a point on the line 2x y – 1 0. Points Q and R

(A) (B) 1 (C) (D) are on the line 2x y – 2 0 such that $PQR is equi-

8 9 2

lateral. Then, the length of the side of the triangle is

Solution: It is known that PA PB ≥ AB and equality

occurs if and only if A, P and B are collinear. Hence PA 2

(A) 4 5 (B) 3 5 (C) (D) 5

PB is minimum which implies that 15

through P. So

1 2 1 0

1 2 1

2L 1 2L 1 1 p

2 2 5

2 1

3(2 2 L 1) 4(1 2 L 1) 1(2 L 1 4 L 2) 0

Suppose a is the length of the side. Therefore

16 L 3 8 3 0

3 p 1

7 sin 60o

L 2 a a 5

8

Answer: (A) Hence

2

58. The angle between the lines xcos@ ysin@ p and a

15

ax by p 0 is P / 4 where p 0. If these two lines

together with the line x sin @ y cos @ = 0 are concur- 2x y 1 0 P

rent, then

1

(A) a 2 b2 2 (B) a 2 b2

2

1

(C) a 2 b2 1 (D) a 2 b2 1 5

p

2.22, we have 2x y 2 0 60 60

Q R

cos A sin A p

FIGURE 2.77

sin A cos A 0 0

a b p Answer: (C)

Worked-Out Problems 91

60. If a, b and c are real and are in AP, then the family of 63. A (
4, 0) and B (4, 0). The points M and N are

lines ax by c 0 are concurrent at the point variable points on the y-axis such that N lies above

M and MN 4. The lines AM and BN intersect at P.

(A) (1,
1) (B) (1, 2)

Then, the locus of P is

(C) (2,
1) (D) (1,
2)

(A) x 2 2 xy
16 0 (B) x 2 2 xy 16

Solution: Suppose

(C) x 2 16 2 xy (D) x 2 2 xy 16 0

ac

b Solution: See Fig. 2.78. We have A (−4, 0) and B (4,

2

0) so that y-axis is the perpendicular bisector of AB. Since

Then MN 4, we can take N (0, a 4) and M (0, a). Equation

ax by c 0 2ax (a c) y 2c 0 of the line AM is

x y

(2 x y)a ( y 2)c 0 1 (2.103)

4 a

which represents family of concurrent lines concurrent at

the point C(1,
2) which is the intersection of the lines and the equation of BN is

2 x y 0 and y 2 0. x y

1 (2.104)

Answer: (D) 4 a4

From Eq. (2.103), we have

61. If A(1, p2), B(1, 0) and C(p, 0) where p x are the

vertices of a triangle, then the value of p for which 4y

a (2.105)

the area of $ABC is minimum is 4 x

1 1 From Eq. (2.104), we get

(A) (B)

2 3 4y

a4 (2.106)

1 4
x

(C) (D) None

2 Therefore, from Eqs. (2.105) and (2.106), we have

Solution: Let S be the area of ΔABC so that y y

1

4
x 4 x

1 p2 1

1 1 2 xy 16
x 2

S 0 1 1 [1(1
0)
p2 (0
p) 1(0
p)]

2 2

p 0 1 x 2 2 xy
16 0

1 3 y

p
p1

2

1

Real value of p exists such that 3 p2
1 0. Hence N

3 1

minimum value of S exists at p . 4

3 P

Answer: (B)

M

62. The locus of the point which moves such that its dis-

tance from the point (4, 5) is equal to its distance

from the line x – y 1 0 is

(A) a straight line A(−4, 0) O B(4, 0) x

(C) ( y 5)2 4( x 4)

(D) ( x 4)2 y 5 FIGURE 2.78

Solution: The point (4, 5) lies on the line x – y 1 0. Answer: (A)

Hence, the required locus is the line y – 5 –1(x – 4) or

x y – 9 0. 64. The vertices of a parallelogram are described in the

Answer: (A) order A(3, 1), B(13, 6), C(13, 21) and D(3, 16). If a

92 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

two congruent parts, then the slope of the line is

13 11 8 11 M E F N

(A) (B) (C) (D)

8 12 11 8

L

Solution: See Fig. 2.79. It can be observed that AD and

BC are vertical lines. Suppose the line through the origin

meets AD at P and BC at Q in such a way that CQ B C

PA, DP BQ. Also PQCD and PQBA are the congruent

parts. Suppose AP k. FIGURE 2.80

Therefore, P (3, k 1) and Q (13, 21 k ). Hence, Answer: (C)

the slope of the line is

k 1 21 k 66. The equations of two adjacent sides of a rhombus are y

x and y 7x. The diagonals of the rhombus intersect

3 13

at the point (1, 2). Thus, the area of the rhombus is

13k 13 63 3k

16k 50 50 20 10 40

(A) (B) (C) (D)

25 3 3 3 3

k

8 Solution: See Fig. 2.81. Let M be the point (1, 2). Since

Thus, the slope of the line is the diagonal AC is perpendicular to the diagonal OB, the

equation of the diagonal AC is

(25 / 8) 1 33 11

1

3 3s8 8 y 2 ( x 1)

2

y

C(13, 21) x 2y 5 0 (2.107)

k Solving Eq. (2.107) and the equation y x, we get

D(3, 16)

Q

¥ 5 5´

A¦ , µ

§ 3 3¶

P

k ¥ 1 7´

C¦ , µ

§ 3 3¶

A(3, 1)

by

FIGURE 2.79 1 5 7 5 1 30 10

2s s s

Answer: (D) 2 3 3 3 3 9 3

B

65. The number of straight lines that are equidistant

from the vertices of a triangle is

(A) 1 (B) 2

(C) 3 (D) infinite

Solution: See Fig. 2.80. Let ABC be a triangle. Let

C A

E and F be the midpoints of AB and AC, respectively.

FHHE M(1, 2)

Draw AL, BM and CN Fperpendicular

HHE FHHEline EF . It

to the

is known that the line EF is parallel to BC and EF

y=

y=

7x

FHHE

Therefore, BM AL CN . Thus the line EF is equi- O(0, 0)

distant from A, B and C. Similarly, we have two more FIGURE 2.81

lines. Thus, the numbers of lines equidistant from A, B

Answer: (C)

and C is 3.

Worked-Out Problems 93

from the coordinates axes. P can lie in Case 1:

m1 m 7

(A) first quadrant (10 m)[m 7 5(m 1)] 0

(B) first or second quadrant m 10 or m 3

(C) first or third quadrant

10 m 5(10 m)

(D) any quadrant Case 2:

m1 m 7

Solution: The point (x, y) is equidistant from both axes

(10 m)[m 7 5(m 1)] 0

x y y p x.

2 1

15 m 10 or m

1. y x and (x, y) lies on the line 3x 5y 15 x , 6 3

8

15 If m 10, then the third side passes through the origin

y P lies in the first quadrant.

8 (0, 0), which is false in this case. Thus

15 15

2. y x and (x,y) lies on 3x 5y 15 x , y P 1

2 2 m 3 or

lies in the second quadrant. 3

Answer: (B) Hence, the third side is

3x y 7 0

68. Two equal sides of an isosceles triangle are given by

the equations y x and y 7x and its third side x 3 y 31 0

passes through the point (1, 10). Then, the equa-

tions of the third side is

7x

(A) x
3 y
31 0 or 3x
y
13 0

y=

(B) x 3 y 29 0 or 3 x
y
13 0

y

=

−x

(C) 3 x y 7 0 or x
3 y
31 0

(D) 3 x y 7 0 or x 3 y 29 0

Solution: See Fig. 2.82. Let

O

y 10 m( x
1) (2.108)

be the equation of the third side. Substituting y
x in

A

Eq. (2.108), we have

B (1, −10)

10 m
(10 m)

x and y

1 m 1 m

Let FIGURE 2.82

A¦ , µ

§ 1 m 1 m ¶

69. The equation of the line which passes through the

Substituting y 7x in Eq. (2.108), we have intersection of the lines x 2y 3 0 and 3x 4y

7 0 and is perpendicular the line x – y 8 0 is

¥ 10 m 7(10 m) ´

B¦ , µ

§ m 7 m 7 ¶ (A) x 2 y 3 0 (B) x y 2 0

Now, (C) x y2 0 (D) 3 x 3 y 4 0

OA OB Solution:

Direct Method: Intersection of the lines x 2y 3 0 and

(10 m)2 (10 m)2 (10 m)2 49(10 m)2

3x 4y 7 0 is (
1,
1). Slope of the line x – y 8 0

(m 1)2 ( m
7) 2 is 1. Hence, the equation of the required line is

2 (10 m) 5 2 (10 m) y 1
1( x 1) or x y 2 0

p

m1 m
7 Answer: (C)

10 m 5(10 m)

p

m1 m
7

94 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

70. Let A be the point (t, 2) and B be the point on the The three families have a common line if

y-axis such that the slope of AB is
t. Then, the locus

of the midpoint of AB, as t varies over all real num- ¥ a a 2
12 ´

¦§ 2 , µ , (1, 1) and (3, 3)

bers, is a
6 a2
6 ¶

(A) y 2
2 x 2 (B) x 2 y
1 0 are collinear. Since the equation of the line joining (1, 1)

(C) y 1 x 2 2

(D) 2 x
y 2 0 and (3, 3) is y x, we have

a2 6 a2 6

y 2 t( x t )

a 2 a 12 0

Now,

(a 4)(a 3) 0

x 0 y 2 t2

a 4, 3

B (0, 2 t 2 )

a4 (& a 0)

Let M(x, y) be the midpoint of AB. Therefore

Answer: (D)

t0 2 (2 t 2 )

x ,y

2 2 72. If the length of the intercept made on the line y ax

by the lines y 2 and y 6 is less than 5, then

t 2 x, 2 y 4 t 2 4 4 x 2

4 4 4 4

Thus, the locus of M is y 2 2 x 2. (A) a (B) a or a

3 3 3 3

y 3 4

(C) a (D) a ( d, d)

4 3

A (t, 2) y=2 Solution: The line y ax intersects the lines y 2 and y

6 at points A 2 /a, 2 and B 6 /a, 6 . Now

B

2

¥ 2 6´

AB 5 ¦ µ (2 6)2 52

§ a a¶

O x

16

25 16 9

a2

16

FIGURE 2.83 a2

9

Answer: (D)

4 4

a or a

71. If the three families of lines 3 3

(y – 2x 1) K1(2y – x – 1) 0 Answer: (B)

(3y – x – 6) K2(y – 3x 6) 0 73. The equation of the obtuse angle bisector of the an-

and (ax + y
2) + K3(6x + ay
a) = 0 (a > 0) gle between the lines x – 2y 4 0 and 4x – 3y 2

0 is

have a common line, then the value of a is

(A) (4
5 ) x (2 5
3) y
(4 5
2) 0

(A) 3 (B) 2 (C) 6 (D) 4

(B) (4
5 ) x
(2 5
3) y
4 5 0

Solution: The first and second families of lines are con-

current at (1, 1) and (3, 3), respectively, while the third (C) (4 5 ) x (2 5
3) y
4 5 2 0

family of lines are concurrent at

(D) (4 5 ) x
(2 5
3) y 4 5 0

¥ a a 2
12 ´

¦§ 2 , 2 µ Solution: c1 4, c2 2 are positive. Since a1a2 b1b2

a
6 a
6 ¶

4 6 0, by Theorem 2.26,

Worked-Out Problems 95

x
2y 4 ¥ 4 x
3y 2 ´ ( x y
1)( x
y 1) 0

¦

2

1 2 2 § 4 2 32 µ¶ Therefore, the pair of lines is x y
1 0 and x
y 1 0

and their angle bisectors are

is the obtuse angle bisector. So we have

x y
1 ¥ x
y 1´

5 ( x
2 y 4) 4x
3y 2 p¦ µ

2 § 2 ¶

(4
5 ) x (2 5
3) y
(4 5
2) 0 That is y 1 and x 0. Therefore, the sides of the triangle

Answer: (A) are x 0, y 1 and x y 3. The vertices are (0, 1), (0, 3)

and (2, 1). Hence the area of the triangle is

74. Two vertices of a triangle are (5,
1) and (
2, 3). If or-

1 4

igin is the orthocentre of the triangle, then the third 0(3
1) 0(1
1) 2(1
3) 2

vertex is 2 2

Answer: (A)

(A) (4, 7) (B) (
4, 7)

(C) (4,
7) (D) (
4,
7) 76. The slope of one of the lines ax2 2hxy by2 0 is

Solution: See Fig. 2. 84. Let B (5, −1) and C (−2, 3), twice that of the other. Then

and the third vertex A (h, k). The orthocentre is O(0, 0). (A) 8 h2 9ab (B) 4 h2 3ab

Since AO is perpendicular to BC, we have

(C) h2 4ab (D) 9 h2 8ab

¥ k´ ¥ 3 1 ´

¦§ µ¶ ¦§ µ
1 Solution: Let y mx and y 2mx be the two lines.

h
2
5 ¶

Therefore

4k 7 h (2.109)

ax 2 2hxy 6 y2 y b( y
mx)( y
2mx)

Now BO is perpendicular to AC

Equating the corresponding coefficients, we have

¥
1´ ¥ 3
k ´

¦ µ¦
1 2h a

§ 5 ¶ §
2
h µ¶
3m , 2 m2

b b

3
k
5(2 h)

2

a ¥
2 h ´ 8h2

5h
k
13 (2.110) 2 m2 2 ¦ µ 2

b § 3b ¶ 9b

Solving Eqs. (2.109) and (2.110), we have h
4 and 2

9ab 8 h

k
7. Hence, A (
4,
7).

Answer: (A)

A (h, k)

77. A is a point on the x-axis. Through the point A, a

line is drawn parallel to y-axis so as to meet the lines

ax2 2hxy by2 0 in B and C. If AB BC, then

(C) 4 h2 3ab (D) 3h2 8ab

B (5, −1) C (−2, 3) Solution: See Fig. 2.85. Let y m1 x and y m2 x be

FIGURE 2.84 the lines represented by ax 2 2 hxy by2 0. Therefore

Answer: (D) 2 h

m1 m2

b

75. Area of the triangle formed by the line x y 3 and a

the angle bisectors of the pair of lines x2 – y2 2y 1 m1 m2

b

0 is

Suppose A (A , 0) and the line x @ meets y m1 x at

(A) 2 (B) 4 (C) 6 (D) 8

B and y m2 x at C. Thus, B (A , m1A ) and C (A , m2A ).

(IIT-JEE 2004) Now,

Solution: m2A 0

AB BC m1A

x 2 y2 2 y 1 0 x 2 ( y 1)2 0 2

m2 2 m1

96 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

Hence, from Worked-Out Problem 76, we get 8 h2 9ab. 80. Let PQR be right-angled isosceles triangle right an-

gled at P(2, 1). If the equation of the line QR is 2x

y y – 3 0 then the combined equation of the pair of

x

m2 lines PQ and PR is

=

y

C

(A) 3 x 2
3 y2 8 xy 20 x 10 y 25 0

x

y = m1 (B) 3 x 2
3 y2 8 xy
20 x
10 y 25 0

B (C) 3 x 2
3 y2 8 xy 10 x 15 y 20 0

O A(a, 0) x (D) 3 x 2
3 y2
8 xy
15 y
20 0

(IIT-JEE 1999)

FIGURE 2.85 Solution: See Fig. 2.86. Let m be the slope of the line

Answer: (B) PQ. Since PQR 45°, from the ‘Note’ of Theorem 2.12,

we have

78. If one of the lines represented by ax2 2hxy by2 m 2

0 bisects the angle between the axes, then 1 tan 45o

1 m(
2)

(A) 4 h2 ab (B) 8 h2 9ab m 2 p(1
2 m)

(C) (a b)2 4 h2 (D) (a b)2 2 h2
1

m 3,

Solution: Suppose y x is one of the lines. That is, 3

Therefore, the combined equation of the lines PQ and

ax 2 2 hx 2 bx 2 0 PR is

a b
2 h

¨ 1 ·

[ y
1
3( x
2)] © y
1 ( x
2)

(a b)2 4 h2 ª 3 ¹̧

Suppose y
x is one of the lines. Then (3 x
y
5)( x 3 y
5) 0

R

(a b)2 4 h2

Answer: (C) 45° 2x

+y

−3

79. If the equation 12x2 7xy ky2 13x – y + 3 0 rep- =0

resents a pair of lines, then the value of k is

90° 45°

(A) 5 (B) 5 (C) 10 (D) 10

P (2, 1) Q

Solution: Comparing the given equation with the second-

degree general equation, we have FIGURE 2.86

Answer: (B)

7 13 1

a 12, h , b k, g , f and c 3

2 2 2 81. Area of the parallelogram formed by the lines y

Since the equation represents pair of lines, by Theorem mx, y mx 1, y nx and y nx 1, where m ≠ n,

2.31, we get is equal to

m n 2

$ abc 2 fgh af 2 bg 2 ch 2 0 (A) (B)

(m n)2 m n

That is,

1 1

(C) (D)

¥ 1´ ¥ 13 ´ ¥ 7 ´ ¥ 1´ ¥ 169 ´ m n m n

(12)(k )(3) 2 ¦ µ ¦ µ ¦ µ 12 ¦ µ k ¦

§ 2 ¶ § 2 ¶ § 2¶ § 4¶ § 4 µ¶

(IIT-JEE 2001)

¥ 49 ´

3¦ µ 0 Solution: From Problem 2 of the section ‘Subjective

§ 4¶

Problems’, the area of the parallelogram is

144k 91 12 169k 147 0

(1 0)(1 0) 1

25k 250

m n m n

k 10

Answer: (B)

Answer: (D)

Worked-Out Problems 97

subtend a right angle at the origin pass through a

fixed point whose coordinates are 2 n1 4 n2 22 (2.113)

(A) (0, 0) (B) (1,
2) Solving Eqs. (2.112) and (2.113), we have n1 5 and

n2 3. Therefore, the sides of the parallelogram are

¥ 1 10 ´

(C) ¦ ,
1µ (D) (2,
1) 3x 4 y 0

§ 3 ¶

3x 4 y 5 0

(IIT-JEE 1982)

x 2y 0

Solution: See Fig. 2.87. Let lx my 1 be the chord and x 2y 3 0

of the given curve subtending right angle at the origin:

Suppose the line meets the curve at A and B. Hence, by Hence, from Problem 2 of the section ‘Subjective Prob-

Theorem 2.33, the combined equation of the pair of lines lems’, the area of the parallelogram is

OA and OB is (5
0)(3
0) 15

2 2

sq. unit

3 x
y
(2 x
4 y)(lx my) 0 3(2)
(4) 2

Since AOB 90o, from the above equation and from Answer: (C)

Theorem 2.28, we have

84. If the second-degree general equation S y ax2 2hmy

Coefficient of x 2 Coefficient of y2 0 by2 2gx 2fy c 0 represents pair of intersect-

(3
2l ) (
1 4 m) 0 ing lines, then the area of the parallelogram formed

by the lines S 0 and ax2 2hxy by2 0 is

l
2m
1 0

l m(
2) 1 C C

(A) (B)

(a
b)2 4 h2 2 (a
b)2 4ab

Hence the line lx my 1 passes through the point (1,
2).

