You are on page 1of 490

Mathematics

GEOMETRY
for JEE (Main & Advanced)
VOL. 4
Mathematics
GEOMETRY
for JEE (Main & Advanced)
VOL. 4

Dr. G.S.N. Murti


Reader and HOD of Maths (Retd.)
Rajah R. S. R. K. R. R. College, Bobbili, Andra Pradesh, India

Wiley India Pvt. Ltd.


Mathematics
GEOMETRY
for JEE (Main & Advanced)

VOL. 4

Copyright © 2013 by Wiley India Pvt. Ltd., 4435-36/7, Ansari Road, Daryaganj, New Delhi-110002.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by
any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or scanning without the written permission of the
publisher.
Limits of Liability: While the publisher and the author have used their best efforts in preparing this book, Wiley and the
author make no representation or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this book,
and specifically disclaim any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for any particular purpose. There are no
warranties which extend beyond the descriptions contained in this paragraph. No warranty may be created or extended
by sales representatives or written sales materials.
Disclaimer: The contents of this book have been checked for accuracy. Since deviations cannot be precluded entirely,
Wiley or its author cannot guarantee full agreement. As the book is intended for educational purpose, Wiley or its author
shall not be responsible for any errors, omissions or damages arising out of the use of the information contained in the
book. This publication is designed to provide accurate and authoritative information with regard to the subject matter
covered. It is sold on the understanding that the Publisher is not engaged in rendering professional services.
Other Wiley Editorial Offices:
John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030, USA
Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, Pappellaee 3, D-69469 Weinheim, Germany
John Wiley & Sons Australia Ltd, 42 McDougall Street, Milton, Queensland 4064, Australia
John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte Ltd, 1 Fusionopolis Walk #07-01 Solaris, South Tower Singapore 138628
John Wiley & Sons Canada Ltd, 22 Worcester Road, Etobicoke, Ontario, Canada, M9W 1L1

First Edition: 2013


ISBN: 978-81-265-3583-5
ISBN:978-81-265-8073-6 (ebk)

www.wileyindia.com
Printed at: Beekam Print & Pack (P) Ltd., Delhi
Dedication

Dedicated to
Sri. Poojya Ganapati Sachchidananda Swamyjee,
Dattanagar, Mysore, Karnataka

Dr. G. S. N. Murti
Acknowledgments

1. My special thanks to Mr. Paras Bansal, Publisher and Ms. Meenakshi Sehrawat, Senior Developmental
Editor, of Wiley India for their constant help and support.

2. My sincere and heartful thanks to Wiley India Pvt. Ltd. for giving me the opportunity to write this
textbook.

Dr. G. S. N. Murti
Features and Benefits
at a Glance
Feature Benefit to student
Chapter Opener Peaks the student’s interest with the chapter opening vignette, definitions
of the topic, and contents of the chapter.
Clear, Concise, and Inviting Students are able to Read this book, which reduces math anxiety and
Writing Style, Tone and Layout encourages student success.
Theory and Applications Unlike other books that provide very less or no theory, here theory is
well matched with solved examples.
Theorems Relevant theorems are provided along with proofs to emphasize
conceptual understanding.
Solved Examples Topics are followed by solved examples for students to practice and
understand the concept learned.
Examples Wherever required, examples are provided to aid understanding of
definitions and theorems.
Quick Look Formulae/concepts that do not require extensive thought but can be
looked at the last moment.
Try It Out Practice problems for students in between the chapter.
Subjective Problems Solved subjective problems for the preceding sections.
Summary Key formulae, ideas and theorems are presented in this section in
each chapter.
Worked Out Problems The problems are presented in the form of
Single Correct Choice Type Questions
Multiple Correct Choice Type Questions
Matrix-Match Type Questions
Comprehension-Type Questions
Integer Answer Type Questions
In-depth solutions are provided to all problems for students to
understand the logic behind.
Exercises Offer self-assessment. The questions are divided into subsections which
include large number of Multiple Choice Questions as per requirements
of JEE (Main & Advanced).
Answers Answers are provided for all exercise questions for students to validate
their solution.
Note to the Students
The JEE (Main & Advanced) is one of the hardest exams to crack for
students, for a very simple reason – concepts cannot be learned by rote,
they have to be absorbed, and IIT believes in strong concepts. Each
question in the JEE (Main & Advanced) entrance exam is meant to push
the analytical ability of the student to its limit. That is why the questions
are called brainteasers!
Students find Mathematics the most difficult part of JEE (Main &
Advanced). We understand that it is difficult to get students to love
mathematics, but one can get students to love succeeding at mathematics.
In order to accomplish this goal, the book has been written in clear, concise,
and inviting writing style. It can be used as a self-study text as theory is well
supplemented with examples and solved examples. Wherever required,
figures have been provided for clear understanding.
If you take full advantage of the unique features and elements of this
textbook, we believe that your experience will be fulfilling and enjoyable.
Let’s walk through some of the special book features that will help you in
your efforts to crack JEE (Main & Advanced).
To crack mathematics paper for JEE (Main & Advanced) the five things
to remember are:
1. Understanding the concepts
2. Proper applications of concepts
3. Practice
4. Speed
5. Accuracy

About the Cover Picture


The picture on the cover is Jatiyo Smriti Soudho or National Martyrs'
Memorial – a monument located in Savar, Bangladesh – which is built
to commemorate the valour and the sacrifice of those killed in the
Bangladesh Liberation War of 1971. The monument is composed of seven
isosceles triangular pyramid shaped towers, with the middle one being the
tallest, that is, 150 feet. The arrangement of the seven towers is unique. The
planes are arranged uniquely so that one can see its distinctive patterns
when looking at it from different angles.
A. PEDAGOGY

CHAPTER OPENER
Rectangular
Each chapter starts with an opening vignette,
Coordinates, Basic
Formulae, Locus and
Change of Axes
1 definition of the topic, and contents of the
chapter that give you an overview of the
chapter to help you see the big picture.

y Contents
1.1 Rectangular Coordinates
1.2 Basic Formulae
Basic Formulae, Locus and

1.3 Locus
−x x
Rectangular Coordinates,

1.4 Change of Axes

Worked-Out Problems
−y
Summary
Exercises
y
Answers

−z x

The locus of a point is the


−x
Change of Axes

z path traced out by the point


when it moves according to a
given rule (or rules). In other
−y
words, a locus is the path of
90°
a single moving point that
obeys certain conditions.

180° 0°

270°
Equiangular spiral

CLEAR, CONCISE, AND INVITING WRITING


g p p g y

Special attention has been paid to present an DEFINITION 4.1 Cone Let S be a non-empty set of Fpoints
HHE in the space. Then, S is called a cone if there ex-
ists a point V S such that the line VP is Fcontained in S for all points P in S. This point V is
HHE
engaging, clear, precise narrative in the layout called the vertex of the cone and the line VP where P S is called generator of the cone S.

that is easy to use and designed to reduce Examples

(1) Every line is a cone with every point on the line as (3) Two intersecting planes form a cone with every point
math anxiety students may have. vertex and the line is the only generator. on their line of intersection as vertex.
(2) Every plane is a cone with all of its points as vertices.

DEFINITION 4.2 Degenerate and Non-degenerate Cones The cones described in the examples of Definition 4.1
are called degenerate cones. Generally, cones that are having more than one vertex are called

DEFINITIONS degenerate cones. Cones which do not degenerate are called non-degenerate cones. Using the
three-dimensional analytic geometry (Chapter 6), we can verify that the locus represented by the
equation x 2 y2 z2  0 is a cone with origin as the vertex.

DEFINITION 4.3 Base Curve or Guiding Curve If a plane is not passing through the vertex and intersects all
the generators of a cone, then the intersection of the plane and the cone are called base curve
Every new topic or concept starts with or guiding curve.

defining the concept for students. Related DEFINITION 4.4 Circular Cone and Right Circular Cone If the base curve is a circle, then it is called a circular
cone (see Fig. 4.1). If the base curve is a circle and the line connecting the centre of the base
and the vertex of the cone is perpendicular to the plane of the circle, then the cone is called
examples to aid the understanding follow the right circular cone.

definition.
EXAMPLES
Example 2.13

Write 2x 3y 5  0 in the normal form. What is the dis- To make the RHS positive, we multiply both sides with
tance of the line from origin? (−1). Thus, the normal form is
¥ 2 ´ ¥ 3 ´ 5
Examples pose a specific problem using
Solution: In 2x 3y 5  0, the constant 5 should be ¦§ µ x ¦§ µy
taken to the RHS of the equation, that is
where
13 ¶ 13 ¶ 13
concepts already presented and then work
2x 3y  −5

Dividing both sides with a 2 b2  2 2 32  13 , we


cos A 
2
13
and sin A 
3
13
through the solution. These serve to enhance
get
2 3 5
Now, the distance of the line from the orgin is the students’ understanding of the subject
x y c 5 5
13 13 13 p
a 2 b2

13

13 matter.
Example 2.14

Find the normal form of the line 3x 4y − 10  0 and its where


distance from the origin.
3 4
cos A  and sin A 
Solution: The equation 3x 4y − 10  0 can be 5 5
written as 3x 4y  10. Dividing both sides with
Now the distance of the line from the origin is
a 2 b2  32 4 2  5, we get
10 10
3 4 p  2
x y 2 5 5
5 5

T H E O R E M 2.11 Let ax by c  0 be a straight line. Then

¥ a ´ ¥ b ´ c
1. ¦ µ x ¦ 2 µy is the normal form of the given line if c  0.
§ a 2 b2 ¶ § a b2 ¶ a 2 b2
¥ a ´ ¥ b ´ c
2. ¦ µ x ¦ 2 µy is the normal form of the given line if c  0.
§ a 2 b2 ¶ § a b2 ¶ a 2 b2
PROOF Suppose x cos A y sin A  p is the normal form of ax by c  0. Therefore, by Theorem 2.10,
there exists a real K x 0 such that cos@  Ka, sin@  Kb and −p  Kc. Now,
cos2@ sin2@  1
1
implies K±
a 2 b2
Also −Kc  p  0 (since p is the distance of the line from origin) implies that
« 1
® 2 if c  0
® a b2
L¬
® 1
THEOREMS ®­ a 2 b2

Therefore, if c  0, then the normal form of the line is


if c  0

¥ a ´ ¥ b ´ c
x¦ µ y¦ 2 µ
§ a 2 b2 ¶ § a b2 ¶ a 2 b2
Relevant theorems are provided along with or if c  0, the normal form of the line is

proofs to emphasize conceptual understand- ¥



a ´ ¥
µ y¦ 2
b ´
µ
c
§ a 2 b2 ¶ § a b2 ¶ a 2 b2
ing rather than rote learning.

QUICK LOOK 1

x2 y2 5. b  a.
The properties of the curve  1 are as follows:
QUICK LOOK
a2 b2 6. If P(x, y) is a point on the ellipse

1. The curve is symmetric about both axes. x2 y2



2. For any point (x, y) on the curve, we have a b x b a a2 b2
and b b y b b. then we have
3. The x-axis meets the curve at A(a, 0) and Aa(−a, 0).
The y-axis meets the curve at B(0, b) and Ba(0, −b).
SP  e(PM)  e(NZ)  e(CZ − CN)
¥a ´
Some important formulae and concepts that
4. For each value of x,  e ¦ xµ  a ex

y pb 1
x 2
§e ¶
7. Since the curve is symmetric about both axes, there
do not require exhaustive explanation, but
a2 must be second focus and directrix. Another focus
and for each value of y,
Sa(−ae, 0) and its corresponding directrix is their mention is important, are presented in
a
x  pa 1
y2 x
e this section. These are marked with a magni-
b2
fying glass.
TRY IT OUT Try it out Try Example 5.15 for the hyperbola x 2 y2  a 2 whose asymptotes are x p y  0.

Within each chapter the students would find


problems to reinforce and check their under-
standing. This would help build confidence
as one progresses in the chapter. These are
marked with a pointed finger.

Subjective Problems SUBJECTIVE PROBLEMS


1. If p1 and p2 are the distances between the opposite Also
sides of a parallelogram and @ is one of its angles,
then show that the area of the parallelogram is p1p2 a1a2 b1b2
cos A 
cosec@. (a12 b12 )(a22 b22 ) Since geometry requires a lot of practice, some
Solution: ABCD is a parallelogram (see Fig. 2.18). AM Therefore
 p1, DN  p2 and BAD  @.
(a1a2 b1b2 ) 2 chapters in addition provide numerous solved
sin 2 A  1 cos2 A  1
Area of the parallelogram  (AB) p2 (2.17) (a12 b12 )(a22 b22 )
Now from $AMP, sin@  p1/AB and hence we have AB  (a1b2 a2 b1 )2
examples in the pattern of Subjective Problems.
p1 cosec@. Therefore, from Eq. (2.17), the area of the par-  (2.18)
(a12 b12 )(a22 b22 )
allelogram  p1p2 cosec@.
Now the area of the parallelogram (by Problem 1) is
We have provided such problems within the
D C

p2
a

p1 p2 (cosec A ) 
d1 c1
–
d2 c2
–
(a12 b12 )(a22 b22 ) chapter, near to the concept.
p-a a12 b12 a22 b22 a1b2 a2 b1
a 90°
B
A N a
[from Eq. (2.18)]
p1 90° (d1 c1 )(d2 c2 )
M 
a1b2 a2 b1
FIGURE 2.18
3. Prove that the area of the parallelogram formed by the
2. Show that the area of parallelogram whose sides are lines 4y − 3x − a  0, 3y − 4x a  0, 4y − 3x − 3a  0 and
a1x b1y c1  0, a1x b1y d1  0, a2x b2y c2  0 and 3y − 4x 2a  0 is 2a2/7.
a2x b2y d2  0 is
Solution: Rewriting the equations of the sides of the
(d1 c1 )(d2 c2 ) parallelogram, we have
a1b2 a2 b1 3x − 4y a  0
4x − 3y − a  0
Solution: Consider Fig. 2.18. Let the equations of the
3x − 4y 3a  0
sides be a1x b1y c1  0, a1x b1y d1  0, a2x b2y
c2  0 and a2x b2y d2  0. Therefore, and 4x − 3y − 2a  0

d1 c1 Here, c1  a, d1  3a, c2  −a, d2  −2a, a1  3, b1  −4, a2 


p1  4 and b2  −3. Therefore, by Problem 2,
a12 b12
(d1 c1 )(d2 c2 )
d2 c2 Area 
p2  a1b2 a2 b1
a22 b22

SUMMARY
2.1. Slope of line: Let l be a non-vertical line (i.e., l is not 4. Intercept form: If a and b are x and y intercepts of a
parallel to y-axis) making an angle P with the posi- x y
At the end of every chapter, a summary is pre- tive direction of x-axis. Then, tan P is called the slope
of the line l. Generally, the slope of a line is denoted
line (ab x 0), then the line equation is  1.
a b
Note: Area of the triangle formed by the coordi-
sented that organizes the key formulae and by m.
Caution: The concept of slope is followed only for nate axis and the line
x y 1
 1 is ab sq. unit.
a b 2
non-vertical lines.
theorems in an easy to use layout. The related Note: Slope of a horizontal line (which is parallel to
5. Slope–intercept form: The equation of a non-
vertical line which is having slope m and
x-axis) is always zero.
topics are indicated so that one can quickly 2.2. If A(x1, y1) and B(x2, y2) are two points on a non-
y-intercept c is
y  mx c
FHHHE y y1
summarize a chapter. vertical line, then the slope of the line AB is 2
x2 x1
. Note: Equation of any line (except the y-axis)
passing through origin is the form y  mx.
6. Normal form: Let l be a line whose distance from
2.3. Intercepts on the axes: If a line l meets x-axis at
(a, 0) and y-axis at (0, b), then a is called x-intercept the origin is ON ( p) and ON make an angle @
and b is called y-intercept of the line l. with the positive direction of the x-axis. Then, the
equation of the line l is x cos @ y sin @  p.
2.4. Equations of the axis: The equation of x-axis is y  0
and the equation of y-axis is x  0. 2.6. Definition (first-degree equation): If a, b and c are
real and either a or b is not zero, then ax by c is
2.5. Various forms of straight line equations: called first-degree expression in x and y and ax by
c  0 is called first-degree equation in x and y.
1. Two-point form: Equation of the line passing
through two points (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) is 2.7. Theorem: Every first-degree equation in x and y rep-
(x – x1) (y1 – y2)  (y – y1) (x1 – x2) resents a straight line and the equation of any line in
the coordinate plane is a first-degree equation in x
2. Point–slope form: Equation of the line which is and y.
having slope m and passing through the point
(x1, y1) is 2.8. General equation of a straight line: First-degree
equation in x and y is called the general equation of
y – y1  m(x – x1) a straight line.
3. Symmetric form: If a non-vertical makes an angle
2.9. Various forms of ax by c  0, where abc x 0:
P with the positive direction of x-axis and passes
through a point (x1, y1), then its equation is 1. Slope–intercept form:
x x1 y y1 ¥ a ´ ¥ c ´
 y ¦ µ x ¦ µ
cos Q sin Q § b¶ § b¶
Note: In the above relation, if we consider that
2. Intercept form:
each ratio is equal to r (real number), then every
point on the line is of the form (x1 rcosP, y1 x y
rsinP). Also r gives the distance of the point (x, y) 1
( c / a) ( c / b)
on the given line from the fixed point (x1, y1).
B. WORKED-OUT PROBLEMS AND ASSESSMENT

Mere theory is not enough. It is also important to practice and test what
has been proved theoretically. The worked-out problems and exercise at
the end of each chapter will enhance the concept building of students. The
worked-out problems and exercises have been divided into:
1. Single Correct Choice Type Questions
2. Multiple Correct Choice Type Questions
3. Matrix-Match Type Questions
4. Comprehension-Type Questions
5. Integer Answer Type Questions

WORKED-OUT PROBLEMS
In-depth solutions are provided to all worked-out problems for students to understand the logic behind
and formula used.

WORKED-OUT PROBLEMS SINGLE CORRECT CHOICE


Single Correct Choice Type Questions
1. If the line 3ax 5y a 2  0 passes through the point 1 4c
– c  24 c2  36  c p6
TYPE QUESTIONS
( 1, 4), then value of a is 2 3

(A) 9 (B) 7 (C) −9 (D) −7 Since y-intercept is positive, the value c is 6 and the equa-
Solution:
have
Since the line passes through ( 1, 4), we
tion of the line is 3x 4y 24  0.
Answer: (B) These are the regular multiple choice ques-
3a( 1) 5(4) a 2  0 3. A non-horizontal line passing through the point (4, 2)
and whose distance from the origin is 2 units is
tions with four choices provided as asked in
 2a 18  0
Hence, a  9 and the line is 27x 5y 7  0.
(A) 3x 4y 10  0
(C) 4x 3y 10  0
(B) x y 2 0
(D) 2x 3y 2  0
JEE (Main & Advanced). Only one among
Answer: (A)

2. A line has slope 3 / 4, positive y-intercept and forms


Solution: Let the slope of the line be m. Now the
equation of the line, by Theorem 2.2, is
the four choices will be the correct answer.
a triangle of area 24 sq. units with coordinate axes.
Then, the equation of the line is y 2  m( x 4)

(A) 3x 4y 24  0 (B) 3x 4y 24  0 Therefore, by Theorem 2.14,


(C) 3x 4y 25  0 (D) 3x 4y 25  0 m(0 4) 0 2
2
Solution: Let the line be m2 1
¥ 3´  (2 m 1)2  m2 1
y  ¦ µ x c
§ 4¶
 3m 2 4 m  0
so that the intercepts on the x and y axes, respectively, are 4
4c/3 and c. Therefore, the area of the triangle (by Quick m  0,
3
Look 4) is

Multiple Correct Choice Type Questions


1. For the hyperbola 9 x 2 16 y2 18 x 32 y 151  0, 2. If the circle x2 y2  a2 cuts the hyperbola xy  c2 at
which of the following are true? four points (xk, yk) (where k  1, 2, 3 and 4), then
5 (A) x1 x2 x3 x4  0 (B) y1 y2 y3 y4  0
(A) Eccentricity is
4 (C) x1 x2 x3 x4  c4 (D) y1 y2 y3 y4  c4
(B) Foci are (−4, 1) and (6, 1)
Solution: The abscissa xk (where k  1, 2, 3 and 4) are
(C) Centre is (1, −1) the roots of the equation
9
(D) Length of the latus rectum is
2 c4
x2  a2
Solution: The given equation is x2
 x 4 a2 x 2 c4  0
9( x 2 2 x) 16( y2 2 y) 151  0
Therefore
 9( x 1)2 16( y 1)2  151 9 16  144
x1 x2 x3 x4  0
2 2
( x 1) ( y 1)
 1 Since the coefficient of x3 is zero, we have
16 9
¤ x1 x2  a 2 , ¤ x1 x2 x3  0, ¤ x1 x2 x3 x4  c 4
X2 Y2
 1
16 9 Now,

where X  x 1, Y  y 1. Here a 2  16, b2  9. The ¥ 1 1 1 1´


eccentricity e is given by y1 y2 y3 y4  c 2 ¦
§ x1 x2 x3 x4 ¶µ
9 25 c 2 ( ¤ x2 x3 x4 )
9  16(e 2 1) or e 2  1  
16 16 x1 x2 x3 x4

MULTIPLE CORRECT CHOICE so that

e
5

c 2 (0)
c4
0

4
TYPE QUESTIONS
Finally
The centre is given by c 2 c 2 c 2 c 2 c8
y1 y2 y3 y4  – – –   c4
( X  0, Y  0)  ( x 1  0, y 1  0)  (1, 1) x1 x2 x3 x4 c 4
The foci is given by Answers: (A), (B), (C), (D)

Multiple correct choice type questions have ( X  p ae, Y  0)  ( x 1  p 5, 1)  (6, 1) and ( 4, 1) 3. On the ellipse 4x2 9y2  1, the points at which the
tangents are parallel to the line 9y  8x are
The latus rectum is given by
four choices provided, but one or more of the 2b2 2(9) 9
 
¥ 2 1´
(A) ¦ , µ
§ 5 5¶
2 1
(B) ¥¦ , ´µ
§ 5 5¶
a 4 2
choices provided may be correct. Answers: (A), (C), (D)
MATRIX-MATCH TYPE QUESTIONS
Matrix-Match Type Questions These questions are the regular “Match the
1. Match items of Column I with those of Column II. a b
xx1 y(0) ( x x1 ) ( y 0)  x12 ax1
2 4 Following” variety. Two columns each con-
Column I Column II  4 xx1 2ax 2ax1 by  4 x12 4ax1
(A) If x-axis bisected (p) ( d, 2) ‡ (2, d)
each of two chords
 2(2 x1 a) x by 2ax1 4 x12  0 taining 4 subdivisions or first column with
drawn from the point
(a, b/2) on the circle
This passes through the point (a, b/2). This implies
that four subdivisions and second column with
2x(x a) y(2y b) 
0 (ab x 0), then a/b
belongs to (q) ( 2, 2)
¥ b´
2(2 x1 a)a b ¦ µ 2ax1 4 x12  0
§ 2¶ more subdivisions are given and the student
¥ b2 ´
(B) If the circles x2 y2
10x 16  0 and
 4 x12 6ax1 ¦ 2a 2 µ  0
§ 2¶ should match elements of column I to that of
x2 y2  r2 intersect
in two distinct
points, then r lies in
(which has two distinct real roots)
¥ b2 ´
column II. There can be one or more matches.
 4 x12 6ax1 ¦ 2a 2 µ  0
the interval (r) ( d, 2 ) ‡ ( 2, d) § 2¶
(C) If the line y x  0 (which has two distinct real roots)
bisects chords drawn
from the point (1
¥ b2 ´
 (6a)2  4(4) ¦ 2a 2 µ
a 2 /2, 1 a 2 /2) § 2¶
to the circle 2x2  9a 2  2(4a 2 b2 )
(s) ( 3, 3)
2y2 (1 a 2 )x
 a 2  2b2
(1 a 2 )y  0, then
a belongs to a
 2
(D) Point (2, K) lies b
inside the circle x2
y2  13 if and only if (t) (2, 8) Therefore
K belongs to a a
 2 or  2
b b
Solution:
Answer: (A) m (r)
(A) The given circle equation is
(B) O  (0, 0) and A  (5, 0) are the centres and r, 3 are
S y 2 x 2 2 y2 2ax by  0 the radii of the circles. The two circles intersect in
b two distinct points. So
S y x 2 y2 ax y  0
2 r 3  OA  r 3
Let (x1, 0) be the midpoint of a chord of the circle. š r 3  5r 3
Therefore, the equation of the chord is

COMPREHENSION-TYPE QUESTIONS
Comprehension-Type Questions
Comprehension-type questions consist of 1. Passage: Consider the straight line 3x y 4  0. An- (A) x 3 y 4  0 (B) x 3y 5  0
swer the following questions.
x 3y 4  0 (D) x 3 y 2  0
a small passage, followed by three multiple (i) The point on the line 3 x y 4  0 which is
equidistant from the points ( 5, 6) and (3, 2) is
(C)
(iii) If the line y 5  k( x 3) is parallel to the given
line then the area of the triangle formed by this
choice questions. The questions are of single (A) ( 1, 1) (B) ( 2, 2)
1
line and the coordinate axes (in sq. units) is
(C) ( 3, 5) (D) ( , 3) 8 16
correct answer type. 3
(ii) Equation of the line passing through the point
(A)
3
(B)
3
(C) 4 (D) 5
(1, 1) and perpendicular to the given line is

Solution:
(ii) Line perpendicular to the given line is of the form
(i) Let A  ( 5, 6) and B  (3, 2). The slope of AB is
1
6 2 1 y x c
 3
5 3 2
This line passes through (1, 1). It implies that
and the midpoint of AB  ( 1, 4). Hence, the per-
pendicular bisector of the segment AB is 1 2
1 c c
y 4  2( x 1) or 2 x y 6  0 . Solving this equa- 3 3
tion and the given line equations, we have x  2
Thus, the required line is
and y  2. Thus, ( 2, 2) is the point on the given
line which is equidistant from both A( 5, 6) and x 2
y or x 3 y 2  0
B(3, 2). 3 3
Answer: (B) Answer: (D)

Integer Answer Type Questions INTEGER-TYPE QUESTIONS


1. The area of the quadrilateral formed by the lines 3. The orthocentre of the triangle formed by the lines
x y  1 is __________ sq. unit. x y  1, 2x 3y  6 and 4x – y 4  0 lies in the quad-
rant whose number is __________.
Solution: The given quadrilateral is a square with ver-
tices (1, 0), (0, 1), ( 1, 1) and (0, 1), and hence its area
is ( 2 )2  2.
Solution: Solving the above equations taken two by
two, the vertices of the triangle are
The questions in this section are numerical
Answer: 2 ¥ 3 8 ´
§ 5 5¶
¥ 3 16 ´
A ¦ , µ , B  3, 4 , and C ¦ , µ
§ 7 7¶
problems for which no choices are provided.
2. Two rays in the first quadrant, x y  a and ax – y 
1, intersect each other in the interval a (a0 , d). The
value of a0 is __________. (IIT-JEE 2006)
The equation of the altitude drawn from A to the side The students are required to find the exact
BC is
Solution: Solving the given two equations, we have
y
8 3¥ 3´
 ¦x µ
answers to numerical problems and enter the
1 a a(1 a ) a a 1 5 2§ 5¶
x
1 a
and y  ax 1 
1 a
1
1 a  3 x 2 y  5 (2.126) same in OMR sheets. Answers can be one-
Since the two rays intersect each other in the first quad- Again the equation of the altitude from B onto CA is
rant, we have x  0 and y  0 which implies that 1
y 4  ( x 3)
digit or two-digit numerals.
1 a  0 and a a 1  0 4
Therefore, if 1  a  0, then the a( a) 1  0 which is not  x 4 y  13 (2.127)
sensible. Hence, a Ž( 1, 0). If a  0, then the lines x y  0 Solving Eqs. (2.126) and (2.127), the coordinates of the
and y  1 intersect in fourth quadrant. Thus, a x 0. orthocentre are
Hence, a  0 and a 2 1  0  a  1. Therefore, a0  1.
Answer: 1
EXERCISES
For self-assessment, each chapter has ad-
equate number of exercise problems where
EXERCISES
the questions have been subdivided into
Single Correct Choice Type Questions
1. Equation of the line through (0, 3) and having slope ¥ 19 5 ´
(A) ¦ , ¥ 19 5 ´
(B) ¦ , µ
various categories which include Multiple
2 is § 8 4 µ¶ § 8 4¶
(A) y 2 x 3  0 (B) y 2x 3  0
¥ 5 19 ´ ¥ 5 19 ´
Choice Questions as asked in JEE (Main &
(C) ¦ , µ (D) ¦ ,
(C) y 2x 3  0 (D) y 2 x 3  0 § 4 8¶ § 4 8 µ¶

2. Equation of the line passing through ( 5, 2) and (3, 2) 5. If the area of the triangle formed by the line 2x
Advanced).
is 3y c  0 with coordinate axes is 27 sq. units, then
c is equal to
(A) x 2  0 (B) y 2  0
(C) x 2  0 (D) y 2  0 (A) p16 (B) p15 (C) p8 (D) p18

Multiple Correct Choice Type Questions


1. If the distance of the line 8x 15y K  0 from the 3
point (2, 3) is equal to 5 units, then the value of L is (A) the slope of l 
2
(A) 24 (B) 24 (C) 146 (D) 146 (B) the line l passes through (0, 0)
(C) the intercept on the axes are 2, 3
2. If the line 3 x y – 9  0 is reduced to the form xcos@ (D) the line l forms a triangle of area 5 sq. units with
ysin @  p, then the coordinate axes
(A) A  60o (B) A  30o
4. If l is the line passing through the point (2, 3) and is
9 parallel to the line joining the points (4, 1) and ( 2, 3),
(C) p  (D) p  9
2 then

3. If l is the line passing through the point ( 2, 3) and (A) ( 10, 1) is a point on l
perpendicular to the line 2x 3y 6  0, then (B) the slope of l is 6

Matrix-Match Type Questions


In each of the following questions, statements are given in 1. Let S be the system of lines passing through the
two columns, which have to be matched. The statements in intersection of the lines x y – 1  0 and x – y – 1 
column I are labeled as (A), (B), (C) and (D), while those 0. Match the items of Column I with those of Col-
in column II are labeled as (p), (q), (r), (s) and (t). Any umn II.
given statement in column I can have correct matching with
one or more statements in column II. The appropriate bub- Column I Column II
bles corresponding to the answers to these questions have
(A) Equation of the line (p) 2x – y – 2  0
to be darkened as illustrated in the following example.
belonging to S and
Example: If the correct matches are (A) m (p), (s), (B) m passing through the
(q), (s), (t), (C) m (r), (D) m (r), (t), that is if the matches point (2, 3) is
are (A) m (p) and (s); (B) m (q), (s) and (t); (C) m (r); (B) Equation of the line (q) x y – 1  0
and (D) m (r), then the correct darkening of bubbles will belonging to S and
look as follows: parallel to the line y 
t 2 1i

Comprehension Type Questions


1. Passage: Let u y x y  0, A  (1, 2) and B  (3, –1). (i) Area of the triangle in square units is
Answer the following questions.
1 2 1 1
(A) (B) (C) (D)
(i) If M is a point on the line u  0 such that AM 3 3 2 3 2 2
BM is minimum, then the reflection of M on the
line y x is (ii) The gradients of the two sides AB and AC are
(A) (2, –2) (B) (–2, 2) 1 1
(A) 3, (B) 2,
(C) (1, –1) (D) (–1, 1) 3 2
(ii) If M is a point on u  0 such that AM BM is (C) 2 1, 2 1 (D) 2 3 , 2 3
maximum, then the distance between M and the (iii) The circumradius of the triangle is
point N(1, 1) is
1 2 1 1
(A) 3 5 (B) 5 2 (C) 7 (D) 10 (A) (B) (C) (D)
3 3 3 2
(iii) If M i i 0 h h AM BM i

Integer Answer Type Questions


The answer to each of the questions in this section is a 4. In $ABC, the equations of the madians AD and BE,
non-negative integer. The appropriate bubbles below the respectively, are 2x 3y – 6  0 and 3x – 2y– 10  0.
respective question numbers have to be darkened. For 1
If AD  6, BE  11, then (Area of $ABC ) is
example, as shown in the figure, if the correct answer to 11
________.
the question number Y is 246, then the bubbles under Y
labeled as 2, 4, 6 are to be darkened.
5. P(1, 2), Q(4, 6), R(5, 7) and S(a, b) are the vertices
X Y Z W of the parallogram PQRS. Then, a b is equal to
0 0 0 0 _______.
1 1 1 1
6. The area of the triangle formed by the line x
2 2 2
y  3 and the angle bisectors of the pair of lines
3 3 3 3
x 2 y2 2 y 1  0 is ______ sq. unit.
4 4 4
5 5 5 5 7. A straight line through the origin O meets the par-
ll l li 4 2 9 d2 6 i P d
ANSWERS
ANSWERS
The Answer key at the end of each chapter Single Correct Choice Type Questions
contains answers to all exercise problems. 1. (A) 11. (D)

2. (B) 12. (D)

3. (D) 13. (A)

4. (B) 14. (B)

5. (A) 15. (C)


6. (D) 16. (B)

7. (B) 17. (D)

8. (A) 18. (C)

9. (D) 19. (B)


10. (B) 20. (C)

Multiple Correct Choice Type Questions


1. (B), (C) 4. (A), (B), (C)
2. (A), (C) 5. (A), (B), (C)

3. (A), (C)

Matrix-Match Type Questions


1. (A) m (q); (B) m (t); (C) m (p), (r); (D) m (s) 3. (A) m (t); (B) m (p); (C) m (q); (D) m (r)

2. (A) m (r); (B) m (p); (C) m (s); (D) m (t)

Comprehension Type Questions


1. (i) m(A); (ii) m (C); (iii) m (A) 3. (i) m(C); (ii) m (B); (iii) m (A)

2. (i) m(D); (ii) m (A); (iii) m (D)

Integer Answer Type Questions


1. 4 4. 1

2. 5 5. 3

3. 3 6. 3
BOOK FEEDBACK FORM

WE WOULD LIKE TO HEAR FROM YOU

Please complete this form. Your feedback concerning “Mathematics for JEE (Main & Advanced)”
will be appreciated. If you do want to complete and submit the form online, you may visit us at www.
wileyindia.com/murti. You can also fill-in the form and send it as an attachment via E-mail or Fax it to
+91-11-23275895.
Our e-mail address is acadmktg@wiley.com and mailing address is Wiley India Pvt. Ltd, Attn:
Marketing Department, 4436/7, Ansari Road, Daryaganj, New Delhi- 110002, India.

* Fields marked are compulsory

* Name

* Email Address

Address
Cut from here

Phone Mobile
School/Institute/College

* Name of Course Instructor

* Competitive Exam(s) Studying for

How did you hear about this book? Bookseller Classmate Teacher Advertisement
Other
(please mention)

Would you be interested in further readings by the authors? Yes No

Would you be interested in our other bestsellers from the Wiley MAESTRO series? Yes No

Your Comments

May we use your comments in future promotions? Yes No



Contents
1 Rectangular Coordinates, Basic Formulae, Locus and Change of Axes 1
1.1 Rectangular Coordinates ................................................................................................................................. 2
1.2 Basic Formulae................................................................................................................................................. 3
1.3 Locus ................................................................................................................................................................ 6
1.4 Change of Axes................................................................................................................................................ 7
Worked-Out Problems ................................................................................................................................... 11
Summary ........................................................................................................................................................ 18
Exercises ........................................................................................................................................................ 19
Answers .......................................................................................................................................................... 20

2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines 21


2.1 Straight Line ................................................................................................................................................... 22
2.2 Pair of Lines .................................................................................................................................................... 42
Worked-Out Problems ................................................................................................................................... 72
Summary ...................................................................................................................................................... 115
Exercises ...................................................................................................................................................... 118
Answers ........................................................................................................................................................ 123

3 Circle 125
3.1 Introduction.................................................................................................................................................. 126
3.2 Relation Between a Circle and a Line in its Plane ........................................................................................ 128
3.3 Classification of Points in a Plane w.r.t. a Circle in the Same Plane ............................................................. 133
3.4 Relation Between Two Circles ...................................................................................................................... 150
3.5 Common Tangents to Two Circles ............................................................................................................... 159
Worked-Out Problems ................................................................................................................................. 170
Summary ...................................................................................................................................................... 205
Exercises ...................................................................................................................................................... 208
Answers ........................................................................................................................................................ 210

4 Parabola 211
4.1 Conic Section ............................................................................................................................................... 212
4.2 Parabola ....................................................................................................................................................... 213
Worked-Out Problems ................................................................................................................................. 249
Summary ...................................................................................................................................................... 276
Exercises ...................................................................................................................................................... 278
Answers ........................................................................................................................................................ 283
xx Contents

5 Ellipse and Hyperbola 285


5.1 Ellipse........................................................................................................................................................... 286
5.2 Inverted Ellipse ............................................................................................................................................ 287
5.3 Hyperbola .................................................................................................................................................... 322
Worked-Out Problems ................................................................................................................................. 345
Summary ................................................................................... ..................................................................373
Exercises ..................................................................................................................................................... 377
Answers ....................................................................................................................................................... 383

6 Three-Dimensional Geometry 385


6.1 Pre-Requisites .............................................................................................................................................. 386
6.2 Coordinates, Direction Cosines and Direction Ratios .................................................................................. 399
6.3 Plane ............................................................................................................................................................ 410
6.4 Line .............................................................................................................................................................. 421
Worked-Out Problems ................................................................................................................................. 430
Summary ................................................................................... ..................................................................454
Exercises ..................................................................................................................................................... 456
Answers ....................................................................................................................................................... 461

Index 463
Rectangular
Coordinates, Basic
Formulae, Locus and
Change of Axes
1
y Contents
1.1 Rectangular Coordinates
1.2 Basic Formulae
Basic Formulae, Locus and

1.3 Locus
−x x
Rectangular Coordinates,

1.4 Change of Axes

Worked-Out Problems
−y
Summary
Exercises
y
Answers

−z x

The locus of a point is the


−x
Change of Axes

z path traced out by the point


when it moves according to a
given rule (or rules). In other
−y
words, a locus is the path of
90°
a single moving point that
obeys certain conditions.

180° 0°

270°
Equiangular spiral
2 Chapter 1 Rectangular Coordinates, Basic Formulae, Locus and Change of Axes

1.1 Rectangular Coordinates


Geometry is a thought-provoking subject for any genuine mathematics student. Geometry was initially pursued by the
Indians and Greeks. That kind of geometry is called pure geometry. Even though pure geometry is very interesting,
sometimes the proofs needed constructions and also they were cumbersome. At this stage, the concept of studying
geometry by using algebra was introduced by Rene Descartes (1596 1650 AD). Thus, the modern analytic geometry
emerged and is called “Cartesian geometry” named after Rene Descartes. In the following section, we discuss the
rectangular Cartesian coordinates.

1.1.1 Rectangular Cartesian Coordinates


FHHHHHHE FHHHHHHE
Select a plane and in that plane, let X aOX and Y aOY be two perpendicularly intersecting lines (intersecting at O).
FHHHHHHE FHHHHHHE HHHHE HHHHE
X aOX is called
HHHHHE x-axis, YE aOY is called y-axis and O is called the origin. Further, OX and OY are called positive direc-
HHHHH
tions, and OX a and OY a are called negative directions. Let P be a point in the plane. From P, draw perpendicular PL
to x-axis and PM perpendicular to y-axis (see Fig. 1.1).
Y

M P

X O L X

Y

FIGURE 1.1

Let the magnitudes of OL and OM be x and y, respectively.


HHHE HHHHE HHHHE HHHHE
1. If OL and OM are in the directions of OX and OY , then we say that x is the x-coordinate of P and y is the
y-coordinate of P and we write P  (x, y).
HHHE HHHHHE HHHHE HHHHE
2. If OL is in the direction of OX a and OM is in the direction of OY , then we write P  ( x, y).
HHHE HHHHE HHHHHE HHHHHE
3. If both OL and OM are in the directions of OX a and OY a, then we write P  ( x, y).
HHHE HHHHE HHHHE HHHHHE
4. If OL is in the direction of OX and OM is in the direction of OY a, then we write P  (x, y).

QUICK LOOK 1

O  (0, 0), P (x, 0) lies on the x-axis, Q  (0, y) lies on the y-axis.

HHHHE HHHHE HHHHHE HHHHE HHHHHE HHHHHE HHHHE HHHHHE


DEFINITION 1.1 Quadrants The regions bounded by ( OX , OY ), ( OX a , OY ), ( OX a , OY a ) and ( OX , OY a )
are the first, second, third and fourth quadrants, respectively.
Sign of the Coordinates
1. (x, y) lies in the first quadrant šx 0, y 0.
2. (x, y) lies in the second quadrant šx  0, y  0.
3. (x, y) lies in the third quadrant šx  0, y  0.
4. (x, y) lies in the fourth quadrant šx 0, y 0.
From the above list one can conclude that ( 2 , 1), ( 3, 2 ), ( 2, 3/2) and (1/2, 3 ) belong to the first, second,
third and fourth quadrants, respectively.
1.2 | Basic Formulae 3

1.2 Basic Formulae


In this section, we recall some of the basic formulae which have been discussed in your earlier mathematics classes in
school. We state such formulae without proofs.

1.2.1 Distance Between Two Points


1. The distance between two points A(x1, y1) and B(x2, y2) is given by

AB  ( x1 x2 )2 ( y1 y2 )2

2. Distance between origin O and the point P(x, y) is

OP  ( x 0)2 ( y2 0)2  x 2 y2
3. If A  (x1, 0) and B  (x2, 0), then
AB  x1 x2
Also if A  (0, y1) and B  (0, y2) then

AB  y1 y2

1.2.2 Notation
Let AFHHH
E B be two points. Thus, the line segment
and HHHHE connecting A and B is denoted by AB and the line through A Hand
HHHE
B by AB . The ray from A to B is denoted by AB (readers please observe the arrowheads in all cases). In vectors AB
means a line segment AB having direction from A to B.

1.2.3 Section Formulae


1. Let A and B be two points and P be a point on AB lying between A and B. Then we say that P divides AB inter-
nally in the ratio AP:PB (see Fig. 1.2).

A P B

FIGURE 1.2

FHHHE
2. If P lies on the line AB (not in between A and B), then we say that P divides externally the segment AB and we
write the ratio as –(AP):PB or AP:–PB. The minus sign indicates external division.
3. The coordinates of a point P which divides the segment joining A(x1, y2) and B(x2, y2) in the ratio m:n (m n ≠ 0)
are

¥ mx2 nx1 my2 ny1 ´


P¦ , µ
§ m n m n ¶

If m/n is positive, then division is internal division and if m/n is negative, the division is external division.

QUICK LOOK 2

The coordinates of the midpoint of the segment joining A(x1, y1) and B(x2, y2) are

¥ x1 x2 y1 y2 ´
¦§ , µ
2 2 ¶
4 Chapter 1 Rectangular Coordinates, Basic Formulae, Locus and Change of Axes

Examples

1. The distance between the points A(2, 3) and B( 2, 2) 2 2 2


¥ 1´ ¥ 1´ 1 ¥ 1´
is 2 2
(2 2) (3 2)  17 . a 2 ¦ t 2 2 µ 4a 2 ¦ t µ  a t ¦t µ 4
§ t ¶ § t¶ t § t¶
2. The distance between the points P(cos @, cos A ) 2
and Q (sin @, sin A ) is 1 ¥ 1´
 a t ¦t µ
t § t¶
(cos A sin A )2 (cos B sin B )2  2 sin 2A sin 2B
2
¥ 1´
 a ¦t µ
3. The distance between the points A(at2, 2at) and § t¶
B(a/t 2 , 2a/t ) is 2
¥ 1´
 a¦t µ if a  0
§ t¶

Examples

1. The coordinates of the point which divides the seg- 2. If P divides AB in the ratio 2:1, then
ment joining A(2, 3) and B(3, 2) in the ratio 1:2
are ¥ 8 1´
P¦ , µ
¥ 2 s 2 1 s 3 2 s 3 1 s 2 ´ ¥ 7 4 ´ § 3 3¶
¦§ , µ¶  ¦§ , µ¶
1 2 1 2 3 3

Convention: If a point P divides the line joining A and B internally in the ratio 1:2 or 2:1, then P is called point of
trisection of AB .

1.2.4 Area of a Triangle


The area of the triangle whose vertices are A(x1, y1), B(x2, y2) and C(x3, y3) is
1 1
x1 ( y2 y3 ) x2 ( y3 y1 ) x3 ( y1 y2 )  det A
2 2

¨ x1 x2 x3 ·
where A  ©© y1 y2 y3 ¸¸ is a 3 × 3 matrix.
©ª 1 1 1 ¹¸

Generally, area of a triangle is denoted by $ (see Vol. 2).

QUICK LOOK 3

Three points A(x1, y1), B(x2, y2), C(x3, y3) are collinear if and only if
x1 x2 x3
y1 y2 y3  0
1 1 1

QUICK LOOK 4

Area of quadrilateral ABCD  Area of $ABC Area of $ACD


1.2 | Basic Formulae 5

1.2.5 Some Points and Circles Associated with a Triangle


In this section, we will discuss some important terms associated with a triangle. The vertices of the triangle would be
considered as A, B, C.

Centroid
The point of concurrence of the medians of a triangle is called the centroid of the triangle and is denoted by G. The
coordinates of the centroid of the triangle with vertices (x1, y1), (x2, y2) and (x3, y3) are

¥ x1 x2 x3 y1 y2 y3 ´
¦§ , µ¶
3 3

Note that centroid trisects each median.

Incentre
The internal bisectors of the angles of a triangle are concurrent. This point is called the incentre of the triangle and is
denoted by I. The incentre is equidistant from three sides and this equal distance r is called the inradius of the triangle.
If a circle is drawn with centre at I and radius r, then this circle touches the sides of the triangle internally. (For more
details, see Chapter 4, Vol. 2.)
Incentre formulae
Let A(x1, y1), B(x2, y2) and C(x3, y3) be the vertices of a triangle and BC a, CA b and AB c. Thus, the incentre is

¥ ax bx2 cx3 ay1 by2 cy3 ´


I¦ 1 , µ
§ a b c a b c ¶

Excentre
The point where the external bisectors of two angles and the internal bisector of one angle are concurrent is called the
excentre. Thus, there are three excentres, namely, excentre opposite to the vertex A (denoted by I1), excentre opposite
to the vertex B (denoted by I2) and excentre opposite to the vertex C (denote by I3). Also

¥ ax1 bx2 cx3 ay1 by2 cy3 ´


I1  ¦ , µ
§ a b c a b c ¶
¥ ax bx2 cx3 ay1 by2 cy3 ´
I2  ¦ 1 , µ
§ a b c a b c ¶
¥ ax bx2 cx3 ay1 by2 cy3 ´
I3  ¦ 1 , µ
§ a b c a b c ¶

Note: For inradius and three exradii, see Chapter 4, Vol. 2.