C C

y (C) (D)

2 2

2 (a
b) 4 h 2 h2
ab

B

Solution: Suppose the lines represented by S 0 are

lx + m l1 x m1 y n1 0 and l2 x m2 y n2 0 so that from

y=1

A

Theorem 2.32, the equation ax 2 2 hxy by2 0 repre-

90°

sents l1 x m1 y 0 and l2 x m2 y 0. Also we have

O x

l1l2 a

l1 m2 l2 m1 2 h

FIGURE 2.87 m1 m2 b

Answer: (B) l1 n2 l2 n1 2 g

3x2 10xy 8y2 14x 22y 15 0 and 3x2 10xy and n1 n2 c

8y2 0 is

Hence the sides of the parallelogram are

15

(A) 5 (B) 10 (C) (D) 15 l1x m1y

2

Solution: We have l1 x m1 y n1 0

l2 x m2 y 0

3 x 2 10 xy 8 y2 y (3 x 4 y)( x 2 y)

l2x n2y n2 0

Therefore, for some values of n1 and n2

Therefore, from Problem 2 of the section ‘Subjective

3 x 2 10 xy 8 y2 14 x 22 y 15 y Problems’, the area of the parallelogram is

(3 x 4 y n1 )( x 2 y n2 ) (2.111) (n1 0)(n2 0) n1 n2

Equating the coefficients of x and y on both sides of Eq. l1 m2 l2 m1 (l1 m2 l2 m1 )2 4l1l2 m1m2

(2.111), we have

98 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

c c 1 m2 2

4 h2
4ab 2 h2
ab (1 m)2 (1 m)2 3

Answer: (D) 3m2 3 2(1 2 m m2 )

Worked-Out Problem 83, the area is equal to 4 p 16 4

m 2p 3

15 15 2

2 25 24 2 Now

P

85. If x2 – 2pxy – y2 0 and x2 – 2qxy – y2 0 represent 0Q b tan Q m 2 3

3

a pair of lines (p xq) such that each pair bisects the

angle between the other, then so that P 15o.

(A) pq 1 (B) pq 1 Answer: (C)

(C) 1 (D)

p q p q 2

(A) a single straight line (B) a pair of lines

Solution: By Theorem 2.30, the equation of the pair of (C) a single point (D) xy 2

angle bisector of the lines x2 – 2pxy – y2 0 is

Solution: The given equation is

p( x 2 y2 ) (1 1) xy

(4x2 y2)(2x y) (2 x y) 0

2 2

px 2 xy py 0

The equation 4 x 2 y2 0 represents the single point (0,

However, by hypothesis, x 2 2qxy y2 0 is the pair of 0). Hence, the equation represents the pair of lines

angle bisectors. Therefore, 2 x y 0 and 2 x y 0 which pass through the origin.

p 2 p Answer: (B)

pq 1

1 2q 1

88. If the lines x 2y 9, 3x – 5y 5 and ax by 1

Answer: (B)

are concurrent, then the line 5x 2y – 1 0 passes

through the point

86. A straight line is drawn through the point (1, 2) mak-

ing an angle Q (0 Q b P / 3) with the positive direc- (A) (b, a) (B) (a, b)

tion of the x-axis to intersect the line x y – 4 0 at (C) ( a, b) (D) ( a, b)

a point P so that the distance between P and (1, 2) is

Solution: The point of intersection of the lines x 2y

2 / 3 . Then, the value of P is

– 9 0 and 3x – 5y 5 0 is (5, 2) which also lies on the

P P P P line ax by 1. Hence,

(A) (B) (C) (D)

3 10 12 18 a(5) b(2) 1

Solution: Let A be (1, 2) and the line through A(1, 2) 5a 2b 1

be y 2 m( x 1). This line meets the line x y 4 at

point P. So Therefore, the line 5x 2y 1 passes through the point

(a, b).

4 x 2 m( x 1)

Answer: (B)

x(1 m) 2 m

2m 2 m 3m 2 89. Straight lines are drawn from the point A(3, 2) to

x and y 4 x 4

1 m 1 m 1 m meet the line 6x 7y – 30 0 at point P. Then, the

locus of the midpoints of the segment AP is

Therefore,

(A) x 2 y2 30 (B) 6 x 7 y 31

¥ 2 m 3m 2 ´

P¦ ,

§ 1 m 1 m µ¶ (C) (6 x 3)2 (7 y 2)2 30 2 (D) 6 x 7 y 32

2 2 x
3 y
2

2 ¥ 2 m´ ¥ 3m 2 ´ 2 r (say)

AP ¦1
µ ¦§ 2
µ cos Q sin Q

3 § 1 m¶ 1 m ¶ 3

Worked-Out Problems 99

Every point on this line is of the form P(3 r cos Q , 2 r Solution: The given relation is

sinP) and this lies on the line 6x + 7y = 30. It implies that

(5a
4b)2
c 2 0

r(6 cos Q 7 sin Q )
2 (2.114) (5a
4b c)(5a
4b
c) 0

Suppose M(h, k) be the midpoint of AP. Therefore, ¨ ¥ 5´ · ¨ ¥ 5´ ·

© 2a ¦ µ b(
4) c ¸ © 2a ¦
µ b(4) c ¸ 0

2 h 6 r cos Q and 2k 4 r sin Q ª § 2 ¶ ¹ª § 2 ¶ ¹

6(2 h
6) 7(2k
4) r(6 cos Q 7 sin Q )
2 2ax by c 0

12 h 14k
62 0 ¥5 ´ ¥ 5 ´

¦§ ,
4µ¶ and ¦§
, 4µ¶

6 h 7k
31 0 2 2

Answer: (B)

Hence, the locus of M(h, k) is the line 6 x 7 y
31 0.

Answer: (B) 92. The area of the triangle formed by the lines x y

3 and angle bisectors of the pair of straight lines

90. If no two lines of the three lines x2 – y2 2y 1 is

(m – 2)x (2m – 5)y 0 (A) 2 sq. unit (B) 4 sq. unit

(m – 1)x (m2 – 7)y – 5 0 (C) 6 sq. unit (D) 8 sq. unit

and x y – 1 10 (IIT-JEE 2004)

are parallel, then the three lines are concurrent Solution: The given lines are

(A) for three values of m (B) for two values of m x 2
( y
1)2 0

(C) for one value of m (D) no real value of m ( x y
1)( x
y 1) 0

Solution: By Theorem 2.22, the three lines are concur- Therefore, the given lines are x
y 1 0 and x + y
1 = 0

rent if whose angular bisectors are

1 1
1 x y
1 x
y1

p

m
2 2m
5 0 0 2 2

m
1 m2
7
5 That is, y
1 0 and x 0. Thus, the vertices of the tri-

2 angle are (0, 1), (0, 3) and (2, 1). Hence, the area is

1[(m
2)(m
7)
(m
1)(2 m
5)]

5 ;2m
5
m 2= 0 1

2

;0(3
1) 0(1
1) 2(1
3)= 2 sq. unit

m3
2 m2
7 m 14
2 m2 5m 2 m
5 Answer: (A)

10 m
25
5m 10 0

93. A straight line is drawn through (1, 0) to the curve

m 3
4 m 2 5m
6 0 x2 y2 6x – 10y 1 0 such that the intercept made

(m
3)(m2
m 2) 0 on it by the curve subtends a right angle at the origin.

Then, the slope of the line is

Since (m2
m 2) 0 has no real solutions, it follows

that m 3. However, m 3 implies that the three lines 1 1

are parallel which is in contradiction of the hypothesis. (A) 1 or (B)
1 or

9 9

Hence, if m x 3, then the lines cannot be concurrent.

1 1

Answer: (D) (C)
1 or (D) 1 or

9 9

91. If 25a2 16b2 – 4ab – c2 0, then the line 2ax by c Solution: Let y m(x – 1) be the line meeting the

0 passes through a fixed point whose coordinates are curve in the point A and B. Hence, by Theorem 2.33, the

combined equation of the pair of lines OA and OB (‘O’

¥5 ´ ¥5 ´ is the origin) is

(A) ¦ , 4µ (B) ¦ ,
4µ

§2 ¶ §2 ¶

¥ 5 (mx
y) (mx
y)2

´

(C) ¦
,
4µ (D) (5,
4) x 2 y2 (6 x
10 y) 1 0

§ 2 ¶ m m

100 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

Since AOB 90o, from the above equation, we have The lines represented by x2 4xy 4y2
5x
10y

4 0 are parallel lines and they are x 2 y
4 0 and

Coefficient of x 2 Coefficent of y2 0 x 2y
1 0 .

¥ 10 1 ´ Therefore, from Problem 2 of the section ‘Subjective

(1 6 1) ¦ 1 µ 0

§ m m2 ¶ Problems’, the area is

9 m2 10 m 1 0 (
1 3)(
1 4)

6

(9 m 1)(m 1) 0 1
0

1 Answer: (B)

m or m

9

96. A straight line L passing through the point (3,
2) is

Answer: (B)

inclined at an angle 60° to the line y 3 x 1. If L

intersects the x-axis, then the equation of L is

94. The area bounded by the curves y x
1 and

y
x 1 is (A) y 3 x 2
3 3 0

(A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 2 2 (D) 4 (B) y
3x 2 3 3 0

Solution: The given lines are (C) 3y
x 3 2 3 0

y x
1, y
x
1 and y
x 1, y
x
1 (D) 3y x
3 2 3 0

That is, the lines are (IIT-JEE 2011)

x
y
1 0, x y 1 0, x y
1 0 and x
y 1 0 Solution: Let the equation of the line L be y 2

Therefore, from Problem 2 of the section ‘Subjective m(x – 3). Therefore, by hypothesis

Problems’, the area of the parallelogram is

m 3

3

(1 1)(1 1) 1
m 3

2

1
(
1)

m 3 p 3 (1
m 3 )

Answer: (B)

m 0 or m 3

95. The area of the parallelogram formed by the pairs of

If m 0, then L should be horizontal, which is not true in

lines x2 4xy 4y2 – 5x – 10y 4 0 and y2 – 4y 3

this case. Hence, m 3 and the equation of L is

0 sq. units is

(A) 4 (B) 6 (C) 8 (D) 12 y 2 3 ( x
3)

and y 3 0. Answer: (B)

1. Let L1 be a straight line passing through the origin made by the circle on L1 and L2 , it follows that the two

and L2 be the straight line x y 1. If the intercepts chords are equidistant from the centre. Therefore

made by the circle x2 y2 – x 3y 0 on L1 and L2 are

equal, then L1 may be represented by the equations ¥ 1´ 3 1 3

m¦ µ 1

§ 2¶ 2

(A) x y 0 (B) x y0 2 2

1 m2 12 12

(C) x 7y 0 (D) x 7 y 0

Solution: The equation of the circle can be written as

(m 3)2

2 2 2

¥ 1´ ¥ 3´ 5 4(1 m2 )

¦§ x µ¶ ¦§ y µ¶

2 2 2 m2 6 m 9 8 8 m2

so that its centre is at 1/ 2, 3 / 2 and radius is 5 / 2. Let 7 m2 6 m 1 0

y mx be the equation of L1 . Since the intercepts are (7 m 1)(m 1) 0

Worked-Out Problems 101

m 1,

7 ¥1 ´

M ¦ , 1µ

§2 ¶

Hence, the equations of L1 are y x and y x / 7. That

is, x y 0 and x 7 y 0. is the intersection of the diagonals so that

Answer: (B), (C) 1 5

DM MB AC

2 2

2. The lines ax by c 0, bx cy a 0 and cx ay

b 0 are concurrent if Since the slope of AC is 4 / 3, the equation of the diago-

nal BD is

(A) a b c 0

3¥ 1´

(B) a 2 b2 c 2 ab bc ca y1 ¦§ x µ¶

4 2

(C) a 3 b3 c 3 3abc

3 6 x 11

(D) a 2 b2 c 2 2(ab bc ca) y (2 x 1) 1

8 8

Solution: The three lines are concurrent if

Let

a b c

¥ 6 x 11´

b c a 0 (By Theorem 2.22) B ¦ x, µ

§ 8 ¶

c a b

Now,

3abc a 3 b3 c 3 0 2 2

5 ¥ 1´ ¥ 6 x 11 ´ 25

3 3 3

a b c 3abc 0 MB ¦x µ ¦ 1µ

2 § 2 ¶ § 8 ¶ 4

Also

16(2 x 1)2 (6 x 3)2 25 s 16

3 3 3

a b c 3abc 0

100 x 2 100 x 375 0

(a b c)(a 2 b2 c 2 ab bc ca) 0

a b c 0 or a 2 b2 c 2 ab bc ca 4 x 2 4 x 15 0

Answer: (A), (B), (C) (2 x 5)(2 x 3) 0

5 3

3. The area of a triangle ABC is 20 sq. unit. The coordi- x ,

nates of A are ( 5, 0) and those of B are (3, 0) and the 2 2

vertex C lies on the line x – y – 2 0. The coordinates Therefore

of C are

5 6 x 11 6(5 / 2) 11 1

(A) ( 3, 5) (B) ( 5, 7) x y

2 8 8 2

(C) (5, 3) (D) (7, 5) 3 6( 3 / 2) 11 5

and x y

Solution: Let C be ( x, x 2). Therefore 2 8 2

1 Therefore, other vertices are

20 5(0 x 2) 3( x 2 0) x(0 0) |

2 ¥ 5 1´ ¥ 3 5 ´

¦§ , µ¶ and ¦§ , µ¶

40 8 x 16 | 2 2 2 2

x 2 p5 D C (−1, 1)

Hence, x 7, 3 . Therefore, C (7, 5), (–3, –5). 5

2

Answer: (A), (D)

M

4. If A(2, 3) and C( 1, 1) are the ends of a diagonal of 5

2

a squares ABCD, then the other vertices are

A (2, −3) B

¥ 1 5´ ¥ 5 1´

(A) ¦ , µ (B) ¦ , µ

§ 2 2¶ § 2 2¶ FIGURE 2.88

(C) ¦ , µ (D) ¦ , µ

§ 2 2¶ § 2 2¶ see Vol. 1. The points are

102 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

M ¦ , 1µ and C ( 1, 1) tersects the line x y 4 0 at a point whose distance

§2 ¶

from the point (1, 2) is 2 / 3. Then the angle made by

Replace the point D by Z. Therefore we have l with the x-axis is

Z [(1 / 2) i] (A) 15o (B) 75o (C) 105o (D) 60o

i

( 1 i) [(1 / 2) i]

Solution: Let y 2 m(x 1) be the equation of the

1 ¥ 3 ´ 3i line l. That is,

Z i ¦ 2iµ i 2

2 § 2 ¶ 2 y mx 2 m (2.115)

3 5

z i y x 4 (2.116)

2 2

¥ 3 5´ Solving Eqs. (2.115) and (2.116), we have

D ¦ , µ

§ 2 2¶ m 2 3m 2

x and y

Hence m1 m1

B ¦2 1 ,3 1 µ ¦ , µ

§ 2 2¶ § 2 2¶ ¥ m 2 3m 2 ´

¦§ , µ and (1, 2)

Answer: (B), (C) m1 m1 ¶

distance of 1 unit from the origin is 2 2

¥ m 2 ´ ¥ 3m 2 ´ 2

(A) x 1 (B) y 1 ¦§ 1µ ¦ 2µ

m1 ¶ § m1 ¶ 3

(C) x y 1 (D) x y 2 2

¥ 1 ´ ¥ m2 ´ 2

Solution: It is clear that the vertical line x 1 passes ¦ µ ¦ µ

§ m 1¶ § (m 1)2 ¶ 3

through (1, 1) and its distance from the origin is 1. Hence,

y 1 is the other line. 3 3m2 2(m 1)2

Answer: (A), (B)

m2 4 m 1 0

6. The equation of the lines passing through the point (1, 1) 4 p 16 4

whose distance from origin is 2 is m 2p 3

2

1 10 Now, tan Q 2 p 3 implies Q 75o or 15o.

(A) y 1 ( x 1)

3

Answer: (A), (B)

1 3

(B) y 1 ( x 1)

3 8. Let A(4, 3), B( 4, 3) and C(0, 5) be the vertices of a

1 3 triangle and P (5, 0). Let L, M and N be the feet of

(C) y 1 ( x 1) the perpendiculars drawn from P onto the sides BC,

3

CA and AB, respectively. Then

1 10

(D) y 1 ( x 1) (A) the centroid of $LMN does not exist

3

(B) the orthocentre of $LMN is the origin

Solution: Let y m(x 1) be the line so that by hy-

(C) the area of $LMN is 5 sq. unit

pothesis

(D) L, M and N are collinear

m( 1) 0 1 Solution: See Fig. 2.89. The sides BC, CA and AB are

2

1 m2 represented by the equations 2 x y 5 0, 2 x y 5 0

and y 3 0, respectively. We can see that L ( 1, 3),

(m 1)2 4(1 m2 )

M = (3, 1) and N (5, 3). Now

3m2 2 m 3 0

Slope of LM Slope of MN 1

2 p 4 36 1 p 10

m so that L, M and N are collinear.