Circumcentre, Circumradius and Circumcircle


The point where the perpendicular bisectors of the sides of a triangle are concurrent is called the circumcentre of
the triangle. It is equidistant from the vertices of the triangle. This equal distance is denoted by R and is called the
circumradius. Thus, if a circle is drawn with the circumcentre as centre and circumradius R as radius, then that circle
will pass through the vertices of the triangle. Such a circle is called the circumcircle of the triangle.

Orthocentre
The point of concurrence of the three altitudes of a triangle is called the orthocentre of the triangle.

Note: The circumcentre and orthocentre lie inside the triangle if the triangle is acute.
6 Chapter 1 Rectangular Coordinates, Basic Formulae, Locus and Change of Axes

Nine-Point Circle and Nine-Point Centre


In a triangle, the feet of the altitudes, the midpoints of the three sides and the midpoints of the segments joining the
orthocentre and the vertices are concyclic. Such a circle is called the nine-point circle and its centre is called the nine-
point centre of the triangle. Also the nine-point centre N is the midpoint of the segment joining the circumcentre and
the orthocentre. The radius of the nine-point circle is half of the circumradius of the triangle because if $DEF is the
pedal triangle of $ABC, then the angles of $DEF are 180o 2A, 180o 2B and 180o 2C and the sides are a cos A,
b cos B and c cos C (see Theorem 4.23, page 223, Chapter 4, Vol. 2). If we use sine rule to $DEF, then we obtain that
R/2 is the circumradius of $DEF which is the radius of the nine-point circle.

QUICK LOOK 5

Nine-point circle of $ABC is the circumcircle of the pedal triangle of $ABC as well as the circle passing through
the midpoints of the sides.

IMPORTANT NOTE

In a triangle ABC, 2. The centroid G divides the segment joining the cir-
cumcentre and orthocentre in the ratio 1:2.
1. The circumcentre, the centroid, the nine-point cen-
tre and the orthocentre are collinear in the given or- 3. The nine-point centre is the midpoint of the segment
der (see Definition 4.7, page 228, Chapter 4, Vol. 2). joining the circumcentre and the orthocentre.

Pedal Line (or Simson’s Line)

T H E O R E M 1.1 The feet of the perpendiculars drawn from a point on the circumcircle of a triangle onto its sides
are collinear. This line is called Pedal line or Simson’s line of the triangle. The converse of this theo-
rem is also true. That is, if from any point in the plane of a triangle, the feet of the perpendiculars
onto the sides are collinear, then the point lies on the circumcircle.
We can prove these two results by using plane geometry or what is called pure geometry. The
line LMN is the Pedal line (see Fig. 1.3).

N
A
P
M

L
B

FIGURE 1.3

1.3 Locus
In pure geometry, using congruent triangles property, it was proved that all the points on a line bisecting perpendicu-
larly the segment joining two given points are equidistant from the two given points and this line is called the perpen-
dicular bisector of the segment joining the two points. Of course, any point which is equidistant from these two given
points lies on this line. Thus, describing a set of points satisfying a certain geometrical condition(s) is difficult in pure
1.4 | Change of Axes 7

geometry. That is why mathematicians introduced analytical geometry (a combination of algebra and pure geometry)
and described the locus by algebraic equations. In this section, we introduce the concept of locus, equation of a locus
and few examples.

DEFINITION 1.2 Locus Let P be a geometrical condition(s) and S be the set of all points in the plane which
satisfy P. Then S is called a locus.

QUICK LOOK 6

S is the locus of a geometrical condition(s) P š every point of S satisfies the condition P and every point
satisfying P belongs to S.

DEFINITION 1.3 Equation of the Locus Let S be a locus and f(x, y)  0 be an algebraic equation in x and y. If
every point P(x, y) belonging to S satisfies the equation f(x, y)  0 and any point in the plane
satisfying the equation f(x, y)  0 belongs to S, then f(x, y)  0 is called the equation of the
locus S.
Here afterwards, we will describe a locus by its algebraic equation.

1.4 Change of Axes


In analytical plane, selection of the rectangular coordinate axes is arbitrary. When the axes change, the coordinates of
the point also change. The study of the relations between the original coordinates and the changed coordinates is
called change of axes. This change of axes is sometimes necessary to make the equation of a curve as simple as possible
to prove certain properties. Not that the same properties could not be proved otherwise, but the working out of the
proof would be more complicated. It is by experience that the student will learn the best method for change of axes.
In the following, we discuss three types of change of axes. We begin with shifting of the origin.

1.4.1 Shifting of Origin Without Changing the Directions of the Axes

y Y

X O N X

x O (0, 0) L M x

Y
y

FIGURE 1.4
FHHHHE FHHHHE FHHHHHHHE FHHHHE
Let x aOx and y a Oy be the coordinate axes. Let Oa( x1 , y1 ) be a point. Through Oa draw lines X aOa X parallel to xa Ox
FHHHHHHE FHHHHE FHHHHHHE FHHHHE FHHHHE FHHHHE
and Y aOa Y parallel to ya Oy . Suppose Y aOaY meets x aOx in L. We call ( x aOx , y a Oy ) as the old system of axes and
FHHHHHHHE FHHHHHHE
( X aOa X , Y aOa Y ) as the new system of axes. Now, every point in the coordinate plane will have two systems of coor-
dinates, namely old coordinates (with respect to old axes) and new coordinates (with respect to new axes).
Suppose P is a point whose old and new coordinates are (x, y) and (X, Y), respectively. Draw PM perpendicular to
old x-axes meeting the new X-axes in N. Now
x  OM  OL LM  OL Oa N  x1 X  X x1
8 Chapter 1 Rectangular Coordinates, Basic Formulae, Locus and Change of Axes

and
y  PM  PN NM  PN Oa L  Y y1
Thus, the relations between old and new coordinates of the point P are
x  X x1
y  Y y1 (1.1)

QUICK LOOK 7

1. Shifting of the origin is also called TRANSLA- 2. Equation f(x, y)  0 of a curve will be changed to
TION of axes. The effect on the coordinates is f(X x1, Y y1)  0.
Old coordinate  New coordinate Corresponding
coordinate of the new origin

Note: The new origin Oa may be in any quadrant. Still the relation between old and new coordinates is the same.

1.4.2 Rotation of Axes (Without Changing the Origin)


FHHHHE FHHHHE HHHE
Let x aOx and y a Oy be original axes (old axes) (see Fig. 1.5). Rotate Ox about O through an angle P in the anticlock-
FHHHHHHE FHHHHHHE HHHHHE HHHHHE
wise sense. Let the new axes be X aOX and Y aOY ( OX a and OY a are not shown in the figure). Let P be a point in
FHHHHE
the plane and let its old and new coordinates be (x, y) and (X, Y), respectively. Draw PL perpendicular to x aOx (old
FHHHHHHE
x-axis) and PM perpendicular to X aOX (new X-axis). Draw MQ perpendicular to old x-axis and MN perpendicular
PL. Now
QOM  Q  NMO  PMN  90B Q

so that NPM  Q . Also

x  OL  OQ LQ MN  OQ MN (1.2)
From $MOQ,
OQ
cos Q 
OM

y
Y

P(x, y )
(X, Y ) X

q
N M

q
x O L Q x

y

FIGURE 1.5
1.4 | Change of Axes 9

Therefore
OQ  OM cos Q  X cos Q (1.3)
Also, from $PNM,

MN
sin Q 
PM
Therefore
MN  PM sin Q  Y sin Q (1.4)
Hence from Eqs. (1.2), (1.3) and (1.4), we have
x  X cos Q Y sin Q

Again,

y  PL
 PN NL
 PN MQ
 MQ PN
 X sin Q Y cos Q
Therefore
y  X sin Q Y cos Q
The above-mentioned relations (in color screen) can be written in the form of a matrix equation as follows:
¨cos Q sin Q · ¨ X · ¨ x ·

© sin Q
ª cos Q ¸¹ ©ªY ¸¹ ©ª y ¸¹

Notes:
1. If the origin is shifted to the point (x1, y1) and the axes are rotated through P in the anticlockwise sense, then the
old coordinates (x, y) will be transformed to
x  X cos Q Y sin Q x1 , y  X sin Q Y cos Q y1
2. If the rotation is clockwise, then we have to replace P with –P.

DEFINITION 1.4 If a, b, h are real and at least one of a, h, b is not zero, then ax 2 2hxy by2 is called second
degree homogeneous expression and ax 2 2 hxy by2  0 is called second degree homogeneous
equation.

DEFINITION 1.5 If a, h, b, g, f, c are real and at least one of a, h, b is not zero, then ax 2 2 hxy by2 2 gx 2 fy c
is called second degree general expression and ax 2 2 hxy by2 2 gx 2 fy c  0 is called
second degree general equation.

Examples

1. 2 x 2 xy y2 3. 2 x 2 3 xy y2 x y 1
2. x 2 2 xy y2 4. x 2 2 xy y2 x y 1

DEFINITION 1.6 In the second degree general expression, ax2, 2hxy, by2 are called second degree terms; gx, fy
are called first degree terms; and c is called constant term.
10 Chapter 1 Rectangular Coordinates, Basic Formulae, Locus and Change of Axes

T H E O R E M 1.2 If h2 ≠ ab, then to remove the first degree terms of the equation ax 2 2 hxy by2 2 gx 2 fy
¥ hf bg gh af ´
c = 0, the origin is to be shifted to the point ¦ , .
§ ab h2 ab h2 µ¶

PROOF Suppose that the origin is shifted to the point (x1, y1) and let x  X x1, y  Y y1. Therefore, the
given equation is transformed to
a( X x1 )2 2 h( X x1 )(Y y1 ) b(Y y1 )2 2 g( X x1 ) 2 f (Y y1 ) c  0
This implies
aX 2 2 hXY bY 2 2(ax1 hy1 g ) X 2(hx1 by1 f )Y
ax12 2 hx1 y1 by12 2 gx1 2 fy1 c  0
This further implies
aX 2 2 hXY bY 2 2(ax1 hy1 g ) X 2(hx1 by1 f )Y
(ax1 hy1 g ) x1 (hx1 by1 f ) y1 ( gx1 fy1 c)  0 (1.5)

Now, put ax1 hy1 g  0 and hx1 by1 f  0. Solving we get


hf bg gh af
x1  2
and y1 
ab h ab h2
¥ hf bg gh af ´
Therefore, the origin is to be shifted to the point ¦ , so that Eq. (1.5) will be
§ ab h2 ab h2 µ¶

aX 2 2 hXY bY 2 gx1 fy1 c  0


where x1 and y1 are as defined above.

IMPORTANT NOTE

1. Under shifting of origin, the second degree terms of 2. Under change of axes, only the coordinates of the
a second degree equation will not change. points will change, but the distance between two
points as well as the areas will not change.

T H E O R E M 1.3 To remove the xy-term from the equation ax 2 2 hxy by2  0, the axes are to be rotated through
the angle (1/2) Tan 1 [2 h/(a b)] when a x b and through the angle P /4 when a  b.
PROOF Suppose axes are rotated through an angle P in the anticlockwise sense. Let x  X cos Q Y sin Q
and y  X sin Q Y cos Q . Therefore, the given equation will be transformed to

a( X cos Q Y sin Q )2 2 h( X cos Q Y sin Q )( X sin Q Y cos Q ) b( X sin Q Y cos Q )2  0


In this equation, the coefficient of xy is
2a sin Q cos Q 2 h(cos2 Q sin 2 Q ) 2b sin Q  0
 (b a)sin 2Q 2 h cos 2Q  0
2h
 tan 2Q  , if a x b
a b
1 ¥ 2h ´
 Q  Tan 1 ¦ , if a x b
2 § a b µ¶

If a  b, then cos 2Q  0  2Q  P /2 or Q  P /4.


Worked-Out Problems 11

WORKED-OUT PROBLEMS
Since this chapter is only to recall what the students have 4. Show that the three points P(a, b c), Q(b, c a) and
learnt in their junior classes and practice the important R(c, a b) are collinear.
formulae, we give a combination of both subjective and
Solution: We have
objective type questions here. Students should practice
all questions. 1 a(c a a b) b(a b b c)
Area of $PQR 
2 c(b c c a)
1
Questions Based on Basic  ac ab ba bc cb ca
2
Formulae
1
1. Find the area of the triangle whose vertices are  0
2
A(2, 3), B(4, 2) and C( 5, 2). 0
Solution: We have Therefore P, Q, R are collinear (see Quick Look 3).
1
Area  x1 ( y2 y3 ) x2 ( y3 y1 ) x3 ( y1 y2 ) 5. If the three points A(3, 1), B(2K, 3K) and C(K, 2K) are
2
collinear, find the value of K.
1
 2[2 ( 2)] 4[ 2 ( 3)]] 5( 3 2)
2 Solution: A, B and C are collinear implies
1 Area of $ABC  0
 8 4 25
2
1
37  3(3L 2 L ) 2 L (2 L 1) L (1 3L )  0
 sq. units 2
2
1
 3L 4 L 2 2 L L 3L 2  0
2. Show that the area of the triangle with vertices 2
A( 3, 4), B(6, 2) and C(4, 3) is 24.5 sq. units.  L 2 2L  0
Solution: We have  L  0 or L  2
1 Now
Area  x1 ( y2 y3 ) x2 ( y3 y1 ) x3 ( y1 y2 )
2 K  0 B  C so that A, B and C are collinear.
1 K  2 A  (3, 1), B  ( 4, 6) and C  ( 2, 4)
 3(2 3) 6( 3 4) 4(4 2)
2
1 6. If the three points (a, 0), (0, b) and (2, 2) are collinear,
 15 42 8
2 then show that
1
 49 1 1 1
2 
a b 2
 24.5 sq. units
Solution: By hypothesis
3. Prove that the points A(x, x – 2), B(x 3, x) and C(x 2,
1
x 2) form a triangle whose area is independent of x. a(b 2) 0(2 0) 2(0 b)  0
2
Solution: We have  ab 2a 2b  0
1  2a 2b  ab
Area of $ABC  x[ x ( x 2)] ( x 3)[ x 2 ( x 2)]
2 1 1 1
 
( x 2)( x 2 x) a b 2
1
 2 x 4 x 12 2 x 4 7. The points (1, 2), (2, 4) and (t, 6) are collinear. Find t.
2
8 Solution: By hypothesis the area of the triangle is zero.

2 Therefore
 4 sq. units which is independent of x
12 Chapter 1 Rectangular Coordinates, Basic Formulae, Locus and Change of Axes

1 bisect each other. Hence, AC and BD bisect each other.


1(4 6) 2(6 2) t(2 4)  0 That is, AC and BD have the same point as their mid-
2
1 point.
 2 8 2t  0 Therefore
2
 6 2t  0 ¥ x1 x3 y1 y3 ´ ¥ x2 x y2 y ´
¦§ , µ ¦ , µ
t4 2 2 ¶ § 2 2 ¶
 x1 x3  x2 x, y1 y3  y2 y
8. If O is the origin and Q( 2, 4) is a point on OP such
 x  x1 x2 x3 , y  y1 y2 y3
that OQ  (1/3)OP, find the coordinates of P.
Solution: Let P  (x, y). See Fig. 1.6. Now, D C(x 3, y3)
OQ  (1/3)OP OP  3OQ
OQ:QP  1:2
Therefore A(x 1, y1) B(x 2, y2)
¥ x y´ FIGURE 1.7
( 2, 4)  Q  ¦ , µ
§ 3 3¶
x y Note: The student can remember it easily.
  2,  4
3 3
 x  6, y  12 11. If P(1, 2), Q(4, 6), R(5, 7) and S(a, b) are the verti-
ces of a parallelogram PQRS, then find the values of
 P  ( 6, 12) a and b. (IIT-JEE 1998)
1 2 Solution: According to the above formula (Problem
O (0, 0) Q (−2, −4) P (x , y ) 10), we have
FIGURE 1.6 a1 5–42
b2 7–63
9. If x1, x2, x3 as well as y1, y2, y3 are in GP with the same
common ratio, then show that the points (x1, y1), 12. Show that the four points A( a, b), O(0, 0), B(a, b)
(x2, y2) and (x3, y3) are collinear. (IIT-JEE 1999) and C(a2, ab) are collinear.
Solution: Let x2  x1k, x3  x1k2 and y2  y1k, y3  y1k2. Solution: Since O(0, 0) is the midpoint of AB it fol-
Then lows that
Points A, O and B are collinear (1.6)
x1 x2 x3 x1 x1k x1k 2
Now,
y1 y2 y3  y1 y1k y1k 2
1 1 1 1 1 1 a 0 a 2 1 0 a
b 0 ab  ab 1 0 a  0 (& two rows are identical)
1 k k2 1 1 1 1 1 1
 x1 y1 1 k k 2
Points A, O and C are collinear (1.7)
1 1 1
Statements (1.6) and (1.7) A, O, B, C are collinear.
 0 (sin
nce two rows are identical)
13. Let O(0, 0), P(3, 4), Q(6, 0) be the vertices of the tri-
Hence, the points are collinear (by Quick Look 3).
angle OPQ. The point R lies inside the $OPQ such
10. In a parallelogram ABCD if (x1, y1), (x2, y2) and
that the triangles OPR, PQR, OQR are of equal area.
(x3, y3) are the coordinates of A, B, C, respectively, The coordinates of R are
then show that the coordinates of D are (x1 x3 – x2, (A) (4/3, 3) (B) (3, 2/3)
y1 + y3 – y2).
(C) (3, 4/3) (D) (4/3, 2/3)
Solution: Suppose the coordinates of D are (x, y). See
(IIT-JEE 2007)
Fig. 1.7. It is known that in a parallelogram the diagonals
Worked-Out Problems 13

Solution: A point inside a triangle divides the triangle Solution: Suppose C  (x, y). Then
into three triangles of equal areas if and only if the point
is the centroid of the triangle. Hence, R must be the cen- ¥ 4 5 x 3 2 y ´
(0, 0)  ¦ , µ¶
troid of $OPQ. Therefore § 3 3
4 5 x 3 2 y
¥ 0 3 6 0 4 0´ ¥ 4´   0 and 0
R¦ , µ  ¦ 3, µ 3 3
§ 3 3 ¶ § 3¶  x  1, y  1
Answer: (C) So the coordinates of C are (1, 1).
14. An integral point means that both coordinates of 17. If A(a, b), B(a r cos @, b r sin @ ) and C(a r cos A,
the point are integers. The number of integral points b r sin A ) are the vertices of an equilateral triangle,
exactly in the interior of the triangle with vertices then
(0, 0), (0, 21) and (21, 0) (see Fig. 1.8) is
(A) A B  π/4 (B) A B  π/2
(A) 133 (B) 190 (C) 233 (D) 105
(C) A B  π/6 (D) A B  π/3
Solution: The integral points must be on the vertical
lines x  1, 2, 3, …, 20. The number of integral points on Solution: $ABC is an equilateral triangle implies
x  1 inside the triangle are (1, 1), (1, 2), (1, 3), …, (1, 19)
(total number is 19). Similarly, the number of points on AB  BC  CA
x  2 is 18, on x  3 is 17, etc. Finally, the number of points  r 2 (cos2 A sin 2 A )  r 2 (cos2 B sin 2 B ) 
on x  19 is 1 and on x  20 is 0.
r 2 (cos A cos B )2 r 2 (sin A sin B )2
Therefore, the total number of integral points inside
the triangle is  2r 2 [1 cos(A B )]  r 2
19 s 20 1
19 18 17 ! 1 0   190  cos(A B ) 
2 2
P
 A B 
P(0, 21) 3
(1, 20)
Answer: (D)

18. The centroid of $ABC is (2, 7). If A  (4, 8), B  (a, 0)


and C  (0, b), then

O(0, 0) (A) a  2, b  13 (B) a  2, b  13


x=1 Q(21, 0)
(C) a  13, b  2 (D) a  2, b  13
FIGURE 1.8
Solution: By hypothesis
Answer: (B)
4 a 0 8 0 b
 2 and 7
15. A line segment AB is of length 10 units and A  3 3
(2, 3). If the abscissa of B is 10, then there will be two
This implies a  2, b  13.
values for the coordinate of B whose sum is equal to
Answer: (B)
(A) 3 (B) –3 (C) 6 (D) –6
Solution: Suppose B  (10, y). Then 19. If the point P(x, y) is equidistant from the points
A (6, 1) and B(2, 3), then find a relation between
AB  10  (10 – 2)2 (y 3)2 102 x and y.
(y 3)2  36
Solution: By hypothesis
y 3  ±6
PA  PB
y  3 or –9
PA2  PB2
Therefore, the sum of the values of y  3 – 9  –6.
(x 6)2 (y 1)2  (x 2)2 (y 3)2
Answer: (D)
x2 12x 36 y2 2y 1  x2 4x 4 y2 6y 9
16. Origin is the centroid of a triangle ABC. If A  (4, –3) 8x 8y  24
and B  (–5, 2), then find the coordinates of C. x y  3
14 Chapter 1 Rectangular Coordinates, Basic Formulae, Locus and Change of Axes

20. If the area of the triangle whose vertices are (a, 0),  Absolute value of
(3, 4) and (5, 2) is 10, then m1 m2 m2 m1
a2
(A) a  1 or 22/3 (B) a  1 or 13/3 (m3 m1 )(m3 m2 ) m1 m2 1 1
2
(C) a  1 or 23/3 (D) a  2 or 23/3 1 0 0
Solution: By hypothesis 1 2
 a (m1 m2 )(m2 m3 )(m3 m1 )
6a 26  p 20 2
 a  46/6 or 6/6
23. If a, b, c are the roots of the equation x3 – 6x2 11x –
 a  1 or 23/3
6  0, then find the centroid of the triangle whose ver-
Answer: (C) tices are (ab, 1/ab), (bc, 1/bc), (ca, 1/ca).
Solution: By hypothesis
21. If the points (x, 2 2x), (1 x, 2x) and ( 4 x, 6 2x)
are collinear, find x. a b c6
ab bc ca  11
Solution: By hypothesis,
and abc  6
1 x(2 x 6 2 x) (1 x)(6 2 x 2 2 x)
0 Therefore
2 (4 x)(2 2 x 2 x)
 x(4 x 6) 4(1 x) (4 x)(4 x 2)  0 ab bc ca 11

3 3
 4 x 2 6 x 4 4 x 4 x 2 14 x 8  0
 8x2 4x 4  0 and

 2x2 x 1  0 1¥ 1 1 1 ´ a b c 6 1
¦ µ  
 (2 x 1)( x 1)  0 3 § ab bc ca ¶ 3abc 3s6 3
1 Hence, the centroid of the triangle is
 x  , 1
2 ¥ 1 1 1´

Note: ¦ ab bc ca ab bc ca µ ¥ 11 1 ´
¦ 3
,
3 µ  ¦§ 3 , 3 µ¶
1 ¥1 ´ ¦§ µ¶
x  ( x, 2 2 x)  (1 x, 2 x)  ¦ , 1µ
2 §2 ¶
Caution: First, we have to check whether a, b, c are real
22. Show that the area of the triangle whose vertices or not. In the present case, the roots of the given equa-
are (am1m2, a(m1 m2)), (am2m3, a(m2 m3)) and tion are 1, 2 and 3.
(am3m1, a(m3 m1)) is
24. Find the area of the triangle having midpoints of its
1 2
a (m1 m2 )(m2 m3 )(m3 m1 ) sides at (2, 1), ( 1, 3) and (4, 5).
2
Solution: Area of the triangle is four times the area of
Solution: Let $ be the area of the determinant so that
the triangle formed by the midpoints of its sides. There-
the value of $ is the numerical value (i.e., absolute value)
fore
of the determinant
1
am1 m2 am2 m3 am3 m1 Area of the triangle  4 s 2( 3 5) 1(5 1) 4(1 3)
1 2
a(m1 m2 ) a(m2 m3 ) a(m3 m1 )  2 16 4 16
2
1 1 1  8 sq. units
m1 m2 m2 m3 m3 m1
a2 25. O(0, 0) is one of the vertices of triangle whose cir-
 Absolute value of m1 m2 m2 m3 m3 m1
2 cumcentre is S(3, 4) and centroid G(6, 8). Then, the
1 1 1
 Absolute value of triangle
m1 m2 m2 (m3 m1 ) m1 (m3 m2 ) (A) is right angled
a2
m1 m2 m3 m1 m3 m2 (B) must be equilateral
2
1 0 0 (C) must be right-angled isosceles
(By C2 C1 and C3 C1) (D) is isosceles
Worked-Out Problems 15

Solution: Clearly S(3, 4) is the midpoint of OG (see Now,


Fig. 1.9). Hence OG is the median through as well as the ¥ ax bx2 cx3 ay1 by2 cy3 ´
perpendicular bisector of the side opposite to the vertex Incentre  ¦ 1 , µ
§ a b c a b c ¶
O. Hence the triangle is isosceles.
where
O(0, 0)
ax1 bx2 cx3 5 5 (2) 3 5( 2) 4 5( 4)

a b c 12 5
S(3, 4) 10 5 22 5
  1
12 5
ay1 by2 cy3 5 5 (3) 3 5 ( 5) 4 5 (6)
G(6, 8) 
a b c 12 5
FIGURE 1.9
39 5 15 5
Answer: (D)  2
12 5
26. Find the circumcentre and circumradius of the Hence, the incentre of the triangle is ( 1, 2).
triangle whose vertices are A(1, 1), B(2, 1) and
C(3, 2). 28. Find the ratio in which the point ( 2, 9) divides the
Solution: Let S(x, y) be the circumcentre of $ABC so segment joining the points A(1, 3) and B(2, 7).
that SA  SB  SC. Now Solution: Suppose P  ( 2, 9) and AP:PB  m:1. Then
using section formula we have
SA  SB  (x 1)2 (y 1)2  (x 2)2 (y 1)2
 2x 2y 2  4x 2y 5 ¥ 2m 1 7m 3 ´
( 2, 9)  ¦ ,
§ m 1 m 1 µ¶
 2x 4y  3 (1.8)
This implies
SB  SC  (x 2)2 (y 1)2  (x 3)2 (y 2)2
2m 1 7m 3
 4x 2y 5  6x 4y 13 2  and 9  (1.11)
m 1 m 1
 2x 6y  8 (1.9)
Solving the first equality in Eq. (1.11), we get
SC  SA  (x 3)2 (y 2)2  (x 1)2 (y 1)2
2m 2  2m 1
 6x 4y 13  2x 2y 2
 4 m  3
 4x 2y  11 (1.10)
 m  3 / 4
Solving Eqs. (1.8) and (1.9), we have x  5/2 and y  1/2
which also satisfy Eq. (1.10). Hence Solving the second equality in Eq. (1.11), we get

¥ 5 1´ 9m 9  7m 3
Circumcentre of the triangle  ¦ , µ
§ 2 2¶  16 m  12
2 2
 m  3/4
¥5 ´ ¥1 ´ 9 1 5
Circumradius, SA  ¦§ 1µ¶ ¦§ 1µ¶   We can see from both cases that the ratio is –3:4 or 3: –4.
2 2 4 4 2
The division is external division.
27. Find the incentre of the triangle whose vertices are
A (2, 3), B( 2, 5) and C( 4, 6). 29. Show that the points ( 3, 4), (2, 6) and ( 6, 10) form
a right-angled triangle.
Solution: We have
Solution: Let the vertices be A, B and C, respectively.
2 2 Then
a  BC  ( 2 4) ( 5 6)  4 121  5 5

b  CA  (2 4)2 (3 6)2  36 9  3 5 (AB)2  ( 3 2)2 ( 4 6)2  25 100  125


(BC)2  (2 6) 2 (6 – 10)2  64 16  80
c  AB  (2 2)2 (3 5)2  16 64  4 5
(CA)2  ( 6 3)2 (10 4)2  9 196  205
Therefore
Now, by Pythagoras theorem, we have
a b c  12 5
(AB)2 (BC)  (AC)2
16 Chapter 1 Rectangular Coordinates, Basic Formulae, Locus and Change of Axes

 B  90o 33. Find the equation of the locus of a point P which


moves such that its distance from the origin is twice
Hence, $ABC is a right-angled triangle. its distance from the point A(1, 2).
30. The circumcentre of a triangle lies at the origin and Solution: We have
the centroid is the midpoint of the segment joining
(2, 2) and (2, 2). Find the orthocentre. OP  2PA š(OP)2  4(PA)2
šx2 y2  4[(x 1)2 (y 2)2]
Solution: In a triangle, circumcentre, centroid and
orthocentre are collinear and the centroid divides the šx2 y2  4x2 4y2 – 8x 16y 20
line joining the circumcentre and orthocentre in the ra- š3x2 3y2 – 8x 16y 20  0
tio 1:2. Hence, the equation of the locus is 3x2 3y2 8x – 16y
Suppose H(x, y) is the orthocentre. Then 20  0.
OG:GH  1:2
34. Find the locus of the point P such that the distance
Now, O  (0, 0), G  (2, 0) and H  (x, y) (see Fig. 1.10). of P from the point A(4, 0) is twice the distance of P
Therefore from the x-axis.
OG:GH  1:2  (2, 0)  G  (x/3, y/3) Solution: Let P  (x, y). Distance of P from the x-axis
x  6, y  0 is y . Therefore
So H  (6, 0). AP  2 y š ( AP )2  4 y2
1 2 š ( x 4) 2 y 2  4 y 2
O (0, 0) G (2, 0) H (x, y ) š x 2 3 y2 8 x 16  0
FIGURE 1.10
Hence the equation of the locus is x2 3y2 8x 16  0.

Locus 35. Let A  (2, 3) and B  ( 3, 4). If P is a moving point


such that the area of $PAB is 17/2 sq. units, then find
31. Find the locus of the point which is equidistant from the locus of P.
the points ( 3, 1) and (7, 5).
Solution: Let P  (x, y). Then
Solution: Let A  ( 3, 1) and B  (7, 5). Let P  (x, y).
Then 17
Area of $PAB 
2
AP  PB š(AP)2  (PB)2 1 17
š(x 3)2 (y 1)2  (x 7)2 (y 5)2 š x(3 4) 2(4 y) 3( y 3) 
2 2
š6x 2y 10  14x 10y 74 š x 5 y 17  17
š20x 8y 64  0 š x 5 y 17  p17
š5x 2y – 16  0 Therefore the equation of the locus is
Hence, the equation of the locus is 5x 2y – 16  0. (x 5y) (x 5y – 34)  0
32. Let A(5, 4) and B(7, 6) be two points. Find the
36. Find the equation of the locus of the point which is
locus of the point P such that PA:PB  2:3. at a constant distance of 5 units from the fixed point
Solution: Let P be (x, y). Then ( 2, 3).

PA:PB  2:3 š3PA  2PB Solution: Let A  ( 2, 3) and let P  (x, y). Now
š9(PA)2  4(PB)2 AP  5 š(AP)2  25
š9[(x – 5)2
(y 4)2]
 4[(x – 7)2 š(x 2)2 (y – 3)2  25
(y – 6)2] šx2 y2 4x – 6y – 12  0
š5x2 5y2 34x 120y 29  0
The equation of the locus is x2 y2 4x – 6y – 12  0.
Hence, the equation of the locus is 5x2 5y2 34x 120y Later in Chapter 3, we will see that this equation repre-
29  0. This equation represents circle (which will be dis- sents circle with centre at the point ( 2, 3) and radius 5
cussed in Chapter 3). units.
Worked-Out Problems 17

Change of Axes X Y
and y  X sin( 45B ) Y cos(45B ) 
37. Suppose the origin is shifted to the point ( 1, 2). Find 2
the new coordinates of the point (2, 3). Now,
Solution: Let (X, Y) be the new coordinates. Therefore 2 2
by the formula [Eq. (1.1)], we have ¥ X Y´ ¥Y X´
x 2 y2  a 2  ¦ µ ¦ µ a
2
§ 2 ¶ § 2 ¶
2  x 1, 3  y 2
 4 XY  2a 2
 x  3, y  1
a2 a
Hence, (3, 1) are new coordinates of the point (2, 3).  XY  or XY  c 2 where c 
2 2
38. Find the transformed form of the equation 2x2 4xy Note: When we deal with hyperbola (conic section), we
3y2  0 if the origin is shifted to the point (1, 1). see that x 2 y2  a 2 is the standard equation of rectan-
Solution: Put x  X 1, y  Y 1 in the given equation. gular hyperbola and xy  c 2 is the rectangular hyperbola
We get in the simplest form.

2(X 1)2 4(X 1) (Y 1) 3(Y 1)2  0 41. Find the point to which origin is to be shifted so as
 2X 2 4XY 3Y 2 8X 10Y 9  0 to remove the first degree terms of the equation
2 x 2 4 xy 5 y2 20 x 22 y 14  0.

39. When the axes are rotated through 30o in the anti-
Solution: In the given equation, a  2, h  2, b  5,
clockwise sense without changing the origin, find the g  10, f  11, c  14. Therefore
new coordinates of the point ( 2, 4). ab – h2  10 – 4  14
hf – bg  2( 11) – ( 5)(10)  22 50  28
Solution: Let (x, y) be the old coordinates and (X, Y)
gh – af  10(2) – 2( 11)  42
be the new coordinates. Therefore
Therefore
x  X cos Q Y sin Q (1.12)
¥ hf bg gh af ´
and y  X sin Q Y cos Q (1.13) New origin  ¦ ,
§ ab h2 ab h2 µ¶
Solving Eq. (1.12), we get
¥ 28 42 ´
¦ ,
2  X cos 30B Y sin 30B § 14 14 µ¶
3X Y  (
2, 3)
 2 
2 42. Find the angle through which the axes are to be
 3 X Y  4 (1.14) rotated so as to remove the xy-term from the equation
Solving Eq. (1.13), we get x 2 2 3 xy y2 2a 2  0.

4  X sin 30B Y cos 30B Solution: In the given equation, a  1, h  3 and


b  1 so that a x b. Therefore
X 3Y
4
2 1 ¥ 2h ´
Required angle of rotation  Tan 1 ¦
 X 3Y  8 (1.15) 2 § a b µ¶

Solving Eqs. (1.14) and (1.15), we get X  2 3 and 1 ¥ 2 3´


 Tan 1 ¦ µ
Y  1 2 3 are the new coordinates of ( 2, 4). 2 § 2 ¶
1
40. If the axes are rotated through 45o in the clockwise  Tan 1 ( 3 )
2
sense, then find the transformed form of the equa-
1¥P´
tion x 2 y2  a 2.  ¦ µ
2 § 3¶
Solution: Let (x, y) and (X, Y) be the old and the new P
coordinates, respectively. Therefore 
6
X Y
x  X cos( 45B ) Y sin( 45B ) 
2
18 Chapter 1 Rectangular Coordinates, Basic Formulae, Locus and Change of Axes

SUMMARY
1.1 Distance between two points: If A(x1, y1) and (2) Excentre
B(x2, y2) are two points, then the distance ¥ ax1 bx2 cx3 ay1 by2 cy3 ´
between the two points is given by I1  ¦ , µ
§ a b c a b c ¶
AB  ( x2 x1 )2 ( y2 y1 )2 (3) Excentre
¥ ax bx2 cx3 ay1 by2 cy3 ´
1.2 Section formula: If A(x1, y1) and B(x2, y2) are two I2  ¦ 1 , µ
§ a b c a b c ¶
points and P(x, y) is a point on the line AB dividing
(4) Excentre
the segment AB in the ratio l:m, where l m x 0,
then ¥ ax bx2 cx3 ay1 by2 cy3 ´
I3  ¦ 1 , µ
§ a b c a b c ¶
lx2 mx1 ly my1
x and y  2
l m l m 1.8 Nine-point centre: In any triangle, the midpoints
of the sides, the feet of the altitudes and the
This formula is valid for both internal and external
midpoints of the segments joining the vertices with
divisions.
the orthocentre are concyclic. This circle is called
1.3 Midpoint: If A(x1, y1) and B(x2, y2) are two points, the nine-point circle whose centre is known as the
then the coordinates of the midpoint of AB are nine-point centre which is denoted by N.
given by 1.9 In any triangle, the circumcentre S, the centroid
¥ x1 x2 y1 y2 ´ G, the nine-point centre N and the orthocentre H
¦§ , µ are collinear in the given order (that is, SGNH).
2 2 ¶
Further, G divides SH in the ratio 1:2 and N is
1.4 Centroid coordinates: If G(x, y) is the centroid of the midpoint of SH. Further, the radius of the
a triangle whose vertices are (x1, y1), (x2, y2) and nine-point circle is half of the circumradius of the
(x3, y3), then triangle.
x1 x2 x3 y y2 y3 1.9* Pedal line: Let ABC be a triangle and P be a point
x and y  1 on the circumcircle of the triangle other than the
3 3
vertices. Then the feet of the perpendiculars drawn
1.5 Area of a triangle: The area of the triangle whose from P on to the sides of the triangle are collinear.
vertices are (x1, y1), (x2, y2) and (x3, y3) is the abso- This line is called the Pedal line of the point P or
lute value of the determinant Simson’s line.
x1 y1 1 1.10 If A(x1, y1), B(x2, y2) and C(x3, y3) are three
1 consecutive vertices of a parallelogram ABCD,
x2 y2 1
2 then the fourth vertex D is given by (x1 x3 – x2,
x3 y3 1
y1 y3 – y2).
1.6 Condition for collinearity of three points: Three 1.11 Locus: Let P be a geometrical condition(s) and S
points (x1, y1), (x2, y2) and (x3, y3) are collinear if and be the set of all points in the plane which satisfy P.
only if Then S is called a locus.
x1 y1 1 1.12 Equation of the locus: Let S be a locus and
x2 y2 1 0 f(x, y)  0 be an algebraic equation in x and y.
x3 y3 1 If every point (x, y) belonging to S satisfies the
equation f(x, y)  0, and any point in the plane
1.7 Coordinates of incentres and excentres: Let A(x1, satisfying the equation f(x, y)  0 belongs to S, then
y1), B(x2, y2) and C(x3, y3) be the vertices of a tri- f(x, y)  0 is called the equation of the locus S. The
angle and suppose the lengths BC, CA, and AB are locus is generally given by its equation.
a, b, c, respectively, then 1.13 Shifting of origin without changing the direction of
¥ ax bx2 cx3 ay1 by2 cy3 ´ the axes: Suppose the origin O (0, 0) is shifted to the
(1) Incentre I  ¦ 1 , µ point Oa(h, k ). Let the old and the new coordinates
§ a b c a b c ¶
of a point be (x, y) and (X, Y), respectively. Then x
 X h and y  Y k give the relations between the
old and the new coordinates.
Exercises 19

1.14 Rotation
FHHHHE of the Faxes
HHHHE without changing the origin: are called the first degree terms and c is called the
Let x aOx and y a Oy be the original axes. Rotate constant term.
these axes through an angle P in the anticlockwise
1.17 Theorem: To remove the first degree terms from
direction about the origin
FHHHHHHE O. Let the
E new position
FHHHHHH the second degree general equation, the origin is to
of the axes be X aOX and Y aOY . If (x, y) and
be shifted to the point
(X, Y) be the coordinates of a point with respect to
the old and the new axes, then ¥ hf bg gh af ´
¦§ , µ
x  X cos P – Y sin P and y  X sin P Y cos P ab h2 ab h2 ¶
If the rotation is in the clockwise sense, then in the provided h2 x ab.
above relations, replace P with –P.
1.18 To remove the xy term from the second degree
1.15 Second degree homogeneous and general general equation, the axes are to be rotated through
equations: the angle
(1) Homogeneous equation: If a, h, b are real and 1 ¥ 2h ´
Tan 1 ¦
atleast one of them is not zero, then ax2 2hxy 2 § a b µ¶
by2  0 is called second degree homogeneous
equation in x and y. provided a x b. When a  b, the angle of rotation is
P /4.
(2) General equation: If a, h, b, g, f and c are real and
atleast one of a, h, b is not zero, then the equa- 1.19 When the origin is shifted, the second degree terms of
tion ax2 2hxy by2 2gx 2fy c  0 is called the second degree general equation will not change.
second degree general equation in x and y.
1.20 In the change of axes, only the coordinates of a
1.16 In the second degree general equation, ax2, 2hxy, point will change, but the distance between two
by2 are called the second degree terms, 2gx, 2fy points and the areas will not change.

EXERCISES
1. Show that the points (1, 1), ( 3 , 3 ) and (0, 3 1 ) 10. Show that the four points (0, 1), (2, 1), (0, 3), ( 2, 1),
form the vertices of an isosceles right-angled triangle. taken in this order, form a square.

2. Let ABCD be a rectangle and P any point in the plane 11. Find the area of the triangle whose vertices are (5, 2)
of the rectangle. Then, prove that ( 9, 3) and ( 3, 5).

(PA)2 (PC)2  (PB)2 (PD)2 12. Show that the area of the triangle whose vertices are
HHHHE HHHHE (a cos A , bsin A ), (a cos B, bsin B ) and (a cos G ,
(Hint: Take A as origin, AB and AD as axes.) bsin G ), where a, b are positive, is
3. Prove that the points (3, 6), (2, 1) and (1, 4) are col- ¥ A B´ ¥ B G ´ ¥G A´
2ab sin ¦ µ sin ¦ µ sin ¦
linear. § 2 ¶ § 2 ¶ § 2 µ¶
4. Show that the points (1, 4), (3, 2) and ( 3, 16) are
13. O is the origin, P1  (x1, y1), P2  (x2, y2) and P1OP2  Q .
collinear. Show that OP1 – OP2 – cos Q  x1 x2 y1 y2 .
5. Show that the points (a, a), ( a, a) and ( a 3 , a 3)
14. Find the incentre of the triangle whose vertices are
are the vertices of an equilateral triangle. (7, 9), (3, 7) and ( 3, 3).
6. Let A  (3, 5), B  ( 5, 4), C  (7, 10) and D  (15, 9).
15. Find the centroid of the triangle with vertices (2, 7),
In the given order, show that the points form a paral- (3, 1) and ( 5, 6).
lelogram.
16. Find the incentre of the triangle whose vertices are
7. If A  (2, 3), B  (6, 5), C  ( 2, 1) and D  ( 6, 7),
(3, 2), (7, 2) and (7, 5).
then show that ABCD is a rhombus.
17. Let A  (2, 3) and B  ( 1, 5). If P is a variable point
8. Show that (1, 6), (5, 2), (12, 9), (8, 13), taken in this
such that the segment AB subtends right angle at P,
order, form a rectangle.
then find the equation of the locus of P.
9. If A  (5, 3), B  (11, 5) and C  (12, K) are such that
18. Let A  (1, 1) and B  ( 2, 3). If P is a variable point
ABC  90o, then show that K equals either 4 or 2.
such that the area of $PAB is 2 sq. units, then show
20 Chapter 1 Rectangular Coordinates, Basic Formulae, Locus and Change of Axes

that the equation of the locus of P is (2x 3y 1) 28. (2, 3), (3, 4) and (6, 8) are the vertices of a triangle.
(2x 3y 9)  0. Find its centroid, circumcentre and orthcentre.
19. O(0, 0), A(6, 0) and B(0, 4) are three points. P is a (Hint: To find the orthocentre, refer the note under
variable point such that the area of $POB is twice Quick Look 4.)
that of $POA. Show that the equation of the locus of 29. If the origin is shifted to the point (1, 1), then find
P is x2 9y2  0. the transformed equation of x2 y2 – 2x 2y – 4  0.
20. A(2, 3), B(1, 5) and C( 1, 2) are three points. P is 30. Show that the equation 2x2 y2 – 8x 4y 1  0 will
a variable point such that (PA)2 (PB)2  2(PC)2. be transferred to 2X 2 Y  11 if the origin is shifted
Show that the locus of P is 10x 8y 29  0. to the point (2, 2).
21. Let A  (2, 3) and B  (2, 3). Find the locus of the 31. Find the point to which the origin is to be shifted so
point P such that PA PB  8. as to remove the first degree terms of the following
22. Show that the equation of the locus of the point equations:
equidistant from the points (a b, a b) and (a b, (i) x2 y2 8x – 6y – 25  0
a b) is x y  0.
(ii) 4x2 9y2 – 8x 36y 4  0
23. Find the incentre of the triangle with vertices (1, 3 ), (iii) 14x2 4xy 11y2 – 36x 48y 41  0
(0, 0) and (2, 0).
32. When the axes are rotated through an angle 45o in
(Hint: The triangle is equilateral.)
the anticlockwise sense, then show that the equation
24. A point moves such that the sum of its distances 3x2 10xy 3y2 – 9  0 will be transformed to the
from two fixed points (ae, 0) and ( ae, 0) is always form 8x2 – 2y2 – 9  0.
2a. Prove that the equation of the locus is x2/a2
33. When the axes are rotated through an angle O /4 in
y2/b2  1 where b2  a2(1 – e2) or a2(e2 1) according
the anticlockwise sense, the transformed equation of
as 0 e 1 or e  1.
a curve is 17x2 – 16xy 17y2  225. Find the original
25. Show that the equation of the locus of the point equation of the curve.
which is equidistant from the points (a b, b – a) (Hint: Solve the equation x  X cos Q Y sin Q ,
and (a – b, a b) is bx – ay  0. y  X sin Q Y cos Q for X and Y after replacing P
26. A bar of length a b is moving such that its extremi- with O /4 and substitute the values of X and Y in the
ties lie on the coordinate axes. Show that the locus of given equation.)
the point dividing the bar in the ratio a:b (the direc- 34. Find the angle through which the axes are to be
tion is from y-axis tip towards x-axis tip) is x2/a2 rotated so as to remove the xy term of the equation
y2/b2  1. x2 y2 4xy – 2x 2y – 6  0.
27. (@, A ), ( x , y ) and (p, q) are the circumcentre, 35. Find the angle of rotation of the axes so as to remove
centroid and orthocentre of a triangle. Prove that the xy term from the equation x 2 2 3 xy y2  2a 2
3 x  2A p and 3 y  2B q . and also find the transformed form.
(Hint: See the note given under Quick Look 4.)

ANSWERS
11. 29 sq. units 28. G  (11/3, 5); Circumcentre  ( 27/2, 39/2); Orthocen-
tre  (38, 24)
14. ( 13 8 2 , 2 2 1 )
29. x2 y2  6
15. (0, 4)
31. (i) ( 4, 3); (ii) (1, 2); (iii) (1, 2)
16. (6, 3)
33. 25x2 9y2  225
17. x2 y2 – x 8y 13  0
34. 45o
21. 16x2 7y2 – 64x – 48  0
35. 30o, x2 – y2  a2
23. (1, 1/ 3 )
Straight Line and Pair
of Lines 2
Contents
2.1 Straight Line
2.2 Pair of Lines
Straight Line and Pair of Lines

y
14
Worked-Out Problems
Summary
12
Exercises
Answers
10

The simplest geometric figure is a


6
straight line which is a line segment
joining any two points.
4
Two lines, that is, pair of lines, can be
2 related each other by different ways
such as intersecting lines, perpendic-
ular lines and parallel lines.
−4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 x
−2

Parallel lines Perpendicular lines

Intersecting lines
22 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

In this chapter, we discuss various types (forms) of equations of a straight line, angle between two lines, conditions for
two lines to be parallel and perpendicular, sides of straight lines, concurrency of lines, etc. ‘Subjective Problems’ sec-
tion provides subjective worked-out problems for the preceding sections. Students are advised to solve each and every
problem to grasp the topics.

2.1 Straight Line


When areas of coordinates are selected, any line parallel to x-axis (including x-axis) is called a horizontal line and any
line perpendicular to x-axis is called a vertical line. First, we discuss the concept of an ‘slope of a non-vertical line’.

DEFINITION 2.1 Slope If a non-vertical line l makes an angle P with the positive direction of the x-axis (that is
measured in counterclock sense), then the value of tanP is called the slope of line l. Generally,
slope of a line is denoted by m.

Note: Slope is defined for non-vertical lines only. We do not talk about the slope of a vertical line.

QUICK LOOK 1

1. Since the angle made by a horizontal line with 3. The slope of a line is positive š the line makes acute
x-axis is 0 or O, its slope is always zero. angle with the positive direction of the x-axis.
2. Two non-vertical parallel lines make the same angles 4. The slope of line is negative š the line makes ob-
with the x-axis implies that their slopes are equal; tuse angle with the positive direction of the x-axis.
however, if the slopes of two lines are equal, then
the lines are parallel lines.

T H E O R E M 2.1 The slope of line passing through two points A(x1, y1) and B(x2, y2) is
y2 y1 ¥ y1 y2 ´

x2 x1 ¦§ x1 x2 µ¶
PROOF Case 1: If the line is horizontal, then
y1 y2
y1  y2  0
x1 x2

and slope of the line is also zero.


Case 2: If the line is not horizontal, then we consider the following: Let the line make an angle P
with the positive direction of the x-axis (see Fig. 2.1). Draw AL and BM perpendicular to x-axis
and AN perpendicular to BM. Clearly, NAB  P. Therefore, it is clear that
BN BN BM MN
tan Q   
AN LM OM OL
BM AL y2 y1
 
OM OL x2 x1

y
B

A q N

q
O L M x

FIGURE 2.1
2.1 Straight Line 23

DEFINITION 2.2 Intercepts of a Line Suppose a line meets x-axis in the point (a, 0) and y-axis in the point
(0, b). Then a is called x-intercept of the line and b is called the y-intercept of the line.

QUICK LOOK 2

1. A vertical line has x-intercept only. 3. For a line through origin, both intercepts are zero.
2. A horizontal line has y-intercept only.

T H E O R E M 2.2 Equation of a line passing through point A(x1, y1) and having slope m (see Fig. 2.2) is
(P O I N T –S L O P E
y y1  m( x x1 )
FORM)
PROOF Suppose P(x, y) is any point on the given line. Then, by Theorem 2.1, the slope of the line is
y y1
m
x x1
Therefore,
y y1  m( x x1 )
Conversely, let Q(xa, ya) be a point such that
y a y1  m( x x1 )
y a y1
 m (slope of the line)
x x1
FHHHE
This implies that the line AQ coincides with the given line which, in turn, implies that Q lies on
the given line. Therefore, equation of the line is y y1  m( x x1 ).
y

A (x1, y1)

q
x

FIGURE 2.2

Example 2.1

Write the equation of a line passing through ( 2 , 2 ) y 2  1( x 2 )


and having slope 1.
 x y0
Solution: We have m  1 and x1  2  y1. Therefore,
the equation of the line is

Example 2.2

Write the equation of the line which is inclined at an Solution: We have


angle O/3 with the positive direction of the x-axis and ¥P´
passing through the point (1, −2). m  tan ¦ µ  3
§ 3¶
24 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

Now given x1  1 and y1  2. Therefore, equation of the y 2  3 ( x 1)


line is
 3 x y (2 3 )  0

T H E O R E M 2.3 Equation of the line having slope m and y-intercept c is y  mx c.


(S L O P E –
INTERCEPT FORM)
PROOF Since c is the y-intercept of the line, the line passes through the point (0, c) and has slope m.
Therefore, by Theorem 2.2, the equation of the line is
y c  m( x 0)
 y  mx c

QUICK LOOK 3

Equation of any line passing through origin (excluding y-axis) is of the form y  mx (i.e., c  0).

Example 2.3

Write the equation of the line having slope 1/2 and 1


y-intercept 1. y x 1
2
Solution: We have m  1/2 and c  1 so that the equa-  x 2y 2  0
tion of the line is

Example 2.4

Write the equation of the line having slope 2 and at (3/2, 0) and (0, −3). Hence, the vertices of the triangle
y-intercept −3 and hence find the area of the triangle are (0, 0), (3/2, 0) and (0, −3). Therefore, area of the tri-
formed by this line and the two coordinate axes. angle is

Solution: We have m  2 and c  −3. Therefore, the 1 3 9


0 0 3  3 0 0 0 0  sq. unit
equation of the line is y  2 x 3 . The line meets the axes 2 2 4

T H E O R E M 2.4 If a and b are non-zero intercepts of a line on x- and y-axis, respectively, then the equation of these
(I N T E R C E P T two intercepts is
FORM)
x y
1
a b
PROOF This line passes through the points (a, 0) and (0, b) (see Fig. 2.3) so that its slope is
b 0 b

0 a a
Therefore, by Theorem 2.3, the equation of the line is
b
y ( x a)
a
2.1 Straight Line 25

y x
  1
b a
x y
 1
a b

B (0, b)

O A (a, 0) x

FIGURE 2.3

QUICK LOOK 4

Area of the triangle formed by the line and the coordinate axes is equal to
x y 1 1 1
1 (OA – OB)  a b  ab sq. unit
a b 2 2 2

Example 2.5

Find the equation of the line whose intercepts are numer- x y


or 1
ically equal. a a
That is,
Solution: Suppose the intercepts are a and −a or −a
and a. Then the equation is x ya

x y or x y  a
1
a a

Example 2.6

Find the equation of the line whose sum of the intercepts Now,
on the axes is 3 and their product is 2.
a b 3
Solution: The equation of a line is and ab  2

x y Solving these equations, we get a  2 and b  1 or a  1


1 and b  2. Therefore, equation of the lines is
a b
x y
1
2 1
26 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

x y Therefore, the equation of the line is


or 1
1 2 x 2y 2  0
or 2x y 2  0

T H E O R E M 2.5 Equation of the line passing through two points A(x1, y1) and B(x2, y2) is
(T W O -P O I N T
( x x1 )( y1 y2 ) ( y y1 )( x1 x2 )  0
FORM)
FHHHE
PROOF Case 1: Suppose the line AB is vertical. Hence, x1  x2 and y1 x y2 . If P(x, y) is any point on
FHHHE
the line AB, then x1  x2  x so that
( x x1 )( y1 y2 )  ( y y1 )( x1 x2 )
FHHHE
Case 2: AB is not a vertical line. Therefore, by Theorems 2.1 and 2.2, its equation is
( y1 y2 )
y y1  ( x x1 )
( x1 x2 )

 ( x x1 )( y1 y2 )  ( y y1 )( x1 x2 )

Example 2.7

Write the equation of the line passing through the points [ x (a b)][a b (a b)]  [ y (a b)][a b (a b)]
(a b, a b) and (a b, a b).
2b[ x (a b)]  2b[ y (a b)]
Solution: We have x1  a b, y1  a b, x2  a b and x a b  y a b
y2  a b. Therefore, equation of the line is Therefore
x y  2a

Example 2.8

Find the equation of the line joining the points ¥ A B´ ¥ A B´


(a cos A , a sin A ) and (a cos B, a sin B ) where a  0.  ( x a cos A )2 sin ¦ cos ¦  ( y a sin A )
§ 2 µ¶ § 2 µ¶
Solution: Equation of the line is ¥ A B A B´
¦§ 2 sin sin µ
2 2 ¶
( x a cos A )(a sin A a sin B )  ( y a sin A )
(a cos A a cos B )
A B ¥ A B´ ¨ A B
 x cos y sin ¦  a ©cos A cos
2 § 2 µ¶ ª 2
 ( x a cos A )(sin A sin B )  ( y a sin A )(cos A cos B )
A B·
sin A sin
2 ¸¹
A B A B ¥A B´
 x cos y sin  a cos ¦
2 2 § 2 µ¶

Note: One can see in Example 2.8 that (a cos A , a sin A ) and (a cos B, a sin B ) are the points on a circle with centre at
origin and radius a. In the above chord equation, if B  A , then x cos A y sin A  a is the equation of the tangent to
the circle with centre (0, 0) and radius a.
2.1 Straight Line 27

Example 2.9

Show that the equation of the line joining two points 2at2 2at1 2
(at12 , 2at1 ) and (at22 , 2at2 ) is 
at22 at12 t1 t2
2
y 2at1  ( x at12 ) Hence, the equation of the line is
t1 t2
2
Solution: The slope of the line joining the two points is y 2at1  ( x at12 )
t1 t2

Note: In Chapter 4, we will discuss and show that for all real values of t, the locus of the point (at 2, 2at ) is the parabola
y2  4ax and the equation of the tangent at (at 2, 2at ) is ty  x at 2 which can be obtained by substituting t1  t2  t
in the equation of the line joining the points (at12, 2at ) and (at22, 2at ) which is also discussed in Example 4.3.

T H E O R E M 2.6 A E l is such that its perpendicular distance ON (O is the origin) from the origin is p and the ray
line
FHHH
(E Q U A T I O N O F ON makes angle @ with the positive direction of the x-axis (measured in counterclock sense).
STRAIGHT LINE Then the equation of the line l is
IN NORMAL
x cos A y sin A  p
FORM)
PROOF Case 1: Suppose that the given line l is a vertical line meeting positive x-axis at point N [see Fig.
2.4(a)] so that ON  p and @  0. Therefore, if p(x, y) is any point on l, then x  p and the equation
of the line l is x  p which is equivalent to
x cos A y sin A  p (& A  0)
Similarly, if l meets the negative x-axis at point N [see Fig. 2.4(b)], then the equation of the line l
is x  −p so that
x cos A y sin A  p (& A  P )

y l l y

O p N (p, 0) x N (−p, 0) O x

(a) (b)

FIGURE 2.4

Case 2: Suppose the line l is horizontal and meets positive y-axis at point N so that N  (0, p) and
@  O/2 [see Fig. 2.5(a)]. Since its equation is y  p, it is also given by
x cos A y sin A  p (& A  P /2)
Similarly, if N lies on the negative y-axis, then N  (0, −p) and @  −3O/2 [see Fig. 2.5(b)] so that its
equation is y  −p. The equation of the line can be written as
x cos A y sin A  p
28 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

y y

a = 3p
l N (0, p) 2

p x
p
p =a
2
O x l N (0, −p)

(a) (b)

FIGURE 2.5

Case 3: Suppose l is an inclined line meeting positive coordinate axes at points A and B, respec-
tively [see Fig. 2.6(a)]. So the coordinates are A  (p sec@, 0) and B  (0, p cosec@). By Theorem 2.4,
the equation of the line l is
x y
1
p sec A p cosec A
Hence
x cos A y sin A  p
Similarly, for other cases, namely,
P 3P 3P
 A  P or P  A  or  A  3P
2 2 2
we can show that its equation is
x cos@ y sin@  p
These three cases are shown in Figs. 2.6(b), 2.6(c) and 2.6(d), respectively.

l y

N
p
a p a
O A x
p <a <p
l 2

(a) (b)
y y

l l

a
O x O p x
a
N N

p < a < 3p 3p < a < 2p


2 2

(c) (d)

FIGURE 2.6
2.1 Straight Line 29

Example 2.10

Find the equation of the line whose distance from origin Solution: We have p  2 at @  O /4. Hence, the equation
is 2 and the normal ray through origin makes an angle O /4 of the line is
with the positive direction of the x-axis measured in coun-
terclock sense. P P
x cos y sin  2 or x y  2 2
4 4

Example 2.11

Find the equation of the line whose distance from the 2P 2P ¥ 3´


¥ 1´
origin is 4 and the normal ray through origin makes an x cos y sin  4 or x¦ µ y¦ µ 4
3 3 § 2¶ § 2 ¶
angle (2O )/3 with the positive direction of the x-axis mea-
sured in counterclock sense. That is,
Solution: We have p  4 and @  (2O)/3. Hence the equa- x 3 y  8
tion of the line is

T H E O R E M 2.7 The equation of the straight line passing through (x1, y1) and making an angle P with the positive
(S Y M M E T R I C direction of the x-axis measured in counterclock sense is
FORM OF LINE)
( x x1 ) : cos Q  ( y y1 ) : sin Q

PROOF Suppose the line is L which passes through (x1, y1).


Case 1: The line L is vertical so that P  O /2. Since the equation of L is x  x1 which is written as
( x x1 ) : cos Q  ( y y1 ) : sin Q
because cosP  0 and sinP  1.
Case 2: Suppose L is non-vertical so that P xO /2. Hence by Theorem 2.2, its equation is
( y y1 )  tan Q ( x x1 )
 ( x x1 )sin Q  ( y y1 )cos Q
Thus
( x x1 ) : cos Q  ( y y1 ) : sin Q

If ( x x1 )  G cos Q and ( y y1 )  G sin Q , we have

( x x1 )2 ( y y1 )2  G

which shows that G represents the distance of the point (x, y) on the line from the given point (x1, y1). Therefore, if
(x, y) is any point on the line and F is any real parameter, then the locus of the point (x1 F cosP, y1 F sinP ) is the
straight line
( x x1 ) : cos Q  ( y y1 ) : sin Q
Also, F takes positive values for points on the line on one side of (x1, y1) and takes negative values for the points on the
other side of (x1, y1). For a given positive value of F , there will be two points on the line which are equidistant from (x1,
y1). Further, the equations
x  x1 F cosP and y  y1 F sinP
(P is a fixed and F is a parameter) are called the parametric equations of the line passing through (x1, y1) and making
angle P with the positive direction of the x-axis measured in counterclock sense.
30 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

Example 2.12

Write the parametric equation of the line passing through ¥ 3´


the point (3, 2) and making an angle 120° with the posi- and y  y1 G sin Q  2 G ¦ µ
tive direction of the x-axis measured in counterclock § 2 ¶
sense and also find the coordinates of the points on the Solving these equations, we get
line which are at unit distance from the point (3, 2). x  3 −F /2

Solution: We have (x1, y1)  (3, 2), cosP  cos 120°  −1/2 and y  2 F( 3 /2)
and sinP  sin 120°  3 /2. Therefore, the parametric Substituting F  1 and F  −1 in the above coordinates,
equations of the line are the points on the line which are at a distance of 1 unit
from the point (3, 2) are obtained, respectively, as
¥ 1´
x  x1 G cos Q  3 G ¦ µ ¥ 5 4 3´ ¥ 7 4 3´
§ 2¶
¦ 2 , 2 µ and ¦ 2 , 2 µ
§ ¶ § ¶

DEFINITION 2.3 If a, b and c are real and either a or b is non-zero, then the expression ax by c is called first-
degree expression in x and y and the equation ax by c  0 is called first-degree equation in x
and y.

Examples

1. 2 x y 3  0 3. 2y 1  0 5. x cos A y sin A  p
2. x 2  0 4. 3x 4 y 1  0

T H E O R E M 2.8 Every first-degree equation in x and y represents a straight line and conversely, the equation of a
straight line is a first-degree equation in x and y.
PROOF Suppose ax by c  0 is a first-degree equation so that either a or b is non-zero. Now, either b  0
or b x 0. If b  0, then the equation reduces to ax c  0 where a x 0 which represents the vertical line
x  −c/a. If b x 0, then the equation can be written as y  (−a/b)x (−c/b) which represents straight
line having slope (−a/b) and y-intercept −c/b. In any case, ax by c  0 represents a straight line.
Conversely, let L be a straight line in the coordinate plane. Therefore, L is either a vertical line
or a non-vertical line. Suppose L is a vertical line meeting x-axis at the point (a, 0), the equation
of L is x−a  0 which is a first-degree equation in x and y. If L is non-vertical, then it meets y-axis
at some point, say (0, c), and has slope, say, m, then the equation of L is y  mx c (see Theorem
2.3) which is a first-degree equation as coefficient of y is −1 (x0).

In view of Theorem 2.8, the following definition is provided.

DEFINITION 2.4 General Equation of a Straight Line First-degree equation in x and y is called the general
equation of a straight line. Suppose ax by c  0 is a first-degree equation, then we have the
following conditions:
1. If c  0, then the line passes through (0, 0).
2. If b x 0, then the first-degree equation represents a line having slope (−a/b) and y-intercept (−c/b).
3. If b  0, ax by c  0 represents a vertical line.
4. If abc x 0, then the first-degree equation represents a line with x-intercept (−c/a) and y-intercept (−c/b).

T H E O R E M 2.9 Two first-degree equations a1x b1y c1  0 and a2x b2y c2  0 represent parallel lines if and
only if a1b2  a2b1 (i.e., a1:b1  a2:b2).
2.1 Straight Line 31

PROOF When two lines are parallel, both are either vertical or non-vertical. If both are vertical, then b1 
b2  0 [by point (3) below Definition 2.4] so that a1b2  a2b1  0. If both are non-vertical, their
slopes are equal [by point (2) below Definition 2.4]. Thus,
a1 a
 2
b1 b2
Hence, a1b2  a2b1or a1:b1  a2:b2
Conversely, when a1b2 a2b1 and if b1  0, then a1x 0 so that b2  0. Therefore, b1  0 šb2  0 and
hence if one of the lines is vertical, then the other is also vertical so that the given lines are parallel.
If both b1 and b2 are non-zero, then
a1 a2
a1b2  a2 b1  
b1 b2
a a
 1  2
b1 b2
Since the slopes are equal, the lines are parallel.

QUICK LOOK 5

1. Equation of any line parallel to the line ax by 2. In particular, equation of the line passing through
c  0 is of the form ax by ca 0. the point (x1, y1) and parallel to the line ax by
c  0 is a(x−x1) b(y−y1)  0.

T H E O R E M 2.10 Two first-degree equations a1x b1y c1  0 and a2x b2y c2  0 represent the same straight line
if and only if a1:b1:c1  a2:b2:c2.
PROOF Suppose the two equations represent the same straight line. Since every line is parallel to itself, by
Theorem 2.9, a1b2  a2b1 and hence a1:b1  a2:b2. If b1  0, then b2 0 so that a1 and a2 are non-zero.
This implies that
c1 c
 2
a1 a2
Therefore
a1 : b1 : c1  a2 : b2 : c2
If b1x 0, then b2x 0 (since a1b2  a2b1). Let
b1
L
b2

Therefore,
a2 b2 1
a1b2  a2 b1   
a1 b1 L
 a1  L a2 (2.1)
Also (0, −c1/b1) is a point on a1x b1y c1  0 which implies that (0, c1 /b1 ) also lies on
a2x b2y c2  0. Therefore
¥ c ´
b2 ¦ 1 µ c2  0
§ b1 ¶
c2 b2 1
   (2.2)
c1 b1 L
32 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

Therefore, from Eqs. (2.1) and (2.2)


a1:b1:c1  a2:b2:c2
Conversely, suppose a1:b1:c1 a2:b2:c2. Therefore, for some real K x 0, we have a1  Ka2, b1  Kb2,
c1  Kc2. Hence
a1 x b1 y c1  0 š L (a2 x b2 y c2 )  0
š a2 x b2 y c2  0

Therefore, both equations represent the same straight line.

T H E O R E M 2.11 Let ax by c  0 be a straight line. Then

¥ a ´ ¥ b ´ c
1. ¦
2 2
µ x ¦ 2 2
µy is the normal form of the given line if c  0.
§ a b ¶ § a b ¶ a b2
2

¥ a ´ ¥ b ´ c
2. ¦ µ x ¦ µy is the normal form of the given line if c  0.
§ a 2 b2 ¶ § a 2 b2 ¶ a b2
2

PROOF Suppose x cos A y sin A  p is the normal form of ax by c  0. Therefore, by Theorem 2.10,
there exists a real K x 0 such that cos@  Ka, sin@  Kb and −p  Kc. Now,
cos2@ sin2@  1
1
implies K±
a b2
2

Also −Kc  p  0 (since p is the distance of the line from origin) implies that
« 1
® 2 if c  0
® a b2
L¬
® 1 if c  0
®­ a 2 b2

Therefore, if c  0, then the normal form of the line is


¥ a ´ ¥ b ´ c
x¦ µ y¦ µ
§ a 2 b2 ¶ § a 2 b2 ¶ a 2 b2
or if c  0, the normal form of the line is
¥ a ´ ¥ b ´ c
x¦ µ y¦ µ
§ a 2 b2 ¶ § a 2 b2 ¶ a b2
2

QUICK LOOK 6

1. To reduce ax by c  0 to the normal form, take c


2. p  p is the distance of the line ax by
constant c to the right-hand side (RHS), divide both a b2
2

sides with a 2 b2 and then make RHS positive. c  0 from the origin. That is,
c
p
a 2 b2
2.1 Straight Line 33

Example 2.13

Write 2x 3y 5  0 in the normal form. What is the dis- To make the RHS positive, we multiply both sides with
tance of the line from origin? (−1). Thus, the normal form is

Solution: In 2x 3y 5  0, the constant 5 should be ¥ 2 ´ ¥ 3 ´ 5


¦§ µ¶ x ¦§ µ¶ y 
taken to the RHS of the equation, that is 13 13 13
where
2x 3y  −5
2 3
2 2 2 2 cos A  and sin A 
Dividing both sides with a b  2 3  13 , we 13 13
get
Now, the distance of the line from the orgin is
2 3 5
x y c 5 5
13 13 13 p  
2 2
a b 13 13

Example 2.14

Find the normal form of the line 3x 4y − 10  0 and its where


distance from the origin.
3 4
cos A  and sin A 
Solution: The equation 3x 4y − 10  0 can be 5 5
written as 3x 4y  10. Dividing both sides with
Now the distance of the line from the origin is
a 2 b2  32 4 2  5, we get
10 10
3 4 p  2
x y 2 5 5
5 5

T HEOREM 2.12 If 0 P O/2 is the angle between the lines a1x b1y c1  0 and a2x b2y c2  0, then
(A N G L E
BETWEEN TWO
a1a2 b1b2
cos Q 
LINES) (a12 b12 )(a22 b22 )
or equivalently

¥ a1a2 b1b2 ´
Q  Cos 1 ¦ µ
¦§ (a 2 b2 )(a 2 b2 ) µ¶
1 1 2 2

PROOF Let the lines represented by the given equations (in the order written) be l1and l2, respectively. If
l1 and l2 are parallel lines, then we consider that Pis equal to 0 or O and also
a1a2 b1b2
1
(a12 b12 )(a22 b22 )

because a1:b1  a2:b2 (Theorem 2.9). Hence

¥ a1a2 b1b2 ´
Cos 1 ¦ µ  Cos 1 (1)  0
¦§ (a 2 b2 )(a 2 b2 ) µ¶
1 1 2 2

Therefore, without loss of generality, we assume that l1 and l2 are intersecting so that a1:b1 xa2:b2.
FHHHE FHHHHE
Let OL1 and OL2 be the lines through origin O and parallel to the lines l1 and l2, respectively
34 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

FHHHE FHHHHE
(see Fig. 2.7). Therefore, from Quick Look 5, part (2), the equations of OL1 and OL2 are, respec-
FHHHE FHHHHE
tively, a1x b1y  0 and a2x b2y  0. Let P1 and P2 be the angles made by OL1 and OL2 with the
positive direction of the x-axis so that Q1 Q 2 is the measure of the angle between the lines. We
FHHHE FHHHHE
know that P(b1, −a1) lies on OL1 and Q(b2, −a2) lies on OL2 . Draw PL and QM perpendicular
to x-axis. Now,
cos Q  cos(Q1 Q 2 )  cos Q1 cos Q 2 sin Q1 sin Q 2
¥ b1 ´¥ b2 ´ ¥ a ´ ¥ a ´
1 2
¦ µ¦ µ ¦ µ¦ µ
¦§ a 2 b2 µ¶ ¦§ a 2 b2 µ¶ ¦§ a 2 b2 µ¶ ¦§ a 2 b2 µ¶
1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1

a1a2 b1b2

(a12 b12 )(a22 b22 )

P  Q1 Q 2 and 0 PO/2.
a1a2 b1b2
cos Q 
(a12 b12 )(a22 b22 )

y
L1

P(b1, −a1) L2

Q(b2, −a2)
q1
q2
O L M x

FIGURE 2.7

Note: If both lines are non-vertical and P is the angle between them, then

m1 m2
tan Q 
1 m1 m2

where m1 and m2 are their slopes.

QUICK LOOK 7

1. (a) The lines a1x b1y c1  0 and a2x b2y c2  0 2. The equation of any line perpendicular to the line
are at right angles š a1a2 b1b2  0 (since ax by c  0 is of the form bx−ay ca  0.
P  90°). 3. In particular, the equation of the line passing
(b) Product of the slopes is −1 provided the lines through the point (x1, y1) and perpendicular to the
are at right angles. line ax by c  0 is b (x−x1) − a (y−y1)  0.

DEFINITION 2.5 Image or a Reflection of Point Let l be a straight line and P be a point on the plane of the
line, but not on the line. A point Q in the same plane is called the image or reflection of P in
the line l if l is the perpendicular bisector of the segment PQ.
2.1 Straight Line 35

QUICK LOOK 8

To find the image of P on the line l, draw PM perpen- P


dicular to the line l and produce it to Q such that PM 
90°
MQ (see Fig. 2.8). l
M

FIGURE 2.8

T H E O R E M 2.13 Let l be a line whose equation is ax by c  0 and P(x1, y1) be a point on the plane of the line,
but not on l. Suppose M(h, k) is the foot of the perpendicular drawn from point P onto l and
Q(x1a, y1a) is the image of point P in the line. Then

h x1 k y1 (ax1 by1 c)
1.  
a b a 2 b2
x1a x1 y1a y1 (ax1 by1 c)
2.  2
a b a 2 b2
PROOF 1. See Fig. 2.9. The line PM is perpendicular to the line ax by c  0, so by Quick look 7, part
(2), we have
¥ k y1 ´ ¥ a ´
¦§ h x µ¶ ¦§ b µ¶  1
1
h x1 k y1
  L (say)
a b
 h  x1 L a, k  y1 L b (2.3)
Since M(h, k) lies on the line, we have ah bk c  0, which implies that
a( x1 L a) b( y1 L b) c  0
(ax1 by1 c)
L (2.4)
a 2 b2
Therefore, from Eqs. (2.3) and (2.4), we get
h x1 k y1 (ax1 by1 c)
 
a b a 2 b2
2. Since M is the midpoint of PQ, we can see that
x a1 x1 ya1 y1 (ax1 by1 c)
  2
a b a 2 b2
P (x1, y1)

ax by c 0 M (h, k) l

Q (x1, y1 )

FIGURE 2.9
36 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

Note: Theorem 2.13 gives the formulae for the foot of the perpendicular drawn from a point onto the given line and
the image of a point on the given line.

Example 2.15

Find the foot of the perpendicular drawn from the point ¥ 1 2´


(1, 2) onto the line 3x 4y − 1  0 and also find the image ¦§ , µ¶
5 5
of (1, 2) on the given line.
2. Suppose (@, A ) is the image of (1, 2). From Theorem
Solution: We have (x1, y1)  (1, 2) and the line is 3x 2.13, we have
4y − 1  0.
A 1 B 2 [3(1) 4(2) 1] 20 4
1. Suppose (h, k) is the foot of the perpendicular. There-   2  
3 4 32 4 2 25 5
fore, from Theorem 2.13, we have
Hence
h 1 k 2 [3(1) 4(2) 1] 10 2
  2 2
  12 7
3 4 3 4 25 5 A  1 
5 5
Hence
16 6
B  2 
6 1 5 5
h  1 
5 5 Thus, the image is
8 2
k  2  ¥ 7 6´
5 5 ¦§ , µ¶
5 5
Therefore, foot of the perpendicular from (1, 2) is

T H E O R E M 2.14 The distance of the line ax by c  0 from the point P(x1, y1) is
ax1 by1 c
a 2 b2
PROOF See Fig. 2.10. Shift the origin to the point P(x1, y1) and let the new coordinates of any point be
denoted by (X, Y). Hence, by Section 1.4.1, we have x  X x1 and y  Y y1 so that P becomes
(0, 0) and the equation of the given line is a(X x1) b(Y y1) c  0. That is,
aX bY ax1 by1 c  0 (2.5)
Hence, by Quick Look 6, part (2), the distance of the line [Eq. (2.5)] from P(0, 0) is equal to
ax1 by1 c
a 2 b2
Y

y P X

ax
+b 90°
y+
c=
0

O x

FIGURE 2.10
2.1 Straight Line 37

T H E O R E M 2.15 The distance between the parallel lines ax by c  0 and ax by ca  0 is


c ca
a 2 b2
PROOF See Fig. 2.11. Let P(x1, y1) be a point on ax by ca  0 so that
ax1 by1 c a  0 (2.6)
Now, the distance between the two parallel lines is equal to the distance of the line ax by c  0
from the point P(x1, y1), which is given by
ax1 by1 c
(by Theorem 2.14)
a 2 b2
ca c
 [from Eq. (2.6)]
a 2 b2

ax  by  c   0 P(x1, y1)

ax  by  c  0
M

FIGURE 2.11

T H E O R E M 2.16 If a1x b1y c1  0 and a2x b2y c2  0 are two intersecting lines, then their point of intersection
is
¥ b1c2 b2 c1 c1a2 a1c2 ´
¦§ a b a b , a b a b µ¶
1 2 2 1 1 2 2 1

PROOF Since the lines are not parallel, we have a1b2 xa2b1. Let (@, A ) be the point of intersection of the
lines. Therefore,

a1A b1B  c1 (2.7)

and a2A b2 B  c2 (2.8)


Solving Eqs. (2.7) and (2.8) for @ and A, we get
b1c2 b2 c1
A
a1b2 a2 b1
c a a c
B 1 2 1 2
a1b2 a2 b1

Notation: The line ax by c  0 is denoted by L so that L  0 represents a straight line if either a or b is not zero.
L y ax by c
L11  ax1 by1 c
L22  ax2 by2 c

T H E O R E M 2.17 Let L yax by c be a line and A(x1, y1) and B(x2, y2) be the two points on the same plane, but
not on the line L  0, then L  0 divides the line segment AB in the ratio −L11:L22.
38 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

FHHHE
PROOF Suppose L  0 meets the line AB in point P(x, y) and AP:PB  K:1. Therefore
x1 L x2
x
L 1
y1 L y2
y
L 1
Since P(x, y) lies on the line L  0, we have
( x1 L x2 ) ( y L y2 )
a b 1 c  0
L 1 L 1
That is, ax1 by1 c K(ax2 by2 c)  0. That is, L11 KL22  0.Therefore,
L11
L
L22

Hence, AP : PB  L11 :L22 .

QUICK LOOK 9

1. L  0 divides AB internally 2. Points A and B lie on the same side of L  0

š−L11:L22 is positive šthe division is external


L11
L11 š 0
š 0 L22
L22
šL11 and L22 are opposite signs L11
š 0
L22
Therefore, points A and B lie on the opposite sides
of line L  0 šL11 and L22 are of opposite signs. Therefore, L11 and L22 have the same sign.

DEFINITION 2.6 Origin and Non-Origin Sides Let L be a straight line in the coordinate plane which is not
passing through the origin. The side of the region in which the origin lies is called the origin
side of the line and the other is called the non-origin side of the line L (see Fig. 2.12).
y

L Non-origin
side

Origin side

O x

FIGURE 2.12

T H E O R E M 2.18 Let L yax by c  0 be a line which is not passing through the origin. Then a point A(x1, y1)
(not on the line L  0) lies
(a) on the non-origin side of L  0 šc and L11 are of opposite signs
(b) A(x1, y1) lies on the origin side of L  0 šc and L11 have the same sign
PROOF In Quick Look 9, take B  (x2, y2)  (0, 0). Hence, points A and B (which is equal to the origin)
lie on the opposite sides of L  0 so that L11 and L22  c have the opposite signs and points A and
(0, 0) are on the same side. Hence, L11 and L22  c have the same sign.
2.1 Straight Line 39

QUICK LOOK 10

Let ax by c  0 be a line and c x 0. 2. If c  0, then for all points on the origin side L11 0
and L11  0 for all points on the non-origin side.
1. If c  0, then for all points on the origin side L11  0
and for all points on the non-origin side L11  0.

Example 2.16

Check whether the point (2, 1) lies on the origin side or L11  2(2) − 3(1) 1  2
non-origin side of the line 2x − 3y 1  0.
and c1
Solution: We have Ly 2x − 3y 1, A(x1, y1)  (2, 1) and That is, L11 and c have the same origin. Hence, (2,1) lies
c  1. That is, on the origin side of L  0.

Example 2.17

Find the ratio in which the line L yx 2y − 3  0 divides and L22  3 2(2) − 3  4
the line joining the points A(1, 2) and B(3, 2).
Therefore, L  0 divides AB in the ratio
Solution: A(1, 2)  (x1, y1) and B(3, 2)  (x2, y2) so that −L11:L22  −2:4  −1:2
L11  1 2(2) − 3  2 That is, L  0 divides AB externally in the ratio 1:2.

T H E O R E M 2.19 Suppose U1 ya1x b1y c1  0 and U2 ya2x b2y c2  0 are two parallel lines. Then for any real
values of K1 and K2 such that L1 L 2 x 0 , the equation K1U1 K2U2  0 represents the line paral-
lel to each of the lines U1  0 and U2  0.
PROOF From Quick Look 5, U2  0 can be written as U2 ya1x b1y c1a  0. Therefore,
K1U1 K2U2 y (K1 K2) [a1x b1y] K1c1 K2c1a  0
which represents the line parallel to U1 ya1x b1y c1  0.

T H E O R E M 2.20 If U1 ya1x b1y c1  0 and U2 ya2x b2y c2  0 are intersecting lines, then the equation K1U1
K2U2  0 ( L1 L 2 x 0) represents the lines passing through the intersection of U1  0 and U2  0.
Conversely, the equation of any line passing through the intersection of U1  0 and U2  0 is of the
form K1U1 K2U2  0 for some K1 and K2 such that L1 L 2 x 0.
PROOF Suppose U1 ya1x b1y c1  0 and U2 ya2x b2y c2  0 are intersecting lines so that a1b2 − a2b1x 0.
Let p(@, A ) be the point of intersection of U1  0 and U2  0. Therefore,
a1A b1B c1  0 (2.9)
and a2A b2 B c2  0 (2.10)
Now, L1 L 2 x 0 implies that atleast one of K1 and K2 is not zero. Consider that
K1U1 K2U2  (K1a1 K2a2)x (K1b1 K2b2)y K1c1 K2c2  0
If both K1a1 K2a and K1b1 K2b2 are zero, then
a1 L b
 1  1
a2 L 2 b2
40 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

which is a contradiction of the hypothesis a1b2 xa2b1. Therefore, K1U1 K2U2  0 is a first-degree
equation and hence it represents a straight line. Also, from Eqs. (2.9) and (2.10), it follows that
K1U1 K2U2  0 passes through (@, A ). Conversely, suppose U yax by c  0 is a line passing
through (@, A ), then
aA bB c  0 (2.11)
Since either a or b is not zero [i.e., (a, b) x (0, 0)] and a1b2−a2b1x 0, it follows that the equations
a1x a2y  a and b1x b2y  b
have unique solution, say, x  K1 and y  K2 and L1 L 2 x 0. Therefore,
K1a1 K2a2  a and K1b1 K2b2  0
Now, from Eq. (2.11), we get
c  aA B b  (L1a1 L 2 a2 )A (L1b1 L 2 b2 )B
 L1 (a1A b1B ) L 2 (a2A b2 B )
 L1 ( c1 ) L 2 ( c2 ) [from Eqs. (2.9) and (2.10)
 L1c1 L 2 c2
Therefore
ax by c  (L1a1 L 2 a2 ) x (L1b1 L 2 b2 ) y L1c1 L 2 c2
 L1 (a1 x b1 y c1 ) L 2 (a2 x b2 y c2 )
 L1U 1 L 2U 2
Thus, the equation of any line passing through the intersection of the lines U1  0 and U2  0 is of
the form K1U1 K2U2  0 where L1 L 2 x 0.

Note: If U1  0 and U2  0 are two intersecting lines, then K1U1 K2U2  0, where eitherK1 or K2 is non-zero, represents
all the lines passing through their point of intersection including U1  0 and U2  0. If K1 x0, then the equation can be
written as U1 (K2/K1) U2  0 which is of the form U1 KU2  0, where K is K2/K1. The equation U1 KU2  0 represents
all lines passing through the intersection of U1  0 and U2  0 including U1  0, but excluding U2  0. Hence, for all
practical purposes, we consider the equation U1 KU2  0, where K is a real parameter in solving the problems.

QUICK LOOK 11

Suppose U1  0 and U2  0 are two lines, then 2. If U1  0 and U2  0 are intersecting lines, then U1
KU2  0 represents a line passing through the inter-
1. If U1  0 and U2  0 are parallel lines, then U1 KU2
section of U1  0 and U2  0.
 0 represents a line parallel to each of U1  0 and
U2  0.

T H E O R E M 2.21 If U1  0 and U2  0 are two intersecting lines, then every line in the plane of U1  0 and U2  0 is
of the form K1U1 K2U2 K3  0.

PROOF Let U  0 be a line in the plane of U1  0 and U2  0. Therefore, either U  0 passes through the
intersection of U1  0 and U2  0 or it does not. In the former case, U  0 must be of the form K1U1
K2U2  0 for some real K1and K2, such that L1 L 2 x 0. In this case, K3  0. Suppose U  0 does
not pass through the intersection of U1  0 and U2  0. Hence, there is one and only one line L in
the plane passing through the intersection of U1  0 and U2  0 and parallel to the line L. Hence,
by Theorem 2.20, the equation of L must be of the form K1U1 K2U2  0. Since L is parallel to U
 0, then U  0 is of the form K1U1 K2U2 K3  0 for some real constant K3. Thus, the theorem is
proved.
2.1 Straight Line 41

Example 2.18

Find the equation of the line passing through the inter- (2x − y 5) − 5 (x y 1)  0
section of the lines 2x − y 5  0 and x y 1  0 and the
 3 x 6 y  0
origin.
 x 2y  0
Solution: By Theorem 2.20 and the Note mentioned Direct Method: Solving the equations 2x − y 5  0 and
below it, the required line is of the form x y 1  0, we get the point of intersection (−2, 1).
(2x − y 5  0) K(x y 1)  0 Therefore, the equation of the line joining (−2, 1) and
(0, 0) is
Since this also passes through (0, 0), we have K  −5.
Hence the required line is 0 1
y x or x 2y  0
0 2

Example 2.19

Find the equation of the line passing through the inter- (1 L ) 3


section of the lines x − 2y − 3  0 and x 3y − 6  0 and 
2 3L 4
parallel to the line 3x 4y − 7  0.
 4 4K  −6 9K K  2
Solution: We have U1 yx − 2y − 3  0 and U2 yx 3y Hence, the required line is 3x 4y− 15  0.
− 6  0. The required line is Direct Method: The point of intersection of the lines x−
U1 KU2  (1 K) x (−2 3K) y − 3 − 6K  0 2y − 3  0 and x 3y − 6  0 is (21/5, 3/5). Hence, from Quick
Look 5, part (2), the equation of the required line is
Since this line is parallel to 3x 4y − 7  0, the slopes
must be equal.Therefore ¥ 21´ ¥ 3´
3¦ x µ 4 ¦ y µ  0
§ 5¶ § 5¶
 3x 4y− 15  0

Example 2.20

Find the equation of the line passing through the inter- Thus, the required line equation is
section of the lines x 3y − 1  0 and x − 2y 4  0 and
¥ 11´ ¥ 22 ´ 44
perpendicular to the line 2x 3y  0. ¦§ 1 µ¶ x ¦§ 3 µ¶ y 1 0
4 4 4
Solution: We have U1 yx 3y − 1  0 and U2 yx − 2y  15 x 10 y 40  0
4  0. Equation of the required line is
 3x 2 y 8  0
U 1 LU 2 y (1+L )x (3 2L )y 1 4L  0
Direct Method: Let U1 yx 3y − 1  0 and U2 yx− 2y
Since this line is perpendicular to the line 2x 3y  0, we 4  0. Therefore, the point of intersection of the lines
have U1  0 and U2  0 is (−2, 1). Hence, from Quick Look 7,
part (3), the equation of the required line is
(1 L ) ¥ 2 ´
s ¦ µ  1
3 2L § 3 ¶ 3(x 2) − 2(y − 1)  0
 9 6 L  2 L 2  3x − 2y 8  0
11
L
4

T H E O R E M 2.22 Let U1 ya1x b1y c1  0, U2 ya2x b2y c2  0 and U3 ya3x b3y c3  0 be three lines such
that no two lines are parallel. Then, these lines are concurrent if and only if
42 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

a1 b1 c1
a2 b2 c2  0
a3 b3 c3

PROOF Let P be the point of the intersection of the lines U2  0 and U3  0. Therefore, by Theorem 2.16,
we have
¥ b c b2 c3 c3 a2 c2 b3 ´
P¦ 3 2 ,
§ a3 b2 a2 b3 a3 b2 a2 b3 µ¶
Point P also lies on U1  0. So
¥ b c b2 c3 ´ ¥ c a c b ´
a1 ¦ 3 2 b1 ¦ 3 2 2 3 µ c1  0
§ a3 b2 a2 b3 µ¶ § a3 b2 a2 b3 ¶
š a1 (b3 c2 b2 c3 ) b1 (c3 a2 c2 a3 ) c1 (a3 b2 a2 b3 )  0
š a1 (b2 c3 b3 c2 ) b1 (a2 c3 a3 c2 ) c1 (a2 b3 a3 b2 )  0
a1 b1 c1
š a2 b2 c2  0
a3 b3 c3

T H E O R E M 2.23 Let U1 ya1x b1y c1  0, U2 ya2x b2y c2  0 and U3 ya3x b3y c3  0 be three lines such
that no two are parallel. If there exists non-zero real numbers K1, K2 and K3 such that K1U1 K2U2
K3U3  0, then the three lines U1  0, U2  0 and U3  0 are concurrent.
PROOF Suppose K1U1 K2U2 K3U3  0 where K1, K2 and K3 are non-zero real numbers. Therefore
¥ L ´ ¥ L ´
U3  ¦ 1 µ ¦ 2 µ U2
§ L3 ¶ § L3 ¶
which is of the form KU1 LU2  0. Hence, by Theorem 2.20, the line U3  0 passes through the
point of intersection of the lines U1  0 and U2  0. Therefore, the three lines are concurrent.

Note: Direct method of showing three lines to be concurrent: (a) Find the point of intersection of two of the three
given lines. (b) Verify whether the point lies on the remaining third line or not.

2.2 Pair of Lines


In this section, we obtain the equation of the angle bisectors of the angle between two intersecting lines. Also we will
study the condition for a second-degree homogeneous equation and general equation to represent pair of lines, and
the properties of these lines.

T H E O R E M 2.24 If a1x b1y c1  0 and a2x b2y c2  0 are intersecting lines, then the equations of their angle
bisectors are
a1 x + b1 y + c1 (a2 x + b2 y + c2 )
p
a12 b12 a22 b22

PROOF Let the lines represented by the given equations be L1 and L2, respectively (see Fig. 2.13) and
A be their point of intersection. Now
2.2 Pair of Lines 43

P(x, y) is a point on the bisector of the lines


š the perpendicular distances drawn from P on to the lines are equal

a1 x1 + b1 y1 + c1 a2 x1 + b2 y1 + c2
š  (by Theorem 2.14)
a12 b12 a12 b12
a1 x + b1 y + c1 (a2 x + b2 y + c2 )
š p
a12 b12 a22 b22

Therefore, the locus of P(x1, y1) is


a1 x + b1 y + c1 (a2 x + b2 y + c2 )
p
a12 b12 a22 b22

L2

L1
y

a1
0
P

x+
c2 =

b1
2y +

y+
c1
+b

=0
a2 x

O x

FIGURE 2.13

Note: Identification of Acute Angle Bisector Suppose L1 and L2 are not at right angles and let L1a and L2a be their
angle bisectors. Let P be the angle between L1 and L1a . If 0  tan Q  1, then L1a is the angle bisector; if tan Q  1 ,
then L2a is the acute angle bisector.
The following theorems are also useful in identifying acute or obtuse angle bisectors of two lines.

T H E O R E M 2.25 SupposeU1 ya1x b1y c1  0 and U2 ya2x b2y c2 0, where c1 x 0 and c2 x 0, be two intersecting
lines. If c1 and c2 are of same sign, then the equation
a1 x + b1 y + c1 (a2 x + b2 y + c2 )

a12 b12 a22 b22

gives the bisector of the angle in which the origin lies.