6 3

Answer: (A), (D)

Worked-Out Problems 103

2a 2b ab 2A

B (−4, 3) A(4, 3) N

Therefore

90°

abA (2.119)

Hence, from Eqs. (2.118) and (2.119), a and b are the

M roots of the equation x 2 A x 2A 0. Therefore

90° 2a 2b 2A a b A

O

P(5, 0) Hence a and b are roots of the equation

L

90°

x 2 A x 2A 0

Answer: (C), (D)

C

10. The points A(2, 1)and B(3,
2) are the two vertices

FIGURE 2.89 of $ABC and C lies on the line x – y 3 0. If the

area of $ABC is 5 sq. units, then the coordinates of

Note: See Theorem 1.1. the third vertex C are

Answer: (A), (D) ¥
3 3 ´

(A) ¦ , µ (B) (0, 0)

§ 2 2¶

9. A line through (2, 2) and the axes form a triangle of

area A units. Then, the intercepts on the axes made ¥ 5 5´ ¥ 7 13 ´

(C) ¦ , µ (D) ¦ , µ

by the line are roots of the equation § 2 2¶ §2 2 ¶

(A) x 2
A x A 0 (B) x 2 A x
A 0 Solution: Let C be (x, x 3). By hypothesis, we have

2 2

(C) x
A x 2A 0 (D) x A x
2A 1

5 2(
2
x
3) 3( x 3
1) x(1 2) |

Solution: Let 2

x y 10
10
2 x 3 x 6 3 x |

1

a b 4 x
4 p10

be the equation of the line which forms a triangle with 4 x 14 or
6

the coordinate axes of area A sq. unit. Since the line 7
3

passes through (2, 2), we have x or

2 2

2 2 Therefore, the coordinates of the third vertex C are

1 (2.117)

a b

¥ 7 13 ´ ¥
3 3 ´

¦§ , µ¶ or ¦§ , µ¶

1 2 2 2 2

We have ab A so that

2 Answer: (A), (D)

ab p2A (2.118)

1. A( 2, 1), B(5, 4) and C(2, 3) are the vertices of

Column I Column II

$ABC. AD, BE and CF are the altitudes of the tri-

angle and M is the midpoint of BC. Match the items (C) Equation of the (r) 7 x 3 y 5 0

of Column I with those of Column II. median AM is

(s) x 11y 11 0

(D) Equation of the alti-

(t) 3 x 7 y 1 0

Column I Column II tude CF is

(A) Equation of AD is (p) x y 1 0

(B) Equation of BE is (q) x 11y 9 0

(Continued)

104 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

Solution:

Column I Column II

(A) Slope of BC is (B) If A(1, 2), B(4, 6), C(5, 7) and (q) 1

43 7 S(a, b) are the vertices of a par-

allelogram in the given order,

5
2 3

then the value of a b is

Therefore, the equation of the altitude AD is

¥ p r´

3 (C) If ¦ , µ is the centroid of

y
1 ( x 2) § q s¶

7 (r) 4

3x 7 y
1 0 $ABC given in (B), then the

pr

Answer: (A) m (t) value of is

q s
1

(B) Slope of CA is

(D) Let p lim lim cos2 n m P x (s) 3

1 3 nmd mmd

1

2
2 where x rational and q lim

nmd

Therefore, the equation of the altitude BE is lim cos2 m n x, where x is irra-

mmd

y
4 1( x
5) tional. Then the area of the tri-

x
y
1 0 angle with vertices (p, q), (2, 1)

(t) 5

and (
2, 1) is

Answer: (B) m (p)

(C) The midpoint of BC is Solution:

(A) Since PRQ 90o, in general, the locus represented

¥ 7 1´

¦§ , µ¶ by R is a circle with P and Q as ends of the diam-

2 2

eter. Because area of $PQR is 2 sq. unit, there will

be four positions for R (two each in the two semi-

and the slope of the median AM is
1/ 11 so that

circles for which PQ is a diameter).

the equation of the median AM is

Answer: (A) m (r)

1

y
1 ( x 2) (B) It is known that a 1 5
4 2 and b 2 7
6 3.

11

Therefore a b 5.

x 11y
9 0

Answer: (B) m (t)

Answer: (C) m (q)

(D) Lastly, the slope of AB is (C) Centroid ¥¦ 10 , 15 ´µ p r 25 5

§ 3 3¶ q s
1 5

4
1 3 Answer: (C) m (t)

5 2 7

(D) We have

and hence the equation of the altitude CF is

p x (& m is even and cos m P 1 )

7

y3 ( x
2) Similarly, q x. Since p x is rational and q x is

3 irrational, we have p q 0. Therefore, (p, q) (0, 0).

7 x 3y
5 0 Hence the area of the triangle is

Answer: (D) m (r) 1

| 2(1)
(
2)(1) | 2

2

2. Match the items of Column I with those of Column II. Answer: (D) m (p)

their points of concurrence are given in Column II.

(A) If the line segment joining the (p) 2 Match the items of Column I with those of Column II.

points P(1, 3) and Q(5, 7) sub-

tends a right angle at a point R,

Column I Column II

such that the area of $PQR is

2 sq. unit, then the number of (A) If a, b, c are real as 2a 3b c ¥ 2 3´

such points R is 0, then the lines ax by c 0 (p) ¦§ 5 , 5 µ¶

are concurrent at

(Continued)

(Continued)

Worked-Out Problems 105

(B) If a is a parameter, then the (q) (2, 3) (B) The equation of the (q) x 4 y 24 0

family of lines (1 a)x (2 a) line passing through

y 5 0 is concurrent at the intersection of the

(C) The lines (a d)x ay (a d) (r) (1, 2) lines 3x 2y 10 0

0 for different values of d are and 4x 3y 7 0 and

concurrent at also passing through

¥ 5 5 ´ the point (2, 1) is

(D) For different values m and n, (s) ¦§ 3 , 3 µ¶ (r) x 2 y 6 0

the lines (m 2n)x (m 3n)y (C) Equation of the line

m n 0 are concurrent at which passes through

(t) (1, 2) the point ( 2, 4) and

has sum of its inter-

Solution: cepts equal to 3 is

(s) x 3 y 5 0

(A) 2a 3b c 0 ax by c 0 passes through (D) A (1, 2), B (3, 4)

(2, 3). and C (2, 7). Equa-

Answer: (A) m (q) tion of the line pass-

ing through A (1, 2)

(B) The equation (1 a) x (2 a) y 5 0 is written as and perpendicular to

( x 2 y 5) a( x y) 0 , Hence, by Theorem 2.12, the line BC is (t) 4 x y 4 0

the line passes through the intersection of the lines

x 2 y 5 0 and x y 0 and the point of inter- Solution:

section is

(A) Any line passing through the intersection of the

¥ 5 5 ´ lines 2 x 5 y 3 0 and x 3 y 7 0 is of the

¦§ , µ

3 3¶ form

Answer: (B) m (s) (2 x 5 y 3) L ( x 3 y 7) 0 (see Theorem 2.20)

(C) The equation (a d) x ay (a d) 0 is written ( 2 L ) x ( 5 3L ) y 3 7 L 0

as a( x y 1) d(1 x) 0 so that this line passes

through the intersection of the lines 1 x 0 and This line is perpendicular to the line

x y 1 0 which is given by (1, 2). 4x y 1 0

Answer: (C) m (t)

¥ 2L ´

¦ ( 4) 1

(D) The equation (m 2 n) x (m 3n) y m n 0 is § 5 3L µ¶

written as m( x y 1) n(2 x 3 y 1) 0 . Hence, 8 4 L 5 3L

the line passes through the intersection of the lines

L 3

x y 1 0 and 2 x 3 y 1 0 which is given by

Hence, the required line is

¥2 3´

¦§ , µ

5 5¶ x ( 4 y) 3 21 0

Answer: (C) m (p) ( x 4 y) 24 0

Answer: (A) m (q)

3. Match the items of Column I with those of Column II.

(B) The required line equation is of the form

(3 x 2 y 10) L (4 x 3 y 7) 0. This passes

Column I Column II

through the point (2, 1) which implies that

(A) The equation of the (p) 22 x 25 y 69 0

[3(2) 2(1) 10] L (8 3 7) 0

line perpendicular to

4x y 1 0 and 14 4 L

passing through the 7

intersection of the L

2

lines 2x 5y 3 0

and x 3y 7 0 is Hence the required line is

(Continued)

106 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

7 Column I Column II

(3 x
2 y 10)
(4 x 3 y
7) 0

2

(B) If A(
5, 6), B(
1,
4) (q) 9 x y
3 0

22 x
25 y 69 0

and C(3, 2) are the

22 x 25 y
69 0 vertices of a triangle,

Answer: (B) m (q) then the equation of

the line passing

(C) Let the line be

through the centroid

x y and the circumcentre (r) 28 x
21y 12 0

1

a b of $ABC is

Therefore (C) The equation of the

line passing through

2 4 the point (1,
6),

1

a b whose product of the

(s) x 2 y
8 0

or 4a 2b
ab (2.120) intercepts on the axes

is 1, is

and ab 3 (2.121)

(D) The equation of the

Solving Eqs. (2.120) and (2.121), we have a
1, line whose x-intercept

b = 4 or a 6, b
3. is
3 / 7, and is per-

Case 1: a
1, b 4. The line is pendicular to the line (t) 4 x y 2 0

3x 4y – 10 0, is

x y

1

1 4 Solution:

4x
y 4 0 (A) Let the line be

Case 2: a 6, b
3. The line is x y

1

x y 2a a

1

6
3 Since it passes through the point (2, 3), we have

x
2y
6 0 2 3

1

Answer: (C) m (r), (t) 2a a

(D) The slope of BC is 2 6 2a

a4

7
4

3 Hence the required line equation is

2
3

x y

Hence, the equation of the line passing through 1

8 4

A(1, 2) and perpendicular to the line BC is

x 2y
8 0

1

y
2 ( x
1) Answer: (A) m (s)

3

x
3y 5 0 (B) We have G as the cenrtroid of $ABC which is

Answer: (D) m (s) given by (
1, 4 / 3). Equation of the perpendicular

bisector of the side BC is

4. Match the items of Column I with those of Column II. 2 x 3y 1 0 (2.122)

Equation of the perpendicular bisector of the side

Column I Column II AB is

(A) Equation of the line (p) 2 x 33 y
46 0 2 x
5 y 11 0 (2.123)

through the point (2,

3), such that its Solving Eqs. (2.122) and (2.123), the circumcentre

x-intercept is twice its of $ABC is given by

y intercept, is ¥
19 5 ´

¦§ , µ

(Continued) 8 4¶

Worked-Out Problems 107

S¦ , ¥

or and G ¦ 1, µ

§ 8 4 µ¶ § 3¶

Column I Column II

Then the slope of the line SG is

(A) Equation of the line with (p) x 4y 8 0

(5 / 4) (4 / 3) 1 8 2 x-intercept 4 and passing

s

( 19 / 8) 1 12 11 33 through the point (2, 3) is

Hence, the equation of the line SG is (B) Equation of the line pass- (q) 3 x 2 y 12

ing through (4, 1) and form-

4 2

y ( x 1) ing a triangle with positive

3 33 coordinate axes whose area

2 x 33 y 46 0 is 8 sq. unit is

Answer: (B) m (p) (C) Equation of the line with (r) x y 7 0

equal intercepts on the

(C) Let the equation of the line be

axes and is passing through

x the point (2, 5) is

ay 1

a (D) Equation of the line which (s) 2 x y 1 0

This passes through (1, 6). This implies that makes an angle of 135o

with the positive direction

1 of the axis and makes an

6a 1

a intercept of 8 on y-axis is

6a 2 a 1 0 (t) x y 8 0

1 1 (A) Equation of the line is

a ,

2 3

x y

1

Therefore, the required lines are 4 b

1 1 It passes through (2, 3). This implies that

2 x y 1 and 3 x y 1

2 3

2 3 3 1

4 x y 2 0 or 9 x y 3 0 1 b 6

4 b b 2

Answer: (C) m (q), (t)

Hence, the equation of the line is

(D) Let the required line be

x y

x y 1

1 7 x y 4 6

1

( 3 / 7) b 3 b 3 x 2 y 12 0

Since this line is perpendicular to the line Answer: (A) m (q)

3 x 4 y 10 0, we have (B) Let

¥ 7b ´ ¥ 3 ´ 4 x y

¦§ µ ¦ µ 1 b 1

3 ¶§ 4 ¶ 7 a b

Therefore, the required line is It passes through (4, 1) and forms a triangle with

7 x 7 y positive axes having area 8. Therefore

1

3 4 4 1

1 (2.124)

28 x 21y 12 0 a b

Answer: (D) m (r) 1

and (ab) 8 (2.125)

2

From Eqs. (2.124) and (2.125), a 8 and b 2.

Hence, the equation of the line is

108 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

1 or x 4 y 8 0

8 2 1

6 h

Answer: (B) m (p) 2

(C) Equation of the line with equal intercepts on the 5

h 6 0

axes is 2

x y 1 5

1 or x y a 1

a a 2 2

This passes through the point (2, 5) implies that a 7. ¥ 25 ´ ¥ 5 ´ 1 ¥ 5h ´

6 ¦ 6 µ h ¦ h µ ¦ 3µ 0

Hence, the line is § 4¶ § 4¶ 2 § 2 ¶

x y 7 0 6 5h 5h 3

h2 0

Answer: (C) m (r) 4 4 4 2

(D) Let the line be y (tan 135o) x c where c 8. That 4 h2 10 h 0

is, y x 8 or x y 8 0. 2 h(2 h 5) 0

Answer: (D) m (t)

5

h 0 or h

7. Match the items of Column I with those of Column II. 2

Since h x 0, we have 2 h 5.

Column I Column II Answer: (B) m (s)

(A) If 6x2 5xy 6y2 9x 20y c (p) 8

(C) We have

0 represents a pair of lines, then

the value of c is equal to 7 13

12

(B) If 6x2 2hxy 6y2 x 5y 1 0 (q) 6 2 2

represent a pair of lines, then 2h 7 1

value (h x 0) is k 0

2 2

(C) If 12x2 7xy ky2 13x y 3 (r) 6 13 1

0 represents a pair of lines, then 3

2 2

the value of k is

(D) If d is the distance between the (s) –5 ¥ 1 ´ 7 ¥ 21 13 ´ 13 ¥ 7 13k ´

12 ¦ 3k µ ¦ µ ¦ µ 0

parallel lines represented by the § 4¶ 2 § 2 4¶ 2 § 4 2 ¶

equation 9x2 24xy 16y2 12x 12(12k 1) 7 s 55 91 169k

16y 12 0, then the value of 5d is (t) 10 0

4 8 8 4

288k 24 385 91 338k 0

Solution:

50k 500

(A) The given equation represents pair of lines. By

k 10

Theorem 2.31, we have

Answer: (C) m (t)

5 9

6 (D) If ax 2 2 hxy by2 2 gx 2 xy c 0 represents

2 2

a pair of parallel lines, then the distance between

5

6 10 0 them (see Problem 44 of the section ‘Subjective

2 Problems’) is

9

10 c

2 g 2 ac

2

5 ¥ 5c ´ 9 a(a b)

6( 6c 100) ¦ 45µ (25 27) 0

2§ 2 ¶ 2

We have a 9, b 16, g 6 and c 12. Therefore

24( 6c 100) 5(5c 90) 18 s 52 0

169c 2400 450 936 0 g 2 ac 36 108 2 s 12 8

d2 2

169c 1014 a(a b) 9 s 25 3s 5 5

c 6 5d 8

Answer: (A) m (r) Answer: (D) m (p)

Worked-Out Problems 109

8. Match the items of Column I with those of Column II. (B) If the angle between the lines is P, then

tan Q 2

(A) The angle between the lines ab 12 10 4 2

P

joining the origin to the (p) 2 Hence

points of intersection of the

line 3 x y 2 and 7x2 4xy ¥ 23 ´

Q Tan 1 ¦ µ

8y2 2x 4y 8 0 is § 2¶

(B) The angle between the lines (q) 1 Answer: (B) m (s)

represented by the equation (C) Suppose the line x 2 y 6 0 meets the given

12x2 7xy 10y2 13x y curve at points A and B. Hence, the combined

3 0 is equation of the pair of lines OA and OB is

(C) The angle between the lines P 2

joining the origin to the points (r) 3 ¥ x 2y´

2 x 2 6 xy 3 y2 (4 x 2 y) ¦

¥ x 2y´

36 ¦ 0

of intersection of the curve § 6 µ¶ § 6 µ¶

2x2 6xy 3y2 4x 2y 36

In this equation, the coefficient of x2 the coeffi-

0 and the line x 2 y 6 0 is

cient of y2 is

(D) If the lines joining the origin (s) Tan 1 ¥¦ 23 ´µ

to the points of intersection § 2¶ ¥ 2 ´ ¥ 2 ´ ¥ 2´ ¥ 2 ´

¦§ 2 1µ¶ ¦§ 3 4µ¶ ¦§ 1 µ¶ ¦§ 1µ¶ 0

of the curve 2x2 2xy 3y2 3 3 3 3

2x y 0 and the line

Hence

x 2 y k are at right angles,

then the value of k is (t) 1 P

AOB

2

Solution:

Answer: (C) m (p)

(A) Suppose the line 3 x y 2 meets the curve at the

points A and B. Then, by Theorem 2.33, the com- (D) The combined equation of the pair of lines is

bined equation of the pair of lines OA and OB is 2

¥ x 2y´ ¥ x 2y´

2 x 2 2 xy 3 y2 (2 x y) ¦ 0

¥ 3x y ´

2

¥ 3x y ´ § k µ¶ ¦§ k µ¶

7 x 2 4 xy 8 y2 (2 x 4 y) ¦ 8¦ 0

§ 2 µ¶ § 2 µ¶

Since the given two lines are at right angles, in the

In this equation, above equation, the coefficient of x2 the coeffi-

cient of y2 0. This implies

Coefficient of x2 Coefficient of y2

(7 3 18) (8 2 2) ¥ 2 1´ ¥ 2 4´

¦§ 2 2 µ¶ ¦§ 3 2 µ¶ 0

8 8 0 k k k k

Hence 5k 2 5 0

P k p1

AOB

2

Answer: (D) m (q), (t)

Answer: (A) m (p)

Comprehension-Type Questions

1. Passage: Consider the straight line 3x y 4 0. An- (A) x
3 y 4 0 (B) x
3y 5 0

swer the following questions.