PROOF Suppose the lines represented by U1  0 and U2  0 are L1 and L2, respectively, and L1a and L2a are
their angle bisectors (see Fig. 2.14). Point P(x1, y1) lies on the origin angle bisector L1 š either
both the origin and P are on the same sides for both L1 and L2 or lie on opposite sides for both
L1 and L2. Since c1 and c2 are of same sign, it follows that (by Quick Look 10) L11  a1x
b1y c1 and L22  a2x b2y c2 are of same sign. Therefore
44 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

a1 x + b1 y + c1 (a2 x + b2 y + c2 )

a12 b12 a22 b22

is the origin angle bisector.


y
L1
L2
L1

L2

P(x1, y1)
O x

FIGURE 2.14

T H E O R E M 2.26 Suppose U1 ya1x b1y c1  0 and U2 ya2x b2y c2 0 are two lines that do not pass through
origin and let c1 and let c2 have the same sign. Then
a1 x + b1 y + c1 (a2 x + b2 y + c2 )
1.  is the acute angle bisector if a1a2 b1b2  0.
a12 b12 a22 b22

a1 x + b1 y + c1 (a2 x + b2 y + c2 )
2.  if a1a2 b1b2  0.
a12 b12 a22 b22

PROOF Let L1 and L2 be the lines represented by U1  0 and U2  0, respectively. Draw OM and ON per-
pendicular to L1 and L2, respectively. Let NOM  @ so that MPN  O −@ (see Fig. 2.15). Now,
@ is acute or obtuse according to whetherO −@ is obtuse or acute. Also
a1a2 + b1b2
cos A   0 or > 0
(a12 b12 ) (a22 b22 )

according to whether @ is acute or obtuse. So,


a1a2 b1b2< 0 or > 0
š@ is acute or obtuse
Therefore,
1. If a1a2 b1b2  0, then the origin angle bisector is the acute angle bisector and hence its equa-
tion is
a1 x + b1 y + c1 (a2 x + b2 y + c2 )
 (by Theorem 2.25)
a12 b12 a22 b22

2. If a1a2 b1b2  0, then O – @ is obtuse and hence origin angle bisector is the obtuse angle bisec-
tor so that its equation is
a1 x + b1 y + c1 (a2 x + b2 y + c2 )
 (by Theorem 2.25)
a12 b12 a22 b22
2.2 Pair of Lines 45

y L2
L1
P a

a 2x + b 2
p-a

=0 M

y + c2 =
c 1
y+ N
b1 a
x+
a 1

0
O x

FIGURE 2.15

QUICK LOOK 12 IDENTIFYING ACUTE ANGLE BISECTOR

Let U1 ya1x b1y c1  0 and U2 ya2x b2y c2  0 be represents origin angle bisector (Theorem 2.25). The
intersecting lines and c1x 0 x c2. First, make both c1 and origin angle bisector (that is with sign) is the acute
c2 of same sign (or c1 and c2 are positive). Then angle or obtuse angle bisector according to whether
a1a2 b1b2 is negative or positive.
a1 x + b1 y + c1 (a2 x + b2 y + c2 )

a12 b12 a22 b22

Example 2.21

Find the angle bisectors of the angle between the lines x y+1 7x + y + 3
x−y 1 0 and 7x y 3  0 and identify the acute angle 
1 5
bisector.
 5 x 5 y 5  7 x y 3
Solution: We have U1 yx − y 1  0 and U2 y 7x y  12 x 4 y 8  0
3  0. Here, c1  1 and c2 3 are of the same sign.There-  3x y 2  0
fore, the angle bisectors are is the acute angle bisector.
x y+1 7x + y + 3 Aliter: Consider the line x − y 1  0 and the bisector 3x
p
2 2 − y 2  0 and let P be the angle between them.Hence
1 1 7 2 12
x y+1 7x + y + 3 m1 m2 1 3 1
 p tan Q    1
1 5 1 m1 m2 1 3 2
Since a1a2 b1b2  1(7) (−1)(1)  6  0, the bisector with Therefore, 3x − y 2  0 is the acute angle bisector.
sign is obtuse angle and hence

DEFINITION 2.7 Let a, h, b, g, f and c be real numbers and atleast one of the real numbers a, h and b be non-zero.
Then, the expression ax2 2hxy by2 is called second-degree homogeneous expression and ax2
2hxy by2 2gx 2fy c is called second-degree general expression in x and y. At the same
time, ax2 2hxy by2  0 is called second-degree homogeneous equation and ax2 2hxy
by2 2gx 2fy c  0 is called second-degree general equation.

Examples

1. 2x2 xy by2  0 3. x2 2 xy y2  0 5. x2 xy y2 − x y − 1  0
2. x2 − y2  0 4. 3x2 − 6xy y2 20x − y 3  0
46 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

T H E O R E M 2.27 If h2 rab, then the locus represented by the equation ax2 2hxy by2  0 is a pair of lines passing
through the origin.
PROOF Since a is real, either a  0 or a x 0.
Case 1: a  0. In this case, the given equation becomes
y(2 hx by)  0 (2.12)
Since a  0, atleast one of the values of h and b is not zero so that 2hx by  0 is a first-degree
equation and hence it represents a straight line. Also, y  0 represents x-axis. Hence, Eq. (2.12)
represents pair of lines, namely, y  0 (i.e., x-axis) and the line 2hx by  0.
Case 2: a x 0. In this case, the equation is written as
a 2 x 2 2ahxy aby2  0
 (ax hy)2 (h2 ab) y2  0
Therefore

(ax hy h2 aby)(ax hy h2 aby)  0

The locus represented by the given equation is the pair of lines ax (h p h2 ab ) y  0 and both
these lines pass through origin. When h2  ab or h  b  0, these two lines are identical (coincide)
with each other.

Note: This is very useful in problem solving.


1. When h2 rab, let the lines represented by ax2 2hxy by2  0 be l1x m1y  0 and l2x m2y  0 so that ax2 2hxy
by2 y (l1x m1y) (l2x m2y). Equating the corresponding coefficients on both sides, we have
l1l2  a, l1m2 l2m1  2h
and m1m2  b
2. If both the lines represented by ax2 2hxy by2  0 are non-vertical having slopes m1 and m2, then
¥ 2h ´ ¥ a´
y2 ¦ µ xy ¦ µ x 2 y ( y m1 x)( y m2 x)
§ b¶ § b¶
so that m1m2  a/b and m1 m2 −(2h)/b.

QUICK LOOK 13

To find the lines represented by the second-degree so that the corresponding linear equations are the
homogeneous equation ax2 2hxy by2  0, factorise required equations.
the expression ax2 2hxy by2 into two linear factors

Example 2.22

Find the lines represented by the equation x2− 5xy pair of lines passing through origin. Further,
6y2  0.
x2− 5xy 6y2 y (x− 2y)(x− 3y)
Solution: We have a  1, h  −5/2 and b  6. Also h2   The lines are x − 2y  0 and x − 3y  0
25/4  6  ab. Therefore, x2− 5xy 6y2  0 represents a
2.2 Pair of Lines 47

T H E O R E M 2.28 If ax2 2hxy by2  0 represents a pair of lines and @ is the angle between them, then
a b
cos A 
(a b)2 4 h2

PROOF Suppose the lines are l1x m1y  0 and l2x m2y  0. Therefore, from Theorem 2.27, Note (1),
l1l2  a, l1m2 l2m1  2h and m1m2  b. From Theorem 2.12, we have

l1l2 m1 m2
cos A 
(l12 m12 )(l22 m22 )
a b

l12 l22 m12 m22 l12 m22 l22 m12
a b

(l1l2 m1 m2 )2 (l1 m2 l2 m1 )2
a b

(a b)2 4h 2

where @ is the acute or obtuse according to whethera b > 0 or < 0.

Note:
a b
1. gives the acute angle.
(a b)2 4 h2

2 h2 ab
2. tan A  also gives the acute angle between the lines.
a b
3. ax2 2hxy by2  0 represents a pair of perpendicular lines ša b  0 (i.e., coefficient of x2 coefficient of
y2  0).

T H E O R E M 2.29 Suppose ax2 2hxy by2  0 represents a pair of lines and (x1, y1) is a point in the plane. Then,
1. The equation of the pair of lines passing through (x1, y1) and parallel to these lines is a(x−x1)2
2h(x−x1) (y−y1) b(y−y1)2  0.
2. The equation of the pair of lines passing through (x1, y1) and perpendicular to the given lines
is b(x−x1)2− 2h(x−x1) (y−y1) a(y−y1)2  0.
PROOF Suppose the lines represented by ax2 2hxy by2  0 are l1x m1y  0 and l2x m2y  0. Hence,
from Theorem 2.27, Note (1), l1l2  a, l1m2 l2m1  2h and m1m2  b.
1. From Quick Look 5, part (2), the equations of the lines through (x1, y1) and parallel to the lines
l1x m1y  0 and l2x m2y  0 are l1 (x − x1) m1 (y − y1)  0 and l2 (x − x1) m2 (y − y1)  0.
Hence, their combined equation is
[l1 (x − x1) m1 (y − y1)][l2 (x − x1) m2 (y − y1)]  0
l1l2 (x − x1)2 (l1m2 l2m1) (x − x1) (y − y1) m1m2 (y − y1)2  0
a (x − x1)2 2h (x − x1) (y − y1) b (y − y1)2  0
2. From Quick Look 7, part (3), the equations of the lines through (x1, y1) and perpendicular to
the lines are m1 (x − x1) −l1 (y − y1)  0 and m2 (x − x1) −l2 (y − y1)  0. Hence, their combined
equation is
[m1 (x − x1) −l1 (y − y1)][m2 (x − x1) −l2 (y − y1)]  0
m1m2 (x − x1)2− (l1m2 l2m1) (x − x1) (y − y1) l1l2 (y − y1)2  0
b (x − x1)2− 2h (x − x1) (y − y1) a (y − y1)2  0
48 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

Example 2.23

Find the equation of the pair of lines passing through the 1. Equation of the pair of lines passing through (1, 1) and
point (1, 1) and parallel to the lines x − 2y  0 and x − 3y  0 is
1. parallel to the lines x2 − 5xy 6y2  0. (x − 1)2 −5 (x − 1) (y − 1) 6(y − 1)2  0
2. perpendicular to the lines x2 − 5xy 6y2  0.  x2 − 5xy 6y2 3x − 7y 2  0
2. Equation of the pair of lines passing through (1, 1) and
Solution: The lines represented by x2 − 5xy 6y2  0 are
perpendicular to the lines is
x − 2y  0 and x − 3y  0. Therefore, from Theorem 2.29,
we get the following: 6(x − 1)2 5 (x − 1) (y − 1) (y − 1)2  0
 6x2 5xy y2− 17x − 7y 12  0

T H E O R E M 2.30 If ax2 2hxy by2  0 represents two intersecting lines, then the combined equation of the pair of
angle bisectors of the angle between the lines is

h( x 2 y2 )  (a b) xy
PROOF Suppose the lines are l1x m1y  0 and l2x m2y  0 so that l1l2  a, l1m2 l2m1  2h and m1m2  b.
By Theorem 2.24, the angle bisectors are
l1 x m1 y l2 x m2 y
p
l12 m12 l22 m22
 (l22 m22 )(l1 x m1 y)2  (l12 m12 )(l2 x m2 y)2
 (l12 m22 l22 m12 ) x 2 (l12 m22 l22 m12 ) y2  2 ¨ªl2 m2 (l12 m12 ) l1 m1 (l22 m22 )·¹ xy
 (l12 m22 l22 m12 )( x 2 y2 )  2[(l1 m2 l2 m1 )(l1l2 m1 m2 )]xy

Since the lines are intersecting, l1m2 − l2m1 x 0. Hence, cancelling l1m2 − l2m1 on both sides, we have
(l1 m2 l2 m1 )( x 2 y2 )  2 (l1l2 m1 m2 ) xy
 2 h( x 2 y2 )  2 (a b) xy
 h( x 2 y2 )  (a b) xy

T H E O R E M 2.31 The second-degree general equation S yax2 2hxy by2 2gx 2fy c  0 represents a pair of
lines if and only if
1. abc 2fgh − af 2 − bg2 − ch2  0.
2. h 2 rab, g 2 rac and f 2 rbc.
PROOF Suppose S  0 represents pair of lines and let the lines be l1x m1y n1  0 and l2x m2y n2  0.
Therefore
S y (l1x m1y n1) (l2x m2y n2)
Equating the corresponding coefficients on both sides, we have l1l2  a, l1m2 l2m1  2h and
m1m2  b, l1n2 l2n1  2g, m1n2 m2n1 2f, n1n2 c.
1. 8 fgh  (2 f )(2 g )(2 h)  (m1 n2 m2 n1 )(l1 n2 l2 n1 )(l1 m2 l2 m1 )
 l1l2 (m12 n22 m22 n12 ) m1 m2 (l12 n22 l22 n12 ) n1 n2 (l12 m22 l22 m12 ) 2l1l2 m1m2 n1 n2
 a [(m1 n2 m2 n1 )2 2 m1 m2 n1 n2 ] b[(l1 n2 l2 n1 )2 2l1l2 n1 n2 ]
c [(l1 m2 l2 m1 )2 2l1l2 m1 m2 ] 2abc
 a(4 f 2 2bc) b(4 g 2 2ca) c(4 h2 2ab) 2abc
 4(af 2 bg 2 ch2 abc)
2.2 Pair of Lines 49

Therefore

2 fgh  af 2 bg 2 ch2 abc or abc 2 fgh af 2 bg 2 ch2  0

Generally, the number of abc 2 fgh af 2 bg 2 ch2 is denoted by $. Therefore, $  0. Also


a h g
$ h b f
g f e

2. 4(h2 ab)  4 h2 4ab  (l1 m2 l2 m1 )2 4l1l2 m1 m2

 (l1 m2 l2 m1 )2 r 0 (equality holds if the lines are parallel).


Similarly, g2 rca
and f 2 rbc.

The proof of the converse part is a bit lengthy and beyond the scope of this book. Hence, we
assume the validity of the converse part.

T H E O R E M 2.32 If S yax2 2hxy by2 2gx 2fy c  0 represents a pair of lines, then the homogeneous equa-
tion ax2 2hxy by2  0 also represents pair of lines passing through origin and parallel to the
lines S  0.
PROOF Let the lines represented by S  0 be l1x m1y n1  0 and l2x m2y n2  0. Therefore
l1l2  a, l1m2 l2m1  2h, m1m2  b, l1n2 l2n1  2g, m1n2 m2n1  2f, n1n2  c, h2rab.
Now,

ax 2 2 hxy by2 y l1l2 x 2 (l1 m2 l2 m1 ) xy m1 m2 y2


y (l1 x m1 y)(l2 x m2 y)

Therefore, the lines represented by ax2 2hxy by2  0 are l1x m1y  0 and l2x m2y  0 which
are, respectively, parallel to the l1x m1y n1  0 and l2x m2y n2  0.

QUICK LOOK 14

1. If h2  ab, then ax2 2hxy by2  0 represents pair 2. If S yax2 2hxy by2 2gx 2fy c  0 represents
of coincidental lines so that in this case, S  ax2 a pair of distinct intersecting lines, this pair together
2hxy by2 2gx 2fy c  0 represents a pair of with the pair represented by ax2 2hxy by2  0 form
parallel lines. a parallelogram with the origin as one of the vertices.

Example 2.24

Prove that the equation S yx2 4xy 3y2 − 4x − 10y 3  0 2. h2  4, ab  3, h2 ab, g2  4, ac  3, g2 ac and f 2  25,
represents a pair of lines and find the equations of the lines. bc  9, f 2 bc.
Therefore, the given equation S yx2 4xy 3y2 − 4x −
Solution: We have a  1, h  2, b  3, g  −2, f  −5 and 10y 3  0 represents a pair of intersecting lines (by
c  3. Now, Theorem 2.31). Consider the equation x2 4xy
3y2  0. Therefore
1.
x 2 xy 3 xy 3 y2  0
a h g 1 2 2
x( x y) 3 y( x y)  0
$ h b f  2 3 5
( x y)( x 3 y)  0
g f e 2 5 3
 1 (9 25) 2 (6 10) 2 ( 10 6) Since S  0 represents lines parallel to x y  0 and x
 16 8 8  0 3y  0, we have
50 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

x 2 4 xy 3 y2 4 x 10 y 3 y ( x y m)( x 3 y n) 3m n  10 (2.14)
and mn  3 (2.15)
Equating the coefficients of x and y and the constant
Solving Eqs. (2.13) and (2.14), we get m  −3, n  −1 so
terms, we have
that mn  3. Therefore, the lines represented by S  0
m n  4 (2.13) are x y− 3 0 and x 3y− 1  0.

2.2.1 Procedure to Find the Lines Represented by the Second-Degree General Equation
S y ax2 2hxy by2 2gx 2fy c  0
Step 1: Factorise the homogeneous part ax2 2hxy by2 and suppose
ax2 2hxy by2 (l1x m1y) (l2x m2y)
Step 2: S y(l1x m1y n1)(l2x m2y n2)
Step 3: Equate the corresponding coefficients of x and y and also the constant terms on both sides and solve
for n1 and n2.
Theorem 2.33 is the last result which is very useful in solving some locus problems. This theorem is called homogenis-
ing the second-degree curve equation with a straight line equation.

T H E O R E M 2.33 Suppose that the straight line lx my  1 meets the curve represented by the second-degree gen-
eral equation S yax2 2hxy by2 2gx 2fy
FHH E c  0 at E points A and B. If O is the origin, then
FHHtwo
the combined equation of the pair of lines OA and OB is

S a y ax 2 2 hxy by2 2 (gx fy)(lx my) c (lx my)2  0


PROOF Clearly the coordinates of both points A and B satisfy the line equation lx my 1 as well as
S  0 and hence points A and B satisfy Sa  0. Also (0, 0) satisfies Sa  0. That is, Sa  0 passes through
A, B and origin (see Fig. 2.16). On simplification, we can see that Sa  0 is a homogeneous equation
FHHE FHHE
of second degree representing pair of lines, which are nothing but the lines OA and OB.
y

B
2x
+
m
y=
1

O x

FIGURE 2.16

Example 2.25

Show that the lines joining the origin to the points of Solution: Suppose that the line [( x y)/ 2 ]  1 meets
intersection of the curve x2 − xy y2 3x 3y − 2  0 and the curve at points A and B (see Fig. 2.17). Therefore, the
the line x − y − 2  0 are mutually perpendicular. FHHE FHHE
combined equation of the pair of lines OA and OB is
2.2 Pair of Lines 51

2 y
2 2 ¥ x y´ ¥ x y´
x xy y (3 x 3 y) ¦ 2¦  0 (2.16)
§ 2 µ¶ § 2 µ¶
B

From Eq. (2.16), A

Coefficient of x2 Coefficient of y2  [1 (3/ 2 ) − 1] 90°


[1 –(3/ 2 ) – 1] O x
0
Therefore, from Theorem 2.28, Note (3), it implies that
AOB  90°. FIGURE 2.17

Subjective Problems
1. If p1 and p2 are the distances between the opposite Also
sides of a parallelogram and @ is one of its angles,
then show that the area of the parallelogram is p1p2 a1a2 b1b2
cos A 
cosec@. (a12 b12 )(a22 b22 )

Solution: ABCD is a parallelogram (see Fig. 2.18). AM Therefore


 p1, DN  p2 and BAD  @.
(a1a2 b1b2 )2
sin 2 A  1 cos2 A  1
Area of the parallelogram  (AB) p2 (2.17) (a12 b12 )(a22 b22 )
Now from $AMP, sin@  p1/AB and hence we have AB  (a1b2 a2 b1 )2
p1 cosec@. Therefore, from Eq. (2.17), the area of the par-  (2.18)
(a12 b12 )(a22 b22 )
allelogram  p1p2 cosec@.
Now the area of the parallelogram (by Problem 1) is
D C
a
p2 d1 c1 d2 c2 (a12 b12 )(a22 b22 )
p1 p2 (cosec A )  – –
p-a a12 b12 a22 b22 a1b2 a2 b1
a 90°
B
A N a
[from Eq. (2.18)]
p1 90° (d1 c1 )(d2 c2 )
M 
a1b2 a2 b1
FIGURE 2.18
3. Prove that the area of the parallelogram formed by the
2. Show that the area of parallelogram whose sides are lines 4y − 3x − a  0, 3y − 4x a  0, 4y − 3x − 3a  0 and
a1x b1y c1  0, a1x b1y d1  0, a2x b2y c2  0 and 3y − 4x 2a  0 is 2a2/7.
a2x b2y d2  0 is
Solution: Rewriting the equations of the sides of the
(d1 c1 )(d2 c2 ) parallelogram, we have
a1b2 a2 b1 3x − 4y a  0
4x − 3y − a  0
Solution: Consider Fig. 2.18. Let the equations of the
3x − 4y 3a  0
sides be a1x b1y c1  0, a1x b1y d1  0, a2x b2y
c2  0 and a2x b2y d2  0. Therefore, and 4x − 3y − 2a  0

d1 c1 Here, c1  a, d1  3a, c2  −a, d2  −2a, a1  3, b1  −4, a2 


p1  4 and b2  −3. Therefore, by Problem 2,
a12 b12
(d1 c1 )(d2 c2 )
d2 c2 Area 
p2  a1b2 a2 b1
a22 b22
52 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

(3a a)( 2a a) 2a 2 Hence


 
3( 3) (4)( 4) 7 BD CE AF
– –  1
DC EA FB
4. Let p and q be non-zero real numbers and x1, x2 and
x3 be non-zero real roots of the equation x3 − 3px2 l A(x1, y1)
3qx − 1  0. Then show that the centroid of the tri-
angle whose vertices are [x1, (1/x1)], [x2, (1/x2)] and F
[x3, (1/x3)] is (p, q). E

Solution: Let y1  1/x1, y2  1/x2 and y3  1/x3. By


hypothesis,
x1 x2 x3  3p B(x2, y2) C(x3, y3) D
x1x2 x2x3 x3x1  3q
FIGURE 2.19
x1x2x3  1
Therefore Note: Either the line l meets all three sides externally or
two sides internally and one side externally. That is why
x1 x2 x3 3 p product of the ratios is equal to −1.
 p (2.19)
3 3
Now, Try it out The converse of Menelaus’ theorem
is also true.
y1 y2 y3 1 ¥ 1 1 1´
 ¦
3 3 § x1 x2 x3 µ¶
6. (Ceva’s Theorem) In the plane of $ABC, let O be a
1 ¥ x x x3 x1 x1 x2 ´ point (not on any side). If the lines AO, BO and CO
 ¦ 2 3 µ¶
3§ x1 x2 x3 meet the opposite sides BC, CA and AB at points D,
E and F, respectively, then show that
1 ¥ 3q ´
 ¦ µ q (2.20)
3§ 1 ¶ BD CE AF
– –  1
DC EA FB
From Eqs. (2.19) and (2.20), the centroid of the triangle is
(p, q). Solution: Without loss of generality, we may assume
that O is the origin and points A, B and C are (x1, y1), (x2,
5. (Menelaus’ Theorem) Suppose a straight line meets
y2) and (x3, y3), respectively. See Fig. 2.20. Observe that ei-
the sides BC, CA and AB of a triangle at points D, E FHHHE FHHHE FHHE
and F, respectively. Then show that ther all the three lines AO , BO and CO divide the sides
BC, CA and AB internally or two of them divide two sides
BD CE AF externally and one dividesFthe
– –  1 HHHE third
FHHHE side internally.
FHHE Now,
DC EA FB the equations of the lines AO , BO and CO are, respec-
tively, xy1−x1y  0, xy2−x2y  0 and xy3 − x3y  0. Therefore,
Solution: Let the coordinates of A, B and C be (x1, y1), by Theorem 2.17, we get
(x2, y2) and (x3, y3). See Fig. 2.19. Suppose L is the line
whose equation is L yax by c  0 meeting the sides in BD ( x y x1 y2 )
 2 1
D, E and F. Therefore, by Theorem 2.17, we get DC x3 y1 x1 y3
BD L22 CE ( x y x2 y3 )
  3 2
DC L33 EA x1 y2 x2 y1
CE L33 AF ( x y x3 y1 )
  1 3
EA L11 FB x2 y3 x3 y2
AF L11 Hence

FB L22 BD CE AF
– –  1
DC EA FB
2.2 Pair of Lines 53

A(x1, y1) B A (3, 4)

90°
M 2, 3
I
F

45°
O E
C (1, −1) D

FIGURE 2.21
B(x2, y2) D C (x3, y3)
Aliter (Using Complex Numbers): Let A  3 4i, C  1
FIGURE 2.20 − i, M  midpoint of AC  2 3/2i. Let B denote Z. Rotate
HHHHE
MA about M through 90° in the anticlockwise sense so
that
Try it out Converse of Ceva’s theorem is also
true. Z ; 2 (3 / 2)i =
i
(3 4i) [2 (3 / 2)i]

7. If A(3, 4) and C(1, −1) are the ends of a diagonal of 2Z 4 3i


 i
a square ABCD, then find the equations of the sides 2 5i
of the square. 1 5i
Z
2
Solution: See Fig. 2.21. Equation of the line AC is
¥ 1 5´
 B  ¦ , µ
4 1 § 2 2¶
y 4  ( x 3)
3 1
Similarly,
 2y − 8 5x − 15
¥ 1 5´ ¥ 9 1´
 5x − 2y − 7  0 D  ¦ 3 1 ,4 1 µ =¦ , µ
§ 2 2¶ § 2 2¶
Its slope is 5/2. Let the slope of side CD be m. Then
Now, we can write the sides equations because the verti-
m (5 / 2) ces are obtained as A(3, 4), B(−1/2, 5/2), C(1, −1), D(9/2,
DAC  45o  1  tan 45o  1/2).
1 (5m / 2)

2m 5 8. Find the equations of the lines passing through the


1
5m 2 point (2, 3) and making an angle 45° with the line 3x −
y 5  0.
 5m 2  p(2 m 5)
7 3 Solution: See Fig. 2.22. Let m be the slope of a side.
m or ABC  45° so that we have
3 7
Therefore, equations of CB and CD are m 3
1  tan 45o 
1 3m
7
y 1 ( x 1)  7 x 3 y 4  0
3 Therefore,
3
y 1  ( x 1)  3 x 7 y 10  0 3m 1  p(m 3)
7
1
Similarly, the equations of AB and BD, respectively, are m  2 or
2
3 Therefore, the equations of the lines are
y 4  ( x 3)  3 x 7 y 19  0
7
y − 3  − 2(x− 2) x y − 7  0
7
y 4  ( x 3)  7 x 3 y 33  0 1
3 y 3 ( x 2)  x 2 y 4  0
2
Therefore, the equations of the sides are 3x − 7y − 10  0,
7x 3y − 4  0, 3x − 7y − 19  0 and 7x 3y − 33  0.
54 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

A(2, 3) vertex of the rectangle, find the equations of the oth-


er three sides.

Solution: Let ABCD be the rectangle (see Fig. 2.24)


where A is (−3, 1) and the equation of AD is 3x 7y
45° 2  0. Since the line joining (−3, 1) and (1, 1) is hori-
B 3x − y + 5 = 0 C zontal, the point (1, 1) must be the end of the diagonal
through A (−3, 1). Therefore, C is (1, 1) and the equation
FIGURE 2.22 of BC is

9. Two adjacent sides of a parallelogram are 4x 5y  0 3


y 1 ( x 1)
and 7x 2y  0 and one diagonal is 11x 7y − 9  0. 7
Find the equations of the other sides and the second  3 x 7 y 10  0
diagonal.
Equation of AB is
Solution: Solving the equations 4x 5y  0 and 11x 7
7y − 9  0, we have x  5/3, y  −4/3. Let A  (5/3, −4/3). y 1 ( x 3)
3
Solving the equations 7x 2y  0 and 11x 7y− 9  0, we  7 x 3 y 24  0
have x  −2/3, y  7/3. Let C  (−2/3, 7/3). Therefore,
Equation of the side CD is
¥ 2 7´ ¥ 5 4´
C ¦ , µ , O(0, 0) and A¦ , µ 7
§ 3 3¶ § 3 3¶ y 1 ( x 1)  7 x 3 y 4  0
3
are the three consecutive vertices of the parallelogram. Therefore, the other three sides are 3x 7y − 10  0, 7x
So its fourth vertex B (see Fig. 2.23) is − 3y 24  0 and 7x − 3y − 4  0.
¥ 2 5 7 4´
¦§ , µ¶  (1, 1) C(1, 1)
B
3 3 3 3
Therefore, the vertices of the parallelogram OABC are
O(0, 0), A(5/3, −4/3), B(1, 1) and C(−2/3, 7/3). Since the D A(−3, 1)
side BC is parallel to OA and passes through (1, 1), its 3x + 7y + 2 = 0
equation is
FIGURE 2.24
4
y 1 ( x 1) or 4 x 5 y 9  0
5 11. The three lines x 2y 3  0, x 2y − 7  0 and 2x −
y − 4  0 form the three sides of two squares. Find the
Also, the equation of the side AB is
equations of fourth side of each square.
7
y 1 ( x 1) or 7 x 2 y 9  0
2 Solution: Let the squares be ABCD and ADEF
with AD as common side (see Fig. 2.25). Solving x
and the second diagonal is x−y  0.
2y 3  0 and 2x − y − 4  0, we have A  (1, −2). Solv-
y ing the equations x 2y − 7  0 and 2x − y − 4  0,
B
we have D  (3, 2). The length of the sides of squares
C
 AD  (3 1)2 (2 2)2  4 16  2 5 . Let B (h, −
0

(3 h)/2) be a point on the line x 2y 3  0 such that


=
2y
+

A AB  2 5. Therefore,
7x

= 0
4x + 5y 2
¥ 3 h ´
O x (h 1)2 ¦ 2µ  20
§ 2 ¶
4(h 1)2 (h 1)2  80
FIGURE 2.23 (h 1)2  16
h 1  p4
10. One side of a rectangle lies along the line 3x 7y h  5 or 3
2  0 and (−3, 1) is a vertex on it. If (1, 1) is another
2.2 Pair of Lines 55

Therefore, B  (5, 4) and F  ( 3, 0). Hence, the equa- 13. The vertices B and C of $ABC lie on the line 4x − 3y
tion of the side BC is y 4  2(x − 5) or 2x − y − 14  0 and  0 and x-axis, respectively, BC passes through (2/3,
the equation of the side FE is y − 0  2(x 3) or 2x − y − 2/3) and ABOC is a rhombus where O is the origin.
6  0. Equations of the fourth side of the square are 2x − Find the equation of the line BC and the coordinates
y − 14  0 and 2x − y − 6  0. of the vertex A.
x + 2y − 7 = 0
E C Solution: See Fig. 2.27. OB  OC  CA  AB and the di-
D agonals OA and BC are at right angles. Let OC  a. Sup-
2x − y = 4 pose B  [x1, 4x1/3]. Equation of the side AB is y  (4x1)/3
and the coordinates of A are [a x1, (4x1)/3]. Hence
F B
A (CA)2  a 2
x + 2y + 3 = 0
16 x12
FIGURE 2.25
 x12  a2
9
5x
12. Each side of a square is of length 4. The centre of the ap 1
square is (3, 7) and one of its diagonals is parallel to the 3
line y  x. Find the coordinate of the vertices of square. y

Solution: See Fig. 2.26. ABCD is the square. M(3, 7) is


the centre of the square. AC is parallel to the line y  x. B
2,2 A
Therefore, the equation of the diagonal AC is 3 3

x
y − 7  1(x − 3)

=4
3y
 x y 4  0 (2.21)
Hence, the equation of the diagonal BD is O C x

y − 7  −1 (x − 3)
 x y 10  0 (2.22) FIGURE 2.27
Since the length of the side is 4, the lengths of the diago-
Case 1: If a  5 x1 /3, we have
nals are 4 2. Let A  (h, h 4) and MA  2 2. This
implies that ¥ 5x ´ ¥ 8x 4x ´ ¥ 4 x1 ´
C¦ 1, 0µ , A  ¦ 1 , 1 µ , B  ¦ x1 , µ and O  (0, 0)
§ 3 ¶ § 3 3 ¶ § 3 ¶
(h 3)2 (h 4 7)2  8
By hypothesis, points B, (2/3, 2/3) and C are collinear.
 (h 3)2  4
This implies that
 h  3p 2
4 x1
 h  5 or 1 x1 1
3
Hence, A  (5, 9) and C  (1, 5). Let B  (k, 10 −k) and 2 2
1 0
MD  2 2. This implies that 3 3
(k 3)2 (10 k 7)2  8 5 x1
0 1
 k 3  p2 3
 k  5 or 1 5 x1 ¥ 4 x1 2 ´ ¥ 2x 8x ´
 ¦§ µ 1¦ 1 1 µ  0
3 3 3¶ § 3 9 ¶
Hence, B  (5, 5) and D  (1, 9). Therefore, the vertices of
the square are (5, 9), (5, 5), (1, 5), (1, 9).  5 x1 (4 x1 2) (6 x1 8 x1 )  0
D C  20 x12 12 x1  0
3
 x1  0,
5
(3, 7)
Now, x1  0 B  (0, 0), which is actually not the origin.
Hence, x1  3 / 5. Therefore,
A 4 B
¥ 3 4´ ¥ 8 4´
O  (0, 0), B  ¦ , µ , A  ¦ , µ and C  (1, 0)
FIGURE 2.26 § 5 5¶ § 5 5¶
56 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

5 x1 Note: To check whether our answers are correct or not,


Case 2: a  we need to verify the following:
3
1. The incentre I(1, 0) is inside $ABC.
2. The distance of I(1, 0) from the three sides must be
Try it out Try case 2 mentioned above, that is, equal.
a 5 x1 /3.
15. Determine all values of @ for which the point (@, @ 2)
lies inside the triangle formed by the lines 2x 3y −
14. In $ABC, A  (−4, 1). The internal bisectors the 1  0, x 2y − 3  0 and 5x − 6y − 1  0.
angles B and C are, respectively, x − 1  0 and x − (IIT-JEE 1992)
y − 1  0. Find the coordinates of B and C and the
equations of the sides AB and AC. Solution: Let L y 2x 3y − 1  0, Layx 2y − 3  0 and Lq y
5x − 6y − 1  0. Vertices are A (5/4, 7/8), B (1/3, 1/9) and
Solution: See Fig. 2.28. Let BE and CF be the bisectors C (−7, 5). See Fig. 2.29.
of the angles B and C whose equations are, respective-
ly, x − 1  0 and x – y − 1  0. Suppose M and N are the 1. For the side BC (L  0), the points A(5/4, 7/8) and
reflections of the vertex A in the bisectors BE and CF, (@, @ 2) must be on the same side (by Quick Look 9).
respectively. Hence, M and N lie on the line BC. Let M  ¥ 5´ ¥ 7´ 20 21 8
(h, k).Therefore, by Theorem 2.13, we have L11  2 ¦ µ 3 ¦ µ 1   0.
§ 4¶ § 8¶ 8
h 4 k 1 (4 1) ¥ k 1 ´
  2 ¦§ here means k  1µ  L22  2(A ) 3A 2 1  0
1 0 1 0 ¶
 h  2 and k  1  3A 2 2A 1  0

Hence, M  ( 2, 1). Let N  (ha, ka).Therefore,  (3A 1)(A 1)  0

ha 4 k a 1 (4 1 1) Therefore,
  2 2  4
1 1 1 12 1
 h a  0 and k a  3 A  1 or A  (2.26)
3
Hence, N  (0, 3) . Therefore, equation of the side BC is 2. For the side CA (La  0), the points B(1/3, 1/9) and (@,
@ 2) are on the same side. Therefore
¥ 3 1´
y 3 ¦ ( x 0)
§ 0 2 µ¶ 1 2 3 2 27
a 
L11 3 0
 2x − y 3  0 3 9 9

Equations of BE is and a  A 2A 2 3  0
L22 (by Quick Look 9)

x1 (2.23)  (2A 3)(A 1)  0

Equation of CF is 3
 A 1 (2.27)
x y1 (2.24) 2

Equation of BC is 3. For the side AB (Lq  0), the points C and (@, @ 2) are
on the same side. Therefore
2 x y  3 (2.25)
aa  5( 7) 6( 5) 1  0
L11
Solving Eqs. (2.23)–(2.25), we have B  (1, 5) and C 
(−4, −5). and aa  5A 6A 2 1  0
L22
A(4, −1)  6A 2 5A 1  0
 (3A 1)(2A 1)  0
F
E 1 1 (2.28)
A  or A 
x=1 3 2

B N M C From Eqs. (2.26)–(2.28), @  (−3/2, −1) ‡ (1/2, 1).

FIGURE 2.28
2.2 Pair of Lines 57

A
5,7 Therefore
4 8
4 m 16
x
4m 3

x
=

+
1

2y


6y

m(4 m 16)

3

=
x (a, a 2) and y 5 m
5x

0
4m 3
B
1,1 2x + 3y − 1 = 0 C (−7, 5) 4 m2 16 m 4 m2 17 m 15
3 9 
4m 3
FIGURE 2.29 m 15

4m 3
16. If the sum of the distances of a point from two per-
pendicular lines in a plane is 1, then prove that its Hence
locus is a square. (IIT-JEE 1992) ¥ 4 m 16 m 15 ´
Q¦ ,
§ 4 m 3 4 m 3 µ¶
Solution: Take the two perpendicular lines as coordi-
nate axes. P(x, y) is a point on the locus š|x| |y|  1. This Since M(1, 5) is the midpoint of PQ, we have
implies that
1 ¥ 9 m 4 m 16 ´
1 ¦ µ (2.30)
x y1 2 § 5 m 4m 3 ¶
x−y  1
1 ¥ 25 m m 15 ´
−x y  1 and 5 ¦ µ (2.31)
2 § 5 m 4m 3 ¶
−x−y  1
From Eq. (2.31), we get
These lines form a square.
2(5 m)(4 m 3)  (9 m)(4 m 3) (5 m)(4 m 16)
17. A line meets the straight lines 5x − y − 4  0 and 3x
 2( 4 m2 17 m 15)  ( 4 m2 33m 27) ( 4 m2
4y − 4  0 at points P and Q. If (1, 5) is the midpoint
of PQ, find the equation of the line PQ. 36 m 80)
 8m2 34 m 30  8m2 69m 53
Solution: See Fig. 2.30. Let the line PQ be  35m  83
y 5  m( x 1) (2.29) 83
m
Substituting y  mx 5 m in the equation 5 x y 4  0, 35
we have Substituting the value of m  83/35 in Eq. (2.29), equa-
5 x mx 5 m 4  0 tion of line PQ is obtained as
 (5 m) x m 9  0 83
y 5 ( x 1)
Therefore 35
 83 x 35 y 92  0
9 m ¥ 9 m´ 25 m
x and y  m¦ 5 m  The value of m obtained from Eq. (2.31) is also equal to
5 m § 5 m µ¶ 5 m
83/35.
Hence
¥ 9 m 25 m ´
P¦ ,
§ 5 m 5 m µ¶ Q
=4

Substituting y  mx 5 m in the equation 3x 4y 4  0, M(1, 5)


4y

we have
+

4
y= P
3x

3 x 4(mx 5 m) 4  0 5x −

 (3 4 m) x 16 4 m  0 20, 8
23 23

FIGURE 2.30
58 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

19. A line through A(−5, −4) meets the lines x 3y


Try it out
2  0, 2x y 4  0 and x − y − 5  0 at the points B,
We can take the equation of the line PQ as C and D, respectively. If
x 1 y 5 2 2 2
 G ¥ 15 ´ ¥ 10 ´ ¥ 6 ´
cos Q sin
i Q ¦§ µ ¦§ µ  ¦§ µ
AB ¶ AC ¶ AD ¶
and substitute x  1 F cosP and y  5 F sinP in both then find the equation of line.
the line equations and obtain the coordinates of P (IIT-JEE 1993)
and Q. Finally, use that (1, 5) is the midpoint of PQ.
Solution: Let the line through A(−5, −4) be

18. The line joining two points A(2, 0) and B(3, 1) is rotat- x 5 y 4
 G (by Theorem 2.7)
ed about A through an angle 15° in the counterclock cos Q sin Q
sense. Find the equation of the line in the new posi- Therefore, every point on the line is of the form x  −5
tion and the coordinates of the new position of B. F cosP, y  −4 F sinP. Let AB  F1, AC  F2 and AD  F3.
Since B  (−5 F1 cosP, −4 F1 sinP ), we have
Solution: See Fig. 2.31. Let XAB  @ so that
( 5 G 1 cos Q ) 3 ( 4 G 1 sin Q ) 2  0
1 0
tan A   1 or A  45o ( & B lies on x 3 y 2  0)
3 2
Therefore
Since XAC  @ 15°  60°, the equation of the line AC
(point C is the new position of point B) is 15
G1 
cos Q 3 sin Q
y 0  tan 60o( x 2)  3 ( x 2) Hence
Therefore, equation of the line AB in its new position is 15
 cos Q 3 sin Q (& G 1  AB) (2.32)
3x y 2 3  0 AB
Similarly, points C and D lie on 2x y 4  0 and x − y
Since C  (x, 3 (x− 2)) and AC  AB  2, we have − 5  0, respectively. We have
( x 2)2 3( x 2)2  ( AC )2  2 10
 2 cos Q sin Q (2.33)
1 AC
 ( x 2)  p
2 6
1 and  cos Q sin Q (2.34)
 x  2p AD
2
Now, by hypothesis,
Hence 2 2 2
¥ 15 ´ ¥ 10 ´ ¥ 6 ´
¥ ¦§ µ¶ ¦§ µ¶  ¦§ µ
1 3´ AB AC AD ¶
C  ¦2 , µ
§ 2 2¶
Hence, from Eqs. (2.32)–(2.34), we have
The value of x  2 − 1/ 2 gives the position of point B,
(cos Q 3 sin Q )2 (2 cos Q sin Q )2  (cos Q sin Q )2
when AB is rotated about point A through angle 15° in
clockwise sense.  5 cos2 Q 10 sin 2 Q 10 sin Q cos Q  cos2 Q sin 2 Q
y 2 sin Q cos Q
C  4 cos2 Q 9 sin 2 Q 12 sin Q cos Q  0
B(3, 1)
 (2 cos Q 3 sin Q )2  0

15

 Therefore,
O A(2, 0) x
2
2 cos Q 3 sin Q  0 or tan Q 
3
FIGURE 2.31 Hence, the equation of the line is
2.2 Pair of Lines 59

2 x 2 y 2
y 4  ( x 5) or 2 x 3 y 22  0  G (by Theorem 2.7)
3 cos Q sin Q
See Fig. 2.33. Let BP  F 1, BQ  F 2 and BR  F . Therefore
20. One diagonal of a square is the portion of the line 7x
5y  35 intercepted between the axes. Determine P  (2 G 1 cos Q , 5 G 1 sin Q )
the extremities of the other diagonal.
and Q  (2 G 2 cos Q , 5 G 2 sin Q )
Solution: See Fig. 2.32. A(5, 0) and B(0, 7) are the ex- Since point P lies on x − 2y  0, we have
tremities of the given diagonal. Therefore, the slope of
(2 G 1 cos Q ) 2(5 G 1 sin Q )  0
the diagonal AB is −7/5. Hence, the slope of the other
diagonal, say, CD is 5/7. Therefore 8
G1  (2.35)
5 cos Q 2 sin Q
tan Q 
7 Similarly, Q lies on 2x − y  0, we have
so that 1
7 5
G2  (2.36)
cos Q  and sin Q  2 cos Q sin Q
74 74 By hypothesis,
The equation of the diagonal CD is 1 1 2

x (5 / 2) y (7 / 2) G1 G2 G
 G (say)
7 / 74 5 / 74
Therefore, from Eqs. (2.35) and (2.36), we get
Since, G  74 / 2, the other vertices of the diagonal are
cos Q 2 sin Q 2
(2 cos Q sin Q ) 
¥5 7 74 7 5 74 ´ 8 G
C¦ s , s  (6, 6)
§2 74 2 2 74 2 µ¶ 16
 17 cos Q 10 sin Q  (2.37)
G
¥5 74 7 7 74 5 ´
and D¦ s , s µ Let R  (x, y) so that
§2 2 74 2 2 74 ¶
x  2 F cosP  F cosP  x − 2
¥ 5 7 7 5´ y  5 F sinP  F sinP  y – 5
 ¦ , µ  ( 1, 1)
§ 2 2 2 2¶
Therefore, from Eq. (2.37),
y 16  17G cos Q 10G sin Q
B(0, 7)  17( x 2) 10( y 5)
The locus of R is 17x− 10y  0.
5,7
M y
2 2
Q

B(2, 5)
A(5, 0)

0 P
2y =
FIGURE 2.32 x−

21. A variable line l passing the point B(2, 5) intersects O x


the lines 2x2 − 5xy 2y2  0 at P and Q. Find the locus
of the point R such that the distances BP, BR and FIGURE 2.33
BQ are in harmonic progression (HP).
22. ABC is an equilateral triangle in which B  (1, 3) and
Solution: The given equation 2x2 − 5xy 2y2  0 rep- C  (−2, 7). Find the coordinates of the vertex A.
resents the pair of lines 2x − y  0 and x − 2y  0. Let the
equation of the line through B(2, 5) be
60 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

Solution: See Fig. 2.34. The slope of BC is 3 3


y  5
7 3 4 2

2 1 3 Hence
Therefore, the slope of perpendicular bisector of BC is ¥ 1 3 3 ´ ¥ 1 3 3´
3/4 and its equation is A  ¦2 3 , 5µ or ¦ 2 3 , 5
§ 2 2 ¶ § 2 2 µ¶
3¥ 1´
y 5 ¦ x µ¶
4§ 2 A

where M(−1/2, 5) is the midpoint of BC. Since


BC  (7 3)2 ( 2 1)2  5, we have

5 3 60° 60°
Altitude AM = (sin 60o) AB  C(−2, 7)
2 B(1, 3) −1,
M 5
2
The equation of the altitude AM is
FIGURE 2.34
3
y  (2 x 1) 5 (2.38)
8 Aliter (Using Complex Numbers): B  1 3i and C  −2
Now, 7i. Rotate CB about C through an angle 60° in anti-
clockwise sense (see Fig. 2.35). Thus
75
 ( AM )2
4 Z ( 2 7i)
 cos 60o i sin 60o
¥ 1´
2 (1 3i) ( 2 7i)
 ¦ x µ ( y 5)2 [where A  ( x, y)]
§ 2¶ Therefore
2
¥ 1´ ¨3 · ¥ 1 i 3´ 3 4 3 i(3 3 4)
 ¦ x µ © (2 x 1) 5 5¸ [by Eq. (2.38)] Z 2 7i  ¦
§ 2 ¶ ª8 ¹ 2 µ ( 3 4i )  2
§ ¶
(2 x 1)2 9 This gives
 (2 x 1)2
4 64
3 4 3 i(3 3 4)
25(2 x 1) 2 Z 2 7i
 2
64 3 4 3 i(3 3 4) 4 14i

Therefore 2
(2 x 1)2  48 4 3 i(3 3 10)

2
 2 x 1  p4 3
¥ 1´ ¥ 3 3 ´
1 p 4 3  ¦2 3 µ i¦ 5µ
x § 2 ¶ § 2 ¶
2
Therefore
1 ¥ 1´
x2 3 and ¦ 2 3 µ ¥ 1 3 3 ´
2 § 2¶ A  ¦2 3 , 5µ
§ 2 2 ¶
When x  2 3 (1/2) we have Similarly, if we rotate CB in clockwise sense about C
3¥ 1´ through an angle 60°, we get the second position of A.
y  ¦x µ 5
4§ 2¶ A( Z )
3¥ 1 1´
 ¦2 3 µ 5 60°
4 § 2 2¶

3 3
 5 60° 60°
2
C(−2, 7) B(1, 3)
and when x  2 3 (1/ 2) we have
FIGURE 2.35
2.2 Pair of Lines 61

y D
Try it out Solve the same problem by taking
the equation of the altitude AM
M as
1
x
2  y 5  G A(0, k)
cos Q sini Q
where cosP  4/5 and sinP  3/5. (1,
2)
C