(C) x
3y
4 0 (D) x
3 y 2 0

(i) The point on the line 3 x y 4 0 which is

equidistant from the points (
5, 6) and (3, 2) is (iii) If the line y 5 k( x
3) is parallel to the given

line then the area of the triangle formed by this

(A) (
1,
1) (B) (
2, 2) line and the coordinate axes (in sq. units) is

1

(C) (
3, 5) (D) (
,
3) 8 16

3 (A) (B) (C) 4 (D) 5

(ii) Equation of the line passing through the point 3 3

(1, 1) and perpendicular to the given line is

110 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

(i) Let A ( 5, 6) and B (3, 2). The slope of AB is

(C) 2 x y 4 0 (D) 3 x y 1 0

6 2 1

(iii) The locus of the feet of the perpendiculars from

5 3 2 the origin on each of the lines of the members of

and the midpoint of AB ( 1, 4). Hence, the per- the family is

pendicular bisector of the segment AB is (A) (2 x 1)2 4( y 1)2 5

y 4 2( x 1) or 2 x y 6 0 . Solving this equa-

tion and the given line equations, we have x 2 (B) (2 x 1)2 ( y 1)2 5

and y 2. Thus, ( 2, 2) is the point on the given (C) (2 x 1)2 4( y 1)2 5

line which is equidistant from both A( 5, 6) and

B(3, 2). (D) (2 x 1)2 4( y 1)2 5

Answer: (B) Solution:

(ii) Line perpendicular to the given line is of the form (i) The slope of a line belonging to the given family is

1 3 4L

y xc

3 1 L

This line passes through (1, 1). It implies that and the slope of the line 3 x 4 y 2 0 is 3/4.

Therefore, by hypothesis, we have

1 2

1 c c

3 3 3 4L 3

1 L 4 13L 9

Thus, the required line is 1 tan 45o

1 [3(3 4 L ) / 4(1 L )] 16 L 13

x 2

y or x 3 y 2 0

3 3 Therefore, 16 L 13 p(13L 9). Hence

Answer: (D)

4 22

L ,

(iii) The line y 5 k(n 3) is parallel to the given line 3 29

k 3. That is,

Case 1: When we have

3x y 4

4

x y L

or 1 3

(4 / 3) 4

the slope is

Hence, the area of the triangle is

3 4 L 3 (16 / 3)

1 ¥ 4´ 8 7

1 L 1 (4 / 3)

¦§ µ¶ (4)

2 3 3

Hence, the required equation is

Answer: (A)

4

(3 x y 1) (4 x y 2) 0

2. Passage: Consider the family of concurrent lines 3

which are concurrent at (1, 2) represented by the 7 x y 5 0

equation (3x – y – 1) K(4x – y – 2) 0, where L is a

parameter. Answer the following questions. 7x y 5 0

(i) A member of the family with positive slope which Case 2: When we have

makes an angle 45o with the line (3 x
4 y
2) 0 22

is L

29

(A) 7 x
y
5 0 (B) 4 x
3 y 2 0 the slope is

(C) x 7 y
15 0 (D) 5 x
3 y
4 0 3
(88 / 29)
1

(ii) Equation of the line belonging to the given fami- 1
(22 / 29) 7

ly which is perpendicular to the line x y
1 0 Thus, the required line is 7 x
y
5 0.

is

Answer: (A)

Worked-Out Problems 111

Aa ( 1, 1)

¥ 3 4L ´ 1 1 12 12

¦§ µ ( 1) 1

1 L ¶ Since the line BC is same as the line AaC, its equa-

2 tion is

L

3 1 (2 / 5)

y 1 ( x 1)

Hence, the required line is 1 (2 / 5)

2 7

(3 x y 1) (4 x y 2) 0 y 1 ( x 1)

3 3

x y1 0 7 x 3y 4 0

Answer: (A) Answer: (B)

(iii) Let A (1, 2) at which the given family of lines are (ii) Solving the equations of the line BC and the angle

concurrent and O be the origin. If P is the foot of bisector of ABC , we have

the perpendicular from origin O onto any line of

¥ 5 9 ´

the family then P lies on the circle drawn on OA as B ¦ , µ

§ 2 2¶

diameter because APO is equal to 90o. The circle

with (0, 0) and (1, 2) as ends of a diameter is Answer: (D)

2 2

x y x 2y 0 AB is 3 x 7 y 24 0.

2 2 Answer: (C)

(2 x 1) 4( y 1) 5

Answer: (D)

4. Passage: Suppose a line lx my 1 meets a second-

degree curve ax2 2hxy by2 2gx 2fy c 0 at

3. Passage: In ΔABC, A (1, 3) and C ( 2 / 5, 2 / 5) two points A and B. Then, the combined equation of

are two vertices and x y – 2 0 is the equation of the pair of lines OA and OB is ax2 2hxy by2 (2gx

the internal bisector of ABC . Answer the following 2fy)(lx my) c(lx my)2 0 which is a second-

questions. degree homogeneous equation. Answer the following

(i) Equation of the side BC is questions.

which subtend right angle at the origin will pass

(C) 7 x 3 y 4 0 (D) 7 x 3 y 4 0

through a fixed point whose coordinates are

(ii) The coordinates of B are

(A) ( 1, 2) (B) (1, 2)

¥ 17 3 ´ (C) (1, 2) (D) ( 1, 2)

(A) ¦ , µ (B) (1, 1)

§ 10 10 ¶

(IIT-JEE 1991)

¥ 3 17 ´ ¥ 5 9 ´ (ii) If the intercept of the line lx my 1 made by

(C) ¦ , µ (D) ¦ , µ

§ 10 10 ¶ § 2 2¶ the curve x 2 y2 a 2 0 subtends right angle at

(iii) Equation of AB is the origin, then l 2 m2 is equal to

(A) 3 x 7 y 24 0 2 1

(A) (B) (C) 2a 2 (D) 3a 2

(B) 13 x 7 y 8 0 a2 a2

(C) 3 x 7 y
24 0 (iii) The line y mx c makes an intercept on the

(D) 13 x
7 y 8 0 curve y
4ax 0 which subtends angle at the

origin. Then, the line y mx c passes through

Solution: a fixed point whose coordinates are

(i) The image of A(1, 3) on the bisector of ABC lies

on the line BC. Therefore, if Aa is the image of (A) (2a, 0) (B) (a, 0)

A(1, 3) in the line x y
2 0, then (C) (3a, 0) (D) (4a, 0)

(IIT-JEE 1994)

112 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

Solution: a 2 (l 2 m 2 ) 2

(i) Suppose lx my 1 is a line meeting the curve

3 x 2
y2
2 x 4 y 0 at points A and B. Therefore, 2

l 2 m2

the combined equation of the pair of lines OA and a2

OB is Answer: (A)

curve y2 4ax 0 at two points A and B. The com-

Since AOB 90o, in the above equation, the coef- bined equation of the pair of lines OA and OB is

ficient of x 2 the coefficient of y2 0. Therefore,

(3 2l ) ( 1 4m) 0 ¥ y mx ´

y2 4ax ¦ 0

§ c µ¶

l 2m 1 0

Now, AOB 90o the coefficient of x 2 the

Hence, the line lx my 1 0 passes through the

coefficient of y2 0. This means

point (1, 2).

Answer: (B) 4am

1 0

c

(ii) Suppose the line lx my 1 intersects x 2 y2 a 2

at points A and B. Therefore, the combined equa- c 4am

tion of the pair of lines OA and OB is Therefore, the equation of the line is

2 2 2 2

x y a (lx my) 0 y mx c mx 4am

ficient of x 2 the coefficient of y2 0. That is, which passes through the fixed point (4a, 0).

(1
a 2 l 2 ) (1
a 2 m2 ) 0 Answer: (D)

1. The area of the quadrilateral formed by the lines 3. The orthocentre of the triangle formed by the lines

x y 1 is __________ sq. unit. x y 1, 2x 3y 6 and 4x – y 4 0 lies in the quad-

rant whose number is __________.

Solution: The given quadrilateral is a square with ver-

tices (1, 0), (0, 1), ( 1, 1) and (0, 1), and hence its area Solution: Solving the above equations taken two by

is ( 2 )2 2. two, the vertices of the triangle are

Answer: 2 ¥ 3 8 ´ ¥ 3 16 ´

A ¦ , µ , B 3, 4 , and C ¦ , µ

§ 5 5¶ § 7 7¶

2. Two rays in the first quadrant, x y a and ax – y

1, intersect each other in the interval a (a0 , d). The The equation of the altitude drawn from A to the side

value of a0 is __________. (IIT-JEE 2006) BC is

Solution: Solving the given two equations, we have 8 3¥ 3´

y ¦x µ

1 a a(1 a ) a a 1 5 2§ 5¶

x and y ax 1 1

1 a 1 a 1 a 3 x 2 y 5 (2.126)

Since the two rays intersect each other in the first quad- Again the equation of the altitude from B onto CA is

rant, we have x 0 and y 0 which implies that 1

y 4 ( x 3)

1 a 0 and a a 1 0 4

Therefore, if 1 a 0, then the a( a) 1 0 which is not x 4 y 13 (2.127)

sensible. Hence, a ( 1, 0). If a 0, then the lines x y 0 Solving Eqs. (2.126) and (2.127), the coordinates of the

and y 1 intersect in fourth quadrant. Thus, a x 0. orthocentre are

Hence, a 0 and a 2 1 0 a 1. Therefore, a0 1.

Answer: 1

Worked-Out Problems 113

¥ 3 22 ´ 33 45

¦§ , µ¶ h and k

7 7 7 14

which lies in quadrant number 1. Hence

Answer: 1 ¥ 33 45 ´

( x1 , y1 ) ¦ , µ

§ 7 14 ¶

4. If the lines 3x – 5y 9 0, 4x ky – 28 0 and 13x

8y
1 0 are concurrent, then the value of k is Solving Eqs. (2.128) and (2.129), we have

__________.
12 15

h and k

Solution: Since the lines are concurrent, by Theorem 7 28

2.22, we have Thus

3
5 9 ¥
12 15 ´

( x2 , y2 ) ¦ ,

4 k
28 0 § 7 28 µ¶

13
8
1 Therefore

3(
k
224) 5(
4 364) 9(
32
13k ) 0 33 12 21

x1 x2
3

120k
672 1800
288 0 7 7 7

120k
840 Answer: 3

k7

7. The points A(0, 4), B(5, 1) and C(1,
3) are the ver-

Answer: 7 tices of a triangle. If h is the altitude from A to BC

and $ is the area of the triangle, then h2 /$ is equal to

5. If the slope of the line ax (3 – a)y 7 0 is 7, then __________.

the value of integral part of a is __________.

Solution: See Fig. 2.90. We have

Solution: By hypothesis, we have

1

$ 0(1 3) 5(
3
4) 1(4 1) 16

a 2

7

3
a

Length BC (5
1)2 (1 3)2 4 2 . Therefore

a 21
7a

1 1

7 h( BC ) $ (h)(4 2 ) 16

a 2 2

2

Hence, h (4 2 ) and h2 32. So

;a = 3

Answer: 3 h2 32

2

$ 16

6. If (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) are two points on the line 5x

– 12y 5 0 that lie at a distance of 3 units from the A(0, 4)

line 3x 4y – 12 0, then the value of is x1 x2 is

__________.

Solution: Let (h, k) be a point on the line 5x
12y

h

15 0 whose distance from the line 3 x 4 y
12 0 is 3

units. Then

5h
12k
15 (2.128)

B(5, 1) C

3h 4k
12 (1, −3)

and 3

32 4 2 FIGURE 2.90

or 3h 4k 3 (2.130) (1 – m2)xy – my2 0 bisects angles between the coor-

dinate axes, then m is equal to __________.

Solving Eqs. (2.128) and (2.129), we have

114 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

Solution: The given equation is x2 m2xy
xy
my2 Since equation of BC is the equation of BAa, we have

0. That is, mx( x my)
y( x my) 0. Therefore, the the equation of BC as

lines are x my 0 and mx
y 0 . The angle bisectors

of the coordinates are y x and y
x . Hence, m p1 1
(2 / 5)

y
1 ( x
2)

or m 1. 2
(9 / 5)

Answer: 1 y
1 3( x
2)

3x
y
5 0

9. Consider the lines ax y 1 0, x by 1 0 and

x y c 0, where a, b and c are distinct and differ- so that a 3, b
1. Hence, a
b 4.

ent from 1. Then Answer: 4

1 1 1

11. If the equation of the bisector of the acute angle be-

1
a 1
b 1
c

tween the lines 2x – y 4 0 and x – 2y – 1 0 is

is equal to __________. ax by 1 0, then the value of a – b is equal to

Solution: Since the lines are concurrent, we have __________.

in which c1 and c2 are positive and

1 b 1 0

1 1 c a1a2 b1b2 2 2 4 0

Using C 2
C1 and C 3
C1 (where C1 , C 2 and C 3 are Hence, by Theorem 2.26, the acute angle bisector is

used to denote the three columns), we have 2x
y 4 ( x
2 y
1)

a 1
a 1
a 5 5

1 b
1 0 0 3x
3 y 3 0

1 0 c
1 x
y1 0

a(b
1)(c
1)
(1
a);c
1
0 = (1
a); 0
(b
1)= 0 Hence,

a(1
b)(1
c) (1
a)(1
c) (1
a)(1
b) 0 a
b 1
(
1) 2

Dividing by (1
a)(1
b)(1
c), we get Answer: 2

0

1 a 1 b 1 c (2, 3) and forming a triangle with coordinate axes

Adding both sides by 1, we get whose area is 12 sq. unit is __________.

1 1 1 Solution: Let

1

1
a 1
b 1
c x y

1

Answer: 1 a b

be the line. Therefore

10. In $ABC, the vertex A (1, 2), y x is the perpen-

dicular bisector of the side AB and x – 2y 1 0 is 2 3

1 (2.131)

the equation of the internal angle bisector of C. If a b

the equation of the side BC is ax by – 5 0, then the

1

value of a – b is __________. and ab 12

2

Solution: Since y x is the perpendicular bisector of

or ab p24 (2.132)

the side AB and A (1, 2), we have B (2, 1). Since the

image Aa( x, y) of A in the angular bisector x
2 y 1 0 Case 1: When ab 24, from Eq. (2.131), we have

lies on the line BC, we have 3a 2b ab 24. Hence

x
1 y
2
2(1
2(2) 1) 4 ¥ 24 ´

3a 2 ¦ µ 24

1
2 12 2 2 5 § a¶

Therefore, 3a 2
24a 48 0

¥ 9 2´ a 2
8a 16 0

Aa ¦ , µ

§ 5 5¶ a 4, b 6.

Summary 115

3a 2b 24 8 p 64 64

a 4 p 4 2

¥ 24 ´ 2

3a 2 ¦ µ 24

§ a¶

Therefore, b will have two values corresponding to a.

2

3a 24a 48 0 Hence, the number of lines is 3.

Answer: 3

SUMMARY

2.1. Slope of line: Let l be a non-vertical line (i.e., l is not 4. Intercept form: If a and b are x and y intercepts of a

parallel to y-axis) making an angle P with the posi- x y

tive direction of x-axis. Then, tan P is called the slope line (ab x 0), then the line equation is 1.

a b

of the line l. Generally, the slope of a line is denoted

by m. Note: Area of the triangle formed by the coordi-

x y 1

Caution: The concept of slope is followed only for nate axis and the line 1 is ab sq. unit.

a b 2

non-vertical lines.

5. Slope–intercept form: The equation of a non-

Note: Slope of a horizontal line (which is parallel to vertical line which is having slope m and

x-axis) is always zero. y-intercept c is

2.2. If A(x1, y1) and B(x2, y2) are two points on a non- y mx c

FHHHE y
y1

vertical line, then the slope of the line AB is 2 . Note: Equation of any line (except the y-axis)

x2
x1 passing through origin is the form y mx.

6. Normal form: Let l be a line whose distance from

2.3. Intercepts on the axes: If a line l meets x-axis at

(a, 0) and y-axis at (0, b), then a is called x-intercept the origin is ON ( p) and ON make an angle @

and b is called y-intercept of the line l. with the positive direction of the x-axis. Then, the

equation of the line l is x cos @ y sin @ p.

2.4. Equations of the axis: The equation of x-axis is y 0

and the equation of y-axis is x 0. 2.6. Definition (first-degree equation): If a, b and c are

real and either a or b is not zero, then ax by c is

2.5. Various forms of straight line equations: called first-degree expression in x and y and ax by

c 0 is called first-degree equation in x and y.

1. Two-point form: Equation of the line passing

through two points (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) is 2.7. Theorem: Every first-degree equation in x and y rep-

(x – x1) (y1 – y2) (y – y1) (x1 – x2) resents a straight line and the equation of any line in

the coordinate plane is a first-degree equation in x

2. Point–slope form: Equation of the line which is and y.

having slope m and passing through the point

(x1, y1) is 2.8. General equation of a straight line: First-degree

equation in x and y is called the general equation of

y – y1 m(x – x1) a straight line.

3. Symmetric form: If a non-vertical makes an angle

2.9. Various forms of ax by c 0, where abc x 0:

P with the positive direction of x-axis and passes

through a point (x1, y1), then its equation is 1. Slope–intercept form:

x
x1 y
y1 ¥
a ´ ¥
c ´

y ¦ µ x¦ µ

cos Q sin Q § b¶ § b¶

Note: In the above relation, if we consider that

2. Intercept form:

each ratio is equal to r (real number), then every

point on the line is of the form (x1 rcosP, y1 x y

rsinP). Also r gives the distance of the point (x, y) 1

(
c / a) (
c / b)

on the given line from the fixed point (x1, y1).