Note: With regard to geometric problems concerning O


equilateral triangles, squares, etc., the method of using x
complex numbers is easier than the method of using
coordinates. B

23. The sides of a rhombus are parallel to the lines y


FIGURE 2.36
2x  3 and y  7x 2. The diagonals intersect at (1, 2).
If one vertex lies on the y-axis, then find the coordi-
24. A ray of light is sent along the line x − 2y 5  0. Upon
nates of this vertex.
reaching the line 3x − 2y 7  0, the ray is reflected
Solution: See Fig. 2.36. Let ABCD be the rhombus from it. Find the equation of the reflected ray.
where A  (0, k). AB and CD are parallel to y  7x 2
whereas BC and AD are parallel to y 2x  3. Hence, the Solution: See Fig. 2.37. We have
equation of AB is x 2y 5  0 (Incident ray) (2.41)
y  7x k (2.39) 3x 2 y 7  0 (Surface line) (2.42)
Since (1, 2) is the midpoint of AC and A (0, k), it fol- P  (−1, 2) is the point of incidence of the lines given in
lows that C  (2, 4 − k). Also, BC is parallel to 2x 3 and Eqs. (2.41) and (2.42). Hence, the equation of the normal
passes through C (2, 4 − k). Hence, the equation of BC is at P(−1, 2) is
y (4 k )  2( x 2) 2
y 2  ( x 1)
 y  2x k (2.40) 3
Solving Eqs. (2.39) and (2.40), we have  2 x 3y 4  0 (2.43)

¥ 2k 9k ´ Let m be the slope of the reflected ray. Since the normal


B  ¦ , µ at P makes equal angles with the incident line and
§ 5 5¶
reflected line, we have
¥ 2k 9k ´
Since A  (0, k ), B  ¦ , µ , C  (2, 4 k ) and AB 2 2 1
§ 5 5¶ m
 BC, we have 3  3 2
2m ¥ 2 ´ ¥ 1 ´
2 2 2 2 1 1 ¦ µ ¦ µ
¥ 2k ´ ¥ 9k ´ ¥ 2k ´ ¥ 9k ´ 3 § 3 ¶ § 2¶
¦§ µ¶ ¦§ k µ¶  ¦§ 2 µ¶ ¦§ 4 k µ¶
5 5 5 5 3m 2 7
2 2
 
 10k  k 5 3 2m 4
 k 5  p 10k 3m 2 7
 p
5 5 5 3 2m 4
k  ( 10 1), ( 10 1)
10 1 9 9 1 29
m ,
Therefore 2 2

¥ 5 ´ ¥ 5 ´ However, m x 1/2. So that the reflected line is


A  ¦ 0, ( 10 1)µ , ¦ 0, ( 10 1)µ
§ 9 ¶ § 9 ¶ 29
y 2  ( x 1)
2
62 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

Normal Solution: See Fig. 2.39. The distance between the par-
allel lines is

=0
+5
12 7 19


2y
2 2 13

x−
q q 2 3
3x − 2y + 7 = 0 Let P  (3, −5). Let p1 be the distance from the first line,
P which is given by

FIGURE 2.37 2(3) 3( 5) 7 16



2 2 13
2 3
25. Straight lines 3x 4y  5 and 4x − 3y  15 intersect at
the point A. Points B and C are chosen on those lines and p2 be the distance from the second line, which is
such that AB  AC. Determine the possible equa- given by
tions of the line BC passing through the point BC.
2(3) 3( 5) 12 3

Solution: See Fig. 2.38. The two lines intersect at A(−3, 2
2 3 2 13
1). Clearly, the lines 3x 4y  5 and 4x − 3y  15 are at right
angles to each other and AB  AC implies that $ABC is a Therefore
right-angled isosceles triangle with its right angle at ver- 19
tex A. Let m be the slope of the line BC. Hence p1 p2 
13
3 This implies that P(3, 5) lies in between the two lines. Let
m
4 4m 3 m be the slope of a line through P (3, −5). Therefore, by
1  tan 45o  
3m 4 3m hypothesis, we have
1
4
2
 4 m 3  p(4 3m) m
1  tan 45o  3
Two cases arise: 2m
1
3
1
Case 1: 4 m 3  (4 3m)  m  .
7 3m 2
  p1
Case 2: 4 m 3  4 3m  m  7. 3 2m

Therefore, the equation of the line BC is Two cases arise:


1
1 Case 1: 3m 2  3 2 m  m  .
y 2  ( x 1)  x 7 y 13  0 5
7 Case 2: 3m 2  (3 2 m)  m  5.
or y 2  7( x 1)  7 x y 9  0
Therefore, the required lines are
C 1
y 5  ( x 3)  x 5 y 28  0
45° 5
4x − 3y = 15

and y 5  5( x 3)  5 x y 10  0
(1, 2)
2x + 3y = 7 45°

90° 45°
A 3x + 4y = 5 B (3, −5)

45°
FIGURE 2.38
2x + 3y = −12

26. Show that the point (3, −5) lies between the parallel FIGURE 2.39
lines 2x 3y  7 and 2x 3y  −12 and find the equa-
tion of the lines through (3, −5) cutting the above 27. A(10, 0) and B( 5, 5) are two vertices of a triangle
lines at an angle 45°. whose incentre is the origin. Find the coordinates of
the third vertex.
2.2 Pair of Lines 63

Solution: See Fig. 2.40. Let C(h, k) be the third vertex. Two cases arise:
Since O(0, 0) is the incentre, BO and AO are the bisec-
Case 1: 4 m 3  3m 4  m  7.
tors of the angles B and A, respectively. The equation of
BO is 1
Case 2: 4 m 3  (3m 4)  m  .
7
x y0 (2.43)
Therefore, the equations of the sides AB and AC are
The equation of AO is
y 2  7( x 2)  7 x y 16  0
y0 (2.44)
1
and y 2  ( x 2)  x 7 y 12  0
Equation of the side AB is 7
0 5 C
y ( x 10)
10 5
45°

3x
 x 3 y 10  0 (2.45)

+
4y
Since BO is the angle bisector of B, the image of C(h, k)

=
4
in the line BO lies on the line AB. Since the equation of
45°
BO is y  x, the image of C(h, k) in BO is (k, h) and this
A(2, 2) B
lies on AB. Therefore
FIGURE 2.41
k 3h  10 (2.46)
The image of C(h, k) in the angle bisector AO lies on the 29. The points (1, 3) and (5, 1) are two opposite vertices
side AB. That is, (h, k) lies on the side AB. Therefore, of a rectangle. The other two vertices lie on the line
from Eq. (2.45), we get y  2x c. Find c and the other remaining vertices.
h 3( k )  10 (2.47)
Solution: See Fig. 2.42. ABCD is the rectangle in which
Solving Eqs. (2.46) and (2.47), we get h  2 and k  4. A  (1, 3), C  (5, 1). Points B and D lie on the line y 
Hence, the third vertex is ( 2, 4). 7x c. The diagonals intersect in (3, 2) which lies on the
y line y  7x c. Therefore, 2  2(3) c or c  4. That is, the
equation of the diagonal BD is
y  2x 4 (2.48)
C
Suppose M  (3, 2) is the midpoint of the diagonals.
Therefore,

MD  MB  (1/ 2) AC  5
O A(10, 0) x
Let B be (x, 2x 4). Therefore

B(−5, −5) MB  5
 (MB)2  5
FIGURE 2.40  (3 x)2 (2 2 x 4)2  5
 ( 3 x ) 2 (6 2 x ) 2  5
28. Find the equations of the sides of a right-angled isos-
celes triangle whose hypotenuse is the line 3x 4y  5 x 2 30 x 40  0
4  0 and the right angle vertex is the point (2, 2).  x2 6x 8  0
 x  2, 4
Solution: See Fig. 2.41. Let the slope of AB be m.
Therefore Hence, B  (2, 0) and D  (4, 4).
CBA  45o D C(5, 1)

¥ 3 ´ M(3, 2)
m ¦ µ
§ 4¶
 1  tan 45o 
¥ 3 ´
1 m¦ µ
§ 4¶ A(1, 3) B

 4 m 3  p(3m 4) FIGURE 2.42


64 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

30. The ends of a straight line segment AB of constant 31. A variable straight line through the point of intersec-
length c move on two perpendicular lines OX and tion of the lines
OY which are the coordinate axes. If the rectangle x y x y
OAPB is completed, then show that the locus of the  1 and  1
a b b a
foot of the perpendicular drawn from P on to AB is meets the coordinate axes at A and B. Show that the
x 2/3 y2/3  c 2/3. locus of the midpoint of AB is the curve

Solution: See Fig. 2.43. Let A  (a, 0) and B  (0, b) so 2 (a b) xy  ab(x y)


that the equation of the line AB is
Solution: Equation of any line through the intersec-
x y tion of the given lines is of the form
1 (2.49)
a b
x y ¥x y ´
and also 1 L ¦ 1µ  0
a b §b a ¶
a 2 b2  c 2 (2.50)
This line meets the x-axis at
Let M(x1, y1) be the foot of the perpendicular drawn
from P onto the line AB. Since M(x1, y1) lies on AB, we ¥ ab(1 L ) ´ ¥ ab(1 L ) ´
A¦ , 0µ and B  ¦ 0, µ
have § b aL ¶ § a bL ¶
x1 y1
1 (2.52) Let M(x1, y1) be the midpoint of AB. Therefore
a b
Since P  (a, b) and PM is perpendicular to AB, we ab(1 L ) ab(1 L )
2 x1  and 2 y1 
have b aL a bL

Slope of PM s Slope of AB  1 Therefore

Therefore, 1 1 (b aL ) (a bL ) (a b)(1 L ) a b
  
2 x1 2 y1 ab(1 L ) ab(1 L ) ab
¥ b y1 ´ ¥ b 0 ´
¦§ a x µ¶ ¦§ 0 a µ¶  1 Hence
1

 ax1 by1  a 2 b2 (2.53) (a b)2 x1 y1  ab( x1 y1 )

From Eqs. (2.52) and (2.53), we get Therefore, the locus of (x1, y1) is

a3 b3 2(a b) xy  (ab)( x y)
x1  , y1 
a2 b 2
a 2 b2 32. The equations of the perpendicular bisectors of the
Therefore sides AB and AC of the triangle ABC are x y 5 
0 and x 2y  0, respectively. If the point A is (1, 2),
a 2 b2 then find the equation of the side BC.
x12/3 y12/3  2 2 2/3
 (a 2 b2 )1/3  c 2/3
(a b )
Solution: See Fig. 2.44. Perpendicular bisectors of the
[by Eq. (2.50)]
sides AB and AC, respectively, are
Therefore, the locus of M(x1, y1) is
x y 5  0 (2.54)
x 2/3 y2/3  c 2/3
and x 2y  0 (2.55)
y
Solving Eqs. (2.54) and (2.55), the circumcentres of
B P (a, b) $ABC is  10/ 3, 5/ 3 . Also, the equation of AB is
y 2  1( x 1)
M
 x y 1 0
Suppose B  (x, x 1). We have
O A x SA  SB
2 2 2 2
¥ 10 ´ ¥5 ´ ¥ 10 ´ ¥ 5´
¦ 1µ ¦ 2µ  ¦ x µ ¦ x 1 µ
FIGURE 2.43 § 3 ¶ §3 ¶ § 3¶ § 3¶
2.2 Pair of Lines 65

A(1, −2)
 132 112  (3 x 10)2 (3 x 8)2
 18 x 2 108 x 126  0 x−y y =0
+5= +2
0
 2 x 2 12 x 14  0 x

 x2 6x 7  0 −10 , 5
S
 ( x 7)( x 1)  0 3 3

 x  1, 7 B C
Hence FIGURE 2.44
x  1  ( x, x 1)  (1, 2)  A Aliter: A  (1, 2) and the perpendicular bisector of AB
and x  7  B  ( 7, 6) is

Therefore x y 5  0 (2.56)
B  ( 7, 6) Hence, B is the image of A in the given line in Eq. (2.56).
If B  (h, k), then by Theorem 2.13, we have
Similarly, equation of AC is
h 1 k 2 2[1 ( 2) 5]
y 2  2 ( x 1)    8
1 1 12 ( 1)2
 y  2x 4
Suppose C  (h, 2h 4), we have Therefore

SC  SA h  7, k  6
2 2 2 2 Hence
¥ 10 ´ ¥ 5´ ¥ 10 ´ ¥5 ´
¦ hµ ¦ 2 h 4 µ  ¦ 1µ ¦ 2µ
§ 3 ¶ § 3¶ § 3 ¶ §3 ¶ B  ( 7, 6)
2
  3h 10 (6 h 17)2  132 112 Similarly, C (x1, y1) is the image of A in the line x 2y  0
which implies that
 45h2 144 h 99  0
x1 1 y1 2 2(1 4) 6
 5h2 16 h 11  0   2 
1 2 1 22 5
 5h2 5h 11h 11  0 6 11
 5h(h 1) 11(h 1)  0  x1  1
5 5
11 12 2
 h  1, and y1  2 
5 5 5
Now
Therefore
h  1  the point (h, 2h 4)  (1, 2)  A
¥ 11 2 ´
11 ¥ 11 2 ´ C¦ , µ
h C  ¦ , µ § 5 5¶
5 § 5 5¶
Thus, the equation of the side BC is
Hence
14 x 23 y 40  0
¥ 11 2 ´
B  ( 7, 6) and C  ¦ , µ
§ 5 5¶ 33. A line cuts x-axis at A(7, 0) and y-axis at B(0, 5). A
variable line PQ is drawn perpendicular to AB cut-
This implies that the equation of the side BC is
ting the x-axis at P and the y-axis at Q. If AQ and BP
6 (2 / 5) intersect at R, then find the locus of R.
y 6  ( x 7)
7 (11/ 5) (IIT-JEE 1990)
28 FHHHE
 ( x 7) Solution: See Fig. 2.45. The slope of AB is
46
14 5 0 5
 ( x 7) 
23 0 7 7
 14 x 23 y 40  0
66 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

Therefore, the slope of PQ is –7/5. Consider $ABQ in Similarly,


which QP is the altitude from Q onto AB and AP is the gx2 fy2  0 (2.59)
altitude from A onto BQ. These two intersect at P. Hence,
BP is the third altitude of $ABQ. Therefore, BR is per- Therefore, g  f  0 because x1 y2 x2 y1 x 0 or the
pendicular to AR. Hence, if R  (h, k), then matrix

Slope of BR s Slope of AR  1 ¨ x1 y1 ·
©x y2 ¸¹
¥ k 5´ ¥ k ´ ª 2
¦  1
§ h µ¶ ¦§ h 7 µ¶ is a non-singular matrix. Equations (2.58) and (2.95)
 h2 k 2 7 h 5k  0 have zero solution only so that g  0 and f  0.
Therefore, the locus of R(h, k) is
35. If S y a x 2 2 hxy by2 2 gx 2 fy c  0 represents
2 2
x y 7 x 5y  0 a pair of distinct lines (h2 ab), then prove that their
point of intersection satisfies the equations ax hy g
y  0, hx by f  0 and gx fy c  0, and the point of
Q intersection is
¥ hf bg gh af ´
¦§ , µ
ab h2 ab h2 ¶
R
Solution: Since S  0 represents a pair of lines, we
have
P
O A (7, 0) x $  abc 2 fgh af 2 bg 2 ch2  0 (by Theorem 2.31)
90°
and h2 ab implies that the lines are distinct intersecting
lines. Let P(x1, y1) be the point of intersection (see Fig.
2.46). Shift the origin to the point P(x1, y1) and let the
B (0, −5) new coordinates be (X, Y) so that by Section 1.4.1, x  X
x1, y  Y y1. Therefore, S  0 is transformed to

S y a ( X x1 )2 2 h ( X x1 )(Y y1 ) b (Y y1 )2
FIGURE 2.45 2 g ( X x1 ) 2 f (Y y1 ) c  0
 S y aX 2 2hXY bY 2 2 (ax1 hy1 g )X
34. Let S yax2 2hxy by2 2gx 2fy c  0 where h2
ab represent a pair of lines both passing through 2 (hx1 by1 f )Y ax12 2 hx1 y1 by12
origin. Prove that g  f  c  0. 2 gx1 2 fy1 c  0 (2.60)

Solution: Since S  0 passes through (0, 0) we have Since Eq. (2.60) represents a pair of lines through origin
c  0. Let P(x1, y1) and Q(x2, y2) be points on one of the P, by Problem 34, we have
lines other than the origin so that area of $OPQ x 0. This ax1 hy1 g  0 (2.61)
implies that
hx1 by1 f  0 (2.62)
x1 y2 x2 y1 x 0
and S11  ax12 2 hx1 y1 by12 2 gx1 2 fy1 c  0 (2.63)
 x1 y2 x2 y1 x 0 (2.57)
Solving Eqs. (2.61) and (2.62) for x1 and y1, we get
P(x1, y1) lies on one line which passes through origin.
This implies that ( x1, y1) also lies on the line. There- hf bg
x1 
fore, ab h2
gh af
ax12 2 hx1 y1 by12 2 gx1 2 fy1  0 y1 
ab h2
and ax12 2 hx1 y1 by12 2 gx1 2 fy1  0 Therefore, the point of intersection is
imply that ¥ hf bg gh af ´
¦§ , µ
gx1 fy1  0 (2.58) ab h2 ab h2 ¶
2.2 Pair of Lines 67

Also, from Eq. (2.63), we have Hence, the point of intersection is


(ax1 hy1 g ) x1 (hx1 by1 f ) y1 gx1 fy1 c  0 ¥ 12 2 ´
¦§ , µ
Since ax1 hy1 g  0 and hx1 by1 f  0, we have 7 7¶

gx1 fy1 c  0
37. Show that the equation of the pair of lines passing
The point of intersection of the lines represented by S  0 through origin and perpendicular to the lines repre-
satisfy the following three equations: sented by the equation ax2 2hxy by2  0 is bx2
2hxy ay2  0.
ax1 hy1 g  0 º
®
hx1 by1 f  0» (2.64) Solution: Suppose the lines represented by ax2 2hxy
gx1 fy1 c  0 ®¼ by2  0 are l1x m1y  0 and l2x m2y  0 so that we
have
Y l1l2  a º
®
y l1 m2 l2 m1  2 h» (2.65)
and m1 m2  b ®¼

We know that [see Quick Look 7, part (3)] the equations


P X of the lines passing through the origin and perpendicular
to the lines l1x m1y  0 and l2x m2y  0, respectively,
are m1x l1y  0 and m2x l2y  0 and hence their com-
bined equation is
(m1 x l1 y)(m2 x l2 y)  0
O x
 (m1m2) x2 (l1m2 l2m1) xy (l1l2) y2  0
From Eq. (2.65), we have

FIGURE 2.46 bx2 2hxy ay2  0

38. Show that the product of the perpendicular distances


QUICK LOOK 15 of the lines ax2 2hxy by2  0 from a point (x0, y0)
Solving any two equations given in Eq. (2.64), we get is
the point of intersection of lines represented by
S  0. ax02 2 hx0 y0 by02
(a b)2 4 h2
36. Find the point of intersection of the lines represent-
ed by S y3x2 xy 4y2 10x 4y 8  0.
Solution: Suppose the given lines are l1x m1y  0 and
l2x m2y  0 so that
Solution: Comparing the given equation with the
second-degree general equation, we have a = 3, h = 1/2, l1l2  a
b  4, g  5, f  2 and c  8. So
l1 m2 l2 m1  2 h
1 and m1 m2  b
hf bg  (2) ( 4)5  21
2 See Fig. 2. 47. Let d1 and d2 be the distances of the lines
¥ 1´ 7 from P(x0, y0). Therefore, by Theorem 2.14, we have
gh af  5 ¦ µ (3)2 
§ 2¶ 2
l1 x0 m1 y0
Therefore d1 
l12 m12
hf bg 21 21 s 4 12
2
  
ab h (49 / 4) 49 7 l2 x0 m2 y0
and d2 
gh af 7 4 2
 s  l22 m22
ab h2 2 49 7
68 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

Hence Therefore, the area of $OAB is

(l1 x0 m1 y0 )(l2 x0 m2 y0 ) 1 l1 m2 l2 m1
d1d2  (by Section 1.2.4)
2 (lm1 l1 m)(lm2 l2 m)
(l12 m12 )(l22 m22 )

l1l2 x02 (l1m2 l2 m1 ) x0 y0 m1 m2 y02 1 (l1 m2 l2 m1 )2 4l1l2 m1 m2


 
(l1l2 m1 m2 )2 (l1 m2 l2 m1 )2 2 l 2 m1m2 (l1 m2 l2 m1 )lm l1l2 m2

ax02 2 hx0 y0 by02 1 4 h2 4ab


 
(a b)2 4 h2 2 bl 2 2hlm am2

y h2 ab

bl 2 2 hlm am2
P(x0, y0)
l2 x 0
d1
+
m d2 y= y
2y m1
=
0 x+
l1
lx + my
B =1
O x

O x

FIGURE 2.47 FIGURE 2.48

39. Find the area of the triangle formed by the lines Note: If the given line is lx my n  0 (n ≠ 0), then
ax2 2hxy by2  0 and lx my  1 write

Solution: Let the lines be l1x m1y  0 and l2x m2y ¥ l ´ ¥ m ´


¦§ µ¶ x ¦§ µy1
 0 so that n n ¶

l1l2  a and use the above formula so that the area is


l1 m2 l2 m1  2 h n2 h2 ab
and m1 m2  b bl 2 2 hlm am2
Suppose the line lx my  1 meets these lines at A and B
(see Fig. 2.48). Substituting y  l1 / m1 in lx my  1, we 40. If n≠ 0, then show that the triangle formed by the
have lines (lx my)2 3(mx ly)2 and lx my n  0 is
equilateral and find its area.
m1 l1
x and y 
lm1 l1 m lm1 l1 m Solution: See Fig. 2.49. The equation of the sides pass-
Thus, ing through origin is

¥ m1 l1 ´ (l 2 3m2 ) x 2 8 lmxy (m2 3l 2 ) y2  0 (2.66)


A¦ ,
§ lm1 l1 m lm1 l1 m µ¶ Let P be the angle between these sides. Therefore, by
and similarly, Theorem 2.28, Note (3), we have

¥ m2 l2 ´ 2 16l 2 m2 (l 2 3m2 )(m2 3l 2 )


B¦ , tan Q 
§ lm2 l2 m lm2 l2 m µ¶ (l 2 3m2 ) (m2 3l 2 )
2.2 Pair of Lines 69

41. Show that the equation of the diagonal not pass-


2 16l 2 m2 10l 2 m2 3(l 4 m4 ) ing through the origin of the parallelogram formed

2(l 2 m2 ) by the lines ax 2 2 hxy by2 2 gx 2 fy c  0
and ax 2 2 hxy by2  0 is 2 gx 2 fy c  0
3 l 4 m4 2l 2 m2 and the diagonal passing through the origin is

l 2 m2 y(hf bg )  x( gh af ).
3 (l 2 m 2 )
 Solution: Suppose the lines
l 2 m2
 3 S y ax 2 2 hxy by2 2 gx 2 fy c  0 (2.67)

That is, the angle between the sides represented by the and the lines
equation of the sides provided in Eq. (2.66) is 60o. Also, ax 2 2 hxy by2  0 (2.68)
the combined equation of the pair of angle bisectors of
equation of the sides passing through origin given in Eq. intersect in A(x1, y1) and B(x2, y2). Hence, both A and B
(2.66) is satisfy Eqs. (2.67) and (2.68) and hence they satisfy their
difference 2gx 2fy c  0 which is first-degree equation
4lm( x 2 y2 )  [l 2 3m2 (m2 3l 2 )]xy in x and y. Hence, 2gx 2fy c  0 represents a straight
(by Theorem 2.30) line passing through points A and B. Thus, AB is the
2 2 2
 lm (x y )  (l m ) xy2 diagonal represented by 2gx 2fy c  0. Since
 (lx my) (mx ly)  0 ¥ hf bg gh af ´
(0, 0) and ¦§ , µ
The angle bisectors of the angle at the vertex origin are lx ab h2 ab h2 ¶
my  0 and mx ly  0 which, respectively, are parallel
are the ends of the diagonal passing through origin, its
and perpendicular to the base line lx my n  0. Hence,
equation is
the triangle formed by the lines is equilateral. Suppose a
is the length of the sides and p is the length of the altitude ¥ gh af ´
from origin onto the base lx my n  0 so that y¦ x
§ hf bg µ¶
n  y  hf bg   gh af x
p (by Theorem 2.14)
2 2
l m
42. Show that the area of parallelogram formed by the lines
and
3
 sin 60o 
p ax 2 2 hxy by2 2 gx 2 fy c  0 and ax2 2hxy
2 a by2  0 is
2p 2 n c
a 
3 3 2 2
l m 2 h2 ab
Therefore, area of the triangle is
Solution: Suppose the sides of the parallelogram are
3 2 3 4n2 (by Theorem 2. 32)
a 
4 4 3(l 2 m2 )
l1x m1y n1  0
n2
 l2x m2y n2  0
3 (l 2 m 2 )
l1x m1y  0
and l2x m2y  0
y
Therefore, l1l2  a, l1m2 l2m1  2h, m1m2  b, l1n2 l2n1 
2g, m1n2 m2n1  2f and n1n2  c. Now, by Problem 2, the
lx

area of the parallelogram is


+
m
y+

(n1 0)(n2 0) n1 n2
n


=
0

l1 m2 l2 m1 (l1 m2 l2 m1 )2 4l1l2 m1 m2
O x
c c
 
4 h2 4ab 2 h2 ab
FIGURE 2.49
70 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

43. Show that the triangle formed by the pair of lines x2


g 2 ac
4xy y2  0 and the line x y 3  0 is an equilat- 2
eral triangle and find its area. a(a b)

Solution: The equation of the lines x2 4xy y2  0 can If we use n1 n2  2 f /m2 , then the distance between the
be written as parallel lines is

(x y)2 3(x y)2  0 f 2 bc


2
Hence, by Problem 40, the pair of lines x2 4xy y2  0 b a b
and the line x y 3  0 form an equilateral triangle
whose area is 45. Show that the pair of lines a 2 x 2 2 h(a b) xy
b2y2 = 0 are equally inclined to the pair of lines
n2 3 3 ax 2 2 hxy by2  0.
 sq. units
3 (l 2 m 2 ) 2 FHHE FHHE FHHE FHHE
Solution: Two pairs of lines ( PA, PB ) and ( PC , PD )
44. If S y ax 2 2 hxy by2 2 gx 2 fy c  0 represents are said to be equally inclined to each other if both pairs
a pair of lines, then show that h2  ab, af 2  bg2 and have the same angle bisectors at point P. Now, for the
the distance between these lines is given pairs of lines, origin is the common point. By Theo-
rem 2.30, the equation of the pair of angle bisectors of
g 2 ac
2 the lines a 2 x 2 2 h(a b) xy b2 y2  0 is
a(a b)
h(a b)( x 2 y2 )  (a 2 b2 ) xy
which is also equal to
 h( x 2 y2 )  (a b) xy
f 2 bc
2 which also represents the pair of angle bisectors of the
b(a b)
line ax 2 2 hxy by2  0. Hence, both pairs are equally
inclined to each other.
Solution: Suppose the pair of parallel lines are lx my
n1  0 and lx my n2  0. Therefore,
46. Find the equation of the pair of lines passing through
l 2  a, 2lm  2h, m2  b origin which are at a distance d units from a point
(x1, y1) x (0, 0).
l(n1 n2)  2g, m(n1 n2)  2f, c  n1n2
Solution: See Fig. 2.50. Let P be (x1, y1) and y  mx the
Now, h2  l 2 m2  ab line whose distance from P is equal to d. That is,

¨ m2 (n1 n2 )2 · y1 mx1
and af 2  l 2 © d (by Theorem 2.14)
¸ 1 m2
ª 4 ¹
2
¨ l(n n2 )2 ·  ( y1 mx1 )2  d 2(1 m2 )
 m2 © 1 ¸  bg
2
2
ª 2 ¹ ¥ y ´ ¥ y2 ´ ¥ y´
 ¦ y1 x1 µ  d 2 ¦ 1 2 µ ¦§& m  µ¶
§ x ¶ § x ¶ x
Also, the distance between the two parallel lines is (by
Theorem 2.15)  ( xy1 x1 y)2  d 2( x 2 y2 )

n1 n2 (n1 n2 )2 4 n1 n2 y

2 2 2 2
l n l m
N d P(x1, y1)
4g 2
4c d
l2

M
l 2 m2
O x

g 2 ac
2
a(a b)
FIGURE 2.50
2.2 Pair of Lines 71

47. If the equation x2 5xy 4y2 3x 2y c  0 repre- and y(hf bg)  x(gh af)
sents a pair of lines, then find the value of c and also
The parallelogram is a rhombus if the diagonals are at
the angle between the lines.
right angles (see Fig. 2.51). That is, if the product of their
slopes is equal to 1:
Solution: By Theorem 2.31, we have
g ¥ gh af ´
a h g  1
2 2 2
f ¦§ hf bg µ¶
$  abc 2 fgh af bg ch  h b f 0
g f c  g 2 h afg  f 2 h bfg

This implies  h( f 2 g 2 ) fg(a b)  0

5 3
1 y
2 2
5
4 1 0 90°
2
3
1 c
2
2 5 3 O x
 5 8 2 0
3 2 2c
FIGURE 2.51
 2(16c 4) 5(10c 6) 3(10 24)  0
 18c 20  0 49. Show that the four lines given by the equations 2x2
3xy 2y2  0 and 2x2 3xy 2y2 3x y 1  0 form
10 a square.
c
9
If @ is the angle between the lines, then Solution: We know that the lines represented by the
equations are
a b 2x y  0
cos A  (by Theorem 2.28)
2 2
(a b) 4 h x 2y  0
2x y 1  0
1 4 5 and 2x 2y 1  0
 
¥ 25 ´ 9 25 Solving 2x y  0 and x 2y 1  0, we have
(1 4)2 4 ¦ µ
§ 4¶
3 1
x  and y 
Hence 5 5
¥ 5 ´ so that the slope of diagonal through origin is 1/3. Since
A  Cos 1 ¦
§ 34 µ¶ the other diagonal is 3x y 1  0, the diagonals are at
right angles. Therefore, the parallelogram is a square.
48. Show that the straight lines ax 2 2 hxy by2  0 and
the straight lines ax 2 2 hxy by2 2 gx 2 fy c  0 50. Find the centroid of the triangle formed by the lines
form a rhombus if (a b)fg h(f 2 g2)  0. 12x2 20xy 7y2  0 and 2x 3y 4  0.

Solution: By Theorem 2.32, the given pairs of lines Solution: We have


form a parallelogram. Also, by Problem 41, the diagonals 12 x 2 20 xy 7 y2 y (2 x y)(6 x 7 y)
of the parallelogram are
Therefore, the sides of the triangle are
2gx 2fy c  0
2x y  0 (2.69)
72 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

6x 7y  0 (2.70) l1 n2 l2 n1  2 g
2 x 3 y  4 (2.71) m1 n2 m2 n1  2 f
Solving Eqs. (2.69) and (2.71), we get (1, 2) as the n1 n2  c
vertex. Solving Eqs. (2.70) and (2.71), we obtain (7, 6) as
another vertex.By hypotheses, (0, 0) is the third vertex. By hypothesis,
Hence, the centroid of the triangle is
n1 n2
¥ 0 1 7 0 2 6´ ¥ 8 8´ 
¦§ , µ ¦ , µ l12 m12 l22 m22
3 3 ¶ § 3 3¶
 n12 (l22 m22 )  n22 (l12 m12 )
2 2
51. If S y ax 2 hxy by 2 gx 2 fy c  0 represents
a pair of lines equidistant from the origin, then show (squaring and crross- multiplying)

that f 4 g 4  c(bf 2 ag 2 ).  l12 n22 l22 m12  m22 n12 m12 n22
 (l1n2 l2 n1 )(l1 n2 l2 n1 )  (m2 n1 m1 n2 )(m2 n1 m1 n2 )
Solution: Suppose the lines are l1x m1y n1  0 and
l2x m2y n2  0. Therefore  2 g(l1 n2 l2 n1 )  2 f (m2 n1 m1 n2 )
l1l2  a  g 2(4 g 2 4ac)  f 2(4 f 2 4bc)
l1 m2 l2 m1  2 h  f 4 g 4  bcf 2 cag 2  c(bf 2 ag 2 )
m1 m2  b

WORKED-OUT PROBLEMS
Single Correct Choice Type Questions
1. If the line 3ax 5y a 2  0 passes through the point 1 4c
( 1, 4), then value of a is – c  24 c2  36  c p6
2 3

(A) 9 (B) 7 (C) −9 (D) −7 Since y-intercept is positive, the value c is 6 and the equa-
tion of the line is 3x 4y 24  0.
Solution: Since the line passes through ( 1, 4), we
Answer: (B)
have
3a( 1) 5(4) a 2  0 3. A non-horizontal line passing through the point (4, 2)
and whose distance from the origin is 2 units is
 2a 18  0
(A) 3x 4y 10  0 (B) x y 2 0
Hence, a  9 and the line is 27x 5y 7  0.
Answer: (A) (C) 4x 3y 10  0 (D) 2x 3y 2  0
Solution: Let the slope of the line be m. Now the
2. A line has slope 3 / 4, positive y-intercept and forms equation of the line, by Theorem 2.2, is
a triangle of area 24 sq. units with coordinate axes.
Then, the equation of the line is y 2  m( x 4)

(A) 3x 4y 24  0 (B) 3x 4y 24  0 Therefore, by Theorem 2.14,


(C) 3x 4y 25  0 (D) 3x 4y 25  0 m(0 4) 0 2
2
Solution: Let the line be m2 1
¥ 3´  (2 m 1)2  m2 1
y  ¦ µ x c
§ 4¶
 3m 2 4 m  0
so that the intercepts on the x and y axes, respectively, are 4
4c/3 and c. Therefore, the area of the triangle (by Quick m  0,
3
Look 4) is
Worked-Out Problems 73

When m  0, the line is 7. Let A(h, k), B(1, 1) and C(2, 1) be the vertices of a

Worked-Out Problems
right-angled triangle with AC as its hypotenuse. If the
y 20
area of the triangle is 1, then the set of values of k is
which is horizontal. When m  4/3, the line is given by
4 (A) {0, 2} (B) { 1, 3} (C) { 3, 2} (D) {1, 3}
y 2  (x 4)
3
4x 3y 10 0 Solution: See Fig. 2.52. Since BC is horizontal line (y
 1) and AB is perpendicular to BC, it follows that AB
Answer: (C) is a vertical line passing through B(1, 1). Hence, h  1.
Therefore
4. The positive value of k such that the distance of the
line 8x 15y k  0 from the point (2, 3) is 5 units is 1  Area of $ABC  ( AB)( BC )
1
(A) 12 (B) 6 (C) 8 (D) 24  k 1 (1)
2
Solution: By Theorem 2.14, we have
So, k 1 p2 or k  –1, 3.
8(2) 15(3) k
5 A(h, k)
8 2 152
 61 k p(5 s 17) p85
k  24 or 146
Since k  0, its value is 24.
Answer: (D)

5. Equation of the line passing through the point (2, 3)


B(1, 1) C(2, 1)
and parallel to the line joining the points (4, 1) and
( 2, 2) is FIGURE 2.52

(A) x 6y 12  0 (B) x 6y 12  0 Answer: (B)


(C) x 6y 16  0 (D) x 6y 16  0 8. If the perpendicular bisector of the line segment join-
Solution: Slope of the line joining the points (4, 1) and ing P(1, 4) and Q(@, 3) has y-intercept 4, then a pos-
(−2, 2) is sible value of k is
2 1 ¥ 1´ (A) 2 (B) 4 (C) 1 (D) 2
¦  µ¶
2 4 § 6 Solution: Since every point (x, y) on the perpendicu-
Hence, by Theorem 2.2, the equation of the given line is lar bisector of PQ is equidistant from both P and Q we
have
1
y 3  ( x 2) ( x 1)2 ( y 4)2  ( x A )2 ( y 3)2
6
 2 x 8 y 17  2A x 6 y A 2 9
x 6y 16  0
Answer: (D) Therefore, equation of the perpendicular bisector of PQ is
2(A 1) x 8  2 y A 2
6. Equation of the line passing through the point ( 2, 3)
and perpendicular to the line 2x 3y 6  0 is Hence

(A) 3x 2y  0 (B) 2x 3y 0 8 A2


4  y-intercept 
(C) 3x 2y  0 (D) 2x 3y  0 2
Solution: By Quick Look 7, part (3), the equation of Therefore, @ 2  16 or @p4.
the line is Answer: (B)
−3(x 2) −2(y − 3)  0
9. The lines
 3x 2y  0
K(K2 1)x y b  0
Answer: (C)
74 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

and (K2 1)2x (K2 1)y 2b  0 Solving the equations which are taken pairwise, the ver-
tices of the triangle are
are perpendicular to a common line for
A( p, 0), B( q, 0) and C[pq, (p 1)(q 1)]
(A) exactly one value of K
(B) exactly two values of K Since the side AB is along the x-axis, altitude CN, drawn
from C to the side, is a vertical line so that the equation
(C) more than two values of K
of CN is
(D) no value of K
x  pq (2.75)
Solution: By hypothesis, the given lines are parallel.
Hence Equation of altitude AM is
( pq q)
(L 2 1)2 y 0 ( x p)
L (L 2 1)  ( p 1)(q 1)
L2 1
q (2.76)
Therefore K 1. y ( x p)
q 1
Answer: (A)
Solving Eqs. (2.75) and (2.76), we get the orthocentre as
10. The number of integral values of m for which the q
x-coordinate of the point of intersection of the lines y ( pq p)  pq
q 1
3x 4y  9 and y mx 1 is also an integer is
If (x, y) is the orthocentre, then we have x pq and y  pq
(A) 2 (B) 0 (C) 4 (D) 1
so that the locus of the orthocentre is y  x or x y  0
(IIT-JEE 2001)
C (pq, (p + 1)(q + 1))
Solution: Solving the given equations, the x-coordinate
of their point of intersection is
5
 5, 1
3 4m M
90°
when m  1 and 2, respectively. That is for m  1 and
2, the x-coordinate is also an integer. Hence, the number
of integral values is 2.
Answer: (A) 90°
A(−p, 0) N B(−q, 0)
11. The locus of the orthocentre of the triangle formed
FIGURE 2.53
by the lines y  0 (i.e., x-axis) and the lines
Answer: (A)
(1 p)x py p(1 p)  0
(q 1)x qy q(1 q)  0 12. Two adjacent sides of a parallelogram are 4x 5y  0
and 7x 2y  0. If the equation to one diagonal is
where pxq, is
11x 7y 9  0, then the equation of the other di-
(A) the line x y  0 agonal is
(B) the line x y  0 (A) x y  0 (B) x y  0
(C) the curve y2  4pq(p q)( pq)q (C) 2x 11y 9  0 (D) x y 9  0

(D) the curve x2 y2 Solution: See Fig. 2.54. We have


1
p( p q) q( p q) 4x 5y  0 (2.77)
(IIT-JEE 2009) 7x 2y  0 (2.78)
Solution: The given lines are 11x 7y  9 (2.79)
y0 (2.72) Solving Eqs. (2.77) and (2.79), we get
(1 p) x py p(1 p)  0 (2.73) ¥ 5 4´
A¦ , µ
(1 q) x qy q(1 q)  0 (2.74) § 3 3¶
Worked-Out Problems 75

Also solving Eqs. (2.78) and (2.79), we get Also


¥ 2
C  ¦ ,
7´ OB2  OC 2
§ 3 µ
3¶ 9x2
 x2  h2
Now 16
25x 2
¥ 5 4´ ¥ 2
A¦ , µ , O(0, 0) and C ¦ ,
7´   h2
§ 3 3¶ § 3 µ 16

25 400 h2
are three consecutive vertices of a parallelogram. The  –  h2
16 (20 3h)2
fourth vertex B is
 252  (20 3h)2
¥5 2 4 7´  20 3h  p25
¦§ 0 , 0 µ¶  (1, 1)
3 3 3 3
5
Hence, the other diagonal is y x.  h  , 15
3
−2 , 7
C
3 3 When h  5 / 3
B
¥ 5´
20 ¦ µ
20 h § 3¶ 100 4
x   
0

11
y=

20 3h 5
¥ ´ 75 3
x+

20 3 ¦ µ
+2

§ 3¶
7y
7x

=9

When h  15
20( 15) 300
5 , −4 x   12
O 4x + 5y = 0
A
3 3 20 3( 15) 25

FIGURE 2.54
Hence, the coordinates of B and C, respectively, are
4 5
Answer: (B) either ¥¦ , 1´µ and ¥¦ , 0´µ or (12, 9) and ( 15, 0).
§3 ¶ §3 ¶
13. The vertices B and C of $ABC lie on the lines 4y Two cases arise:
3x  0 and y  0, respectively, and the side BC passes 4 ¥5 ´
through the point P(0, 5). If ABOC is a rhombus Case 1: B  ¥¦ , 1´µ , P  (0, 5) and C  ¦ , 0µ
§3 ¶ §3 ¶
where O is the origin and P is an internal point to
the rhombus, then the vertex A is P is an inside point and B, P and C are collinear.
This implies
(A) (3, 9) (B) (9, 3)
(C) (3, 9) (D) ( 3, 9) BP PC BC
16 25
Solution: See Fig. 2.55. Let B  ( x, 3 x /4) and C  (h, 0). BP PC  16 25
9 9
Since B, P and C are collinear, from Quick Look 2,
Chapter 1, we have 4 10 5 10
  3 10
3 3
x 0 h
1 10
3x and BC  1 
5 0 0 9 3
4
1 1 1 ¥4 ´ ¥5 ´
Therefore, B x ¦ , 1µ and C x ¦ , 0µ
§3 ¶ §3 ¶
¥ 3x ´
 5x h ¦ 5µ  0
§ 4 ¶ Case 2: B  (12, 9), P  (0, 5) and C  ( 15, 0). Now
 20 x h(3 x 20)  0 BP  12 2 4 2  160  4 10
 x(20 3h)  20h PC  225 25  250  5 10
20 h
x (2.80) BC  27 2 9 2  729 81  810  9 10
20 3h
76 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

Therefore, Therefore, from R3 R1sinP R2cosP, we have

BP PC  9 10  BC x1 y1 1 x1 y1 1
Hence x2 y2 1  x2 y2 1
x3 y3 1 0 0 1 (sin Q cos Q )
A (12 0 15, 9 0 0)  ( 3, 9)
 (1 sin Q cos Q )( x1 y2 x2 y1 )  0
O
This implies that x1y2 x2y1 0 or sinP cosP  1. Since
0 P  P / 4, sinP cosP x 1. Therefore, x1y2 x2y1  0.
This implies that

sin(B A )sin B cos B cos(B A )  0


C
P(0, 5)
B  cos(B A B )  0

Hence, 2A @  P /2 which is impossible because 0 @


and A  P /4. Therefore
2B A x P / 2

Thus x1y2 x2y1 x 0. Hence, the points P, Q and R are


A
non-collinear.
FIGURE 2.55 Answer: (D)
Answer: (D)
15. Let O(0, 0), P(3, 4) and Q(6, 0) be the vertices of a
14. Consider the points triangle OPQ. A point R is inside the triangle such
that the triangles OPR, PQR and OQR are of equal
P  [ sin(A @), cosA ]
areas. Then, the coordinates of R are
Q  [cos(A @ ), sinA ]
¥4 ´ ¥ 2´
and R  [cos(A @ P ), sin(A P )] (A) ¦ , 3µ (B) ¦ 3, µ
§3 ¶ § 3¶
where 0 @, A, P  P /4. Then 4´
¥ ¥2 4´
(C) ¦ 3, µ (D) ¦ , µ
(A) P lies on the segment RQ § 3¶ §3 3¶
(B) Q lies on the segment PR (IIT-JEE 2007)
(C) R lies in the segment QP Solution: Let $ABC be any triangle. P is an inside
(D) P, Q and R are non-collinear point such that the triangles PBC, PCA and PAB are
(IIT-JEE 2008) of equal areas if and only if P is the centroid of ΔABC.
Hence, R must be the centroid of ΔOPQ and so
Solution: It is known that three points (x1, y1), (x2, y2)
and (x3, y3) are collinear if and only if ¥ 4´
R  ¦ 3, µ
x1 y1 1 § 3¶
x2 y2 1  0 Answer: (C)
x3 y3 1
16. If none of two lines among the following three lines
Take P  (x1, y1), Q  (x2, y2) and R  (x3, y3). Therefore,
ax by (a b)  0
x3  cos(A @ P )  cosP cos(A @) sinP sin(A @) bx (a b)y a  0
x2cosP x1sinP and (a b) x ay b  0

and are parallel then the lines


y3  sin(A P)  sin A cosP sinP cosA (A) are concurrent
y2cosP y1sinP (B) form a right-angled triangle
Worked-Out Problems 77

(C) form an equilateral triangle 19. Sum of the slopes of the lines which make 45o with
(D) form a triangle with circumcentre (a b, a b) the line 3x y 5  0 is
3 3 1
Solution: By adding C1 and C2 to C3, we get (A) (B) (C) 2 (D)
2 2 2
a b (a b) a b 0 Solution: Let m be the slope of the required line.
b (a b) a b (a b) 0  0 Therefore
a b a b a b a 0
m 3
1  tan 45o 
Hence by Theorem 2.22, the lines are concurrent. 1 m(3)
Answer: (A)  3m 1 p(m 3)

17. If the line 2x 3y 4 K(6x y 12)  0 is perpendicu- Hence, m  2, 1/ 2 so that their sum is
lar to the line 7x 5y 4  0, then the value of K is
1 3
29 25 25 29 2 
(A) (B) (C) (D) 2 2
37 27 27 37
Answer: (B)
Solution: Slope of the given line is
(2 6 L ) 20. Let PS be the median of the triangle with vertices

3 L P(2, 2), Q(6, 1) and R(7, 3). The equation of the line
passing through (1, 1) and parallel to PS is
This line is perpendicular to the line 7x 5y 4  0. This
implies that (A) 2x 9y 7  0 (B) 2x 9y 11  0
(C) 2x 9y 11  0 (D) 2x 9y 7  0
(2 6 L ) ¥ 7 ´
s ¦ µ  1 (IIT-JEE 2000)
3 L § 5¶
Solution: See Fig. 2.57. P  (2, 2) and S  (13 / 2, 1).
 14 42 L  15 5L
Therefore, the slope of the median PS is
 37 L  29
2 1 2
29 
L 2 (13 / 2) 9
37
Answer: (D) Hence, the equation of the line through the point (1, 1)
and having slope 2 / 9 is
18. The points A(1, 3) and C(5, 1) are extremities of a di- 2
agonal of a rectangle ABCD. The other two vertices B y 1 ( x 1)
9
and D lie on the line y  2x c. Then, the value of c is
 2x 9y 7  0
(A) 2 (B) 4 (C) 4 (D) 2
Solution: See Fig. 2.56. Let M  (3, 2) be the intersec- P(2, 2)
tion of the diagonals. Since M(3, 2) lies on the diagonal
BD whose equation is given as y  2x c, we have
2  2(3) c
 c −4
D C(5, 1)

Q(6, −1) S
13 , 1 R(7, 3)
2
A(1, 3) B(h, k)
FIGURE 2.57
FIGURE 2.56 Answer: (D)
Answer: (C)
78 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

21. The orthocentre of the triangle formed by the lines Thus, from Eq. (2.82), we have
xy  0 and x y  1 is
3  cotP
¥1 1´ ¥ 1 1´
(A) ¦ , µ (B) ¦ , µ ¥P ´
§2 2¶ § 3 3¶  tan ¦ Q µ
§2 ¶
¥ 1 1´  tan( D E) [by Eq.(2.83)]
(C) (0, 0) (D) ¦ , µ
§ 4 4¶
tan D tan E

(IIT-JEE 1995) 1 tan D tan E
Solution: See Fig. 2.58. By hypothesis, the sides of the ( AC / DC ) ( BC / EC )

triangle are y  0, x  0 and x y  1. Therefore, the trian- 1 ( AC / DC ) – ( BC / EC )
gle is a right-angled triangle at the origin. Now for a right- (2b / a) (2a / b)
angled triangle, the right-angled vertex is its orthocentre. 
Hence, origin is the orthocentre of the given triangle. (1 4)
2(a 2 b2 ) 2(60)2
y   (2.84)
3ab 3ab
Therefore, from Eq. (2.84), the area of $ABC is

1 60 2
ab   400
x+
2 9
1 y=
1 A

O 1 x

60
FIGURE 2.58 E
Answer: (C) G
q
22. In $ABC, C  90o and the side AB is of length 60
units. The equations of the medians AD and BE, re-
spectively, are y x 3 and y  2x 4. Then the area 90°
of $ABC (in square units) is B D C

(A) 200 (B) 300 (C) 400 (D) 500 FIGURE 2.59

Solution: See Fig. 2.59. By hypothesis, we have Answer: (C)

a2 b2  602 (2.81) 23. A straight line L with negative slope passes through
the point (8, 2) and cuts the positive coordinate
Let P be the acute angle between the medians AD and axes at points P and Q. Then the absolute mini-
BE. Therefore mum value of OP OQ as L varies (where O is the
2 1 1 origin) is
tan Q   (2.82)
1 2(1) 3 (A) 6 (B) 9 (C) 12 (D) 18
(IIT-JEE 2002)
From the quadrilateral DGEC, we have
Solution: Let the equation of the line L, by hypothesis,
DGE GDC 90o GEC  360o be
y 2 m(x 8)
Hence
P where m  0. Therefore
(O P) GDC GEC  2O
2 ¥ 2 ´
p  ¦ 8 , 0µ and Q  (0, 2 8m)
P § m ¶
 GDC GEC  P (2.83)
2
Worked-Out Problems 79

Now, 25. The equations of a pair of opposite sides of a paral-


lelogram are x2 5x 6  0 and y2 6y 5  0. The
¥ 2´ equations of its diagonals are
OP OQ  ¦ 8 µ (2 8 m) (& m  0)
§ m¶
(A) x 4y  13, y  4x 17
¥2 ´ 2
 10 ¦ 8 mµ r 10 2 s ( 8 m) (B) 4x y  13, 4y x 7
§m ¶ m
(C) 4x y  13, y  4x 7
 10 8 (& AM r GM )
(D) y 4x  13, y 4x  7
and equality occurs if and only if Solution: See Fig. 2.61. We have
2 1 x2 − 5x 6 y (x − 2)(x− 3)
 8m or m 
m 2
y2 − 6y 5 y (y − 1)(y − 5)
Hence, the absolute minimum of OP OQ is 12 6  18.
Therefore, the sides of the parallelogram are
Answer: (D)
x  2, x  3 and y  1, y  5
24. A straight line through the origin O meets the par- Therefore, the vertices of the rectangle are A(2, 1), B(3, 1),
allel lines 4x 2y  9 and 2x y 6  0 at points C(3, 5) and D(2, 5). Hence, the equation of AC is
P and Q, respectively. Then the point O divides the
segment PQ in the ratio 5 1
y 1 ( x 2)  4( x 2)
3 2
(A) 1:2 (B) 3:4 (C) 2:1 (D) 4:3
 4x y 7  0
Solution: See Fig. 2.60. The line 4x 2y  9 has positive
interception coordinates while the line 2x y 6  0 has Equation of BD is
negative interception on the axes. Hence, origin O lies in 5 1
between the axes. Suppose OM and ON, respectively, are y 1 ( x 3)  4( x 3)
2 3
drawn perpendicular to the given two lines. Observe O,
M and N are collinear (see Fig. 2.60). Now,  4x y  13
9 6
OM  and ON 
2 5 5
If any line through O meets the parallel lines in P and Q, D C(3, 5) y=5
then by pure geometry, we have
9 6
OP : OQ  OH : ON  :  3:4
2 5 5
y=1
A(2, 1) B
4x
+
2y
x=2

x=3

=
9
M
FIGURE 2.61
Answer: (C)
2x O
+
y= 26. The line x y 2  0 divides the segment joining the
−6
points A(3, 1) and B(8, 9) in the ratio
N
(A) 2:3 (B) 2:1 (C) 1:2 (D) 3:4
Solution: See Fig. 2.62. Suppose the line x − y − 2  0
meets the line joining A and B in P and AP:PB  K:1.
Therefore,
FIGURE 2.60
Answer: (B) ¥ 8 L 3 9 L 1´
P¦ ,
§ L 1 L 1 µ¶
80 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

Since P lies on the line x y 2  0, we have diameter 4y − x − 7  0. If O is the centre of the circle,
then we know that
8L 3 9L 1
20
L 1 L 1 AD  2(OM) (2.85)
FHHHE FHHHE
 3L 3 1 2  0 Since AB is a horizontal
FHHHEline, OM is a vertical line and
2 hence the equation of OM is x  1. Therefore, the line OM
L and the diameter intersect at O and we have O  (1, 2).
3
Now
Hence, AP:PB  2:3.
AD  2(OM)  2(2)  4
By hypothesis, AB is 8. Thus, the area of the rectangle
ABCD  8 s 4  32.

l 1
A(3, −1) P B(8, 9)
D C

x−y−2=0

0
7=
− x−
FIGURE 2.62 4y O(1, 2)

Answer: (A) x=1

Note: Using Theorem 2.17, the ratio AP:PB is A(−3, 4)


L11:L22where M(1, 4) B(5, 4)

L yx − y − 2  0, A  (3, 1) and B  (8, 9)


Now,
FIGURE 2.63
L11 3 ( 1) 2  Answer: (B)
and L22 8 9 2  3
29. The vertices of a triangle are A( 1, 7), B(5, 1) and
so that C(1, 4). The equation of the bisector of the angle
AP:PB  L11:L22 ABC is
AP:PB  ( 2):( 3)  2:3 (A) 2y x 7 (B) 7y x 2
(C) 3y x 7 (D) 7y x 3
27. The ratio in which the line 3x y 6  0 divides the
line joining the points A(3, 4) and B( 2, 1) is Solution: We have
(A) 2:11 (B) 9:2 (C) 11:1 (D) 1:12
AB  (5 1)2 (1 7)2  100  10
Solution: L y 3x − y 6  0, A  (3, 4), B  (−2, 1)
L11 3(3) 4 6  11, L22 3( 2) 1 6  1 and BC  (5 1)2 (1 4)2  25  5

Hence, by Theorem 2.17, the ratio AP:PB is Suppose the bisector of ABC meets the side AC at D
L11:L22  ( 11):( 1)  11:1 (see Fig. 2.64). Therefore, CD:DA  BC:BA  5:10  1:2.
Hence
Answer: (C)
¥ 2 1 7 8 ´ ¥ 1 1 ´
28. One of the diameters of the circle circumscribing the D¦ , µ ¦ , µ
§ 3 3 ¶ § 3 3¶
rectangle ABCD is 4y  x 7. If A and B are the
points ( 3, 4) and (5, 4), respectively, then the area of
Since B  (5, 1) and D  (1/ 3, 1/ 3), the equation of the
the rectangle in square units is
bisector BD of ABC is
(A) 22 (B) 32 (C) 42 (D) 26 1 (1 / 3)
y 1 ( x 5)
Solution: See Fig. 2.63. Let M be the midpoint of AB 5 (1 / 3)
so that M  (1, 4). Clearly, A and B do not lie on the
Worked-Out Problems 81

2 1 of the acute angle between L1 and L2 intersects the


 y 1 ( x 5)  ( x 5) line L3 at R. Consider the following two statements:
14 7
Hence, 7y x 2. 1. S1: The ratio PR:RQ  2 2: 5 .
2. S2: In any triangle, bisector of an angle divides
A(−1, −7) the triangle into two similar triangles.
Then
(A) both S1 and S2 are true
(B) both S1 and S2 are false
10 2 (C) S1 is true while S2 is false
(D) S2 is true while S1 is before
D (IIT-JEE 2007)

1 Solution: Solving L1 0 and L3  0, we get P  (−2, −2).


Solving L2 0 and L3  0, we get that Q  (1, −2). There-
fore, OP  2 2 and OQ  5 where O is the origin. In
B(5, 1) 5 C(1, 4)
any triangle, the internal angle bisector of an angle di-
FIGURE 2.64 vides the opposite side internally in the ratio of the other
Answer: (B) two sides. Hence
PR:RQ  OP :OQ  2 2 : 5
30. Let the algebraic sum of the perpendicular distances
from the points (2, 0), (0, 2) and (1, 1) onto a variable Hence S1 is true. S2 is false because in a triangle whose
line be zero. Then, the line passes through a fixed angles are 90o, 60o and 30o, the bisector of 90o cannot
point whose coordinates are divide the triangle into two similar triangles.
Answer: (C)
(A) (1, 1) (B) ( 1, 1)
¥2 1´ ¥1 2´ 32. If the lines 2x 3y k  0, 3x 4y 13  0 and
(C) ¦ , µ (D) ¦ , µ 8x 11y 33  0 are concurrent, then the value of k is
§3 3¶ §3 3¶
(A) 7 (B) 6 (C) 7 (D) 6
Solution: Algebraic distance of a point (x1, y1) from a
line ax by c  0 is Solution: By Theorem 2.22, we have
ax1 by1 c 2 3 k
a 2 b2 3 4 13  0
Suppose the variable line is ax by c  0. Therefore, by 8 11 33
hypothesis,  2(132 143) 3( 99 104) k( 33 32)  0
2a 0 c 0 2b c a b c  22 15 k  0
0
2 2 2 2 2 2
a b a b a b  k  7
 3a 3b 3c  0 Direct Method: Solving 3x 4y 13  0 and 8x 11y
 a b c  0 33  0, we obtain x  11 and y  5 so that (11, 5) is the
intersection of these lines. The third line 2x 3y k  0
Hence, the line ax by c  0 passes through the point
also passes through (11, 5). This implies (11.5) satisfying
(1, 1).
the equation of the third line. So
Answer: (A)
2(11) 3(5) k  0 k  7
Note: If the algebraic distances of the points (xr, yr) Answer: (C)
(r  1, 2, ..., n) from a straight line l are zero, then the line
l passes through the point ( x , y ) where 33. If the lines ax by c  0, bx cy a  0 and
cx ay b  0 are concurrent and a b c x 0, then
x1 x2 ––– xn y y2 ––– yn
x and y  1 the quadratic equation ax2 bx c  0 has
n n
(A) equal roots (B) rational roots
31. Lines L1: y x  0 and L2: 2x y  0 intersect the line (C) irrational roots (D) no real roots
L3: y 2  0 at P and Q, respectively. The bisector
82 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

Solution: By Theorem 2.22, we have 35. The straight line 2x 3y 1  0 bisects the angle be-
tween two straight lines of which one line is 3x 2y
a b c
4  0. Then, the equation of the other line is
b c a 0
(A) 9x 26y  48 (B) 9x 46y  28
c a b
(C) 9x 26y  28 (D) 3x 26y  48
 3abc a3 b3 c3  0
Solution: See Fig. 2.65. Let L1 y 3x 2y 4  0, L y 2x
 (a b c)(a2 b2 c2 ab bc ca)  0 3y 1  0 and L2 y 0 be the required lines. Since the line
The condition a b c x 0 implies a2 b2 c2 ab bc ca L2  0 passes through the intersection of the lines L1 0
 0 which in turn implies that and L  0, L2  0 is of the form (by Theorem 2.20)
1 L2 y (3x 2y 4) K(2x 2y 1)  0
[(a b)2 (b c)2 (c a)2]  0 a b c
2 Suppose (@, A ) (x the intersection of L1  0 and L  0) is
Hence, the quadratic equation is x2 x 1  0 whose a point on the line L  0 so that
roots are
2@ 3A 1  0 (2.85)
1 p i 3
But L  0 is an angular bisection of L1  0 and L2  0
2 which implies that
Answer: (D)
(3A 2B 4) L (2A 3B 1) 3A 2B 1
34. The equation of the line passing through the inter- 
2 2
section of the lines 2x 5y 1  0 and 3x 2y 8  0, (2 L 3) (3L 2) 32 2 2
and having equal non-zero intercepts on the axes, is  13L 2 24 L 13  13 [from Eq. (2.85)]
(A) x y  3 (B) x y  2 24
 L  0 or
(C) x y  1 (D) x y  3 13
Solution: By Theorem 2.20, any line passing through Therefore, K  0 gives the line L1  0 and K  24 / 13 gives
the intersection of the given lines is of the form
the line
(2x 5y 1) K(3x 2y 8)  0
24
On simplification we get L2 y (3x 2y 4) (2x 3y 1)  0
13
(2 3K)x (2K )y 1 8K 0
y 9x 46y 28  0
whose intercepts on the axes are
Therefore, the required line is L2 y 9x 46y 28  0.
8L 1 8L 1
,
2 3L 2 L 5
Therefore,
8L 1 8L 1

0

2 3L 2 L 5

1
y
2 0

 (8K 1)(2 3K 2K 5)  0


3
2x

1
L

L

K  or 7 0
8 
4
2y
If K  1 / 8, then the line is x 2y  0 which is not the x
3
L1
case. Hence x  7 and the required line is 19x 19y
q
57  0 or x y 3  0. q

Direct Method: The point of intersection of the given


lines is (2, 1). Any line having equal intercepts on the FIGURE 2.65
coordinates axes is of the form x y a. This line passes Answer: (B)
through the point (2, 1) which implies that a  3. Hence
the equation of the required line is x y  3. 36. A variable straight line passes through the point
Answer: (A) P(@, A ) and cuts the axes of coordinates in points
Worked-Out Problems 83

A and B, respectively. If the parallelogram OACB is (n n)(n n)


completed, then the locus of the vertex C (O is the 2
origin) is lm lm

x y B A  n2  lm
(A) 1 (B) 1
B A x y Answer: (B)
A B
(C) 1 (D) @ x A y  (@ A )xy 38. Consider the family of lines 2x y 4 K(x 2y
x y
3)  0 where K is a parameter. Then, the number of
Solution: See Fig. 2.66. Let the line AB be lines belonging to this family whose distance from
the point (2, 3) is 10 is
x y
1
a b (A) 4 (B) 2 (C) 1 (D) 0

where A  (a, 0) and B  (0, b). This line passes through Solution: The given family of lines can be written as
P(@, A ) which implies that (2 K )x (1 2K)y (4 3K)  0
A B By hypothesis, the distance of this line from (2, 3) is
1 (2.86)
a b
Let C(h, k) be the fourth vertex. Therefore, h a and k b. (2 L )(2) (1 2 L )( 3) (4 3L )
 10
Hence, from Eq. (2.86), we have (2 L )2 (1 2 L )2
A B
1  (5K 5)2  10(5K2 5)
h k
(K 1)2  2(K2 1)
Therefore, the locus of C is
K2 2K 1  0
A B
1 K  1
x y
Hence, the required line is 3x y 1  0.
y Answer: (C)

39. The point (2, 1) is shifted through a distance 3 2


B C(h, k) units measured parallel to the line x y  1 in the
decreasing direction of ordinates to reach a point B.
The image of the point B in the line x y  1 is
P(a, b ) (A) (0, 0) (B) (0, 1)
(C) ( 3, 2) (D) (3, 4)
Solution: See Fig. 2.67. Let A  (2, 1). By hypothesis, A
is translated along the line
O A x
y − 1 −1(x − 2)
 x y  3 (2.87)
FIGURE 2.66 Therefore abscissa of B is given by the equation
Answer: (C)
(2 x)2 (2 x)2  18
37. If the area of the rhombus enclosed by the lines lx  2 x p3
my n  0, lx my n  0, lx my n  0 and x  1, 5
lx my n  0 is 2 sq. unit, then
Hence, the point B  ( 1, 4) or (5, 2). However, A(2,
(A) m2 ln (B) n2 lm 1) is translated in the decreasing sense of ordinates.
(C) m ln (D) n lm Thus, B  (5, 2). Hence, the image of B(5, 2) in the
line x 5  1 is Ba(3, 4) because the slope of BBa is 1
Solution: From Problem 2 of the section ‘Subjective and the midpoint of BBa is (4, 3) which lies on the line
Problems’, the area of the rhombus is x y 1  0.
84 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

y lies on the altitude through A(5, 12) and parallel to the


line y x, whose equation is
y − 12  1(x − 5)
A(2, 1)
(0, 1)
x x−y 70
+
y Answer: (C)
=
1
3p 3p
4 4 42. Consider the following two families of lines repre-
O (1, 0) sented by the equations (x y 6) K(2x y 3)  0
B(5, −2)
and (x 2y 4) L(3x 2y 4)  0. If these families
of lines are at right angles to each other, then their
points of intersection lie on the curve
FIGURE 2.67
(A) x2 y2 3x 4y 3  0
Answer: (D) (B) x2 y2 5x 2y 3  0
40. If a, b and c are real such that a2 9b2 4c2 6ab 
(C) x2 y2 3x 4y 3  0
0, then the line ax by c  0 always passes through (D) x2 y2 3x 4y 3  0
the point with negative ordinate Solution: By Theorem 2.20, the equation (x − y − 6)
¥ 1 3´ ¥ 1 3´ K(2x y − 3)  0 represents the family of lines passing
(A) ¦ , µ (B) ¦ , µ through the intersection of the lines x − y− 6  0 and 2x
§ 2 2¶ § 2 2¶
y − 6  0 which is (3, −3). Similarly, the second equation
¥ 1 3´ ¥ 1 3´ represents a family of concurrent lines which is concur-
(C) ¦ , µ (D) ¦ , µ
§ 2 2¶ § 2 2¶ rent at the point of intersection of the lines x 2y −4 
0 and 3x − 2y − 4  0 which is (2, 1). Suppose the line
Solution: We have through the point (3, −3) is
a 2 9b2 4 c2 6 ab  0 y 3 m(x 3) (2.88)
2 2
 (a 3b) 4c  0 Then the line through the point (2, 1) and perpendicular
 (a 3b 2c)(a 3b 2c)  0 to the line given in Eq. (2.88) is
1
¥a 3 ´ ¥ a 3b ´ y 1 ( x 2) (2.89)
 ¦ b cµ ¦ cµ  0 m
§2 2 ¶§ 2 2 ¶
From Eqs. (2.88) and (2.89), we have
Therefore, the line ax by c  0 passes through the
points y 3 ( x 2)
m
x 3 y 1
¥ 1 3´ ¥ 1 3´
¦§ , µ¶ and ¦§ , µ  ( x 3)( x 2) ( y 1)( y 3)  0
2 2 2 2¶
Since the ordinate is negative, the point is  x 2 y2 5 x 2 y 3  0
Answer: (B)
¥ 1 3´
¦§ , µ¶
2 2
Note: In Chapter 3, we will see that the equation
Answer: (C) x2 y2 3x 4y 3  0 represents a circle describable
on the segment joining (3, 3) and (2, 1) as ends of a
41. Let A(5, 12), B( 13cosP, 13sinP ) and C(13sinP, diameter.
13cosP ) where P is real be the vertices of $ABC.
Then, the orthocentre of $ABC lies on the line 43. The line 3x 2y 24  0 meets x-axis at A and
(A) x y 7  0 (B) x y 7  0 y-axis at B. The perpendicular bisector of AB meets
the line through (0, 1) parallel to x-axis at C. Then,
(C) x y 7  0 (D) x y 7  0
the area of the $ABC is
Solution: Observe that B and C are images of each
(A) 91 sq. unit (B) 12 sq. unit
other on the line y x and hence the side BC varies and
is perpendicular to the line y x. Hence, the orthocentre (C) 36 sq. unit (D) 48 sq. unit
Worked-Out Problems 85

Solution: The given line 3x 2y  24 in the intercept Therefore, the equation of AD is


form is
5 (23 / 2)
x y y 5 ( x 8)
1 8 5
8 12
33
 y 5 ( x 8)
so that A  (8, 0) and B  (0, 12). Equation of the perpen- 6
dicular bisector of the segments AB is 11
 y 5  ( x 8)
2 2
y 6  ( x 4) Therefore, p r  11 78  89.
3
 2x 3y 10  0 A(−8, 5)

This line meets the line y 1  0 at the point C( 13/2, 1).


A A
Therefore, the area of the triangle ABC is 2 2

8 0 1 8 0 1
1 1
0 12 1  0 12 1
2 4
13 13 2 2
1 1
2
5 3
8 0 1 B(−15, −19) D C(1, −7)
1
 0 12 1 FIGURE 2.68
4
13 2 2 Answer: (D)
1
 8(24 2) 1(0 156) 45. The equations of the sides AB, BC and CA of $ABC
4 are, respectively, 2x y  0, x by  c and x y  3.
364 If G(2, 3) is the centroid of $ABC, then the value of
  91
4 b c is
Answer: (A) (A) 50 (B) 47 (C) 74 (D) 57

44. The vertices of a triangle are A( 8, 5), B( 15, 19)


Solution: See Fig. 2.69. We have
and C(1, 7). The internal bisector of the angle A has 2x y  0 (2.90)
the equation px 2y r  0. Then, p r is equal to
x by  c (2.91)
(A) 78 (B) 88 (C) 98 (D) 89
x–y3 (2.92)
Solution: See Fig. 2.68. We have
Solving Eqs. (2.90) and (2.92), we get A (1, 2). Solving
2 2
AB  7 24  625  25 Eqs. (2.90) and (2.91), we get
¥ c 2c ´
BC  16 2 12 2  400  20 B¦ ,
§ 1 2b 1 2b µ¶
CA  9 2 12 2  225  15 Solving Eqs. (2.91) and (2.93), we get
Suppose the internal bisector of the angle A meets the ¥ 3b c c 3 ´
C¦ ,
side BC at D so that BD:DC  AB:AC  25:15  5:3. § 1 b 1 b µ¶
Therefore
Suppose D(x, y) is the midpoint of BC. Then
¥ 15 s 3 5(1) 19 s 3 5 s ( 7) ´
D¦ , µ¶ 2x 1 2y 2
§ 5 3 5 3 AG:GD  2:1   2 and 3
3 3
¥ 92 ´ ¥ 23 ´
 ¦ 5, µ  ¦ 5, µ ¥ 5 11´
§ 8 ¶ § 2 ¶ D¦ , µ
§2 2 ¶
86 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

D lies on BC. So 6 56
and k  2 
5 ¥ 11´ 25 25
b¦ µ  c
2 § 2¶ Hence
 11b 2c  5 (2.93) ¥ 17 56 ´
Ha  ¦ , µ
Again, if E is the midpoint of AC and BG:GE 2:1, then § 25 25 ¶

¥ 6 12b c 9 18b 2c ´ Therefore, the circumradius is


E¦ ,
§ 2(1 2b) 2(1 2b) µ¶ R  OH a
Since E lies on the side CA, we have 2 2
¥ 17 ´ ¥ 56 ´
6 12b c 9 18b 2c  ¦2 µ ¦3 µ
3 § 25 ¶ § 25 ¶
2(1 2b) 2(1 2b)
 3 6b 3c  6 12b 332 19 2

 6b c  3 (2.94) 25

Solving Eqs. (2.93) and (2.94), we get b  11 and c  63. 1450


Hence, b c  74. 1450 25 58
  
25 5 5
A(1, −2)
A

2
=0

x−

O(2, 3) H(1, 2)
+y

y=
2x

G(2, 3)
4x − 3y + 3 = 0
1 B C

x + by = c D
B C HÄ

FIGURE 2.69 FIGURE 2.70

Answer: (C) Answer: (B)

46. In an acute-angled triangle ABC, equation of the 47. A ray of light emanating from the point (3, 4) meets
side BC is 4x – 3y 3  0, orthocentre H is (1, 2) and the y-axis at (0, b) and reflects towards the x-axis
the circumcentre O is (2, 3). Then the value of the which meets it at (a, 0) and again reflects from
circumradius R is x-axis to pass through the point (8, 2). Then the val-
ue of a is
28 58 23
(A) (B) (C) 23 (D) 13 9 17 14
5 5 5 (A) (B) (C) (D)
3 2 3 3
Solution: See Fig. 2.70. Suppose the image of the or-
thocentre H(1, 2) on the side BC is Ha. It is known that the Solution: Suppose P  (3, 4), B  (0, b), A(a, 0) and
images of the orthocentre of a triangle in the sides lie on the Q  (8, 2) (see Fig. 2.71). From the figure, we can see
circumcircle. Hence, Ha lies on the circumcircle. Suppose that
Ha (h, k). Therefore, by Theorem 2.13, part (2) we have
2 4 b b 4 b b 4
   
h 1 k 2 2(4 6 3) 2 8 a 3 0 a 3 a 3 a
  
4 3 4 2 32 25  2(3 a)  4(8 a)
Therefore  6a  26
8 17 13
h  1  a
25 25 3
Worked-Out Problems 87

y 49. In $ABC, A  (4, 1). If x 1  0 and x y 1  0


P(3, 4)
are the interior angle bisectors of angles B and C,
respectively, then the equation of the side BC is
(A) 2 x y 3  0 (B) 2 x y 3  0
B(0, b)
(C) x 2y 3  0 (D) x 2 y 3  0
Q(8, 2) Solution: Let Aa and Aaa be the images of A(4, −1)
in the bisectors x − 1  0 and x y 1  0, respectively.
Therefore, Aa and Aaa lie on the line BC (see Problem 27
q
O A(a, 0) x of the section ‘Subjective Problems’). Hence, the equa-
tion of BC is the equation of AaAaa. Now, Aa (−2, −1)
and Aaa (0, 3). Therefore, the equation of the side BC is
FIGURE 2.71
3 1
Answer: (A) y 3 ( x 0)
0 2
48. Let P be the point (3, 2). Q is the image of P in the x-  2x – y 3  0
axis and R is the image of Q in the line y  x. Finally, Answer: (B)
S is the image of R through the origin and PQRS is a
convex quadrilateral. Then, the area of PQRS is Note: The main tool used here is that if L  0 is the angle
(A) 15 (B) 16 (C) 18 (D) 5 bisector of ABC , then the image of A on the line L  0
lies on the line BC (see Fig. 2.73).
Solution: See Fig. 2.72. By hypothesis, P  (3, 2), Q  (3,
−2), R  (2, −3) and S  (−2, 3).
0
L=
Area of PQRS  Area of DPQR Area of DPRS A
90°
1
 3( 2 3) 3( 3 2) 2(2 2)
2
B AÄ C
1
3( 3 3) 2(3 2) 2(2 3)
2 FIGURE 2.73

1 1
 3 15 8 18 2 10 50. The equations of the sides AB and AC of $ABC,
2 2 respectively, are 2x – y  0 and x y  3 and the
 2 13  15 centroid G is (2, 3). Then, the slope of the side BC is

S(−2, 3) (A) 4 (B) 3 (C) 2 (D) 5


y
Solution: See Fig. 2.74. Solving the equations 2 x y  0
and x y  3, we have A  (1, 2). Equation of the median
2 P(3, 2)
through A(1, 2) is

1 2 3
y 2  ( x 1)  x 1
1 2
x – y  –1 (2.95)
O 1 2 3 x
Let B  (h, 2h) and C  (k, 3 – k). Therefore, the midpoint
Area of ΔPRS −1 of BC is
y=
−x

−2 Q(3, −2) ¥ h k 2h k 3 ´
¦§ , µ¶ (2.96)
2 2
Also, let D be the midpoint of BC. Since AG:GD 2:1, we
have
R(2, −3)
¥ 5 7´
FIGURE 2.72 D¦ , µ (2.97)
§ 2 2¶
Answer: (A)
From Eqs. (2.95) and (2.97), we have
88 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

h k 5 2h k 3 7 Solution: Solving x y – 2  0 and 2x – y 1  0, we get


 and  that the point of intersection of these two lines as
2 2 2 2
which implies that ¥ 1 5´
¦§ , µ¶
3 3
h k  5 and 2 h k  4
The line ax by c  0 also passes through the point
Solving these equations, we get h  3 and k  2. Hence, (1/ 3, 5 / 3) implies that
B  (3, 6) and C  (2, 1). Thus, the slope of BC is
¥ 1´ ¥ 5´
6 1 a ¦ µ b¦ µ c  0
5 § 3¶ § 3¶
3 2
¥ 1´ ¥ 5´
A(1, 2)  2a ¦ µ 3b ¦ µ c  0
§ 6¶ § 9¶

x+ Hence, the line 2ax 3by c  0 passes through the point


y= ¥ 1 5´
0

3 ¦§ , µ¶ .
y=

6 9
2x −

G(2, 3)
Answer: (D)

C 53. If a, b and c are real and satisfy the equation 4a2 9b2
12ab – 9c2  0, then ax by c  0 represents two
families of concurrent lines. The distance between
B
their points of concurrence is
FIGURE 2.74 2
(A) 1 (B) 3 3 (C) 13 (D) 2 13
Answer: (D) 3
Solution: From the given relation we have
51. If a, b and c are real and a b c  0, then the line
3ax 4by c  0 passes through the point whose (2a 3b)2 (3c)2  0
coordinates are
 (2a 3b 3c)(2a 3b 3c)  0
¥ 1 1´  2a 3b 3c  0 or 2a 3b 3c  0
(A) (1, 1) (B) ¦ , µ
§ 3 4¶
¥ 2´ ¥ 2 ´
¥ 1 1´  a ¦ µ b(1) c  0 or a ¦ µ b( 1) c  0
(C) (3, 4) (D) ¦ , µ § 3¶ § 3¶
§ 4 3¶
which implies that ax by c  0 passes through
Solution: We have
¥ 2 ´ ¥ 2 ´
¥ 1´ ¥ 1´ ¦§ , 1µ¶ or ¦§ , 1µ¶
a b c  0  3a ¦ µ 4b ¦ µ c  0 3 3
§ 3¶ § 4¶
whose distance between them is
which implies that the line 3ax 4by c  0 passes through
the point 2 13
3
¥ 1 1´
¦§ , µ¶ Answer: (C)
3 4
Answer: (B) 54. Let A be (1, 1). A line through A meets the x-axis in
B. A line through A and perpendicular to AB meets
52. If the lines ax by c  0 (a, b, c are non-zero and the y-axis in C. Then the locus of the midpoint of the
real), x y – 2  0 and 2x – y 1  0 are concurrent, segment BC is
then the lines 2ax 3by c  0 are passing through
a fixed point given by (A) x y  2 (B) x y  2 xy
1
¥ 1 1´ (C) x y  (D) x y  1
(A) ¦ , µ (B) (2, 3) 2
§ 2 3¶
¥ 2 7 ´ ¥ 1 5´ Solution: See Fig. 2.75. Let the line passing through the
(C) ¦ , µ (D) ¦ , µ point A(1, 1) be y – 1  m(x – 1). Therefore
§3 5 ¶ § 6 9¶
Worked-Out Problems 89

¥ m 1 ´ l m
B¦ , 0µ h 2 2
and k  2
§ m ¶ l m l m2
The equation of the line through the point A(1, 1) and l 2 m2 1
 h2 k 2  2 2 2
 2 (2.98)
perpendicular to AB is (l m ) (l m 2 ) 2
1 Also
y 1 ( x 1)
m
l 2 m2 1
Therefore, h2 k 2   (2.99)
(l 2 m 2 ) 2 (l 2 m 2 )
¥ 1 m´ From Eqs. (2.98) and (2.99), we have
C  ¦ 0, µ
§ m ¶
h 2 k 2  ( h 2 k 2 )2
Let m(h, k) be the midpoint of BC. Therefore,
Hence (h, k) lies on the curve we get
m 1 m 1
h and k
2m 2m x 2 y 2  ( x 2 y 2 )2
This gives Answer: (B)

(m 1) 56. The vertices B and C forming the base of an isosceles


h 1  k h k
2m triangle ABC are (2, 0) and (0, 1), respectively. The
Hence, the locus of M(h, k) is the line x y  1. vertex A lies on the line x  2. The orthocentre of
$ABC is
y
¥5 ´ ¥3 ´
(A) ¦ , 1µ (B) ¦ , 1µ
§4 ¶ §4 ¶
A(1, 1)
¥ 3 3´ ¥ 4 5´
(C) ¦ , µ (D) ¦ , µ
90° § 2 2¶ § 3 3¶

Solution: See Fig. 2.76. A  (2, k), B  (2, 0), C  (0, 1).
O B x Now
M
C
AB  AC
 2 2 (k 1)2  k 2
 5 2k  0
FIGURE 2.75 5
Answer: (D) k
2

55. Two lines x y  0 and x – y  0 are fixed sides of a Thus,


triangle and the third side is a variable line whose ¥ 5´
equation is lx my  1 where l2 m2  1. Then the A  ¦ 2, µ
§ 2¶
circumcentre of the triangle lies on the curve
Now, the equation of the altitude through A  2, 5 / 2 is
(A) x 2 y2  ( x 2 y2 )2 (B) x 2 y2  ( x 2 y2 )2
5 ¥ 1´
(C) x 2 y2  x 2 y2 (D) x 2 y2  4 y  2( x 2) ¦&slope of BC  µ
2 § 2¶
Solution: The vertices of the triangle are
 2 y 5  4( x 2)
¥ 1 1 ´ ¥ 1 1 ´
O(0, 0), A ¦ , and B ¦ ,  4x 2y  3 (2.100)
§ l m l m µ¶ § l m l m µ¶
Altitude through C(0, 1) is
Since the lines y x and y  x are at right angles, AOB 
90o. Therefore, the circumcentre of $OAB is the midpoint y1 (2.101)
of the hypotenuse AB. Let S(h, k) be the circumcentre of Therefore, from Eqs. (2.100) and (2.101), the orthocentre
$OAB. Therefore, of $ABC is
1¥ 1 1 ´ 1¥ 1 1 ´ ¥5 ´
h ¦§ µ¶ and k  ¦§ µ ¦§ , 1µ¶
2 l m l m 2 l m l m¶ 4
90 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

y
A(2, K)
a cos A b sin A 0
 sin A cos A 0 0
a b p

 p cos A (a cos A ) sin A (b sin A )  0

x=2
C(0, 1)
 a cos A b sin A 1  0 (2.102)
Since the angle between xcos@ ysin@  p and xsin@
ycos@ is P /4, by Theorem 2.12, we have
O B(2, 0) x
1 P a cos A b sin A
 cos 
2 4 cos A sin 2 A a 2 b2
2

1
FIGURE 2.76  [by Eq . (2.102)]
Answer: (A) a b2
2

 a 2 b2  2
57. Let A (3, 4), B  (1, 2) and P  (2 L 1, 2 L 1). If Answer: (A)
the sum PA PB is minimum, then the value of K is
7 7 3 59. P is a point on the line 2x y – 1  0. Points Q and R
(A) (B) 1 (C) (D) are on the line 2x y – 2  0 such that $PQR is equi-
8 9 2
lateral. Then, the length of the side of the triangle is
Solution: It is known that PA PB ≥ AB and equality
occurs if and only if A, P and B are collinear. Hence PA 2
(A) 4 5 (B) 3 5 (C) (D) 5
PB is minimum which implies that 15

3 4 1 Solution: See Fig. 2.77. We have p as the altitude


through P. So
1 2 1 0
1 2 1
2L 1 2L 1 1 p 
2 2 5
2 1
 3(2 2 L 1) 4(1 2 L 1) 1(2 L 1 4 L 2)  0
Suppose a is the length of the side. Therefore
 16 L 3 8 3  0
3 p 1
7  sin 60o  
L 2 a a 5
8
Answer: (A) Hence
2
58. The angle between the lines xcos@ ysin@  p and a
15
ax by p  0 is P / 4 where p  0. If these two lines
together with the line x sin @ y cos @ = 0 are concur- 2x y 1 0 P
rent, then
1
(A) a 2 b2  2 (B) a 2 b2 
2
1
(C) a 2 b2  1 (D) a 2 b2  1 5
p

Solution: Since the lines are concurrent, by Theorem


2.22, we have 2x y 2 0 60 60
Q R
cos A sin A p
FIGURE 2.77
sin A cos A 0 0
a b p Answer: (C)
Worked-Out Problems 91

60. If a, b and c are real and are in AP, then the family of 63. A  ( 4, 0) and B  (4, 0). The points M and N are
lines ax by c  0 are concurrent at the point variable points on the y-axis such that N lies above
M and MN  4. The lines AM and BN intersect at P.
(A) (1, 1) (B) (1, 2)
Then, the locus of P is
(C) (2, 1) (D) (1, 2)
(A) x 2 2 xy 16  0 (B) x 2  2 xy 16
Solution: Suppose
(C) x 2 16  2 xy (D) x 2 2 xy 16  0
a c
b Solution: See Fig. 2.78. We have A  (−4, 0) and B  (4,
2
0) so that y-axis is the perpendicular bisector of AB. Since
Then MN  4, we can take N  (0, a 4) and M  (0, a). Equation
ax by c  0  2ax (a c) y 2c  0 of the line AM is
x y
 (2 x y)a ( y 2)c  0 1 (2.103)
4 a
which represents family of concurrent lines concurrent at
the point C(1, 2) which is the intersection of the lines and the equation of BN is
2 x y  0 and y 2  0. x y
1 (2.104)
Answer: (D) 4 a 4
From Eq. (2.103), we have
61. If A(1, p2), B(1, 0) and C(p, 0) where p x are the
vertices of a triangle, then the value of p for which 4y
a (2.105)
the area of $ABC is minimum is 4 x
1 1 From Eq. (2.104), we get
(A) (B)
2 3 4y
a 4  (2.106)
1 4 x
(C) (D) None
2 Therefore, from Eqs. (2.105) and (2.106), we have
Solution: Let S be the area of ΔABC so that y y
1
4 x 4 x
1 p2 1
1 1  2 xy  16 x 2
S 0 1 1  [1(1 0) p2 (0 p) 1(0 p)]
2 2
p 0 1  x 2 2 xy 16  0
1 3 y
 p p 1
2
1
Real value of p  exists such that 3 p2 1  0. Hence N
3 1
minimum value of S exists at p  . 4
3 P
Answer: (B)
M
62. The locus of the point which moves such that its dis-
tance from the point (4, 5) is equal to its distance
from the line x – y 1  0 is
(A) a straight line A(−4, 0) O B(4, 0) x

(B) a circle with centre at (4, 5)


(C) ( y 5)2  4( x 4)
(D) ( x 4)2  y 5 FIGURE 2.78
Solution: The point (4, 5) lies on the line x – y 1  0. Answer: (A)
Hence, the required locus is the line y – 5  –1(x – 4) or
x y – 9  0. 64. The vertices of a parallelogram are described in the
Answer: (A) order A(3, 1), B(13, 6), C(13, 21) and D(3, 16). If a
92 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

line through origin divides the parallelogram into A


two congruent parts, then the slope of the line is
13 11 8 11 M E F N
(A) (B) (C) (D)
8 12 11 8
L
Solution: See Fig. 2.79. It can be observed that AD and
BC are vertical lines. Suppose the line through the origin
meets AD at P and BC at Q in such a way that CQ  B C
PA, DP BQ. Also PQCD and PQBA are the congruent
parts. Suppose AP k. FIGURE 2.80
Therefore, P  (3, k 1) and Q  (13, 21 k ). Hence, Answer: (C)
the slope of the line is
k 1 21 k 66. The equations of two adjacent sides of a rhombus are y
 x and y  7x. The diagonals of the rhombus intersect
3 13
at the point (1, 2). Thus, the area of the rhombus is
 13k 13  63 3k
 16k  50 50 20 10 40
(A) (B) (C) (D)
25 3 3 3 3
k
8 Solution: See Fig. 2.81. Let M be the point (1, 2). Since
Thus, the slope of the line is the diagonal AC is perpendicular to the diagonal OB, the
equation of the diagonal AC is
(25 / 8) 1 33 11
  1
3 3s8 8 y 2  ( x 1)
2
y
C(13, 21)  x 2y 5  0 (2.107)
k Solving Eq. (2.107) and the equation y x, we get
D(3, 16)
Q
¥ 5 5´
A¦ , µ
§ 3 3¶

B(13, 6) Solving Eq. (2.107) and the equation y  7x, we get


P
k ¥ 1 7´
C¦ , µ
§ 3 3¶
A(3, 1)

O x Therefore, area of the rhombus is 2$OAC which is given


by
FIGURE 2.79 1 5 7 5 1 30 10
2s s s  
Answer: (D) 2 3 3 3 3 9 3
B
65. The number of straight lines that are equidistant
from the vertices of a triangle is
(A) 1 (B) 2
(C) 3 (D) infinite
Solution: See Fig. 2.80. Let ABC be a triangle. Let
C A
E and F be the midpoints of AB and AC, respectively.
FHHE M(1, 2)
Draw AL, BM and CN Fperpendicular
HHE FHHEline EF . It
to the
is known that the line EF is parallel to BC and EF 
y=

(1/2)BC. It is clear that


y=
7x

$BEM y $AEL and $CFN y $AFL


FHHE
Therefore, BM  AL  CN . Thus the line EF is equi- O(0, 0)
distant from A, B and C. Similarly, we have two more FIGURE 2.81
lines. Thus, the numbers of lines equidistant from A, B
Answer: (C)
and C is 3.
Worked-Out Problems 93

67. A point P on the line 3x 5y – 15  0 is equidistant 10 m 5(10 m)


from the coordinates axes. P can lie in Case 1: 
m 1 m 7
(A) first quadrant  (10 m)[m 7 5(m 1)]  0
(B) first or second quadrant  m  10 or m  3
(C) first or third quadrant
10 m 5(10 m)
(D) any quadrant Case 2: 
m 1 m 7
Solution: The point (x, y) is equidistant from both axes
 (10 m)[m 7 5(m 1)]  0
š x  y  y  p x.
2 1
15  m  10 or m  
1. y x and (x, y) lies on the line 3x 5y  15  x  , 6 3
8
15 If m  10, then the third side passes through the origin
y  P lies in the first quadrant.
8 (0, 0), which is false in this case. Thus
15 15
2. y  x and (x,y) lies on 3x 5y  15  x  , y  P 1
2 2 m  3 or
lies in the second quadrant. 3
Answer: (B) Hence, the third side is
3x y 7  0
68. Two equal sides of an isosceles triangle are given by
the equations y  x and y  7x and its third side  x 3 y 31  0
passes through the point (1, 10). Then, the equa-
tions of the third side is

7x
(A) x 3 y 31  0 or 3x y 13  0

y=
(B) x 3 y 29  0 or 3 x y 13  0
y
=
−x

(C) 3 x y 7  0 or x 3 y 31  0
(D) 3 x y 7  0 or x 3 y 29  0
Solution: See Fig. 2.82. Let
O
y 10  m( x 1) (2.108)
be the equation of the third side. Substituting y  x in
A
Eq. (2.108), we have
B (1, −10)
10 m (10 m)
x and y
1 m 1 m
Let FIGURE 2.82

¥ 10 m (10 m) ´ Answer: (C)


A¦ , µ
§ 1 m 1 m ¶
69. The equation of the line which passes through the
Substituting y  7x in Eq. (2.108), we have intersection of the lines x 2y 3  0 and 3x 4y
7 0 and is perpendicular the line x – y 8  0 is
¥ 10 m 7(10 m) ´
B¦ , µ
§ m 7 m 7 ¶ (A) x 2 y 3  0 (B) x y 2  0
Now, (C) x y 2  0 (D) 3 x 3 y 4  0

OA  OB Solution:
Direct Method: Intersection of the lines x 2y 3  0 and
(10 m)2 (10 m)2 (10 m)2 49(10 m)2
  3x 4y 7 0 is ( 1, 1). Slope of the line x – y 8  0
(m 1)2 ( m 7) 2 is 1. Hence, the equation of the required line is
2 (10 m) 5 2 (10 m) y 1  1( x 1) or x y 2  0
 p
m 1 m 7 Answer: (C)
10 m 5(10 m)
 p
m 1 m 7
94 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

70. Let A be the point (t, 2) and B be the point on the The three families have a common line if
y-axis such that the slope of AB is t. Then, the locus
of the midpoint of AB, as t varies over all real num- ¥ a a 2 12 ´
¦§ 2 , µ , (1, 1) and (3, 3)
bers, is a 6 a2 6 ¶
(A) y  2 2 x 2 (B) x 2 y 1  0 are collinear. Since the equation of the line joining (1, 1)
(C) y  1 x 2 2
(D) 2 x y 2  0 and (3, 3) is y x, we have

Solution: See Fig. 2.83. Equation of the line AB is a a 2 12



a2 6 a2 6
y 2  t( x t )
 a 2 a 12  0
Now,
 (a 4)(a 3)  0
x  0  y  2 t2
 a  4, 3
 B  (0, 2 t 2 )
a4 (& a  0)
Let M(x, y) be the midpoint of AB. Therefore
Answer: (D)
t 0 2 (2 t 2 )
x ,y
2 2 72. If the length of the intercept made on the line y ax
by the lines y  2 and y  6 is less than 5, then
 t  2 x, 2 y  4 t 2  4 4 x 2
4 4 4 4
Thus, the locus of M is y  2 2 x 2. (A) a (B) a  or a 
3 3 3 3
y 3 4
(C) a (D) a ( d, d)
4 3
A (t, 2) y=2 Solution: The line y ax intersects the lines y  2 and y
 6 at points A  2 /a, 2 and B  6 /a, 6 . Now
B
2
¥ 2 6´
AB  5 š ¦ µ (2 6)2  52
§ a a¶
O x
16
š  25 16  9
a2
16
FIGURE 2.83 š a2 
9
Answer: (D)
4 4
ša or a 
71. If the three families of lines 3 3
(y – 2x 1) K1(2y – x – 1)  0 Answer: (B)