116 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

3. Normal form: m1
m2

(a) When c 0: tan Q

1 m1 m2

¥
a ´ ¥
b ´ c

x¦ µ y¦ µ and the acute angle is given by

§ a 2 b2 ¶ § a 2 b2 ¶ a b2

2

m1
m2

tan Q

(b) When c 0: 1 m1 m2

¥ a ´ ¥ b ´
c

x¦

2 2

µ y¦ 2 2

µ 2.15. Condition for parallel and perpendicular: Let

§ a b ¶ § a b ¶ a b2

2

a1x b1y c1 0 and a2x b2y c2 0 be two

lines. Then the following two conditions are

2.10. The line ax by c 0 in normal form: Write applicable:

ax by –c. Divide by a 2 b2 both sides of the 1. The lines are parallel a1b2 a2b1.

equation and then make the right-hand side (RHS) 2. The lines are perpendicular to each other if

positive. and only if a1a2 b1b2 0.

2.11. Distance of a line from a point: Suppose (x1, y1) 2.16. Condition for parallel and perpendicular in

is not a point on the line ax by c 0. Then, the terms of slopes: Let m1 and m2 be the slopes of

perpendicular distance drawn from (x1, y1) onto two lines. Then, the following two conditions are

the given line is applicable:

ax1 by1 c 1. The lines are parallel m1 m2.

2. The lines are at right angles. m1 m2 –1.

a 2 b2

2.17. Equation of the line parallel to the line ax by

In particular, if c x 0, then the distance of the origin c 0 and passing through the point (x1, y1) is

from the line is

a(x – x1) b(y – y1) 0

c

2.18. Equation of the line passing through the point

a 2 b2

(x1, y1) and perpendicular to the line ax by c

2.12. Distance between two parallel lines: The distance

0 is

between the parallel lines ax by c 0 and b(x – x1) – a(y – y1) 0

ax by c a 0 0 is

(2.18)*. The area of the parallelogram formed by the

c
ca lines a1x b1y c1 0, a1x b1y d1 0, a2x

2

a b 2 b2y c2 0 and a2x b2y d2 0 is

(c1
d1 )(c2
d2 )

2.13. Angle between two lines: If P is an angle between

the lines a1x b1y c1 0 and a2x b2y c2 0, a1b2
a2 b1

then

2.19. Notation: L y ax by c, L11 ax1 by1 c and

a1a2 b1b2 L22 ax2 by2 c.

cos Q

a12 b12 a22 b22 2.20. Theorem: Let L ax by c 0 be a straight

line and A(x1, y1) and B(x2, y2) be two points in

where P is acute or obtuse according to the condi- the plane of L 0. Suppose points A and B are

tions a1a2 b2b2 0 or 0. To determine the acute FHHHE

angle, we take not on the line and the line AB is not parallel

to the line L 0. Then, the line L 0 divides the

a1a2 b1b2 segment AB in the ratio –L11:L22.

cos Q

a12 b12 a22 b22 1. Points A and B are on the opposite sides of

L 0 the division is internal division

2 14. Angle between the lines in terms of their slopes: If –L11:L22 is positive L11 and L22 are of

P is an angle between the lines whose slopes are m1 opposite sign.

and m2, then 2. Points A and B are on the same side of

the line L 0 the division is external

Summary 117

– L11:L22 is negative L11 and L22 are exist non-zero real numbers such that K1u1 K2u2

of same sign. K3u3 0, then the lines u1 0, u2 0 and u3 0 are

concurrent.

2.21. Origin and non-origin sides of a line: Suppose l is a

straight line which is not passing through the origin. 2.29. Theorem (Foot of the perpendicular): Let (x, y) be

Then, l divides the entire plane into two regions. the foot of the perpendicular drawn from the point

Origin region means, the region in which the origin (x1, y1) on to the line ax by c 0, then

lies. The other is called non-origin region.

x
x1 y
y1
(ax1 by1 c)

2.22. To determine the position of a point: Let L y ax a b a 2 b2

by c be a straight line where c x 0 and A(x1, y1)

x (0, 0) be a point which does not lie on the line 2.30. Theorem (Image): If (x, y) is the image of (x1, y1) in

L 0. Then the mirror line ax by c 0, then

1. A(x1, y1) lies on the origin side of L 0 c and x
x1 y
y1
2(ax1 by1 c)

L11 has the same sign.

a b a 2 b2

2. A(x1, y1) lies on the non-origin side of L 0

c and L11 has the opposite sign. Note: From 2.29 and 2.30, we can write the foot of

the perpendicular and the image of a point with

2.23. Let L y ax by c 0 be a line where c x 0. Then

respect to a line.

1. if c 0, then L11 0 for all points on the origin

side and L11 0 for all points on non-origin side. 2.31. Angle bisectors: If a1x b1y c1 0 and a2x b2y

2. if c 0, then L11 0 for all points on the origin c2 0 are two intersecting lines, then the equations

side and L11 0 for all points in the non-origin of their angle bisectors are

side.

a1 x b1 y c1 (a2 x b2 y c2 )

p

2.24. Theorem: Suppose u1 0 and u2 0 are two parallel a12 b12 a22 b22

lines. Then, K1u1 K2u2 0 represents lines parallel

to the lines u1 0 and u2 0 for all real values of K1

2.32. Acute angle bisector: Suppose a1x b1y c1 0

and K2 such that L1 L 2 x 0.

and a2x b2y c2 0 where c1c2 x 0 and c1, c2 are

2.25. Theorem: If u1 0 and u2 0 are two intersecting of the same sign. If a1a2 b1b2 0, then the acute

lines, then for all K1 and K2 ( L1 L 2 x 0), the angle bisector is

equation K1u1 K2u2 0 represents the lines

a1 x b1 y c1 ¥a xb yc ´

passing through the intersection of u1 0 and u2

¦ 2 2 2

µ

0. Conversely, the equation of any line passing a12 b12 ¦§ a2 b2 µ¶

2 2

through the intersection of u1 0 and u2 0 is K1u1

K2u2 0 for some K1 and K2.

2.33. Theorem: The second-degree homogeneous

Note: Instead of K1u1 K2u2 0, we consider the equation ax2 2hxy by2 0 represents a pair

equation u1 Ku2 0 which is practically more of lines passing through the origin, where h2 r ab.

useful. If h2 ab, both lines coincide, otherwise they are

distinct lines.

2.26. Corollary: Suppose u1 0 and u2 0 are the two

intersecting lines. Then, the equation of any line in 2.34. Identities:

the plane of u1 0 and u2 0 is of the form K1u1 1. Suppose the lines represented by ax2 2hxy

K2u2 K3 0. by2 0 are l1x m1y 0 and l2x m2y 0. Then

2.27. Theorem: When the lines a1x b1y c1 0, a2x l1l2 a, l1m2 l2m1 2h, m1m2 b

b2y c2 0 and a3x b3y c3 0 are concurrent

2. If we consider the lines as y m1x and y m2x,

(assuming that no two lines are parallel), then

then

a1 b1 c1

2 h a

a2 b2 c2 0 m1 m2 and m1 m2

b b

a3 b3 c3

2.35. Angle between the lines ax2 2hxy by2 0: If @

2.28. Theorem: Suppose u1 0, u2 0 and u3 0 are is the angle between the lines represented by the

three lines such that no two are parallel. If there equation ax2 2hxy by2 0, then

118 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

cos A by2 0 if and only if

(a b)2 4 h2 (i) $ abc 2fgh – af 2 – bg2 – ch2 0

(ii) h2 r ab, g2 r ca and f 2 r bc

2 h2 ab

or tan A

ab 2.40. Formula: The area of the parallelogram formed by

the pairs of lines ax2 2hxy by2 2gx 2fy c

To determine the acute angle, take the absolute

0 and ax2 2hxy by2 0 is

value.

c

2.36. Condition for orthogonal lines: Suppose ax2 sq. unit

2

2hxy by2 0 represents pair of straight lines. 2 h ab

Then, they are at right angles if and only if a b FHHE FHHE

0 (that is, coefficient of x2 coefficient of y2 0). 2.41. Equally

FHHEinclined

FHHE pairs: The pair of lines ( PA, PB)

and ( PC , PD) are said to be equally inclined to

2.37. Equation of the angle bisectors of the lines each other if both pairs have the same pair of angle

ax2 2hxy by2 0: If ax2 2hxy by2 0 bisectors.

represents a pair of distinct lines, then the

combined equation of the pair of angle bisectors 2.42. Theorem: Suppose the line lx my 1 intersects

of the lines is h(x2 – y2) (a – b)xy. the second-degree curve ax2 2hxy by2 2gx

2fy c 0 at points A and B.FThen,

HHE theFHH

combined

E

2.38. Theorem: The area of the triangle formed by equation of the pair of lines OA and OB, where

the pair of lines ax 2 2hxy by2 0 and the line O is the origin, is given by the equation

lx my 1 is

ax2 2hxy by2 (2gx 2fy) (lx my)

h2 ab c(lx my)2 0

bl 2 2 hlm am2 In particular, OA and OB are at right angles if

Coefficient of x2 Coefficient of y2 0

2.39. Theorem: The second-degree general equation ax2

in the above equation.

2hxy by2 2gx 2fy c 0 represents a pair of

EXERCISES

Single Correct Choice Type Questions

1. Equation of the line through (0,
3) and having slope ¥
19 5 ´

, ¥ 19 5 ´

(A) ¦ (B) ¦ , µ

2 is § 8 4 µ¶ § 8 4¶

(A) y
2 x 3 0 (B) y 2x
3 0

¥
5 19 ´ ¥ 5
19 ´

(C) ¦ , µ (D) ¦ ,

(C) y 2x 3 0 (D) y
2 x
3 0 § 4 8¶ § 4 8 µ¶

2. Equation of the line passing through (
5, 2) and (3, 2) 5. If the area of the triangle formed by the line 2x

is 3y c 0 with coordinate axes is 27 sq. units, then

c is equal to

(A) x
2 0 (B) y
2 0

(C) x 2 0 (D) y 2 0 (A) p16 (B) p15 (C) p8 (D) p18

3. The points A( 5, 6), B( 1, 4) and C(3, 2) are three

non-collinear points. Then, the equation the median ( 2, 4), then the value of b is

through point C of $ABC is 5 4 17 19

(A) (B) (C) (D)

(A) 7 x 6 y 1 0 (B) x 6y 9 0 4 3 12 12

(C) x 6 y 9 0 (D) x 6 y 9 0 7. In the straight line equation xcos @ ysin @ p, if

p 6 or A 30o, then the equation is

4. The circumcentre of the triangle with vertices A( 5, (A) 3 x y 12 0 (B) 3 x y 12 0

6), B( 1, 4) and C(3, 2) is

(C) 2 x 3 y 12 0 (D) 2 x 3 y 12 0

Exercises 119

positive directions of the x-axis, then b is equal to (C) 2 x y 5 0 (D) 2 x y 5 0

9 9

(A) 7, (B) 7, 16. B(2, 0) and C(0, 1) are the ends of the base of an

7 7

isosceles triangle for which the line x 2 is one side.

9 9

(C) 7, (D) 7, Then, the orthocentre of the triangle is

7 7

¥3 ´ ¥4 7 ´

9. The incentre of the triangle whose sides are y 0, 3x – (A) ¦ , 1µ (B) ¦ , µ

§4 ¶ § 3 12 ¶

4y 0 and 4x 3y – 50 0 is

¥ 3 3´ ¥5 ´

¥ 15 5 ´ ¥ 15 5 ´ (C) ¦ , µ (D) ¦ , 1µ

(A) ¦ , µ (B) ¦ , µ § 2 2¶ §4 ¶

§ 2 2¶ § 2 2¶

(C) ¦ , (D) ¦ ,

§ 2 2 µ¶ § 2 2 µ¶ orthocentre (11/ 3, 4 / 3). Then, the coordinates of the

midpoint of BC are

10. The incentre of the triangle formed by the lines 15x –

¥ 11´

8y 25 0, 3x – 4y –10 0 and 5x 12y – 30 0 is (A) (1, 5) (B) ¦ 1, µ

§ 3 ¶

¥ 4 1´ ¥ 4 1 ´ (C) (1, 6) (D) (1, 3)

(A) ¦ , µ (B) ¦ , µ

§ 7 4¶ § 7 4¶

Hint: The centroid G divides the line joining the cir-

¥ 4 1´ ¥ 4 1´ cumcentre and orthocentre in the ratio 1:2.

(C) ¦ , µ (D) ¦ , µ

§7 4 ¶ § 7 4¶

18. A rhombus is situated in the first quadrant with x – y

11. The equation of the lines which are parallel to the 0 and 7x – y 0 as two of its adjust sides. Then the

line 8x – 15y 34 0 and whose distance from the slope of the longer diagonal of the rhombus is

point ( 2, 3) is equal to 3 are 8x – 15y c1 and 8x – 1 1

15y c2 0. Then c1 c2 is equal to (A) 2 (B) (C) (D) 2

2 2

(A) 112 (B) 10 (C) 122 (D) 102

19. The distance of the line 2x – 3y – 4 0 from the

12. The equation of the line which passes through the point (1, 1) measured in the direction of the line x

point of intersection of the lines 3x – 5y 9 0 and y – 1 0 is

4x 7y – 28 0 and the point (4, 2) is 1

(A) (B) 2 (C) 5 2 (D) 2 2

2

(A) 3 x 2 y 16 0 (B) 38 x 87 y 326 0

20. The line parallel to x-axis and passing through the

(C) 4 x 3 y 22 0 (D) 38 x 87 y 22 0 intersection of the lines ax 2by 3b 0 and bx –

2by – 3a 0 where (a, b) ≠ (0, 0) is

13. A( 1, 4), B(1, 4) and C (5, 4) are the vertices of a tri-

angle. Then, the length of the altitude from A onto (A) above the x-axis at a distance of 3/2 units

BC is from it

12 12 12 (B) above the x-axis at a distance of 2/3 units

(A) (B) (C) (D) 3 from it

5 5 5 5

(C) below the x-axis at a distance of 3/2 units

14. A point moves such that its distance from the point from it

( 1, 2) is always equal to its distance from the line (D) below the x-axis at a distance of 2/3 units

3x 4y 2 = 0. Then the locus of the point is from it

(4x 3)2 ax by 121 0

21. The L1 y4x 3y – 12 0 intersect x-axis at A and

where a b is equal to y-axis at B. A variable line L2 perpendicular to L1

(A) 178 (B) 116 (C) 54 (D) 121 intersects x-axis at P as y-axis at Q. Then, the perpen-

dicular circumcentre of $ABC lies on

15. The equation of the line through the point of inter-

(A) 4 x 3 y 7 0 (B) 6 x 8 y 7 0

section of the lines x – 3y 1 0 and 2x 5y – 9 0,

and whose distance from the origin is 5 is (C) 3 x 4 y 2 0 (D) 3 x 4 y 2 0

120 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

22. If the lines ax – y 4 0, 3x – y 5 0 and x y 8 0 the origin onto the line lies on the curve whose equa-

are concurrent, then the value of a is tion is given by

35
5
15 (A) x 2 y2
A x
B y 0

(A) (B) (C) 35 (D)

13 13 13

(B) x 2 y2 A x B y 0

23. The lines x2 4xy y2 0 and x – y – 4 0 form a

(C) x 2 y2
A x B y 0

triangle which is

(D) x 2 y2 A x
B y 0

(A) equilateral

(B) right angled 27. 3x2 – 8xy – 3y2 10x 20y – 25 0 are the bisectors

(C) an isosceles of the angles between two lines of which one line is

(D) isosceles right angled passing through the origin. Then, the equation of the

other line is

24. Equation of the line which is parallel to the common (A) x
2 y 0 (B) 2 x
y 0

line of the pair of lines 6x2 – xy – 12y2 and 15x2 14xy

(C) x 2 y
5 0 (D) x
2 y
5 0

– 8y2 0 and whose distance from this common line

is 7 units is

28. The straight line 2x 3y 1 0 bisects the angle be-

(A) 3 x
4 y p35 (B) 5 x
2 y p7 tween two straight lines of which one line is 3x 2y

(C) 3 x 4 y p35 (D) 2 x
3 y p7 4 0. Then, the equation of the other line is

(A) 3 x 23 y 28 (B) 9 x 4 y 28

25. The point (4, 1) undergoes the following three trans-

(C) 9 x
46 y 28 (D) 9 x 46 y 28

formations successively:

I. Reflection about the line y x. 29. A(1, 3) and B(5, 2) are two points. If P is a variable

II. translation through a distance 2 units along the points on the line y x, then the minimum value of

positive direction of the x-axis. PA
PB is

III. Rotation through an angle O/4 about the origin

in the counterclockwise direction. (A) 2 5 (B) 3 5 (C) 4 5 (D) 5

Then, the final position of the point is given by

Hint: If Aa is the image of A on the line y x, then

¥ 1 7 ´ AaB is the value.

(A) ¦ , (B) (
2 , 7 2 )

§ 2 2 µ¶

30. The equation of the line passing through the point of

1 7 ´

(C) ¥¦
, µ (D) ( 2 , 7 2 ) intersection of the lines x
y 1 0 and 3x y
5

§ 2 2¶ 0 and is perpendicular to the line x 3y 1 0 is

26. A straight line is passing through a fixed point (A) x
3y 1 0 (B) 3x
y
1 0

(@, B ). Then, the foot of the perpendicular drawn (C) x 3y
1 0 (D) 3x
y 1 0

1. If the distance of the line 8x 15y K 0 from the 3

point (2, 3) is equal to 5 units, then the value of L is (A) the slope of l

2

(A) 24 (B) 24 (C) 146 (D) 146 (B) the line l passes through (0, 0)

(C) the intercept on the axes are 2, 3

2. If the line 3 x y – 9 0 is reduced to the form xcos@ (D) the line l forms a triangle of area 5 sq. units with

ysin @ p, then the coordinate axes

(A) A 60o (B) A 30o

4. If l is the line passing through the point (2, 3) and is

9 parallel to the line joining the points (4, 1) and ( 2, 3),

(C) p (D) p 9

2 then

3. If l is the line passing through the point (
2, 3) and (A) (
10,
1) is a point on l

perpendicular to the line 2x
3y 6 0, then (B) the slope of l is 6

Exercises 121

(C) the area of the triangle formed by the line l and (D) a straight line parallel to y-axis

the coordinate axes is 64/3

8. Two points A(–1, –1) and B(4, 5) and the third vertex

(D) the orthocentre of the triangle formed by l and

C lie on the line 5x – y – 15 0. If the area of the tri-

the axes is (1, 1)

angle is 19/2, then the coordinates of the vertex C are

5. If S is the family of lines passing through the point (A) (2, –5) (B) (5, 4) (C) (3, 0) (D) (5, 10)

(5, 0), then

9. The line

(A) the line belonging to S and having slope 2 is

2x
y
5 0 x y

1

(B) the line belonging to S and having y-intercept 5 c d

is x y
5 0 passes through the intersection of the lines

(C) the line belonging to S and perpendicular to the x y x y

line x y 1 0 is x y
5 0 1 and 1

a b b a

(D) the line belonging to S and perpendicular to the

and the lengths of the perpendicular drawn from

line x
y 1 0 is x
y
5 0

the origin onto these lines are equal. Then

6. A line l is passing through the point (1, –6). If the 1 1 1 1

(A) 2

2 2
2

product of the intercepts of l on the axes is 1, then the a b c d

equation of l is 1 1 1 1

(B)

(A) 2x y 5 0 (B) 2x y 4 0 a b c d

(C) 4x y 2 0 (D) 9x y
3 0 1 1 1 1

(C) 2

2 2 2

a b c d

7. The graph of the function 1 1 1 1

(D) 2 2 2 2 2

y cosx cos(x 2) – cos2(x 1) is a b c d

(A) a straight line passing through (0,
sin 2 1) 10. The straight lines 3x y – 4 0, x 3y – 4 0 and x

¥P ´ y 0 form a triangle which is

(B) a straight line passing through ¦ ,
sin 2 1µ

§2 ¶ (A) obtuse angled (B) equilateral

(C) a straight line parallel to x-axis (C) isosceles (D) right-angled

In each of the following questions, statements are given in 1. Let S be the system of lines passing through the

two columns, which have to be matched. The statements in intersection of the lines x y – 1 0 and x – y – 1

column I are labeled as (A), (B), (C) and (D), while those 0. Match the items of Column I with those of Col-

in column II are labeled as (p), (q), (r), (s) and (t). Any umn II.

given statement in column I can have correct matching with

one or more statements in column II. The appropriate bub- Column I Column II

bles corresponding to the answers to these questions have

(A) Equation of the line (p) 2x – y – 2 0

to be darkened as illustrated in the following example.

belonging to S and

Example: If the correct matches are (A) m (p), (s), (B) m passing through the

(q), (s), (t), (C) m (r), (D) m (r), (t), that is if the matches point (2, 3) is

are (A) m (p) and (s); (B) m (q), (s) and (t); (C) m (r); (B) Equation of the line (q) x y – 1 0

and (D) m (r), then the correct darkening of bubbles will belonging to S and

look as follows: parallel to the line y

p q r s t 2x 1 is

A

(r) x y 1 0

(C) Equation of the line

B belonging to S and

having equal inter-

C

cept (absolutely) is

D

(Continued)

122 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

Column I Column II 3. Match the items of Column I with those of Column II.

(D) Equation of the line (s) 3x – y – 3 0

belonging to S and Column I Column II

perpendicular to the (t) x – y – 1 0 (A) Equation of the line whose (p) x y
8

line x y – 1 0 is x-intercept is 4 and passes 0

though the point (2, –3)

2. Match the items of Column I with those of Column II.

(B) Equation of the line having (q) x y 7

equal intercept on the axes

Column I Column II

and passing through the

(A) If the lines x 2ay a 0, (p) GP point (2, 5) is

x 3by b 0 and x 4cy

(C) Equation of the line which (r) 3x
2y 12

c 0 are concurrent, then

makes an angle of 135o with

a, b and c are in

the positive direction of the

(B) If the lines ax by (ak b) (q) HP x-axis and which cuts the

= 0, bx cy (bk c) 0 and y-axis at a distance of 8 units

(ak + b)x + (bk + c)y = 0 are from the origin is (s) x 4y 8

concurrent and b2 x ac, (D) Equation of the line through

then the point (4, 1) which forms

(C) If the lines ax 2y 1 0, (r) k is a root of a triangle of 8 sq. unit with

bx 3y 1 0 and cx 4y ax2 2bx c positive axes is (t) x y 8 0

1 0 pass through a fixed 0

point, then a, b and c form

(D) If a, b and c are distinct (s) AP

positive and the lines a(x

y) c 0, x 1 0 and (t) k is a root of

c(x y) b 0, then a, c ax2 2bx c

and b are in 0

1. Passage: Let u y x y 0, A (1, 2) and B (3, –1). (i) Area of the triangle in square units is

Answer the following questions.

1 2 1 1

(A) (B) (C) (D)

(i) If M is a point on the line u 0 such that AM 3 3 2 3 2 2

BM is minimum, then the reflection of M on the

line y x is (ii) The gradients of the two sides AB and AC are

(A) (2, –2) (B) (–2, 2) 1 1

(A) 3, (B) 2,

(C) (1, –1) (D) (–1, 1) 3 2

(ii) If M is a point on u 0 such that AM BM is (C) 2 1, 2 1 (D) 2 3 , 2 3

maximum, then the distance between M and the (iii) The circumradius of the triangle is

point N(1, 1) is

1 2 1 1

(A) 3 5 (B) 5 2 (C) 7 (D) 10 (A) (B) (C) (D)

3 3 3 2

(iii) If M is a point on u 0 such that AM BM is

minimum, then the area of $ABM is equal to 3. Passage: If u 0 and u2 0 are two intersecting lines,

then for all values of K and L, the equation Ku Lu2

13 13 13 13

(A) (B) (C) (D) represents straight lines passing through the intersec-

8 6 2 4 tion of the lines u 0 and u2 0. In particular, the

equation uKu2 0 represents all lines (except u2

2. Passage: ABC is an equilateral triangle with vertex 0) passing through the intersection of u 0 and u2

A (1, 1) and the equation of the side BC is x y 1. 0. The converse of these are also true. Answer the fol-

Answer the following questions. lowing questions.

Answers 123

(i) The line (K 1)2x Ky – 2K2 – 2 0 passes through distance from the point Q(2, –3) is 10 is

a fixed point. The equation of the line passing

through this fixed point and having slope 2 is (A) d (B) 1 (C) 2 (D) 0

(A) 2x – y 8 0 (B) 2x – y – 5 0 (iii) In (ii), if L is the required line, then the image of

(C) 2x – y – 8 0 (D) 2x – y – 4 0 the point Q(2, –3) in the line is

(ii) Consider the family of lines p(2x y 4) q(x (A) (4, 1) (B) (–4, 1)

– 2y – 3) 0 (p and q are parameters). The num- (C) (4, –1) (D) (–4, –1)

ber of lines belonging to this family and whose

The answer to each of the questions in this section is a 4. In $ABC, the equations of the madians AD and BE,

non-negative integer. The appropriate bubbles below the respectively, are 2x 3y – 6 0 and 3x – 2y– 10 0.

respective question numbers have to be darkened. For 1

If AD 6, BE 11, then (Area of $ABC ) is

example, as shown in the figure, if the correct answer to 11

________.

the question number Y is 246, then the bubbles under Y

labeled as 2, 4, 6 are to be darkened.

5. P(1, 2), Q(4, 6), R(5, 7) and S(a, b) are the vertices

X Y Z W of the parallogram PQRS. Then, a b is equal to

0 0 0 0 _______.

1 1 1 1

6. The area of the triangle formed by the line x

2 2 2

y 3 and the angle bisectors of the pair of lines

3 3 3 3

x 2 y2 2 y 1 0 is ______ sq. unit.

4 4 4

5 5 5 5 7. A straight line through the origin O meets the par-

6 6 6 allel lines 4x 2y 9 and 2x y 6 at points P and

7 7 7 7 Q, respectively. If O divides the segment PQ in the

8 8 8 8 ratio p:q, then the value of p q is _____.

9 9 9 9

8. If a, b and c are real such that 3a 2b 4c 0, then

the line ax by c 0 passes through a fixed point (h,

1. If (a, b) is the image of the point (2, –3) on the line k) where [h k] ([] is the usual symbol) is _______.

3x y – 1 0, then b – a is equal to _____.

9. The number of integral values of m, for which the

2. If L is the line belonging to the family of lines repre- x-coordinate of the point of intersection of the lines

sented by the equation (2x y 4) L (x 2y 3) 3x 4y 9 0 and y mx 1 is also an integer is

0 (where L is a parameter) whose distance from the _______.

point (2, –3) is 10 units, then the slope of the line L

is ______. 10. P(m, n) is an interior point (where m and n are posi-

tive integers) of a quadrilateral formed by the lines

3. If the lines ax by 5 0 and px qy 1 0 are the di- y 0, x 0, 2x y 2 0 and 4x 5y 20 0. The

agonals of the parallogram whose sides are 2x y 7 possible number of positions of P is _____.

1

0, 3x 2y – 5 0 and 3x 2y 4 0, then the value of

8

(a b p q) is ________.

ANSWERS

Single Correct Choice Type Questions

1. (C) 3. (C)

2. (B) 4. (A)

124 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

6. (C) 19. (B)

26. (A)

13. (B)

27. (C)

14. (A)

28. (D)

15. (C) 29. (D)

16. (D) 30. (B)

17. (B)

1. (A), (D) 6. (C), (D)

2. (B), (C) 7. (A), (B), (C)

3. (A), (B) 8. (C), (D)

4. (A), (C) 9. (A), (B)

5. (B), (D) 10. (A), (C)

1. (A) m (s); (B) m (p); (C) m (q), (t); (D) m (t) 3. (A) m (r); (B) m (q); (C) m (p), (t); (D) m (s)

1. (i) (D); (ii) (D); (iii) (D) 3. (i) (C); (ii) (B); (iii) (D)

2. (i) (C); (ii) (D); (iii) (B)

1. 3 6. 2

2. 3 7. 7

3. 5 8. 2

4. 4 9. 2

5. 5 10. 5

Circle 3

Contents

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Relation Between a Circle and a

Line in its Plane

3.3 Classification of Points in a

Plane w.r.t. a Circle in the Same

Plane

d 3.4 Relation Between Two Circles

Chor

3.5 Common Tangents to Two

Circles

r Worked-Out Problems

Diamete

Summary

Centre Exercises

T

Tangent

Answers

Arc

ean geometry consisting of those

points in a plane that are equidistant

Arc from a given point, the centre. A

circle can be defined as the curve

traced out by a point that moves so

Sector that its distance from a given point is

constant.

t

en

gm

Se

Circle

126 Chapter 3 Circle

In the previous chapter, we discussed about the straight line and pair of lines. It is known that a straight line is repre-

sented by first-degree equation in x and y and hence it is called first-degree curve. Curves represented by second-

degree equation in x and y are called second-degree curves. Some of the second-degree curves are pair of lines (studied

in the previous chapter), circle and conics. Among these second-degree curves, the circle has been known since ancient

times and has some special properties. In this chapter, we study the general equation of a circle, equation of the tangent

at a point, chord equation interval of its midpoint, chord of contact, orthogonal circles, etc. Subjective Problems have

been provided for the preceding sections. Students are advised to solve each and every problem to grasp the topics.

3.1 Introduction

We begin with the following definition.

DEFINITION 3.1 Circle Let A be a fixed point in a plane and r 0 a given real number. Then the locus of the point

P such that the distance AP is equal to r is called a circle with centre A and radius r (Fig. 3.1).

r P

A

We translate the definition of the circle, and obtain the equations of a circle.

T H E O R E M 3.1 The equation of the circle with centre at the point A(h, k) and radius r is

( )2 ( )2 r 2

PROOF P(x, y) is a point on the given circle (AP)2 r2 (x − h)2 (y − k)2 r2, because the distance

AP ( x h)2 ( y k )2

Note: If h 0, k 0 (i.e., origin is the centre), then the equation of the circle is x2 y2 r2.

QUICK LOOK 1

1. Equation of the circle with centre at origin and ra- is in the form x2 y2 2gx 2fy c 0, where g, f

dius r is x2 y2 r2. and c are real numbers.

2. Equation of the circle with centre at (h, k) and ra-

dius r is x2 y2 − 2hx − 2ky h2 k2 − r2 0, which

T H E O R E M 3.2 If g, f, c are real numbers and g2 f 2 – c 0, then the equation x2 y2 2gx 2fy c 0 represents

circle with centre at (−g, −f ) and radius g2 f 2
c.

2

PROOF x2 y2 2gx 2fy c 0 can be written as ( )2 ( )2 g f
c which represents

circle with centre (−g, −f ) and radius g2 f 2
c according to Theorem 3.1.

3.1 Introduction 127

Note:

1. The locus represented by the equation (x − h)2 (y − k)2 0 is the single point (h, k) which is called point circle. In

fact, if the radius of a circle is zero, then it is called point circle.

2. If g2 f 2 – c 0, then the locus represented by x2 y2 2gx 2fy c 0 is the empty set and it represents point

circle if g2 f 2 – c 0. Further, the equation of the circle with centre (h, k) and radius r is of the form x2 y2

2gx 2fy c 0 (see Quick Look 1). With this understanding we refer the equation x2 y2 2gx 2fy c 0

as the general equation of a circle. Usually, when g2 f 2 – c 0, then we call the circle as imaginary circle.

3. If a ≠ 0, then the equation ax2 ay2 2gx 2fy c 0 can be written as x2 y2 2gax 2f ay ca 0, where ga g/a, f a

f/a, ca c/a which represents circle in the broad perspective as per point (2). The equation ax2 ay2 2gx 2fy c 0

is called universal equation of the circle.

4. The second degree general equation S y ax2 2hxy by2 2gx 2fy c 0 represents a circle with positive radius

if and only if a b 0 and g2 f 2 ac. The proof is not necessary.

T H E O R E M 3.3 If A(x1, y1) and B(x2, y2) are extremities of a diameter of a circle, then the equation of the circle is

(x − x1)(x − x2) (y − y1)(y − y2) 0.

PROOF Consider Fig. 3.2. Let P be any point on the circle whose coordinates are (x, y). It is clear that both

the points A and B satisfy the equation

(x − x1)(x − x2) (y − y1)(y − y2) 0 (3.1)

P (x,

x y)

90°

A(x

x1, y1) x2, y2)

B (x

FIGURE 3.2

Hence, we may assume P is not both A and B. From the elementary plane geometry, it is known that

angle in a semicircle is a right angle. Therefore, APB is a right angle. That is, the segments AP and

BP are at right angle to each other so that the product of their slopes is equal to −1. Therefore

¥ y y1 ´ ¥ y y2 ´

¦§ x x µ¶ ¦§ x x µ¶
1

1 2

Hence

(x − x1)(x − x2) (y − y1)(y − y2) 0

That is, every point on the given circle satisfies Eq. (3.1) and conversely, if any point Q(x, y) satisfies

Eq. (3.1), then we know that AQ and BQ are at right angles and hence Q must lie on the circle.

Hence, Eq. (3.1) represents the circle for which A(x1, y1) and B(x2, y2) are ends of a diameter.

T H E O R E M 3.4 If P(x, y) is a point on the circle x2 y2 r2, then there exists P such that x r cos P and y

r sin P and conversely the point (r cos P, r sin P ) lies on the circle x2 y2 r2 for all P. The

equations x r cos P, y r sin P are called parametric equations of the circle x2 y2 r2.

PROOF Let P(x, y) be a point on the circle x2 y2 r2 (see Fig. 3.3). Draw PM perpendicular to the x-axis

and let MOP P. From ΔMOP, we have that

x y

cos P and sin P

r r

128 Chapter 3 Circle

r2 cos2 P r2 sin2 P r2

shows that (r cos P, r sin P ) lies on the circle x2 y2 r2.

y

P (x,

x y)

r

y

q

O x M x

FIGURE 3.3

Note:

1. By shifting the origin to the centre (h, k) of the circle (x − h)2 (y − k)2 r2 and using Theorem 3.4 we can see

that

x h r cos P

and y k r sin P

are the parametric equations of the circle (x − h)2 (y − k)2 r2.

2. Since (−g, −f ) and r g 2 f 2 c are, respectively, the centre and radius of the circle x2 y2 2gx 2fy c 0, it

follows that

x −g r cos P and y −f r sin P

are its parametric equations.

Let C be a circle with centre A and radius r and l be a straight line in the plane of the circle. Draw AM perpendicular

to the line l. Then

1. AM r the line l and the circle C have no common points [see Fig. 3.4(a)].

2. AM r the line touches the circle [see Fig. 3.4(b)].

3. AM r the line l intersects the circle C in two distinct points [see Fig. 3.4(c)].

A

r

A

r

90° l M

l M l M

FIGURE 3.4

3.2 Relation Between a Circle and a Line in its Plane 129

General Note: In the proofs of theorems, we consider the circle x2 y2 r2 only to avoid tediousness of the proofs.

T H E O R E M 3.5 The perpendicular bisector of a chord of a circle passes through the centre of the circle.