(3y – x – 6) K2(y – 3x 6)  0 73. The equation of the obtuse angle bisector of the an-
and (ax + y 2) + K3(6x + ay a) = 0 (a > 0) gle between the lines x – 2y 4  0 and 4x – 3y 2 
0 is
have a common line, then the value of a is
(A) (4 5 ) x (2 5 3) y (4 5 2)  0
(A) 3 (B) 2 (C) 6 (D) 4
(B) (4 5 ) x (2 5 3) y 4 5  0
Solution: The first and second families of lines are con-
current at (1, 1) and (3, 3), respectively, while the third (C) (4 5 ) x (2 5 3) y 4 5 2  0
family of lines are concurrent at
(D) (4 5 ) x (2 5 3) y 4 5  0
¥ a a 2 12 ´
¦§ 2 , 2 µ Solution: c1  4, c2  2 are positive. Since a1a2 b1b2 
a 6 a 6 ¶
4 6  0, by Theorem 2.26,
Worked-Out Problems 95

x 2y 4 ¥ 4 x 3y 2 ´  ( x y 1)( x y 1)  0
 ¦
2
1 2 2 § 4 2 32 µ¶ Therefore, the pair of lines is x y 1  0 and x y 1  0
and their angle bisectors are
is the obtuse angle bisector. So we have
x y 1 ¥ x y 1´
5 ( x 2 y 4)  4x 3y 2  p¦ µ
2 § 2 ¶
 (4 5 ) x (2 5 3) y (4 5 2)  0 That is y  1 and x  0. Therefore, the sides of the triangle
Answer: (A) are x  0, y  1 and x y  3. The vertices are (0, 1), (0, 3)
and (2, 1). Hence the area of the triangle is
74. Two vertices of a triangle are (5, 1) and ( 2, 3). If or-
1 4
igin is the orthocentre of the triangle, then the third 0(3 1) 0(1 1) 2(1 3)   2
vertex is 2 2
Answer: (A)
(A) (4, 7) (B) ( 4, 7)
(C) (4, 7) (D) ( 4, 7) 76. The slope of one of the lines ax2 2hxy by2  0 is
Solution: See Fig. 2. 84. Let B  (5, −1) and C  (−2, 3), twice that of the other. Then
and the third vertex A  (h, k). The orthocentre is O(0, 0). (A) 8 h2  9ab (B) 4 h2  3ab
Since AO is perpendicular to BC, we have
(C) h2  4ab (D) 9 h2  8ab
¥ k´ ¥ 3 1 ´
¦§ µ¶ ¦§ µ  1 Solution: Let y  mx and y  2mx be the two lines.
h 2 5 ¶
Therefore
 4k  7 h (2.109)
ax 2 2hxy 6 y2 y b( y mx)( y 2mx)
Now BO is perpendicular to AC
Equating the corresponding coefficients, we have
¥ 1´ ¥ 3 k ´
¦ µ¦  1 2h a
§ 5 ¶ § 2 h µ¶ 3m  , 2 m2 
b b
 3 k  5(2 h)
2
a ¥ 2 h ´ 8h2
 5h k  13 (2.110)   2 m2  2 ¦ µ  2
b § 3b ¶ 9b
Solving Eqs. (2.109) and (2.110), we have h  4 and 2
 9ab  8 h
k  7. Hence, A  ( 4, 7).
Answer: (A)
A (h, k)
77. A is a point on the x-axis. Through the point A, a
line is drawn parallel to y-axis so as to meet the lines
ax2 2hxy by2  0 in B and C. If AB BC, then

O(0, 0) (A) 9 h2  8ab (B) 8 h2  9ab


(C) 4 h2  3ab (D) 3h2  8ab
B (5, −1) C (−2, 3) Solution: See Fig. 2.85. Let y  m1 x and y  m2 x be
FIGURE 2.84 the lines represented by ax 2 2 hxy by2  0. Therefore
Answer: (D) 2 h
m1 m2 
b
75. Area of the triangle formed by the line x y  3 and a
the angle bisectors of the pair of lines x2 – y2 2y 1 m1 m2 
b
 0 is
Suppose A  (A , 0) and the line x @ meets y  m1 x at
(A) 2 (B) 4 (C) 6 (D) 8
B and y  m2 x at C. Thus, B  (A , m1A ) and C  (A , m2A ).
(IIT-JEE 2004) Now,
Solution: m2A 0
AB  BC   m1A
x 2 y2 2 y 1  0  x 2 ( y 1)2  0 2
 m2  2 m1
96 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

Hence, from Worked-Out Problem 76, we get 8 h2  9ab. 80. Let PQR be right-angled isosceles triangle right an-
gled at P(2, 1). If the equation of the line QR is 2x
y y – 3  0 then the combined equation of the pair of
x
m2 lines PQ and PR is
=
y
C
(A) 3 x 2 3 y2 8 xy 20 x 10 y 25  0
x
y = m1 (B) 3 x 2 3 y2 8 xy 20 x 10 y 25  0
B (C) 3 x 2 3 y2 8 xy 10 x 15 y 20  0
O A(a, 0) x (D) 3 x 2 3 y2 8 xy 15 y 20  0
(IIT-JEE 1999)
FIGURE 2.85 Solution: See Fig. 2.86. Let m be the slope of the line
Answer: (B) PQ. Since PQR  45°, from the ‘Note’ of Theorem 2.12,
we have
78. If one of the lines represented by ax2 2hxy by2  m 2
0 bisects the angle between the axes, then 1  tan 45o 
1 m( 2)
(A) 4 h2  ab (B) 8 h2  9ab  m 2  p(1 2 m)
(C) (a b)2  4 h2 (D) (a b)2  2 h2 1
 m  3,
Solution: Suppose y x is one of the lines. That is, 3
Therefore, the combined equation of the lines PQ and
ax 2 2 hx 2 bx 2  0 PR is
 a b  2 h
¨ 1 ·
[ y 1 3( x 2)] © y 1 ( x 2)
 (a b)2  4 h2 ª 3 ¹̧
Suppose y  x is one of the lines. Then  (3 x y 5)( x 3 y 5)  0

a 2h b  0  3x2 3y2 8xy 20 x 10 y 25  0


R
 (a b)2  4 h2
Answer: (C) 45° 2x
+y
−3
79. If the equation 12x2 7xy ky2 13x – y + 3  0 rep- =0
resents a pair of lines, then the value of k is
90° 45°
(A) 5 (B) 5 (C) 10 (D) 10
P (2, 1) Q
Solution: Comparing the given equation with the second-
degree general equation, we have FIGURE 2.86
Answer: (B)
7 13 1
a  12, h  , b  k, g  , f  and c  3
2 2 2 81. Area of the parallelogram formed by the lines y 
Since the equation represents pair of lines, by Theorem mx, y  mx 1, y  nx and y  nx 1, where m ≠ n,
2.31, we get is equal to
m n 2
$  abc 2 fgh af 2 bg 2 ch 2  0 (A) (B)
(m n)2 m n
That is,
1 1
(C) (D)
¥ 1´ ¥ 13 ´ ¥ 7 ´ ¥ 1´ ¥ 169 ´ m n m n
(12)(k )(3) 2 ¦ µ ¦ µ ¦ µ 12 ¦ µ k ¦
§ 2 ¶ § 2 ¶ § 2¶ § 4¶ § 4 µ¶
(IIT-JEE 2001)
¥ 49 ´
3¦ µ  0 Solution: From Problem 2 of the section ‘Subjective
§ 4¶
Problems’, the area of the parallelogram is
 144k 91 12 169k 147  0
(1 0)(1 0) 1
 25k  250 
m n m n
 k  10
Answer: (B)
Answer: (D)
Worked-Out Problems 97

82. All chords of the curve 3x2 – y2 – 2x 4y  0 which n1 3n2  14 (2.112)


subtend a right angle at the origin pass through a
fixed point whose coordinates are 2 n1 4 n2  22 (2.113)

(A) (0, 0) (B) (1, 2) Solving Eqs. (2.112) and (2.113), we have n1  5 and
n2  3. Therefore, the sides of the parallelogram are
¥ 1 10 ´
(C) ¦ , 1µ (D) (2, 1) 3x 4 y  0
§ 3 ¶
3x 4 y 5  0
(IIT-JEE 1982)
x 2y  0
Solution: See Fig. 2.87. Let lx my  1 be the chord and x 2y 3  0
of the given curve subtending right angle at the origin:
Suppose the line meets the curve at A and B. Hence, by Hence, from Problem 2 of the section ‘Subjective Prob-
Theorem 2.33, the combined equation of the pair of lines lems’, the area of the parallelogram is
OA and OB is (5 0)(3 0) 15
2 2
 sq. unit
3 x y (2 x 4 y)(lx my)  0 3(2) (4) 2
Since AOB  90o, from the above equation and from Answer: (C)
Theorem 2.28, we have
84. If the second-degree general equation S y ax2 2hmy
Coefficient of x 2 Coefficient of y2  0 by2 2gx 2fy c  0 represents pair of intersect-
 (3 2l ) ( 1 4 m)  0 ing lines, then the area of the parallelogram formed
by the lines S  0 and ax2 2hxy by2  0 is
 l 2m 1  0
 l m( 2)  1 C C
(A) (B)
(a b)2 4 h2 2 (a b)2 4ab
Hence the line lx my  1 passes through the point (1, 2).
C C
y (C) (D)
2 2
2 (a b) 4 h 2 h2 ab
B
Solution: Suppose the lines represented by S  0 are
lx + m l1 x m1 y n1  0 and l2 x m2 y n2  0 so that from
y=1
A
Theorem 2.32, the equation ax 2 2 hxy by2  0 repre-
90°
sents l1 x m1 y  0 and l2 x m2 y  0. Also we have
O x
l1l2  a
l1 m2 l2 m1  2 h
FIGURE 2.87 m1 m2  b
Answer: (B) l1 n2 l2 n1  2 g

83. The area of the parallelogram formed by the lines m1 n2 m2 n1  2 f


3x2 10xy 8y2 14x 22y 15  0 and 3x2 10xy and n1 n2  c
8y2  0 is
Hence the sides of the parallelogram are
15
(A) 5 (B) 10 (C) (D) 15 l1x m1y 
2
Solution: We have l1 x m1 y n1  0
l2 x m2 y  0
3 x 2 10 xy 8 y2 y (3 x 4 y)( x 2 y)
l2x n2y n2  0
Therefore, for some values of n1 and n2
Therefore, from Problem 2 of the section ‘Subjective
3 x 2 10 xy 8 y2 14 x 22 y 15 y Problems’, the area of the parallelogram is
(3 x 4 y n1 )( x 2 y n2 ) (2.111) (n1 0)(n2 0) n1 n2

Equating the coefficients of x and y on both sides of Eq. l1 m2 l2 m1 (l1 m2 l2 m1 )2 4l1l2 m1m2
(2.111), we have
98 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

c c 1 m2 2
   
4 h2 4ab 2 h2 ab (1 m)2 (1 m)2 3
Answer: (D)  3m2 3  2(1 2 m m2 )

Note: By using this formula, for the parallelogram in  m2 4 m 1  0


Worked-Out Problem 83, the area is equal to 4 p 16 4
m  2p 3
15 15 2

2 25 24 2 Now
P
85. If x2 – 2pxy – y2  0 and x2 – 2qxy – y2  0 represent 0Q b  tan Q  m  2 3
3
a pair of lines (p xq) such that each pair bisects the
angle between the other, then so that P  15o.
(A) pq  1 (B) pq  1 Answer: (C)

1 1 1 1 1 87. The equation 16x4 – y4  0 represents


(C) 1 (D) 
p q p q 2
(A) a single straight line (B) a pair of lines
Solution: By Theorem 2.30, the equation of the pair of (C) a single point (D) xy  2
angle bisector of the lines x2 – 2pxy – y2  0 is
Solution: The given equation is
p( x 2 y2 )  (1 1) xy
(4x2 y2)(2x y) (2 x y)  0
2 2
 px 2 xy py  0
The equation 4 x 2 y2  0 represents the single point (0,
However, by hypothesis, x 2 2qxy y2  0 is the pair of 0). Hence, the equation represents the pair of lines
angle bisectors. Therefore, 2 x y  0 and 2 x y  0 which pass through the origin.
p 2 p Answer: (B)
   pq  1
1 2q 1
88. If the lines x 2y  9, 3x – 5y  5 and ax by  1
Answer: (B)
are concurrent, then the line 5x 2y – 1  0 passes
through the point
86. A straight line is drawn through the point (1, 2) mak-
ing an angle Q (0  Q b P / 3) with the positive direc- (A) (b, a) (B) (a, b)
tion of the x-axis to intersect the line x y – 4  0 at (C) ( a, b) (D) ( a, b)
a point P so that the distance between P and (1, 2) is
Solution: The point of intersection of the lines x 2y
2 / 3 . Then, the value of P is
– 9  0 and 3x – 5y 5  0 is (5, 2) which also lies on the
P P P P line ax by  1. Hence,
(A) (B) (C) (D)
3 10 12 18 a(5) b(2)  1
Solution: Let A be (1, 2) and the line through A(1, 2)  5a 2b  1
be y 2  m( x 1). This line meets the line x y  4 at
point P. So Therefore, the line 5x 2y  1 passes through the point
(a, b).
4 x 2  m( x 1)
Answer: (B)
 x(1 m)  2 m
2 m 2 m 3m 2 89. Straight lines are drawn from the point A(3, 2) to
x and y  4 x  4 
1 m 1 m 1 m meet the line 6x 7y – 30  0 at point P. Then, the
locus of the midpoints of the segment AP is
Therefore,
(A) x 2 y2  30 (B) 6 x 7 y  31
¥ 2 m 3m 2 ´
P¦ ,
§ 1 m 1 m µ¶ (C) (6 x 3)2 (7 y 2)2  30 2 (D) 6 x 7 y  32

Now, Solution: Let the line that passes through A(3, 2) be

2 2 x 3 y 2
2 ¥ 2 m´ ¥ 3m 2 ´ 2  r (say)
AP   ¦1 µ ¦§ 2 µ  cos Q sin Q
3 § 1 m¶ 1 m ¶ 3
Worked-Out Problems 99

Every point on this line is of the form P(3 r cos Q , 2 r Solution: The given relation is
sinP) and this lies on the line 6x + 7y = 30. It implies that
(5a 4b)2 c 2  0
r(6 cos Q 7 sin Q )  2 (2.114)  (5a 4b c)(5a 4b c)  0
Suppose M(h, k) be the midpoint of AP. Therefore, ¨ ¥ 5´ · ¨ ¥ 5´ ·
 © 2a ¦ µ b( 4) c ¸ © 2a ¦ µ b(4) c ¸  0
2 h  6 r cos Q and 2k  4 r sin Q ª § 2 ¶ ¹ª § 2 ¶ ¹
 6(2 h 6) 7(2k 4)  r(6 cos Q 7 sin Q )  2  2ax by c  0

[from Eq. (2.114)] It passes through

 12 h 14k 62  0 ¥5 ´ ¥ 5 ´
¦§ , 4µ¶ and ¦§ , 4µ¶
 6 h 7k 31  0 2 2
Answer: (B)
Hence, the locus of M(h, k) is the line 6 x 7 y 31  0.
Answer: (B) 92. The area of the triangle formed by the lines x y
 3 and angle bisectors of the pair of straight lines
90. If no two lines of the three lines x2 – y2 2y  1 is
(m – 2)x (2m – 5)y  0 (A) 2 sq. unit (B) 4 sq. unit
(m – 1)x (m2 – 7)y – 5  0 (C) 6 sq. unit (D) 8 sq. unit
and x y – 1  10 (IIT-JEE 2004)
are parallel, then the three lines are concurrent Solution: The given lines are
(A) for three values of m (B) for two values of m x 2 ( y 1)2  0
(C) for one value of m (D) no real value of m  ( x y 1)( x y 1)  0
Solution: By Theorem 2.22, the three lines are concur- Therefore, the given lines are x y 1  0 and x + y 1 = 0
rent if whose angular bisectors are
1 1 1 x y 1 x y 1
p
m 2 2m 5 0  0 2 2
m 1 m2 7 5 That is, y 1  0 and x  0. Thus, the vertices of the tri-
2 angle are (0, 1), (0, 3) and (2, 1). Hence, the area is
 1[(m 2)(m 7) (m 1)(2 m 5)]
5 ;2m 5 m 2=  0 1
2
;0(3 1) 0(1 1) 2(1 3)=  2 sq. unit
 m3 2 m2 7 m 14 2 m2 5m 2 m 5 Answer: (A)
10 m 25 5m 10  0
93. A straight line is drawn through (1, 0) to the curve
 m 3 4 m 2 5m 6  0 x2 y2 6x – 10y 1  0 such that the intercept made
 (m 3)(m2 m 2)  0 on it by the curve subtends a right angle at the origin.
Then, the slope of the line is
Since (m2 m 2)  0 has no real solutions, it follows
that m  3. However, m  3 implies that the three lines 1 1
are parallel which is in contradiction of the hypothesis. (A) 1 or (B) 1 or
9 9
Hence, if m x 3, then the lines cannot be concurrent.
1 1
Answer: (D) (C) 1 or (D) 1 or
9 9
91. If 25a2 16b2 – 4ab – c2  0, then the line 2ax by c  Solution: Let y  m(x – 1) be the line meeting the
0 passes through a fixed point whose coordinates are curve in the point A and B. Hence, by Theorem 2.33, the
combined equation of the pair of lines OA and OB (‘O’
¥5 ´ ¥5 ´ is the origin) is
(A) ¦ , 4µ (B) ¦ , 4µ
§2 ¶ §2 ¶
¥ 5 (mx y) (mx y)2
´
(C) ¦ , 4µ (D) (5, 4) x 2 y2 (6 x 10 y) 1 0
§ 2 ¶ m m
100 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

Since AOB  90o, from the above equation, we have The lines represented by x2 4xy 4y2 5x 10y
4  0 are parallel lines and they are x 2 y 4  0 and
Coefficient of x 2 Coefficent of y2  0 x 2y 1  0 .
¥ 10 1 ´ Therefore, from Problem 2 of the section ‘Subjective
 (1 6 1) ¦ 1 µ 0
§ m m2 ¶ Problems’, the area is
 9 m2 10 m 1  0 ( 1 3)( 1 4)
6
 (9 m 1)(m 1)  0 1 0
1 Answer: (B)
m or m  
9
96. A straight line L passing through the point (3, 2) is
Answer: (B)
inclined at an angle 60° to the line y 3 x  1. If L
intersects the x-axis, then the equation of L is
94. The area bounded by the curves y  x 1 and
y  x 1 is (A) y 3 x 2 3 3  0
(A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 2 2 (D) 4 (B) y 3x 2 3 3  0
Solution: The given lines are (C) 3y x 3 2 3  0
y  x 1, y  x 1 and y  x 1, y  x 1 (D) 3y x 3 2 3  0
That is, the lines are (IIT-JEE 2011)
x y 1  0, x y 1  0, x y 1  0 and x y 1  0 Solution: Let the equation of the line L be y 2 
Therefore, from Problem 2 of the section ‘Subjective m(x – 3). Therefore, by hypothesis
Problems’, the area of the parallelogram is
m 3
3
(1 1)(1 1) 1 m 3
2
1 ( 1)
 m 3  p 3 (1 m 3 )
Answer: (B)
 m  0 or m  3
95. The area of the parallelogram formed by the pairs of
If m  0, then L should be horizontal, which is not true in
lines x2 4xy 4y2 – 5x – 10y 4  0 and y2 – 4y 3 
this case. Hence, m  3 and the equation of L is
0 sq. units is
(A) 4 (B) 6 (C) 8 (D) 12 y 2  3 ( x 3)

Solution: y2 4 y 3  0 represent the lines y 1  0  y 3x 2 3 3  0


and y 3  0. Answer: (B)

Multiple Correct Choice Type Questions


1. Let L1 be a straight line passing through the origin made by the circle on L1 and L2 , it follows that the two
and L2 be the straight line x y  1. If the intercepts chords are equidistant from the centre. Therefore
made by the circle x2 y2 – x 3y  0 on L1 and L2 are
equal, then L1 may be represented by the equations ¥ 1´ 3 1 3
m¦ µ 1
§ 2¶ 2
(A) x y  0 (B) x y0  2 2
1 m2 12 12
(C) x 7y  0 (D) x 7 y  0
Solution: The equation of the circle can be written as
(m 3)2
2 2  2
¥ 1´ ¥ 3´ 5 4(1 m2 )
¦§ x µ¶ ¦§ y µ¶ 
2 2 2  m2 6 m 9  8 8 m2
so that its centre is at 1/ 2, 3 / 2 and radius is 5 / 2. Let  7 m2 6 m 1  0
y  mx be the equation of L1 . Since the intercepts are  (7 m 1)(m 1)  0
Worked-Out Problems 101

1 Solution: See Fig. 2. 88. The point


 m  1,
7 ¥1 ´
M  ¦ , 1µ
§2 ¶
Hence, the equations of L1 are y  x and y  x / 7. That
is, x y  0 and x 7 y  0. is the intersection of the diagonals so that
Answer: (B), (C) 1 5
DM  MB  AC 
2 2
2. The lines ax by c  0, bx cy a  0 and cx ay
b  0 are concurrent if Since the slope of AC is 4 / 3, the equation of the diago-
nal BD is
(A) a b c  0
3¥ 1´
(B) a 2 b2 c 2  ab bc ca y 1 ¦§ x µ¶
4 2
(C) a 3 b3 c 3  3abc
3 6 x 11
(D) a 2 b2 c 2  2(ab bc ca) y (2 x 1) 1 
8 8
Solution: The three lines are concurrent if
Let
a b c
¥ 6 x 11´
b c a  0 (By Theorem 2.22) B  ¦ x, µ
§ 8 ¶
c a b
Now,
 3abc a 3 b3 c 3  0 2 2
5 ¥ 1´ ¥ 6 x 11 ´ 25
3 3 3
 a b c 3abc  0 MB  ¦x µ ¦ 1µ 
2 § 2 ¶ § 8 ¶ 4
Also
 16(2 x 1)2 (6 x 3)2  25 s 16
3 3 3
a b c 3abc  0
 100 x 2 100 x 375  0
 (a b c)(a 2 b2 c 2 ab bc ca)  0
 a b c  0 or a 2 b2 c 2  ab bc ca  4 x 2 4 x 15  0
Answer: (A), (B), (C)  (2 x 5)(2 x 3)  0
5 3
3. The area of a triangle ABC is 20 sq. unit. The coordi- x ,
nates of A are ( 5, 0) and those of B are (3, 0) and the 2 2
vertex C lies on the line x – y – 2  0. The coordinates Therefore
of C are
5 6 x 11 6(5 / 2) 11 1
(A) ( 3, 5) (B) ( 5, 7) x y  
2 8 8 2
(C) (5, 3) (D) (7, 5) 3 6( 3 / 2) 11 5
and x y 
Solution: Let C be ( x, x 2). Therefore 2 8 2
1 Therefore, other vertices are
20  5(0 x 2) 3( x 2 0) x(0 0) |
2 ¥ 5 1´ ¥ 3 5 ´
¦§ , µ¶ and ¦§ , µ¶
 40  8 x 16 | 2 2 2 2
 x 2  p5 D C (−1, 1)
Hence, x  7, 3 . Therefore, C  (7, 5), (–3, –5). 5
2
Answer: (A), (D)
M
4. If A(2, 3) and C( 1, 1) are the ends of a diagonal of 5
2
a squares ABCD, then the other vertices are
A (2, −3) B
¥ 1 5´ ¥ 5 1´
(A) ¦ , µ (B) ¦ , µ
§ 2 2¶ § 2 2¶ FIGURE 2.88

¥ 3 5 ´ ¥ 1 5 ´ Aliter (Using Complex Numbers): For complex numbers,


(C) ¦ , µ (D) ¦ , µ
§ 2 2¶ § 2 2¶ see Vol. 1. The points are
102 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

¥1 ´ 7. A line l is drawn through the point (1, 2) so that it in-


M  ¦ , 1µ and C  ( 1, 1) tersects the line x y 4  0 at a point whose distance
§2 ¶
from the point (1, 2) is 2 / 3. Then the angle made by
Replace the point D by Z. Therefore we have l with the x-axis is
Z [(1 / 2) i] (A) 15o (B) 75o (C) 105o (D) 60o
i
( 1 i) [(1 / 2) i]
Solution: Let y 2  m(x 1) be the equation of the
1 ¥ 3 ´ 3i line l. That is,
 Z i  ¦ 2iµ i  2
2 § 2 ¶ 2 y  mx 2 m (2.115)
3 5
z i y  x 4 (2.116)
2 2
¥ 3 5´ Solving Eqs. (2.115) and (2.116), we have
 D  ¦ , µ
§ 2 2¶ m 2 3m 2
x and y 
Hence m 1 m 1

¥ 3 5´ ¥ 5 1´ Since the distance between


B  ¦2 1 ,3 1 µ  ¦ , µ
§ 2 2¶ § 2 2¶ ¥ m 2 3m 2 ´
¦§ , µ and (1, 2)
Answer: (B), (C) m 1 m 1 ¶

5. Equation of a line passing through (1, 1) which is at a is 2 / 3 , we have


distance of 1 unit from the origin is 2 2
¥ m 2 ´ ¥ 3m 2 ´ 2
(A) x  1 (B) y  1 ¦§ 1µ ¦ 2µ 
m 1 ¶ § m 1 ¶ 3
(C) x y  1 (D) x y  2 2
¥ 1 ´ ¥ m2 ´ 2
Solution: It is clear that the vertical line x  1 passes ¦ µ ¦ µ
§ m 1¶ § (m 1)2 ¶ 3
through (1, 1) and its distance from the origin is 1. Hence,
y  1 is the other line.  3 3m2  2(m 1)2
Answer: (A), (B)
 m2 4 m 1  0
6. The equation of the lines passing through the point (1, 1) 4 p 16 4
whose distance from origin is 2 is m  2p 3
2
1 10 Now, tan Q  2 p 3 implies Q  75o or 15o.
(A) y 1  ( x 1)
3
Answer: (A), (B)
1 3
(B) y 1 ( x 1)
3 8. Let A(4, 3), B( 4, 3) and C(0, 5) be the vertices of a
1 3 triangle and P  (5, 0). Let L, M and N be the feet of
(C) y 1 ( x 1) the perpendiculars drawn from P onto the sides BC,
3
CA and AB, respectively. Then
1 10
(D) y 1  ( x 1) (A) the centroid of $LMN does not exist
3
(B) the orthocentre of $LMN is the origin
Solution: Let y  m(x 1) be the line so that by hy-
(C) the area of $LMN is 5 sq. unit
pothesis
(D) L, M and N are collinear
m( 1) 0 1 Solution: See Fig. 2.89. The sides BC, CA and AB are
2
1 m2 represented by the equations 2 x y 5  0, 2 x y 5  0
and y 3  0, respectively. We can see that L  ( 1, 3),
 (m 1)2  4(1 m2 )
M = (3, 1) and N  (5, 3). Now
 3m2 2 m 3  0
Slope of LM  Slope of MN  1
2 p 4 36 1 p 10
m  so that L, M and N are collinear.
6 3
Answer: (A), (D)
Worked-Out Problems 103

y Now, from Eq. (2.118)


2a 2b  ab  2A
B (−4, 3) A(4, 3) N
Therefore
90°
a bA (2.119)
Hence, from Eqs. (2.118) and (2.119), a and b are the
M roots of the equation x 2 A x 2A  0. Therefore
90° 2a 2b  2A  a b  A
O
P(5, 0) Hence a and b are roots of the equation
L
90°
x 2 A x 2A  0
Answer: (C), (D)
C

10. The points A(2, 1)and B(3, 2) are the two vertices
FIGURE 2.89 of $ABC and C lies on the line x – y 3  0. If the
area of $ABC is 5 sq. units, then the coordinates of
Note: See Theorem 1.1. the third vertex C are
Answer: (A), (D) ¥ 3 3 ´
(A) ¦ , µ (B) (0, 0)
§ 2 2¶
9. A line through (2, 2) and the axes form a triangle of
area A units. Then, the intercepts on the axes made ¥ 5 5´ ¥ 7 13 ´
(C) ¦ , µ (D) ¦ , µ
by the line are roots of the equation § 2 2¶ §2 2 ¶
(A) x 2 A x A  0 (B) x 2 A x A  0 Solution: Let C be (x, x 3). By hypothesis, we have
2 2
(C) x A x 2A  0 (D) x A x 2A 1
5 2( 2 x 3) 3( x 3 1) x(1 2) |
Solution: Let 2
x y  10  10 2 x 3 x 6 3 x |
1
a b  4 x 4  p10
be the equation of the line which forms a triangle with  4 x  14 or 6
the coordinate axes of area A sq. unit. Since the line 7 3
passes through (2, 2), we have  x  or
2 2
2 2 Therefore, the coordinates of the third vertex C are
1 (2.117)
a b
¥ 7 13 ´ ¥ 3 3 ´
¦§ , µ¶ or ¦§ , µ¶
1 2 2 2 2
We have ab  A so that
2 Answer: (A), (D)
ab  p2A (2.118)

Matrix-Match Type Questions


1. A( 2, 1), B(5, 4) and C(2, 3) are the vertices of
Column I Column II
$ABC. AD, BE and CF are the altitudes of the tri-
angle and M is the midpoint of BC. Match the items (C) Equation of the (r) 7 x 3 y 5  0
of Column I with those of Column II. median AM is
(s) x 11y 11  0
(D) Equation of the alti-
(t) 3 x 7 y 1  0
Column I Column II tude CF is
(A) Equation of AD is (p) x y 1  0
(B) Equation of BE is (q) x 11y 9  0
(Continued)
104 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

Solution:
Column I Column II
(A) Slope of BC is (B) If A(1, 2), B(4, 6), C(5, 7) and (q) 1
4 3 7 S(a, b) are the vertices of a par-
 allelogram in the given order,
5 2 3
then the value of a b is
Therefore, the equation of the altitude AD is
¥ p r´
3 (C) If ¦ , µ is the centroid of
y 1 ( x 2) § q s¶
7 (r) 4
 3x 7 y 1  0 $ABC given in (B), then the
p r
Answer: (A) m (t) value of is
q s 1
(B) Slope of CA is
(D) Let p  lim lim cos2 n m P x (s) 3
1 3 nmd mmd
 1
2 2 where x rational and q  lim
nmd
Therefore, the equation of the altitude BE is lim cos2 m n x, where x is irra-
mmd
y 4  1( x 5) tional. Then the area of the tri-
 x y 1 0 angle with vertices (p, q), (2, 1)
(t) 5
and ( 2, 1) is
Answer: (B) m (p)
(C) The midpoint of BC is Solution:
(A) Since PRQ  90o, in general, the locus represented
¥ 7 1´
¦§ , µ¶ by R is a circle with P and Q as ends of the diam-
2 2
eter. Because area of $PQR is 2 sq. unit, there will
be four positions for R (two each in the two semi-
and the slope of the median AM is 1/ 11 so that
circles for which PQ is a diameter).
the equation of the median AM is
Answer: (A) m (r)
1
y 1 ( x 2) (B) It is known that a  1 5 4  2 and b  2 7 6  3.
11
Therefore a b  5.
 x 11y 9  0
Answer: (B) m (t)
Answer: (C) m (q)
(D) Lastly, the slope of AB is (C) Centroid ¥¦ 10 , 15 ´µ  p r  25  5
§ 3 3¶ q s 1 5
4 1 3 Answer: (C) m (t)

5 2 7
(D) We have
and hence the equation of the altitude CF is
p x (& m is even and cos m P  1 )
7
y 3 ( x 2) Similarly, q x. Since p x is rational and q x is
3 irrational, we have p q  0. Therefore, (p, q)  (0, 0).
 7 x 3y 5  0 Hence the area of the triangle is
Answer: (D) m (r) 1
| 2(1) ( 2)(1) |  2
2
2. Match the items of Column I with those of Column II. Answer: (D) m (p)

Column I Column II 3. In Column I, a family of concurrent lines is given and


their points of concurrence are given in Column II.
(A) If the line segment joining the (p) 2 Match the items of Column I with those of Column II.
points P(1, 3) and Q(5, 7) sub-
tends a right angle at a point R,
Column I Column II
such that the area of $PQR is
2 sq. unit, then the number of (A) If a, b, c are real as 2a 3b c  ¥ 2 3´
such points R is 0, then the lines ax by c  0 (p) ¦§ 5 , 5 µ¶
are concurrent at
(Continued)
(Continued)
Worked-Out Problems 105

Column I Column II Column I Column II


(B) If a is a parameter, then the (q) (2, 3) (B) The equation of the (q) x 4 y 24  0
family of lines (1 a)x (2 a) line passing through
y 5  0 is concurrent at the intersection of the
(C) The lines (a d)x ay (a d) (r) (1, 2) lines 3x 2y 10  0
 0 for different values of d are and 4x 3y 7  0 and
concurrent at also passing through
¥ 5 5 ´ the point (2, 1) is
(D) For different values m and n, (s) ¦§ 3 , 3 µ¶ (r) x 2 y 6  0
the lines (m 2n)x (m 3n)y (C) Equation of the line
m n  0 are concurrent at which passes through
(t) (1, 2) the point ( 2, 4) and
has sum of its inter-
Solution: cepts equal to 3 is
(s) x 3 y 5  0
(A) 2a 3b c  0  ax by c  0 passes through (D) A  (1, 2), B  (3, 4)
(2, 3). and C  (2, 7). Equa-
Answer: (A) m (q) tion of the line pass-
ing through A  (1, 2)
(B) The equation (1 a) x (2 a) y 5  0 is written as and perpendicular to
( x 2 y 5) a( x y)  0 , Hence, by Theorem 2.12, the line BC is (t) 4 x y 4  0
the line passes through the intersection of the lines
x 2 y 5  0 and x y  0 and the point of inter- Solution:
section is
(A) Any line passing through the intersection of the
¥ 5 5 ´ lines 2 x 5 y 3  0 and x 3 y 7  0 is of the
¦§ , µ
3 3¶ form
Answer: (B) m (s) (2 x 5 y 3) L ( x 3 y 7)  0 (see Theorem 2.20)
(C) The equation (a d) x ay (a d)  0 is written  ( 2 L ) x ( 5 3L ) y 3 7 L  0
as a( x y 1) d(1 x)  0 so that this line passes
through the intersection of the lines 1 x  0 and This line is perpendicular to the line
x y 1  0 which is given by (1, 2). 4x y 1  0
Answer: (C) m (t)
¥ 2 L ´
¦ ( 4)  1
(D) The equation (m 2 n) x (m 3n) y m n  0 is § 5 3L µ¶
written as m( x y 1) n(2 x 3 y 1)  0 . Hence,  8 4 L  5 3L
the line passes through the intersection of the lines
 L  3
x y 1  0 and 2 x 3 y 1  0 which is given by
Hence, the required line is
¥2 3´
¦§ , µ
5 5¶ x ( 4 y) 3 21  0
Answer: (C) m (p)  ( x 4 y) 24  0
Answer: (A) m (q)
3. Match the items of Column I with those of Column II.
(B) The required line equation is of the form
(3 x 2 y 10) L (4 x 3 y 7)  0. This passes
Column I Column II
through the point (2, 1) which implies that
(A) The equation of the (p) 22 x 25 y 69  0
[3(2) 2(1) 10] L (8 3 7)  0
line perpendicular to
4x y 1  0 and  14 4 L
passing through the 7
intersection of the L
2
lines 2x 5y 3  0
and x 3y 7  0 is Hence the required line is

(Continued)
106 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

7 Column I Column II
(3 x 2 y 10) (4 x 3 y 7)  0
2
(B) If A( 5, 6), B( 1, 4) (q) 9 x y 3  0
 22 x 25 y 69  0
and C(3, 2) are the
 22 x 25 y 69  0 vertices of a triangle,
Answer: (B) m (q) then the equation of
the line passing
(C) Let the line be
through the centroid
x y and the circumcentre (r) 28 x 21y 12  0
1
a b of $ABC is
Therefore (C) The equation of the
line passing through
2 4 the point (1, 6),
1
a b whose product of the
(s) x 2 y 8  0
or 4a 2b  ab (2.120) intercepts on the axes
is 1, is
and a b 3 (2.121)
(D) The equation of the
Solving Eqs. (2.120) and (2.121), we have a  1, line whose x-intercept
b = 4 or a  6, b  3. is 3 / 7, and is per-
Case 1: a  1, b  4. The line is pendicular to the line (t) 4 x y 2  0
3x 4y – 10  0, is
x y
1
1 4 Solution:
 4x y 4  0 (A) Let the line be
Case 2: a  6, b  3. The line is x y
1
x y 2a a
1
6 3 Since it passes through the point (2, 3), we have
 x 2y 6  0 2 3
1
Answer: (C) m (r), (t) 2a a
(D) The slope of BC is  2 6  2a
a4
7 4
 3 Hence the required line equation is
2 3
x y
Hence, the equation of the line passing through 1
8 4
A(1, 2) and perpendicular to the line BC is
 x 2y 8  0
1
y 2  ( x 1) Answer: (A) m (s)
3
 x 3y 5  0 (B) We have G as the cenrtroid of $ABC which is
Answer: (D) m (s) given by ( 1, 4 / 3). Equation of the perpendicular
bisector of the side BC is
4. Match the items of Column I with those of Column II. 2 x 3y 1  0 (2.122)
Equation of the perpendicular bisector of the side
Column I Column II AB is
(A) Equation of the line (p) 2 x 33 y 46  0 2 x 5 y 11  0 (2.123)
through the point (2,
3), such that its Solving Eqs. (2.122) and (2.123), the circumcentre
x-intercept is twice its of $ABC is given by
y intercept, is ¥ 19 5 ´
¦§ , µ
(Continued) 8 4¶
Worked-Out Problems 107

¥ 19 5 ´ 4´ 6. Match the items of Column I with those of Column II.


S¦ , ¥
or and G  ¦ 1, µ
§ 8 4 µ¶ § 3¶
Column I Column II
Then the slope of the line SG is
(A) Equation of the line with (p) x 4y 8  0
(5 / 4) (4 / 3) 1 8 2 x-intercept 4 and passing
 s 
( 19 / 8) 1 12 11 33 through the point (2, 3) is
Hence, the equation of the line SG is (B) Equation of the line pass- (q) 3 x 2 y  12
ing through (4, 1) and form-
4 2
y  ( x 1) ing a triangle with positive
3 33 coordinate axes whose area
 2 x 33 y 46  0 is 8 sq. unit is
Answer: (B) m (p) (C) Equation of the line with (r) x y 7  0
equal intercepts on the
(C) Let the equation of the line be
axes and is passing through
x the point (2, 5) is
ay  1
a (D) Equation of the line which (s) 2 x y 1  0
This passes through (1, 6). This implies that makes an angle of 135o
with the positive direction
1 of the axis and makes an
6a  1
a intercept of 8 on y-axis is
 6a 2 a 1  0 (t) x y 8  0

 (3a 1)(2a 1)  0 Solution:


1 1 (A) Equation of the line is
a ,
2 3
x y
1
Therefore, the required lines are 4 b
1 1 It passes through (2, 3). This implies that
2 x y  1 and 3 x y  1
2 3
2 3 3 1
 4 x y 2  0 or 9 x y 3  0  1   b  6
4 b b 2
Answer: (C) m (q), (t)
Hence, the equation of the line is
(D) Let the required line be
x y
x y 1
1 7 x y 4 6
 1
( 3 / 7) b 3 b  3 x 2 y  12  0
Since this line is perpendicular to the line Answer: (A) m (q)
3 x 4 y 10  0, we have (B) Let
¥ 7b ´ ¥ 3 ´ 4 x y
¦§ µ ¦ µ  1  b  1
3 ¶§ 4 ¶ 7 a b
Therefore, the required line is It passes through (4, 1) and forms a triangle with
7 x 7 y positive axes having area 8. Therefore
1
3 4 4 1
1 (2.124)
 28 x 21y 12  0 a b
Answer: (D) m (r) 1
and (ab)  8 (2.125)
2
From Eqs. (2.124) and (2.125), a  8 and b  2.
Hence, the equation of the line is
108 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

x y (B) By Theorem 2.31, we have


 1 or x 4 y 8  0
8 2 1
6 h
Answer: (B) m (p) 2
(C) Equation of the line with equal intercepts on the 5
h 6 0
axes is 2
x y 1 5
 1 or x y  a 1
a a 2 2
This passes through the point (2, 5) implies that a  7. ¥ 25 ´ ¥ 5 ´ 1 ¥ 5h ´
 6 ¦ 6 µ h ¦ h µ ¦ 3µ  0
Hence, the line is § 4¶ § 4¶ 2 § 2 ¶
x y 7  0 6 5h 5h 3
 h2 0
Answer: (C) m (r) 4 4 4 2
(D) Let the line be y  (tan 135o) x c where c  8. That  4 h2 10 h  0
is, y  x 8 or x y 8  0.  2 h(2 h 5)  0
Answer: (D) m (t)
5
 h  0 or h 
7. Match the items of Column I with those of Column II. 2
Since h x 0, we have 2 h  5.
Column I Column II Answer: (B) m (s)
(A) If 6x2 5xy 6y2 9x 20y c  (p) 8
(C) We have
0 represents a pair of lines, then
the value of c is equal to 7 13
12
(B) If 6x2 2hxy 6y2 x 5y 1  0 (q) 6 2 2
represent a pair of lines, then 2h 7 1
value (h x 0) is k 0
2 2
(C) If 12x2 7xy ky2 13x y 3  (r) 6 13 1
0 represents a pair of lines, then 3
2 2
the value of k is
(D) If d is the distance between the (s) –5 ¥ 1 ´ 7 ¥ 21 13 ´ 13 ¥ 7 13k ´
 12 ¦ 3k µ ¦ µ ¦ µ 0
parallel lines represented by the § 4¶ 2 § 2 4¶ 2 § 4 2 ¶
equation 9x2 24xy 16y2 12x 12(12k 1) 7 s 55 91 169k
16y 12  0, then the value of 5d is (t) 10  0
4 8 8 4
 288k 24 385 91 338k  0
Solution:
 50k  500
(A) The given equation represents pair of lines. By
 k  10
Theorem 2.31, we have
Answer: (C) m (t)
5 9
6 (D) If ax 2 2 hxy by2 2 gx 2 xy c  0 represents
2 2
a pair of parallel lines, then the distance between
5
6 10  0 them (see Problem 44 of the section ‘Subjective
2 Problems’) is
9
10 c
2 g 2 ac
2
5 ¥ 5c ´ 9 a(a b)
 6( 6c 100) ¦ 45µ (25 27)  0
2§ 2 ¶ 2
We have a  9, b  16, g  6 and c  12. Therefore
 24( 6c 100) 5(5c 90) 18 s 52  0
 169c 2400 450 936  0 g 2 ac 36 108 2 s 12 8
d2 2  
 169c  1014 a(a b) 9 s 25 3s 5 5
 c  6  5d  8
Answer: (A) m (r) Answer: (D) m (p)
Worked-Out Problems 109

8. Match the items of Column I with those of Column II. (B) If the angle between the lines is P, then

Column I Column II 2 h2 ab (49 / 4) 120 529 23


tan Q  2  
(A) The angle between the lines a b 12 10 4 2
P
joining the origin to the (p) 2 Hence
points of intersection of the
line 3 x y  2 and 7x2 4xy ¥ 23 ´
Q  Tan 1 ¦ µ
8y2 2x 4y 8  0 is § 2¶
(B) The angle between the lines (q) 1 Answer: (B) m (s)
represented by the equation (C) Suppose the line x 2 y 6  0 meets the given
12x2 7xy 10y2 13x y curve at points A and B. Hence, the combined
3  0 is equation of the pair of lines OA and OB is
(C) The angle between the lines P 2
joining the origin to the points (r) 3 ¥ x 2y´
2 x 2 6 xy 3 y2 (4 x 2 y) ¦
¥ x 2y´
36 ¦ 0
of intersection of the curve § 6 µ¶ § 6 µ¶
2x2 6xy 3y2 4x 2y 36 
In this equation, the coefficient of x2 the coeffi-
0 and the line x 2 y 6  0 is
cient of y2 is
(D) If the lines joining the origin (s) Tan 1 ¥¦ 23 ´µ
to the points of intersection § 2¶ ¥ 2 ´ ¥ 2 ´ ¥ 2´ ¥ 2 ´
¦§ 2 1µ¶ ¦§ 3 4µ¶  ¦§ 1 µ¶ ¦§ 1µ¶  0
of the curve 2x2 2xy 3y2 3 3 3 3
2x y   0 and the line
Hence
x 2 y  k are at right angles,
then the value of k is (t) 1 P
AOB 
2
Solution:
Answer: (C) m (p)
(A) Suppose the line 3 x y  2 meets the curve at the
points A and B. Then, by Theorem 2.33, the com- (D) The combined equation of the pair of lines is
bined equation of the pair of lines OA and OB is 2
¥ x 2y´ ¥ x 2y´
2 x 2 2 xy 3 y2 (2 x y) ¦ 0
¥ 3x y ´
2
¥ 3x y ´ § k µ¶ ¦§ k µ¶
7 x 2 4 xy 8 y2 (2 x 4 y) ¦ 8¦ 0
§ 2 µ¶ § 2 µ¶
Since the given two lines are at right angles, in the
In this equation, above equation, the coefficient of x2 the coeffi-
cient of y2  0. This implies
Coefficient of x2 Coefficient of y2
 (7 3 18) (8 2 2) ¥ 2 1´ ¥ 2 4´
¦§ 2 2 µ¶ ¦§ 3 2 µ¶  0
 8 8  0 k k k k
Hence  5k 2 5  0
P  k  p1
AOB 
2
Answer: (D) m (q), (t)
Answer: (A) m (p)

Comprehension-Type Questions
1. Passage: Consider the straight line 3x y 4  0. An- (A) x 3 y 4  0 (B) x 3y 5  0
swer the following questions.
(C) x 3y 4  0 (D) x 3 y 2  0
(i) The point on the line 3 x y 4  0 which is
equidistant from the points ( 5, 6) and (3, 2) is (iii) If the line y 5  k( x 3) is parallel to the given
line then the area of the triangle formed by this
(A) ( 1, 1) (B) ( 2, 2) line and the coordinate axes (in sq. units) is
1
(C) ( 3, 5) (D) ( , 3) 8 16
3 (A) (B) (C) 4 (D) 5
(ii) Equation of the line passing through the point 3 3
(1, 1) and perpendicular to the given line is
110 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

Solution: (A) x y 1  0 (B) x y 3 0


(i) Let A  ( 5, 6) and B  (3, 2). The slope of AB is
(C) 2 x y 4  0 (D) 3 x y 1  0
6 2 1
 (iii) The locus of the feet of the perpendiculars from
5 3 2 the origin on each of the lines of the members of
and the midpoint of AB  ( 1, 4). Hence, the per- the family is
pendicular bisector of the segment AB is (A) (2 x 1)2 4( y 1)2  5
y 4  2( x 1) or 2 x y 6  0 . Solving this equa-
tion and the given line equations, we have x  2 (B) (2 x 1)2 ( y 1)2  5
and y  2. Thus, ( 2, 2) is the point on the given (C) (2 x 1)2 4( y 1)2  5
line which is equidistant from both A( 5, 6) and
B(3, 2). (D) (2 x 1)2 4( y 1)2  5
Answer: (B) Solution:
(ii) Line perpendicular to the given line is of the form (i) The slope of a line belonging to the given family is
1 3 4L
y x c
3 1 L
This line passes through (1, 1). It implies that and the slope of the line 3 x 4 y 2  0 is 3/4.
Therefore, by hypothesis, we have
1 2
1 c c
3 3 3 4L 3

1 L 4 13L 9
Thus, the required line is 1  tan 45o  
1 [3(3 4 L ) / 4(1 L )] 16 L 13
x 2
y or x 3 y 2  0
3 3 Therefore, 16 L 13  p(13L 9). Hence
Answer: (D)
4 22
L ,
(iii) The line y 5  k(n 3) is parallel to the given line 3 29
 k  3. That is,
Case 1: When we have
3x y  4
4
x y L
or 1 3
(4 / 3) 4
the slope is
Hence, the area of the triangle is
3 4 L 3 (16 / 3)
1 ¥ 4´ 8  7
1 L 1 (4 / 3)
¦§ µ¶ (4) 
2 3 3
Hence, the required equation is
Answer: (A)
4
(3 x y 1) (4 x y 2)  0
2. Passage: Consider the family of concurrent lines 3
which are concurrent at (1, 2) represented by the  7 x y 5  0
equation (3x – y – 1) K(4x – y – 2)  0, where L is a
parameter. Answer the following questions.  7x y 5  0

(i) A member of the family with positive slope which Case 2: When we have
makes an angle 45o with the line (3 x 4 y 2)  0 22
is L
29
(A) 7 x y 5  0 (B) 4 x 3 y 2  0 the slope is
(C) x 7 y 15  0 (D) 5 x 3 y 4  0 3 (88 / 29) 1

(ii) Equation of the line belonging to the given fami- 1 (22 / 29) 7
ly which is perpendicular to the line x y 1  0 Thus, the required line is 7 x y 5  0.
is
Answer: (A)
Worked-Out Problems 111

(ii) By hypothesis, we have x 1 y 3 2(1 3 2)


   Aa  ( 1, 1)
¥ 3 4L ´ 1 1 12 12
¦§ µ ( 1)  1
1 L ¶ Since the line BC is same as the line AaC, its equa-
2 tion is
L
3 1 (2 / 5)
y 1 ( x 1)
Hence, the required line is 1 (2 / 5)
2 7
(3 x y 1) (4 x y 2)  0  y 1 ( x 1)
3 3
 x y 1 0  7 x 3y 4  0
Answer: (A) Answer: (B)
(iii) Let A  (1, 2) at which the given family of lines are (ii) Solving the equations of the line BC and the angle
concurrent and O be the origin. If P is the foot of bisector of ABC , we have
the perpendicular from origin O onto any line of
¥ 5 9 ´
the family then P lies on the circle drawn on OA as B ¦ , µ
§ 2 2¶
diameter because APO is equal to 90o. The circle
with (0, 0) and (1, 2) as ends of a diameter is Answer: (D)

x( x 1) y( y 2)  0 (see Chapter 3) (iii) Since A  (1, 3) and B  ( 5 / 2, 9 / 2), the equation of


2 2
 x y x 2y  0 AB is 3 x 7 y 24  0.
2 2 Answer: (C)
 (2 x 1) 4( y 1)  5
Answer: (D)
4. Passage: Suppose a line lx my  1 meets a second-
degree curve ax2 2hxy by2 2gx 2fy c  0 at
3. Passage: In ΔABC, A  (1, 3) and C  ( 2 / 5, 2 / 5) two points A and B. Then, the combined equation of
are two vertices and x y – 2  0 is the equation of the pair of lines OA and OB is ax2 2hxy by2 (2gx
the internal bisector of ABC . Answer the following 2fy)(lx my) c(lx my)2  0 which is a second-
questions. degree homogeneous equation. Answer the following
(i) Equation of the side BC is questions.