PROOF Let A(x1, y1) and B(x2, y2) be ends of a chord of the circle x2 y2 r2 whose centre is O(0, 0) (see

Fig. 3.5). Let M be the midpoint of the chord AB so that

¥ x x2 y1 y2 ´

M¦ 1 , µ

§ 2 2 ¶

x12 y12 r2

Therefore

2 2 2 2

1 2)( 1 2) 0

( 1 2 )( 1 2) ( 1 2 )( 1 2) 0

y1 y2 ( x1 x2 )

x1 x2 y1 y2

Now,

y1 y2

0

2 y y2
( x1 x2 )

Slope of line OM 1

x1 x2 x1 x2 y1 y2

0

2

Therefore

¥y y2 ´ ¥ y1 y2 ´

(Slope of chord AB)(Slope of OM ) ¦ 1
1

§ x1 x2 µ¶ ¦§ x1 x2 µ¶

O

90°

A B

M

FIGURE 3.5

S x 2 y2 2 gx

gx fy c

S1 x 1 yy1 g( x x1 ) f ( y y1 ) c

xx

S2 x 2 yy2 g(xx x2 ) f ( y y2 ) c

xx

S21 S12 x1 x2 y1 y2 g( x1 x2 ) f ( y1 y2 ) c

S11 x12 y12 2 gx1 2f 1 c

130 Chapter 3 Circle

In general

gxi ffyyi c

T H E O R E M 3.6 If S 0 is a circle and (x1, y1) is a point in the plane of the circle (not the centre), then the equation

S1 0 represents a straight line which is perpendicular to the line joining the centre and the point

(x1, y1).

PROOF Let

S y x2 y2 2gx 2fy c 0

Therefore

S1 xxx1 yy1 g( x x1 ) f ( y y1 ) c

y ( g x1 ) x ( f y1 ) y gx1 fy1 c

S1 y (g x1)x (f y1)y gx1 fy1 + c 0

is a first-degree equation in x and y and hence it represents a straight line. Also, since the slope of

the line S1 0 is −(g x1)/(f y1), it follows that it is perpendicular to the line joining (−g, −f ) and

(x1, y1).

T H E O R E M 3.7 The equation of the chord joining two points P(x1, y1) and Q(x2, y2) on a circle S 0 is S1

S2 S12 and hence the equation of the tangent at (x1, y1) is S1 0.

PROOF Let S y x2 y2 2gx 2fy c 0. Since P(x1, y1) and Q(x2, y2) lie on the circle (see Fig. 3.6), we have

2 gx

gx1 ffyy1 c 0

S22 x22 y22 2gx

2 gx

gx2 fy2 c 0

fy

¥ x x2 y1 y2 ´

Let C (−g, −f ) (centre) and M ¦ 1 , µ (the midpoint of AB ). From Theorem 3.5,

§ 2 2 ¶

AB is perpendicular to CM so that the equation of the chord AB is

¥ x1 x2 ´ ¥ y1 y2 ´

( 1)¦ g ( 1)¦ fµ 0

§ 2 ¶ § 2 ¶

( )(xx1

1 )( x2 2gg ) ( y
y1 )( y1 y2 f) 0

x(x

( 1 x2 ) y(y( 1 y2 ) 2 gx 2 fy x12 y12 x1 x2 y1 y2 2 gx1 2 fy1

y(y

x( x1 x2 ) y( y1 y2 ) 2 gx 2 fy x1 x2 y1 y2
c (& & S11 0)

[ xx1 yy1 g( x x1 ) f ( y y1 ) c] [ xx2 yy2 g( x x2 ) f ( y y2 ) c]

x1 x2 y1 y2 gx1 fy1 gx2 fy2 2c
c

C (−g, −f )

A(x

x1, y1) B (x

x2, y2)

M

FIGURE 3.6

3.2 Relation Between a Circle and a Line in its Plane 131

Therefore

1 S2 x1 x2 y1 y2 g( x1 x2 ) f ( y1 y2 ) c S12

Since the tangent at P(x1, y1) to the circle is the limiting position of the chord PQ as Q

approaches P along the circle (see Chapter 3, Vol. 3), the equation of the tangent is

S1 S1 S11 [ P( x1 , y1 ) lies on the circle]

Hence, S1 y xx1 yy1 g(x x1) f(y y1) c 0 is the tangent at (x1, y1).

QUICK LOOK 2

If S x2 y2 − a2 0 is the circle, then the tangent at (x1, y1) is S1y xx1 yy1 − a2 0.

Example 3.1

Find the equation of the tangent to the circle x2 y2 − which implies that (2, 3) lies on the circle S x2 y2 −

2x − 4y 3 0 at the point (2, 3). 2x − 4y 3 0. Here, (x1, y1) (2, 3) so that the equation

of the tangent at (2, 3) is

Solution: We have

S1 x(2) y(3) − (x 2) − 2(y 3) 3 0

22 32 − 2(2) − 4(3) 3 16 − 16 0 that is, S1 x y − 5 0.

Example 3.2

Find the equation of the tangent to the circle 3x2 3y2 − Here, g −2/3, f −1, c 0 and (x1, y1) (0, 0). The equa-

4x − 6y 0 at (0, 0). tion of the tangent at (0, 0) is

2

Solution: The equation of the circle is in the universal S1 x(0) y(0) ( x 0) 1( y 0) 0

form so that its general form is 3

4 That is, S1 y 2x 3y 0.

S y x2 y2 − ¥ ´ x − 2y 0

§ 3¶

Example 3.3

Find the equation of the tangent to the circle the tangent at (a, 0) is

x2 y2 2ay cot @ − a2 0 x(a) y(0) a cot @ (y 0) – a2 0

at (a, 0). ax (c cot @)y − a2 0

x y cot @ − a 0

Solution: Clearly, (a, 0) lies on the circle. Equation of

Example 3.4

Find the equation of the tangent to the circle x2 y2 a2 and (x1, y1) (a cos P, a sin P )

at (a cos P, a sin P ).

The equation of the tangent at (a cos P, a sin P) is

Solution: We have in )
a 2 0

x(a cos Q ) y(a sin

S y x2 y2 − a2 0 x cos P y sin P − a 0

132 Chapter 3 Circle

Example 3.5

2x − 2y − 3 0 at the point (1, 2) and also find the tan- 2x y 6 0

gent to the circle parallel to this tangent.

Fig. 3.7) is

(−1, 1)

S1 y 2x y − 4 0 (3.2)

The tangent to the circle parallel to the tangent given by

Eq. (3.2) must be at the other end B(−3, 0) of the diam-

eter through the point A(1, 2). Therefore, the tangent at A (1, 2) 2x + y − 4 = 0

B(−3, 0) is

FIGURE 3.7

x( ) y( ) 1(x

(x

(x (y

) 1(y

(y ) 3 0

T H E O R E M 3.8 The condition for the line y mx c, c ≠ 0 to touch the circle x2 y2 a2 is that c2 a2(1 m2) and

in such a case the point of contact is (−a2m/c, a2/c).

PROOF Suppose the line y mx c touches the circle at the point P(x1, y1). Hence, by Theorem 3.7, the

equation of the tangent at P(x1, y1) is

S1 xxx1 yy1 a 2 0

x1 y1
a 2

m
1 c

Therefore

a2 m a2

x1 and y1

c c

Since (xl, y1) lies on the circle, we have

a4 m a4

a2

c2 c2

c 2 a 2 (1 m2 )

m( ) 0 c

a

1 m2

That is, the length of the perpendicular drawn from (0, 0) (i.e. the centre of the circle) onto the line

y mx c is equal to the radius a. Hence, by point (2) in Section 3.2, the line y mx c touches

the circle.

Note:

1. For any m ≠ 0, the two lines y mx p a 1 m2 are parallel tangents to the circle x2 y2 a2.

3.3 Classiﬁcation of Points in a Plane w.r.t. a Circle in the Same Plane 133

2. In general, to show that a line touches a circle, it is enough if we show that the length of the perpendicular drawn

from the centre onto the line is equal to the radius of the circle.

Let C be a circle with centre at the point A and radius r and P be any point in the plane (Fig. 3.8). Then

1. P lies outside the circle AP r.

2. P lies on the circle (on the circumference) AP r.

3. P lies inside the circle AP r.

r

A

Q (Inter

nte nal point)

P (External point)

FIGURE 3.8

T H E O R E M 3.9 Let S 0 be a circle and P(x1, y1) be a point in the plane of the circle. Then P(x1, y1) lies outside

or inside or on the circle according as S11 0.

P(x1, y1) lies outside S 0 AP r

( )2 r 2

2 2 2 2

( 1 ) ( 1 ) g f c

x12 y12 2 gx1 2 fy1 c 0

S11 0

T H E O R E M 3.10 Through every external point, two distinct tangents can be drawn to a circle.

PROOF Let S y x2 y2 − a2 0 be a circle and P(x1, y1) be an external point to the circle, so that

11 x12 y12 a2 0

By Note (1) under Theorem 3.8, we know that y mx a 1 m2 touches the circle S y x2 y2

y1 mx1 a 1 m2

2

( 1
1) a2 ( 2

)

2 2

( 1
)m
2 x1 y1 m y12
a 2 0

2

(3.4)

134 Chapter 3 Circle

4a 2 S11 0 (& S11 0)

0

Therefore, the quadratic equation [Eq. (3.4)] in m has two distinct roots, say m1 and m2, so that

there are two tangents through (x1, y1) with slopes m1 and m2 and

y12 a2

m1 m2

x12 a2

QUICK LOOK 3

The two tangents through (x 1, y 1) to the circle Therefore, the locus of (x1, y1) is the circle x2 y2 2a2,

S y x 2 y 2 − a 2 0 are at right angles implies and is which is a circle concentric with S 0 and having radius

implied by () 2 times the radius of S 0. That is, the locus of the

point through perpendicular tangents drawn to a circle

y12 a2 S 0 is also a circle concentric with S 0 and radius

m1 m2
1 1

x12 a2 equal to 2 times the radius of S 0.

x12 y12 2a 2

DEFINITION 3.2 Director Circle The locus of the point through which perpendicular tangents are drawn to a

given circle S 0 is a circle called the director circle of S 0.

QUICK LOOK 4

If the centre and radius of a circle are A and r, respectively, then the centre and radius of its director circle are A

and r 2, respectively.

Example 3.6

lar tangents to the circle S y x2 y2 − 2x 2y − 2 0. That

is, find the director circle of S 0. ( )2 ( )2 ( )2 8

Solution: The centre and radius of the circle S 0 are That is,

(1, −1) and 2, respectively. Hence, the equation of the x2 y2 − 2x 2y − 6 0

T H E O R E M 3.11 The length of the tangent drawn from an external point P(xl, y1) to the circle S 0 is S11 .

PROOF Let S y x2 y2 2gx 2fy c 0, centre A (−g, −f ) and radius r g 2 f 2 c . Let T be the

point of contact of the tangent from P to the circle. See Fig. 3.9. From Pythogoras theorem, we

have

(AP)2 (PT)2 (AT)2

(x1 g)2 (y1 f )2 (PT)2 (g2 f 2 − c)

(PT )2 x12 y12 2gx1 2fy1 c S11 0

3.3 Classiﬁcation of Points in a Plane w.r.t. a Circle in the Same Plane 135

PT S11

A (−g, −f )

P (x

x1, y1) T

FIGURE 3.9

DEFINITION 3.3 Chord of Contact Let C be a circle and P be an external point to C. Let A and B be the points

of contact of the tangents drawn from P to C. Then the chord AB is called the chord of con-

tact of the point P with respect to the circle C.

T H E O R E M 3.12 The equation of the chord of contact of a point P(x1, y1) with respect to the circle S 0 is S1 0.

PROOF Let AB be the chord of contact of P (see Fig. 3.10). Suppose A (x2, y2) and B (x3, y3). The

equation of the tangent at A(x2, y2) is S2 0.

This tangent passes through ( x1 , y1 ) S21 S12 . Therefore, the point A(x2, y2) satisfies

the first-degree equation S1 0. Similarly, S13 0 implies that the point B(x3, y3) satisfies the first-

degree equation S1 0. Hence, the equation of the chord AB is S1 0.

P (x

x1, y1) A

FIGURE 3.10

QUICK LOOK 5

The chord of contact AB of P is perpendicular to the line joining P with the centre of the circle (see Theorem 3.6).

T H E O R E M 3.13 The equation of the chord of the circle S 0 whose midpoint is M(x1, y1) is S1 S11 (see Fig. 3.11).

C (−g, −f )

A B

M (xx1, y1)

FIGURE 3.11

136 Chapter 3 Circle

PROOF Let C(−g, −f ) be the centre of the circle S y x2 y2 2gx 2fy c 0. Let M(x1, y1) be the

midpoint of the chord AB. Since AB is a chord perpendicular to CM, the equation of AB is

( 1 )( 1 )( 1 )( 1 )0

xx1 yy1 gx fy x12 y12 gx1 fy1

xx1 yy1 g(x x1) f(y y1) c x12 y12 2gx1 2fy1 c

S1 S11

1. If the circle S y x2 y2 2gx 2fy c 0 intersects the Solution: Let the circle intersect the line in A and B

x-axis in two points, then show that the length of the and M be the midpoint of AB. If C is the centre of the

circle (see Fig. 3.13) then p CM. Using Pythagoras the-

intercept is 2 g 2 c.

orem, we have

Solution: Let the circle meet the x-axis in A(x1, 0) and A 2 r2

AB 2 AM p2

B(x2, 0) (see Fig. 3.12) so that x1, x2 are the roots of the

equation x2 2gx c 0 (since the x-axis equation is y 0).

Therefore

x1 x2 −2g and x1x2 c C

Hence r

p

AB 2 g 2
c

FIGURE 3.13

Similarly, the length of the intercept made by the circle

3. Two rods of lengths 2a and 2b slide along the coor-

S 0 on y-axis is 2 f 2 c.

dinate axes such that their ends are always concyclic.

y Find the locus of the centre of the circle.

y

N P (h, k )

O A B x C

O A M B x

FIGURE 3.12

QUICK LOOK 6

FIGURE 3.14

1. x-axis touches the circle S 0 g2 c.

y-axis touches the circle S 0 f 2 c. Solution: P(h, k) is the centre of the circle passing

2. The circle S 0 touches both the axes g2 c through points A, B, C and D (Fig. 3.14) where AB 2a and

f2 g c f . DC 2b. This implies and is implied by ()

3. The equation of the circle, with radius a, which

touches both axes, is given by x2 y2 ± 2ax ± 2ay PA PC radiuss of the circle

a2 0 (one in each of the quadrants). ( PA)2 ( PC )2

( AM )2 ( PM )2 ( PA)2 ( PC

P )2 N )2

( PN (CN )2

2. Find the length of the intercept on a straight line by a

circle with radius r and the length of the perpendicu- where M and N are the midpoints of AB and CD, respec-

lar from the centre of the circle onto the line being p. tively. From the above, we have

3.3 Classiﬁcation of Points in a Plane w.r.t. a Circle in the Same Plane 137

a2 k 2 h2 b2

points P(−1, 2), Q(3, −2) and whose centre lies on

k 2 2

h b 2

a 2 the line x 2y.

(h, k ) is y2

Locus of (h x 2 b2 a2 Solution: Let S y x2 y2 2gx 2fy c 0 be the

required circle. Since its centre (−g, −f ) lies on the line

4. Find the equation of the circle passing through the x 2y, we have

points A(0, 1), B(2, 3) and C(−2, 5). g − 2f 0 (3.6)

Solution: Let S y x2 y2 2gx 2fy c 0 be the circle The circle passes through the points P(−1, 2) and

passing through points A, B and C. Therefore Q(3, −2). Hence

2f c 1 −2g 4f c −5 (3.7)

4 g 6 f c
13 6g
4f c −13 (3.8)

44 g 10 f 29 (3.5) Solving Eqs. (3.6), (3.7) and (3.8), we obtain g −2, f

−1 and c −5. Therefore, the equation of the circle is

Solving the system of equations provided in Eq. (3.5), we

given by S y x2 y2 − 4x − 2y − 5 0.

get g 1/3, f −10/3 and c 17/3 so that the equation of

the circle is

7. The line x y is tangent at (0, 0) to a circle of radius 1.

2 20 17 Find the centre of the circle.

x2 y2 x
y 0

3 3 3

Solution: Let C(x1, y1) be the centre of the circle (see

3xx 2 y2 2 x 220y

0 y 17 0 Fig. 3.16). The line joining C(x1, y1) and O(0, 0) is perpen-

dicular to the line y x. Therefore

Note: Under the given hypothesis, to find the equation

of the circle, it is sufficient if we find its centre and radius y1

1 y1 x1

or assume the circle as x2 y2 2gx 2fy c 0 and find x1

the values of g, f and c.

Hence

5. Find the equation of a circle with the centre at point

1

(6, 1) and touching the line 5x 12y − 3 0. 1 x12 y12 2x12 x1 p

2

Solution: Let A be (6, 1). Since the line 5x 12y − 3 0

touches the circle (say, at M as shown in Fig. 3.15), the 1

and y1 p

distance of the line from the centre is equal to the radius. 2

Therefore, the radius is given by

Therefore

5(6) 12(1)
3 39

r 3 ¥ 1 1 ´ ¥ 1 1 ´

52 12 2 12 (x1, y1) ¦ ,

§ 2 µ¶ or ¦§
, µ

2 2 2¶

Therefore, the equation of the circle is (x − 6)2 (y − 1)2 9.

That is, x2 y2 − 12x − 2y 28 0.

1

A (6, 1)

r O (0, 0) y =x

FIGURE 3.16

M 5x + 12y − 3 = 0

8. Determine the position of the point (−1, −2) relative

FIGURE 3.15

to the circle S y x2 y2 4x 6y 9 0.

138 Chapter 3 Circle

y2 a2. This implies that the length of the perpendicular

S11 ( 1)2 ( 2)2 4( 1) 6( 2) 9 drawn from the centre (0, 0) onto the line is equal to the

14 16 2 0 radius a. Therefore,

Therefore, by Theorem 3.9, the point (−1, −2) lies inside 1

the circle. a

l m2

2

l 2 m2

tangents are drawn to the circle x2 y2 1. Prove that a2

the chords of contact pass through a fixed point.

Therefore, the point (l, m) lies on the circle x2 y2 1/ 2 .

Solution: Let P(x1, y1) be a point on the line 2x y −

4 0. Therefore

12. Show that the line 3x − 4y − 1 0 touches the circle

2x1 y1 − 4 0 (3.9) x2 y2 − 2x 4y 1 0 and find the coordinates of

By Theorem 3.12, the equation of the chord of contact of the point of contact.

(x1, y1) with respect to the circle

Solution: The centre of the circle is (1, −2) and its ra-

S y x2 y2 − 1 0 dius is 12 2 2 1 2. The distance of the line from the

is given by centre (1, −2) is given by

S1 y xx1 yy1 − 1 0 (3.10) 3(1) 4( 2) 1 10

2

From Eq. (3.9), we get y1 4 − 2x1. Substituting the value 3 2

4 2 5

of y1 in Eq. (3.10), we have

which is equal to the radius of the circle. Therefore, the

(x − 2y)x1 + (4y − 1) 0

line touches the circle. Let (x1, y1) be the point of contact.

so that the line passes through the point of intersection That is, at (x1, y1), the line

of the lines x − 2y 0 and 4y − 1 0 which is given by

3x – 4y − 1 0 (3.11)

¥ 1 1´

, is the tangent. But, by Theorem 3.7, the equation of the

§ 2 4¶

tangent at (x1, y1) is

10. Find the equations of the tangent to the circle x2 S1 x 1 yy1 ( x x1 ) 2( y y1 ) 1 0

xx

y2 9 which is perpendicular to the line 2x 3y

That is,

7 0.

S1 ( x1 1) x ( y1 2) y x1 2 y1 1 0 (3.12)

Solution: Any line perpendicular to the line 2x 3y

7 0 is of the form 3x − 2y c 0. This line touches the Equations (3.11) and (3.12) represent the same straight

circle x2 y2 9 if and only if the perpendicular drawn line. Therefore,

onto the line 3x − 2y c 0 from the centre (0, 0) is equal x1 1 y1 2 x1 2 y1 1

to the radius 3. That is, t( )

3 4 1

c Hence

3

32 22 x1 3t 1 y1 4t 2

c ±3 13 2

t

Hence, the equations of the required tangent are 5

3 x y 3 13 0 Therefore,

and 3 x y 3 13 0
6 1

x1 3t 1 1

5 5

11. If the line lx my 1 touches the circle x2 y2 a2, 8 2

then show that the point (l, m) lies on the circle and y1 4t 2
2

2 5 5

x2 y2 / .

3.3 Classiﬁcation of Points in a Plane w.r.t. a Circle in the Same Plane 139

2x − 3y 0.

¥ 1 2 ´ (IIT-JEE 1989)

( 1 , y1 ) ,

§ 5 5¶

Solution: Let M(h, k) be the foot of the perpendicular

13. Find the length of the chord of the circle x2 y2 − drawn from the origin O(0, 0) to a line passing through

10x − 20y − 44 0 on the line 3x − 4y 0. the point (2, 3) as shown in Fig. 3.18. Therefore, OM is the

perpendicular drawn to the line so that

Solution: C (5, 10) is the centre and r 13 is the ra-

(Slope of OM ) (Slope of the line) 1

dius of the given circle. Suppose the line 3x − 4y 0 cuts

the circle at points A and B and M is the midpoint of AB ¥ k ´ ¥ k 3´

1

(see Fig. 3.17). Therefore, CM is the perpendicular drawn § h¶ § h 2¶

to AB (see Theorem 3.5) which is given by h(h 2) k(k 3) 0

3(5) 4(10) Therefore, the locus of the point (h, k) is x2 y2 − 2x −

CM 5

32 42 3y 0 which is equivalent to the circle described on the

line joining the points (0, 0) and (2, 3) as diameter.

Therefore,

AB 2 AM

y (2, 3)

2 2

2 CA CM

M (h, k )

2 1132 52 2 s 12 24

O x

C (5, 10)

A M B

15. Find the equation of the circle passing through the

FIGURE 3.17 origin which is cutting the chord of equal length 2

on the lines y x and y −x.

Aliter: Put y 3x/4 in the equation of the circle so that

we have Solution: Let S y x2 y2 2gx 2fy c 0 be the re-

quired circle. Since it passes through the origin (0, 0), c 0.

9x2 ¥ 3x ´ Put y x in S 0. Then x2 (g f )x 0. Therefore, x 0, x

x2 10 x 20 44 0

16 § 4¶ −(g f ) so that the points of intersection are A(0, 0) and

That is, B[−(f g), −(f g)]. Now

25 x 2

400 x
704 0 AB 2

(5 x 8)(5 x 88) 0 f g p1

Therefore, Similarly,

88
8 g − f ±1

x ,

5 5 Therefore, the centres of circles are given by (1, 0), (−1,

Hence, the points are A (88/5, 66/5) and B (−8/5, −6/5) 0), (0, 1) and (0, −1) and the equations of the circle are

and the length is given by given by x2 y2 ± 2x 0 and x2 y2 ± 2y 0.

¥ 88 8 ´ ¥ 66 6 ´

AB 576 24 P to the circle S y x2 y2 4x − 6y 9 4cos2 @ 0

§ 5 5¶ § 5 5¶

is 2@. Show that the point P lies on the circle x2 y2

14. Show that the equation of the locus of the foot of the 4x − 6y 9 0 and hence find the equation of the

perpendicular drawn from the origin upon any line director circle of S 0.

140 Chapter 3 Circle

Solution: The centre of the circle S 0 is (−2, 3) and its Solution: Let S y x2 y2 − 2ax 0 and P (h, k) be a

radius is 2sin @ (note that 2@ being the angle between point on S 0. Therefore

the tangents, we have 0 @ O/2). Let P (h, k) as shown

in Fig. 3.19. Then h2 k 2
2ah

h 0 (3.13)

CT 2sin A Now, Q (h / 2, k / 2) is the centre of the circle drawn on

sin @

CP 2 2 OP as the diameter. From Eq. (3.13), we have

( ) ( )

2 2

¥ h´ ¥ k´ ¥ h´

Therefore
a 0

§ 2¶ § 2¶ § 2¶

(h 2)2 (k − 3)2 4

Therefore, the locus of Q is x2 y2 − ax 0.

Hence, (h, k) lies on the circle

(x 2)2 (y − 3)2 4 or x2 y2 4x − 6y 9 0 19. Find the point for which the line 9x y − 28 0 is the

chord of contact with respect to the circle 2x2 2y2 −

If @ O/4, then 2@ O/2 and therefore the equation of 3x 5y − 7 0.

the director circle of S y x2 y2 4x − 6y 11 0 is given

by x2 y2 4x − 6y 9 0. Solution: The given circle is

T 3 5 7

S x 2 y2
x y
0

2sin a 2 2 2

C (2, 3) Let P(x1, y1) be the point whose chord of contact with

respect to S 0 is

2sin a

a

9x y − 28 0 (3.14)

a

P T But, in fact, the chord of contact of P(x1, y1) with respect

to S 0 is given by

FIGURE 3.19

3 5 7

xx1 yy1
( x x1 ) ( y y1 )
0

17. Prove that the locus of the point whose chord of con- 4 4 2

tact with respect to a circle subtends a right angle at That is,

the centre of the circle is its director circle.

( 1 ))x ( 1 ))yy
3 1 5 y1
14 0 (3.15)

Solution: P is a point and AB its chord of contact with Equations (3.14) and (3.15) represent the same line.

respect to a circle with centre C (see Fig. 3.20) such that Therefore,

BCA 90°. Since CA and CB are at right angles to the

tangents PA and PB, respectively. It follows that APB 4 x1 3 4 1 5
33 x1 5 y1
14

t ( )

is a right-angled triangle. Hence, point P lies on the di- 9 1
28

rector circle of the given circle.

Hence

3 9t

x1

4

t
5

B C and y1

90° 4

so that

90°° ¥ 3 9t ´ ¥ t
5´

P A
28t
3 5
14

§ 4 ¶ § 4 ¶

FIGURE 3.20

112t
99
2277t 5t
25
56

18. Point P is on the circle x2 y2 − 2ax 0. A circle is
90 90

drawn on OP as diameter where O is the origin. As

P moves on the circle, find the locus of the centre of t1

the circle.

3.3 Classiﬁcation of Points in a Plane w.r.t. a Circle in the Same Plane 141

3 + 9t 12 Coefficient of x2 Coefficient of y2 0

x1 3

4 4

2 gh 2ch2 2 fk 2ck 2

t 5 4 1 1 0

and y1 1 (h 2 k 2 ) ( h 2 k 2 )2 (h 2 k 2 ) ( h 2 k 2 )2

4 4

2 2 2 2 2 2 2

Hence, P (3, −1). 2( ) 2( )( ) 2 ( )0

h2 k 2 gh kf c 0

20. Show that the circle x2 y2 4x − 4y 4 0 touches

both axes and find the points of contact. Hence, the locus of (h, k) is given by

distance of the centre (−2, 2) from the coordinate axes is y

equal to 2. Hence, the circle touches both coordinate axes,

and the points of contact are given by (−2, 0) and (0, 2).

B N (h, k )

21. Find the equations of the circle touching both axes

90° A

and passing through the point (2, 1).

90°

Solution: Since the circle touches both axes and passes O x

through the point (2, 1), the centre of the circle must be

in the first quadrant. Hence, its equation should be of the

form x2 y2 − 2ax − 2ay a2 0. It passes through the

point (2, 1) which implies that FIGURE 3.21

5 4a 2a 2 0

23. Find the equation of the circle which touches the

( 1)( 5) 0

x-axis at (a, 0) and cuts of chord of length l on the

1 5 positive y-axis. Determine the equation of the circle

The equations of the circle are x2 y2 − 2x − 2y 1 0 when a 12 and l 10.

and x2 y2 − 10x − 10y 25 0.

Solution: Let S y x2 y2 2gx 2fy c 0. Since the

22. The chords of the circle x2 y2

2gx 2fy 2c 0 circle touches x-axis (see Fig. 3.22), we have

subtend right angle at the origin. Show that the locus

of the foot of the perpendiculars from the origin to g2 c (Quick Look 6)

these chords is the circle x2 y2 gx fy c 0. Therefore

2gx 2fy 2c 0 subtending right angle at the origin Also l is the y-intercept. This implies that

( AOB 90°) and N(h, k) be the foot of the perpendicu-

lar drawn from the origin O to the chord AB (see Fig. 2 f2 cl ( )

3.21). Since the slope of ON is k/h, the equation of the

chord AB is l2

f2 c

4

h

y k ( x h)

k l2 l2

f2 c a2

hx ky h2 k2 4 4

F E F E l2 4a 2

f p

OA and OB is given by 2

2

¥ hx ky ´ ¥ hx ky ´ Since the intercept is on the positive y-axis, we have

x2 y2 (2gx 2ffy) 2c 2 0

§ h2 k 2 ¶ § h k2 ¶

l2 a2

(by Theorem 2.33) f±

2

142 Chapter 3 Circle

Hence, the required equation of the circle is Since n ≠ 1, the locus is the circle (n2 − 1)(x2 y2)

2a(n2 1)x (n2 − 1)a2 0.

x2 y2
2ax

ax ( l 2 a2 )y a2 0

2 Note: In the above problem, if n 1, then the locus of P

¥ l 2 a2 ´ l 2 a2 is the perpendicular bisector of the segment AB .

(
)2 ¦ y µ

§ 2 ¶ 4

26. Prove that from a point (a, b) of the circle x(x − a)

y y(y − b) 0, two chords, each bisected by the x-axis,

Q can be drawn if and only if a2 8b2.

− b) 0 represents the circle with O and P as extremities

l

of a diameter (see Fig. 3.23). Let M(h, 0) be the midpoint

of a chord of the circle. Equation of this chord is

P a b

x

xh y( )
( x h)
( y ) h2
ah

O A (a, 0) 2 2

(see Theorem 3.13)

That is,

FIGURE 3.22 ¥ a´ b ah

h
x
y h2

§ 2¶ 2 2

24. A point moves such that the length of the tangent

from it to the circle x2 y2 4x − 5y 6 0 is double This chord is passing through (a, b). This implies

the length of the tangent to the circle x2 y2 4.

¥ a´ b2 ah

Show that the locus is a circle. Find its centre and h
a
h2

radius. § 2¶ 2 2

2 h
a 2
b 2 2 h 2
ah

x2 y2

Solution: Let S y 4x − 5y 6 0 and Sa y x2

y2 − 4 0. Let P(x, y) be a point from which the tangent 2 h2
3ah a 2 b2 0 (which has two distinct root

o s)

to S 0 is double the tangent to Sa 0. By hypothesis, 2 2 2

9 8( )

2 2

S11 a

S11 (see Theorem 3.11) a 8b

Therefore y

3 x12 3 y12 4 x1 5 y1 22 0

3x2 3y2 − 4x 5y − 22 0.

point such that PA:PB n:1, then show that the locus FIGURE 3.23

of P is a circle if n ≠ 1.

27. Find the points on the line x − y 1 0, the tan-

Solution: Without loss of generality, we take A (a, 0) gents from which to the circle x2 y2 − 3x 0 are of

and B(−a, 0). Let P be (x1, y1). So length 2.

PA nPB Solution: Let P(x1, y1) be a point on the line x − y

(PA)2 n2(PB)2 1 0 from which the length of the tangents to the

circle S y x2 y2 − 3x 0 is of length 2. Therefore

( 1 )2 y12 n2 [( x1 a)2 2

1]

x1 y1 1 0 and S11 2

2 2 2 2

( ))(( 1 1) a( ) x1 (n2 1)

1 2

0

x1 y1 1 0 a d x12 y12 3x

3 x1 4

3.3 Classiﬁcation of Points in a Plane w.r.t. a Circle in the Same Plane 143

aS11

x12 ( x1 1)2 3 x1 4 x12 y12 (OP )2

2 12 x1

2x 30

B

2 x12

2 x1 3x

2x 3 x1 3 0

(2x

2 1 3)( x1 1) 0 a

Hence O (0, 0)

M

3 P (x1, y1) a

x1
1,

2

x1 y1 x1 1 A

1 0 FIGURE 3.24

3 5

2 2 29. Tangents are drawn to the circles x2 y2 a2 and x2

y2 b2 at right angles to one another. Find the locus

Therefore, the points on the line are given by (−1, 0) and of their point of intersection.

(3/2, 5/2).

Solution: Both circles are concentric at the origin (see

28. Show that the area of the triangle formed by the two Fig. 3.25). From the Note given under Theorem 3.8, the

tangents from (x1, y1) to the circle x2 y2 a2 and lines

their chord of contact is

a( x12 y12 a 2 )3 /2 y mx a 1 m2

x12 y12
1 1

y x b a 2

m m

Solution: Let P (x1, y1), O (0, 0) and AB be the

are tangents to the given circles and are at right angles.

chord of contact (see Fig. 3.24). Suppose OP meets the

Therefore,

chord AB at point M so that AM MD and OM is per-

pendicular to AB. The equation of chord AB is given by ( )2 ( )2 ( 2 2

)( 2

)

S1 y xx1 yy1 − a2 0 (see Theorem 3.12) ( 2 2

)( 2

) ( 2 2

)( 2

)

Therefore That is, x2 y2 a2 b2 is the required locus.

a2

OM

x12 y12

and

AM OA2 OM 2 a 2 a

x12 y12 x12 y12

Also

x12 y12
a 2

PM

x12 y12 P

(& P lies outsidee thee circle)

x12 y12 Note: In the problem, if b a, then the equation of the

Now, the area of $PAB is given by director circle of x2 y2 a2 is x2 y2 2a2.

1 a x12 y12
a 2 ( x12 y12
a 2 ) 30. Find the equations of the tangents to the circle x2

AB PM AM PM s y2 − 6x − 4y 5 0 which make an angle of 45° with

2 x12 y12 x12 y12 positive direction of the x-axis.

144 Chapter 3 Circle

Solution: In the circle S y x2 y2 − 6x − 4y 5 0, the 32. Find the equations of the tangents to the circle S y

centre is (3, 2) and radius is 2 2. The given line is x2 y2 8x 4y − 5 0 from the point (3, −3).

y x c (& tan 45° 1)

Solution: The centre and the radius of the circle S 0

The line touches the given circle if and only if the dis- are (−4, −2) and 5, respectively. We have S11 32 (−3)2

tance of the line from the centre is equal to the radius. 8(3) 4(−3) − 5 25 0. Hence, (3, −3) is external to S

Therefore 0. Let y 3 m(x − 3) be a line passing through (3, −3).

3 2c This line touches the circle S 0. This implies that

2 2

12 12 m( ) 2
3

2

5

( 1) 16 2

m 1

1 4 ( m )2 25(m2 )

3 5

24 m2
14 m
24 0

Hence, the required equations of the tangents are x − y 12 m2
7 m
12 0

3 0 and x − y − 5 0. 2

12
16 m 9 12 0

31. Prove that the tangent to the circle x2

5 at the y2 4 (3
4) 3(3 4) 0

point (1, −2) also touches the circle x2 y2 − 8x − 6y − 4
3

20 0 and find the coordinates of the point of contact. ,

3 4

Solution: Tangent to the circle S y x2 y2 − 5 0 at Therefore, the tangents from (3, −3) to the circle S 0

(−1, −2) is given by are

S1 x(
1) y( 2)
5 0 4

y3 ( x
3)

S1 x
2y

2y 5 0 3

S1 x 2y 5 0 (3.16) 3

and y3 ( x
3)

4

Now, this line [Eq. (3.16)] also touches the circle x2 y2

− 8x − 6y − 20 0. This implies that the distance of its That is,

centre (4, 3) from the line [Eq. (3.16)] is equal to the 4 x 3 y
21 0

radius 3 5. So

4y 3 0

3 x 4y

4 65

3 5 33. A circle passes through the points (−1, 1), (0, 6) and

12 22

(5, 5). On this circle, find the points at which the tan-

Hence, the tangent at (−1, −2) to x2 y2 5 also touches gents are parallel to the line joining origin to the cen-

the circle x2 y2 − 8x − 6y − 20 0 at say (x1, y1). But, the tre of the circle.

tangent at (x1, y1) is given by

Solution: Let S y x2 y2 2gx 2fy c 0 be the

xx1 yy1
4( x x1 ) 3( y y1 )
20 0

circle passing through the points (−1, 1), (0, 6) and (5, 5).

( x1
4) x ( y1 3) y
(4x

4 x1 3 y1 20) 0 Therefore,

x
4 y1
3
(4 x1 3 y1 20)

1 t (say)
2 g 2 f c
2 º

1 2 5 ®

x1 t 4 1 2t