(A) 7 x 3 y 4  0 (B) 7 x 3 y 4  0 (i) All chords of the curve 3 x 2 y2 2 x 4 y  0


which subtend right angle at the origin will pass
(C) 7 x 3 y 4  0 (D) 7 x 3 y 4  0
through a fixed point whose coordinates are
(ii) The coordinates of B are
(A) ( 1, 2) (B) (1, 2)
¥ 17 3 ´ (C) (1, 2) (D) ( 1, 2)
(A) ¦ , µ (B) (1, 1)
§ 10 10 ¶
(IIT-JEE 1991)
¥ 3 17 ´ ¥ 5 9 ´ (ii) If the intercept of the line lx my  1 made by
(C) ¦ , µ (D) ¦ , µ
§ 10 10 ¶ § 2 2¶ the curve x 2 y2 a 2  0 subtends right angle at
(iii) Equation of AB is the origin, then l 2 m2 is equal to

(A) 3 x 7 y 24  0 2 1
(A) (B) (C) 2a 2 (D) 3a 2
(B) 13 x 7 y 8  0 a2 a2
(C) 3 x 7 y 24  0 (iii) The line y  mx c makes an intercept on the
(D) 13 x 7 y 8  0 curve y 4ax  0 which subtends angle at the
origin. Then, the line y  mx c passes through
Solution: a fixed point whose coordinates are
(i) The image of A(1, 3) on the bisector of ABC lies
on the line BC. Therefore, if Aa is the image of (A) (2a, 0) (B) (a, 0)
A(1, 3) in the line x y 2  0, then (C) (3a, 0) (D) (4a, 0)
(IIT-JEE 1994)
112 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

Solution:  a 2 (l 2 m 2 )  2
(i) Suppose lx my  1 is a line meeting the curve
3 x 2 y2 2 x 4 y  0 at points A and B. Therefore, 2
 l 2 m2 
the combined equation of the pair of lines OA and a2
OB is Answer: (A)

3 x 2 y2 (2 x 4 y)(lx my)  0 (iii) Suppose the line y  mx c, where c x 0. meets the


curve y2 4ax  0 at two points A and B. The com-
Since AOB  90o, in the above equation, the coef- bined equation of the pair of lines OA and OB is
ficient of x 2 the coefficient of y2  0. Therefore,
(3 2l ) ( 1 4m)  0 ¥ y mx ´
y2 4ax ¦ 0
§ c µ¶
 l 2m 1  0
Now, AOB  90o  the coefficient of x 2 the
Hence, the line lx my 1  0 passes through the
coefficient of y2  0. This means
point (1, 2).
Answer: (B) 4am
1 0
c
(ii) Suppose the line lx my  1 intersects x 2 y2  a 2
at points A and B. Therefore, the combined equa-  c  4am
tion of the pair of lines OA and OB is Therefore, the equation of the line is
2 2 2 2
x y  a (lx my)  0 y  mx c  mx 4am

Since AOB  90o , in the above equation, the coef-  y  m( x 4a)

ficient of x 2 the coefficient of y2  0. That is, which passes through the fixed point (4a, 0).
(1 a 2 l 2 ) (1 a 2 m2 )  0 Answer: (D)

Integer Answer Type Questions


1. The area of the quadrilateral formed by the lines 3. The orthocentre of the triangle formed by the lines
x y  1 is __________ sq. unit. x y  1, 2x 3y  6 and 4x – y 4  0 lies in the quad-
rant whose number is __________.
Solution: The given quadrilateral is a square with ver-
tices (1, 0), (0, 1), ( 1, 1) and (0, 1), and hence its area Solution: Solving the above equations taken two by
is ( 2 )2  2. two, the vertices of the triangle are
Answer: 2 ¥ 3 8 ´ ¥ 3 16 ´
A ¦ , µ , B  3, 4 , and C ¦ , µ
§ 5 5¶ § 7 7¶
2. Two rays in the first quadrant, x y  a and ax – y 
1, intersect each other in the interval a (a0 , d). The The equation of the altitude drawn from A to the side
value of a0 is __________. (IIT-JEE 2006) BC is
Solution: Solving the given two equations, we have 8 3¥ 3´
y  ¦x µ
1 a a(1 a ) a a 1 5 2§ 5¶
x and y  ax 1  1
1 a 1 a 1 a  3 x 2 y  5 (2.126)
Since the two rays intersect each other in the first quad- Again the equation of the altitude from B onto CA is
rant, we have x  0 and y  0 which implies that 1
y 4  ( x 3)
1 a  0 and a a 1  0 4
Therefore, if 1  a  0, then the a( a) 1  0 which is not  x 4 y  13 (2.127)
sensible. Hence, a Ž( 1, 0). If a  0, then the lines x y  0 Solving Eqs. (2.126) and (2.127), the coordinates of the
and y  1 intersect in fourth quadrant. Thus, a x 0. orthocentre are
Hence, a  0 and a 2 1  0  a  1. Therefore, a0  1.
Answer: 1
Worked-Out Problems 113

¥ 3 22 ´ 33 45
¦§ , µ¶ h and k 
7 7 7 14
which lies in quadrant number 1. Hence
Answer: 1 ¥ 33 45 ´
( x1 , y1 )  ¦ , µ
§ 7 14 ¶
4. If the lines 3x – 5y 9  0, 4x ky – 28  0 and 13x
8y 1  0 are concurrent, then the value of k is Solving Eqs. (2.128) and (2.129), we have
__________. 12 15
h and k 
Solution: Since the lines are concurrent, by Theorem 7 28
2.22, we have Thus
3 5 9 ¥ 12 15 ´
( x2 , y2 )  ¦ ,
4 k 28  0 § 7 28 µ¶
13 8 1 Therefore
 3( k 224) 5( 4 364) 9( 32 13k )  0 33 12 21
x1 x2   3
 120k 672 1800 288  0 7 7 7
 120k  840 Answer: 3
k7
7. The points A(0, 4), B(5, 1) and C(1, 3) are the ver-
Answer: 7 tices of a triangle. If h is the altitude from A to BC
and $ is the area of the triangle, then h2 /$ is equal to
5. If the slope of the line ax (3 – a)y 7  0 is 7, then __________.
the value of integral part of a is __________.
Solution: See Fig. 2.90. We have
Solution: By hypothesis, we have
1
$ 0(1 3) 5( 3 4) 1(4 1)  16
a 2
7
3 a
Length BC  (5 1)2 (1 3)2  4 2 . Therefore
 a  21 7a
1 1
7 h( BC )  $  (h)(4 2 )  16
a 2 2
2
Hence, h  (4 2 ) and h2  32. So
 ;a =  3
Answer: 3 h2 32
 2
$ 16
6. If (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) are two points on the line 5x
– 12y 5  0 that lie at a distance of 3 units from the A(0, 4)
line 3x 4y – 12  0, then the value of is x1 x2 is
__________.
Solution: Let (h, k) be a point on the line 5x 12y
h
15  0 whose distance from the line 3 x 4 y 12  0 is 3
units. Then

5h 12k  15 (2.128)
B(5, 1) C
3h 4k 12 (1, −3)
and 3
32 4 2 FIGURE 2.90

which gives that Answer: 2

3h 4k  27 (2.129) 8. If one of the lines represented by the equation mx2 –


or 3h 4k  3 (2.130) (1 – m2)xy – my2  0 bisects angles between the coor-
dinate axes, then m is equal to __________.
Solving Eqs. (2.128) and (2.129), we have
114 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

Solution: The given equation is x2 m2xy xy my2 Since equation of BC is the equation of BAa, we have
 0. That is, mx( x my) y( x my)  0. Therefore, the the equation of BC as
lines are x my  0 and mx y  0 . The angle bisectors
of the coordinates are y  x and y  x . Hence, m  p1 1 (2 / 5)
y 1 ( x 2)
or m  1. 2 (9 / 5)
Answer: 1  y 1  3( x 2)
 3x y 5  0
9. Consider the lines ax y 1  0, x by 1  0 and
x y c  0, where a, b and c are distinct and differ- so that a  3, b  1. Hence, a b  4.
ent from 1. Then Answer: 4
1 1 1
11. If the equation of the bisector of the acute angle be-
1 a 1 b 1 c
tween the lines 2x – y 4  0 and x – 2y – 1  0 is
is equal to __________. ax by 1  0, then the value of a – b is equal to
Solution: Since the lines are concurrent, we have __________.

a 1 1 Solution: The lines are 2 x y 4  0 and x 2 y 1  0


in which c1 and c2 are positive and
1 b 1 0
1 1 c a1a2 b1b2  2 2  4  0

Using C 2 C1 and C 3 C1 (where C1 , C 2 and C 3 are Hence, by Theorem 2.26, the acute angle bisector is
used to denote the three columns), we have 2x y 4 ( x 2 y 1)

a 1 a 1 a 5 5
1 b 1 0 0  3x 3 y 3  0
1 0 c 1  x y 1 0
 a(b 1)(c 1) (1 a);c 1 0 = (1 a); 0 (b 1)=  0 Hence,
 a(1 b)(1 c) (1 a)(1 c) (1 a)(1 b)  0 a b  1 ( 1)  2
Dividing by (1 a)(1 b)(1 c), we get Answer: 2

a 1 1 12. The number of possible straight lines passing through


0
1 a 1 b 1 c (2, 3) and forming a triangle with coordinate axes
Adding both sides by 1, we get whose area is 12 sq. unit is __________.

1 1 1 Solution: Let
1
1 a 1 b 1 c x y
1
Answer: 1 a b
be the line. Therefore
10. In $ABC, the vertex A  (1, 2), y  x is the perpen-
dicular bisector of the side AB and x – 2y 1  0 is 2 3
1 (2.131)
the equation of the internal angle bisector of C. If a b
the equation of the side BC is ax by – 5  0, then the
1
value of a – b is __________. and ab  12
2
Solution: Since y  x is the perpendicular bisector of
or ab  p24 (2.132)
the side AB and A  (1, 2), we have B  (2, 1). Since the
image Aa( x, y) of A in the angular bisector x 2 y 1  0 Case 1: When ab  24, from Eq. (2.131), we have
lies on the line BC, we have 3a 2b  ab  24. Hence
x 1 y 2 2(1 2(2) 1) 4 ¥ 24 ´
   3a 2 ¦ µ  24
1 2 12 2 2 5 § a¶
Therefore,  3a 2 24a 48  0
¥ 9 2´  a 2 8a 16  0
Aa  ¦ , µ
§ 5 5¶  a  4, b  6.
Summary 115

Case 2: When ab  24, from Eq. (2.131), we have  a 2 8a 16  0


3a 2b  24 8 p 64 64
a  4 p 4 2
¥ 24 ´ 2
 3a 2 ¦ µ  24
§ a¶
Therefore, b will have two values corresponding to a.
2
 3a 24a 48  0 Hence, the number of lines is 3.
Answer: 3

SUMMARY
2.1. Slope of line: Let l be a non-vertical line (i.e., l is not 4. Intercept form: If a and b are x and y intercepts of a
parallel to y-axis) making an angle P with the posi- x y
tive direction of x-axis. Then, tan P is called the slope line (ab x 0), then the line equation is  1.
a b
of the line l. Generally, the slope of a line is denoted
by m. Note: Area of the triangle formed by the coordi-
x y 1
Caution: The concept of slope is followed only for nate axis and the line  1 is ab sq. unit.
a b 2
non-vertical lines.
5. Slope–intercept form: The equation of a non-
Note: Slope of a horizontal line (which is parallel to vertical line which is having slope m and
x-axis) is always zero. y-intercept c is
2.2. If A(x1, y1) and B(x2, y2) are two points on a non- y  mx c
FHHHE y y1
vertical line, then the slope of the line AB is 2 . Note: Equation of any line (except the y-axis)
x2 x1 passing through origin is the form y  mx.
6. Normal form: Let l be a line whose distance from
2.3. Intercepts on the axes: If a line l meets x-axis at
(a, 0) and y-axis at (0, b), then a is called x-intercept the origin is ON ( p) and ON make an angle @
and b is called y-intercept of the line l. with the positive direction of the x-axis. Then, the
equation of the line l is x cos @ y sin @  p.
2.4. Equations of the axis: The equation of x-axis is y  0
and the equation of y-axis is x  0. 2.6. Definition (first-degree equation): If a, b and c are
real and either a or b is not zero, then ax by c is
2.5. Various forms of straight line equations: called first-degree expression in x and y and ax by
c  0 is called first-degree equation in x and y.
1. Two-point form: Equation of the line passing
through two points (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) is 2.7. Theorem: Every first-degree equation in x and y rep-
(x – x1) (y1 – y2)  (y – y1) (x1 – x2) resents a straight line and the equation of any line in
the coordinate plane is a first-degree equation in x
2. Point–slope form: Equation of the line which is and y.
having slope m and passing through the point
(x1, y1) is 2.8. General equation of a straight line: First-degree
equation in x and y is called the general equation of
y – y1  m(x – x1) a straight line.
3. Symmetric form: If a non-vertical makes an angle
2.9. Various forms of ax by c  0, where abc x 0:
P with the positive direction of x-axis and passes
through a point (x1, y1), then its equation is 1. Slope–intercept form:
x x1 y y1 ¥ a ´ ¥ c ´
 y ¦ µ x ¦ µ
cos Q sin Q § b¶ § b¶
Note: In the above relation, if we consider that
2. Intercept form:
each ratio is equal to r (real number), then every
point on the line is of the form (x1 rcosP, y1 x y
rsinP). Also r gives the distance of the point (x, y) 1
( c / a) ( c / b)
on the given line from the fixed point (x1, y1).
116 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

3. Normal form: m1 m2
(a) When c  0: tan Q 
1 m1 m2
¥ a ´ ¥ b ´ c
x¦ µ y¦ µ and the acute angle is given by
§ a 2 b2 ¶ § a 2 b2 ¶ a b2
2
m1 m2
tan Q 
(b) When c  0: 1 m1 m2
¥ a ´ ¥ b ´ c

2 2
µ y¦ 2 2
µ 2.15. Condition for parallel and perpendicular: Let
§ a b ¶ § a b ¶ a b2
2
a1x b1y c1  0 and a2x b2y c2  0 be two
lines. Then the following two conditions are
2.10. The line ax by c  0 in normal form: Write applicable:
ax by  –c. Divide by a 2 b2 both sides of the 1. The lines are parallel š a1b2  a2b1.
equation and then make the right-hand side (RHS) 2. The lines are perpendicular to each other if
positive. and only if a1a2 b1b2  0.
2.11. Distance of a line from a point: Suppose (x1, y1) 2.16. Condition for parallel and perpendicular in
is not a point on the line ax by c  0. Then, the terms of slopes: Let m1 and m2 be the slopes of
perpendicular distance drawn from (x1, y1) onto two lines. Then, the following two conditions are
the given line is applicable:
ax1 by1 c 1. The lines are parallel š m1  m2.
2. The lines are at right angles. š m1 m2  –1.
a 2 b2
2.17. Equation of the line parallel to the line ax by
In particular, if c x 0, then the distance of the origin c  0 and passing through the point (x1, y1) is
from the line is
a(x – x1) b(y – y1)  0
c
2.18. Equation of the line passing through the point
a 2 b2
(x1, y1) and perpendicular to the line ax by c
2.12. Distance between two parallel lines: The distance
 0 is
between the parallel lines ax by c  0 and b(x – x1) – a(y – y1)  0
ax by c a  0  0 is
(2.18)*. The area of the parallelogram formed by the
c ca lines a1x b1y c1  0, a1x b1y d1  0, a2x
2
a b 2 b2y c2  0 and a2x b2y d2  0 is

(c1 d1 )(c2 d2 )
2.13. Angle between two lines: If P is an angle between
the lines a1x b1y c1  0 and a2x b2y c2  0, a1b2 a2 b1
then
2.19. Notation: L y ax by c, L11  ax1 by1 c and
a1a2 b1b2 L22  ax2 by2 c.
cos Q 
a12 b12 a22 b22 2.20. Theorem: Let L  ax by c  0 be a straight
line and A(x1, y1) and B(x2, y2) be two points in
where P is acute or obtuse according to the condi- the plane of L  0. Suppose points A and B are
tions a1a2 b2b2  0 or  0. To determine the acute FHHHE
angle, we take not on the line and the line AB is not parallel
to the line L  0. Then, the line L  0 divides the
a1a2 b1b2 segment AB in the ratio –L11:L22.
cos Q 
a12 b12 a22 b22 1. Points A and B are on the opposite sides of
L  0 š the division is internal division š
2 14. Angle between the lines in terms of their slopes: If –L11:L22 is positive š L11 and L22 are of
P is an angle between the lines whose slopes are m1 opposite sign.
and m2, then 2. Points A and B are on the same side of
the line L  0 š the division is external
Summary 117

š – L11:L22 is negative š L11 and L22 are exist non-zero real numbers such that K1u1 K2u2
of same sign. K3u3  0, then the lines u1  0, u2  0 and u3  0 are
concurrent.
2.21. Origin and non-origin sides of a line: Suppose l is a
straight line which is not passing through the origin. 2.29. Theorem (Foot of the perpendicular): Let (x, y) be
Then, l divides the entire plane into two regions. the foot of the perpendicular drawn from the point
Origin region means, the region in which the origin (x1, y1) on to the line ax by c  0, then
lies. The other is called non-origin region.
x x1 y y1 (ax1 by1 c)
 
2.22. To determine the position of a point: Let L y ax a b a 2 b2
by c be a straight line where c x 0 and A(x1, y1)
x (0, 0) be a point which does not lie on the line 2.30. Theorem (Image): If (x, y) is the image of (x1, y1) in
L  0. Then the mirror line ax by c  0, then
1. A(x1, y1) lies on the origin side of L  0 š c and x x1 y y1 2(ax1 by1 c)
L11 has the same sign.  
a b a 2 b2
2. A(x1, y1) lies on the non-origin side of L  0 š
c and L11 has the opposite sign. Note: From 2.29 and 2.30, we can write the foot of
the perpendicular and the image of a point with
2.23. Let L y ax by c  0 be a line where c x 0. Then
respect to a line.
1. if c  0, then L11  0 for all points on the origin
side and L11  0 for all points on non-origin side. 2.31. Angle bisectors: If a1x b1y c1  0 and a2x b2y
2. if c  0, then L11  0 for all points on the origin c2  0 are two intersecting lines, then the equations
side and L11  0 for all points in the non-origin of their angle bisectors are
side.
a1 x b1 y c1 (a2 x b2 y c2 )
p
2.24. Theorem: Suppose u1  0 and u2  0 are two parallel a12 b12 a22 b22
lines. Then, K1u1 K2u2  0 represents lines parallel
to the lines u1  0 and u2  0 for all real values of K1
2.32. Acute angle bisector: Suppose a1x b1y c1  0
and K2 such that L1 L 2 x 0.
and a2x b2y c2  0 where c1c2 x 0 and c1, c2 are
2.25. Theorem: If u1  0 and u2  0 are two intersecting of the same sign. If a1a2 b1b2  0, then the acute
lines, then for all K1 and K2 ( L1 L 2 x 0), the angle bisector is
equation K1u1 K2u2  0 represents the lines
a1 x b1 y c1 ¥a x b y c ´
passing through the intersection of u1  0 and u2
 ¦ 2 2 2
µ
 0. Conversely, the equation of any line passing a12 b12 ¦§ a2 b2 µ¶
2 2
through the intersection of u1  0 and u2  0 is K1u1
K2u2  0 for some K1 and K2.
2.33. Theorem: The second-degree homogeneous
Note: Instead of K1u1 K2u2  0, we consider the equation ax2 2hxy by2  0 represents a pair
equation u1 Ku2  0 which is practically more of lines passing through the origin, where h2 r ab.
useful. If h2  ab, both lines coincide, otherwise they are
distinct lines.
2.26. Corollary: Suppose u1  0 and u2  0 are the two
intersecting lines. Then, the equation of any line in 2.34. Identities:
the plane of u1  0 and u2  0 is of the form K1u1 1. Suppose the lines represented by ax2 2hxy
K2u2 K3 0. by2  0 are l1x m1y  0 and l2x m2y  0. Then
2.27. Theorem: When the lines a1x b1y c1  0, a2x l1l2  a, l1m2 l2m1  2h, m1m2  b
b2y c2  0 and a3x b3y c3  0 are concurrent
2. If we consider the lines as y  m1x and y  m2x,
(assuming that no two lines are parallel), then
then
a1 b1 c1
2 h a
a2 b2 c2  0 m1 m2  and m1 m2 
b b
a3 b3 c3
2.35. Angle between the lines ax2 2hxy by2  0: If @
2.28. Theorem: Suppose u1  0, u2  0 and u3  0 are is the angle between the lines represented by the
three lines such that no two are parallel. If there equation ax2 2hxy by2  0, then
118 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

a b lines parallel to the lines represented by ax2 2hxy


cos A  by2  0 if and only if
(a b)2 4 h2 (i) $  abc 2fgh – af 2 – bg2 – ch2  0
(ii) h2 r ab, g2 r ca and f 2 r bc
2 h2 ab
or tan A 
a b 2.40. Formula: The area of the parallelogram formed by
the pairs of lines ax2 2hxy by2 2gx 2fy c 
To determine the acute angle, take the absolute
0 and ax2 2hxy by2  0 is
value.
c
2.36. Condition for orthogonal lines: Suppose ax2 sq. unit
2
2hxy by2  0 represents pair of straight lines. 2 h ab
Then, they are at right angles if and only if a b  FHHE FHHE
0 (that is, coefficient of x2 coefficient of y2  0). 2.41. Equally
FHHEinclined
FHHE pairs: The pair of lines ( PA, PB)
and ( PC , PD) are said to be equally inclined to
2.37. Equation of the angle bisectors of the lines each other if both pairs have the same pair of angle
ax2 2hxy by2  0: If ax2 2hxy by2  0 bisectors.
represents a pair of distinct lines, then the
combined equation of the pair of angle bisectors 2.42. Theorem: Suppose the line lx my  1 intersects
of the lines is h(x2 – y2)  (a – b)xy. the second-degree curve ax2 2hxy by2 2gx
2fy c  0 at points A and B.FThen,
HHE theFHH
combined
E
2.38. Theorem: The area of the triangle formed by equation of the pair of lines OA and OB, where
the pair of lines ax 2 2hxy by2  0 and the line O is the origin, is given by the equation
lx my  1 is
ax2 2hxy by2 (2gx 2fy) (lx my)
h2 ab c(lx my)2  0
bl 2 2 hlm am2 In particular, OA and OB are at right angles if
Coefficient of x2 Coefficient of y2  0
2.39. Theorem: The second-degree general equation ax2
in the above equation.
2hxy by2 2gx 2fy c  0 represents a pair of

EXERCISES
Single Correct Choice Type Questions
1. Equation of the line through (0, 3) and having slope ¥ 19 5 ´
, ¥ 19 5 ´
(A) ¦ (B) ¦ , µ
2 is § 8 4 µ¶ § 8 4¶
(A) y 2 x 3  0 (B) y 2x 3  0
¥ 5 19 ´ ¥ 5 19 ´
(C) ¦ , µ (D) ¦ ,
(C) y 2x 3  0 (D) y 2 x 3  0 § 4 8¶ § 4 8 µ¶

2. Equation of the line passing through ( 5, 2) and (3, 2) 5. If the area of the triangle formed by the line 2x
is 3y c  0 with coordinate axes is 27 sq. units, then
c is equal to
(A) x 2  0 (B) y 2  0
(C) x 2  0 (D) y 2  0 (A) p16 (B) p15 (C) p8 (D) p18

6. If the line 2x 3by – 13  0 passes through the point


3. The points A( 5, 6), B( 1, 4) and C(3, 2) are three
non-collinear points. Then, the equation the median ( 2, 4), then the value of b is
through point C of $ABC is 5 4 17 19
(A) (B) (C) (D)
(A) 7 x 6 y 1  0 (B) x 6y 9  0 4 3 12 12
(C) x 6 y 9  0 (D) x 6 y 9  0 7. In the straight line equation xcos @ ysin @  p, if
p  6 or A  30o, then the equation is
4. The circumcentre of the triangle with vertices A( 5, (A) 3 x y 12  0 (B) 3 x y 12  0
6), B( 1, 4) and C(3, 2) is
(C) 2 x 3 y 12  0 (D) 2 x 3 y 12  0
Exercises 119

8. If the line 3x – by – 8  0 makes angle 45o with the (A) 2 x y 5  0 (B) 2 x y 5  0


positive directions of the x-axis, then b is equal to (C) 2 x y 5  0 (D) 2 x y 5  0
9 9
(A) 7, (B) 7, 16. B(2, 0) and C(0, 1) are the ends of the base of an
7 7
isosceles triangle for which the line x  2 is one side.
9 9
(C) 7, (D) 7, Then, the orthocentre of the triangle is
7 7
¥3 ´ ¥4 7 ´
9. The incentre of the triangle whose sides are y  0, 3x – (A) ¦ , 1µ (B) ¦ , µ
§4 ¶ § 3 12 ¶
4y  0 and 4x 3y – 50  0 is
¥ 3 3´ ¥5 ´
¥ 15 5 ´ ¥ 15 5 ´ (C) ¦ , µ (D) ¦ , 1µ
(A) ¦ , µ (B) ¦ , µ § 2 2¶ §4 ¶
§ 2 2¶ § 2 2¶

¥ 15 5 ´ ¥ 15 5 ´ 17. In $ABC , A  (1, 10), circumcentre ( 1/ 3, 2 / 3) and


(C) ¦ , (D) ¦ ,
§ 2 2 µ¶ § 2 2 µ¶ orthocentre (11/ 3, 4 / 3). Then, the coordinates of the
midpoint of BC are
10. The incentre of the triangle formed by the lines 15x –
¥ 11´
8y 25  0, 3x – 4y –10  0 and 5x 12y – 30  0 is (A) (1, 5) (B) ¦ 1, µ
§ 3 ¶
¥ 4 1´ ¥ 4 1 ´ (C) (1, 6) (D) (1, 3)
(A) ¦ , µ (B) ¦ , µ
§ 7 4¶ § 7 4¶
Hint: The centroid G divides the line joining the cir-
¥ 4 1´ ¥ 4 1´ cumcentre and orthocentre in the ratio 1:2.
(C) ¦ , µ (D) ¦ , µ
§7 4 ¶ § 7 4¶
18. A rhombus is situated in the first quadrant with x – y
11. The equation of the lines which are parallel to the  0 and 7x – y  0 as two of its adjust sides. Then the
line 8x – 15y 34  0 and whose distance from the slope of the longer diagonal of the rhombus is
point ( 2, 3) is equal to 3 are 8x – 15y c1 and 8x – 1 1
15y c2  0. Then c1 c2 is equal to (A) 2 (B) (C) (D) 2
2 2
(A) 112 (B) 10 (C) 122 (D) 102
19. The distance of the line 2x – 3y – 4  0 from the
12. The equation of the line which passes through the point (1, 1) measured in the direction of the line x
point of intersection of the lines 3x – 5y 9  0 and y – 1  0 is
4x 7y – 28  0 and the point (4, 2) is 1
(A) (B) 2 (C) 5 2 (D) 2 2
2
(A) 3 x 2 y 16  0 (B) 38 x 87 y 326  0
20. The line parallel to x-axis and passing through the
(C) 4 x 3 y 22  0 (D) 38 x 87 y 22  0 intersection of the lines ax 2by 3b  0 and bx –
2by – 3a  0 where (a, b) ≠ (0, 0) is
13. A( 1, 4), B(1, 4) and C (5, 4) are the vertices of a tri-
angle. Then, the length of the altitude from A onto (A) above the x-axis at a distance of 3/2 units
BC is from it
12 12 12 (B) above the x-axis at a distance of 2/3 units
(A) (B) (C) (D) 3 from it
5 5 5 5
(C) below the x-axis at a distance of 3/2 units
14. A point moves such that its distance from the point from it
( 1, 2) is always equal to its distance from the line (D) below the x-axis at a distance of 2/3 units
3x 4y 2 = 0. Then the locus of the point is from it
(4x 3)2 ax by 121  0
21. The L1 y4x 3y – 12  0 intersect x-axis at A and
where a b is equal to y-axis at B. A variable line L2 perpendicular to L1
(A) 178 (B) 116 (C) 54 (D) 121 intersects x-axis at P as y-axis at Q. Then, the perpen-
dicular circumcentre of $ABC lies on
15. The equation of the line through the point of inter-
(A) 4 x 3 y 7  0 (B) 6 x 8 y 7  0
section of the lines x – 3y 1  0 and 2x 5y – 9  0,
and whose distance from the origin is 5 is (C) 3 x 4 y 2  0 (D) 3 x 4 y 2  0
120 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

22. If the lines ax – y 4  0, 3x – y 5  0 and x y 8  0 the origin onto the line lies on the curve whose equa-
are concurrent, then the value of a is tion is given by
35 5 15 (A) x 2 y2 A x B y  0
(A) (B) (C) 35 (D)
13 13 13
(B) x 2 y2 A x B y  0
23. The lines x2 4xy y2  0 and x – y – 4  0 form a
(C) x 2 y2 A x B y  0
triangle which is
(D) x 2 y2 A x B y  0
(A) equilateral
(B) right angled 27. 3x2 – 8xy – 3y2 10x 20y – 25  0 are the bisectors
(C) an isosceles of the angles between two lines of which one line is
(D) isosceles right angled passing through the origin. Then, the equation of the
other line is
24. Equation of the line which is parallel to the common (A) x 2 y  0 (B) 2 x y  0
line of the pair of lines 6x2 – xy – 12y2 and 15x2 14xy
(C) x 2 y 5  0 (D) x 2 y 5  0
– 8y2  0 and whose distance from this common line
is 7 units is
28. The straight line 2x 3y 1  0 bisects the angle be-
(A) 3 x 4 y  p35 (B) 5 x 2 y  p7 tween two straight lines of which one line is 3x 2y
(C) 3 x 4 y  p35 (D) 2 x 3 y  p7 4  0. Then, the equation of the other line is
(A) 3 x 23 y  28 (B) 9 x 4 y  28
25. The point (4, 1) undergoes the following three trans-
(C) 9 x 46 y  28 (D) 9 x 46 y  28
formations successively:
I. Reflection about the line y x. 29. A(1, 3) and B(5, 2) are two points. If P is a variable
II. translation through a distance 2 units along the points on the line y x, then the minimum value of
positive direction of the x-axis. PA PB is
III. Rotation through an angle O/4 about the origin
in the counterclockwise direction. (A) 2 5 (B) 3 5 (C) 4 5 (D) 5
Then, the final position of the point is given by
Hint: If Aa is the image of A on the line y x, then
¥ 1 7 ´ AaB is the value.
(A) ¦ , (B) ( 2 , 7 2 )
§ 2 2 µ¶
30. The equation of the line passing through the point of
1 7 ´
(C) ¥¦ , µ (D) ( 2 , 7 2 ) intersection of the lines x y 1  0 and 3x y 5 
§ 2 2¶ 0 and is perpendicular to the line x 3y 1  0 is
26. A straight line is passing through a fixed point (A) x 3y 1  0 (B) 3x y 1  0
(@, B ). Then, the foot of the perpendicular drawn (C) x 3y 1  0 (D) 3x y 1  0

Multiple Correct Choice Type Questions


1. If the distance of the line 8x 15y K  0 from the 3
point (2, 3) is equal to 5 units, then the value of L is (A) the slope of l 
2
(A) 24 (B) 24 (C) 146 (D) 146 (B) the line l passes through (0, 0)
(C) the intercept on the axes are 2, 3
2. If the line 3 x y – 9  0 is reduced to the form xcos@ (D) the line l forms a triangle of area 5 sq. units with
ysin @  p, then the coordinate axes
(A) A  60o (B) A  30o
4. If l is the line passing through the point (2, 3) and is
9 parallel to the line joining the points (4, 1) and ( 2, 3),
(C) p  (D) p  9
2 then

3. If l is the line passing through the point ( 2, 3) and (A) ( 10, 1) is a point on l
perpendicular to the line 2x 3y 6  0, then (B) the slope of l is 6
Exercises 121

(C) the area of the triangle formed by the line l and (D) a straight line parallel to y-axis
the coordinate axes is 64/3
8. Two points A(–1, –1) and B(4, 5) and the third vertex
(D) the orthocentre of the triangle formed by l and
C lie on the line 5x – y – 15  0. If the area of the tri-
the axes is (1, 1)
angle is 19/2, then the coordinates of the vertex C are
5. If S is the family of lines passing through the point (A) (2, –5) (B) (5, 4) (C) (3, 0) (D) (5, 10)
(5, 0), then
9. The line
(A) the line belonging to S and having slope 2 is
2x y 5 0 x y
1
(B) the line belonging to S and having y-intercept 5 c d
is x y 5  0 passes through the intersection of the lines
(C) the line belonging to S and perpendicular to the x y x y
line x y 1  0 is x y 5 0  1 and  1
a b b a
(D) the line belonging to S and perpendicular to the
and the lengths of the perpendicular drawn from
line x y 1  0 is x y 5 0
the origin onto these lines are equal. Then
6. A line l is passing through the point (1, –6). If the 1 1 1 1
(A) 2
2  2 2
product of the intercepts of l on the axes is 1, then the a b c d
equation of l is 1 1 1 1
(B) 
(A) 2x y 5  0 (B) 2x y 4  0 a b c d
(C) 4x y 2  0 (D) 9x y 3  0 1 1 1 1
(C) 2
2  2 2
a b c d
7. The graph of the function 1 1 1 1
(D) 2 2 2 2  2
y  cosx cos(x 2) – cos2(x 1) is a b c d
(A) a straight line passing through (0, sin 2 1) 10. The straight lines 3x y – 4  0, x 3y – 4  0 and x
¥P ´ y  0 form a triangle which is
(B) a straight line passing through ¦ , sin 2 1µ
§2 ¶ (A) obtuse angled (B) equilateral
(C) a straight line parallel to x-axis (C) isosceles (D) right-angled

Matrix-Match Type Questions


In each of the following questions, statements are given in 1. Let S be the system of lines passing through the
two columns, which have to be matched. The statements in intersection of the lines x y – 1  0 and x – y – 1 
column I are labeled as (A), (B), (C) and (D), while those 0. Match the items of Column I with those of Col-
in column II are labeled as (p), (q), (r), (s) and (t). Any umn II.
given statement in column I can have correct matching with
one or more statements in column II. The appropriate bub- Column I Column II
bles corresponding to the answers to these questions have
(A) Equation of the line (p) 2x – y – 2  0
to be darkened as illustrated in the following example.
belonging to S and
Example: If the correct matches are (A) m (p), (s), (B) m passing through the
(q), (s), (t), (C) m (r), (D) m (r), (t), that is if the matches point (2, 3) is
are (A) m (p) and (s); (B) m (q), (s) and (t); (C) m (r); (B) Equation of the line (q) x y – 1  0
and (D) m (r), then the correct darkening of bubbles will belonging to S and
look as follows: parallel to the line y 
p q r s t 2x 1 is
A
(r) x y 1  0
(C) Equation of the line
B belonging to S and
having equal inter-
C
cept (absolutely) is
D
(Continued)
122 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

Column I Column II 3. Match the items of Column I with those of Column II.
(D) Equation of the line (s) 3x – y – 3  0
belonging to S and Column I Column II
perpendicular to the (t) x – y – 1  0 (A) Equation of the line whose (p) x y 8 
line x y – 1  0 is x-intercept is 4 and passes 0
though the point (2, –3)
2. Match the items of Column I with those of Column II.
(B) Equation of the line having (q) x y  7
equal intercept on the axes
Column I Column II
and passing through the
(A) If the lines x 2ay a  0, (p) GP point (2, 5) is
x 3by b  0 and x 4cy
(C) Equation of the line which (r) 3x 2y  12
c  0 are concurrent, then
makes an angle of 135o with
a, b and c are in
the positive direction of the
(B) If the lines ax by (ak b) (q) HP x-axis and which cuts the
= 0, bx cy (bk c)  0 and y-axis at a distance of 8 units
(ak + b)x + (bk + c)y = 0 are from the origin is (s) x 4y  8
concurrent and b2 x ac, (D) Equation of the line through
then the point (4, 1) which forms
(C) If the lines ax 2y 1  0, (r) k is a root of a triangle of 8 sq. unit with
bx 3y 1  0 and cx 4y ax2 2bx c  positive axes is (t) x y 8  0
1  0 pass through a fixed 0
point, then a, b and c form
(D) If a, b and c are distinct (s) AP
positive and the lines a(x
y) c  0, x 1  0 and (t) k is a root of
c(x y) b  0, then a, c ax2 2bx c 
and b are in 0

Comprehension Type Questions


1. Passage: Let u y x y  0, A  (1, 2) and B  (3, –1). (i) Area of the triangle in square units is
Answer the following questions.
1 2 1 1
(A) (B) (C) (D)
(i) If M is a point on the line u  0 such that AM 3 3 2 3 2 2
BM is minimum, then the reflection of M on the
line y x is (ii) The gradients of the two sides AB and AC are
(A) (2, –2) (B) (–2, 2) 1 1
(A) 3, (B) 2,
(C) (1, –1) (D) (–1, 1) 3 2
(ii) If M is a point on u  0 such that AM BM is (C) 2 1, 2 1 (D) 2 3 , 2 3
maximum, then the distance between M and the (iii) The circumradius of the triangle is
point N(1, 1) is
1 2 1 1
(A) 3 5 (B) 5 2 (C) 7 (D) 10 (A) (B) (C) (D)
3 3 3 2
(iii) If M is a point on u  0 such that AM BM is
minimum, then the area of $ABM is equal to 3. Passage: If u 0 and u2 0 are two intersecting lines,
then for all values of K and L, the equation Ku Lu2
13 13 13 13
(A) (B) (C) (D) represents straight lines passing through the intersec-
8 6 2 4 tion of the lines u  0 and u2  0. In particular, the
equation u Ku2  0 represents all lines (except u2 
2. Passage: ABC is an equilateral triangle with vertex 0) passing through the intersection of u  0 and u2 
A  (1, 1) and the equation of the side BC is x y  1. 0. The converse of these are also true. Answer the fol-
Answer the following questions. lowing questions.
Answers 123

(i) The line (K 1)2x Ky – 2K2 – 2  0 passes through distance from the point Q(2, –3) is 10 is
a fixed point. The equation of the line passing
through this fixed point and having slope 2 is (A) d (B) 1 (C) 2 (D) 0
(A) 2x – y 8  0 (B) 2x – y – 5  0 (iii) In (ii), if L is the required line, then the image of
(C) 2x – y – 8  0 (D) 2x – y – 4  0 the point Q(2, –3) in the line is

(ii) Consider the family of lines p(2x y 4) q(x (A) (4, 1) (B) (–4, 1)
– 2y – 3)  0 (p and q are parameters). The num- (C) (4, –1) (D) (–4, –1)
ber of lines belonging to this family and whose

Integer Answer Type Questions


The answer to each of the questions in this section is a 4. In $ABC, the equations of the madians AD and BE,
non-negative integer. The appropriate bubbles below the respectively, are 2x 3y – 6  0 and 3x – 2y– 10  0.
respective question numbers have to be darkened. For 1
If AD  6, BE  11, then (Area of $ABC ) is
example, as shown in the figure, if the correct answer to 11
________.
the question number Y is 246, then the bubbles under Y
labeled as 2, 4, 6 are to be darkened.
5. P(1, 2), Q(4, 6), R(5, 7) and S(a, b) are the vertices
X Y Z W of the parallogram PQRS. Then, a b is equal to
0 0 0 0 _______.
1 1 1 1
6. The area of the triangle formed by the line x
2 2 2
y  3 and the angle bisectors of the pair of lines
3 3 3 3
x 2 y2 2 y 1  0 is ______ sq. unit.
4 4 4
5 5 5 5 7. A straight line through the origin O meets the par-
6 6 6 allel lines 4x 2y  9 and 2x y  6 at points P and
7 7 7 7 Q, respectively. If O divides the segment PQ in the
8 8 8 8 ratio p:q, then the value of p q is _____.
9 9 9 9
8. If a, b and c are real such that 3a 2b 4c  0, then
the line ax by c  0 passes through a fixed point (h,
1. If (a, b) is the image of the point (2, –3) on the line k) where [h k] ([–] is the usual symbol) is _______.
3x y – 1  0, then b – a is equal to _____.
9. The number of integral values of m, for which the
2. If L is the line belonging to the family of lines repre- x-coordinate of the point of intersection of the lines
sented by the equation (2x y 4) L (x 2y 3)  3x 4y 9  0 and y  mx 1 is also an integer is
0 (where L is a parameter) whose distance from the _______.
point (2, –3) is 10 units, then the slope of the line L
is ______. 10. P(m, n) is an interior point (where m and n are posi-
tive integers) of a quadrilateral formed by the lines
3. If the lines ax by 5  0 and px qy 1  0 are the di- y  0, x  0, 2x y 2  0 and 4x 5y 20  0. The
agonals of the parallogram whose sides are 2x y 7  possible number of positions of P is _____.
1
0, 3x 2y – 5  0 and 3x 2y 4  0, then the value of
8
(a b p q) is ________.

ANSWERS
Single Correct Choice Type Questions
1. (C) 3. (C)

2. (B) 4. (A)
124 Chapter 2 Straight Line and Pair of Lines

5. (D) 18. (A)


6. (C) 19. (B)

7. (A) 20. (C)

8. (D) 21. (B)

9. (B) 22. (A)

10. (A) 23. (A)

11. (C) 24. (C)

12. (B) 25. (C)


26. (A)
13. (B)
27. (C)
14. (A)
28. (D)
15. (C) 29. (D)
16. (D) 30. (B)

17. (B)

Multiple Correct Choice Type Questions


1. (A), (D) 6. (C), (D)
2. (B), (C) 7. (A), (B), (C)
3. (A), (B) 8. (C), (D)
4. (A), (C) 9. (A), (B)
5. (B), (D) 10. (A), (C)

Matrix-Match Type Questions


1. (A) m (s); (B) m (p); (C) m (q), (t); (D) m (t) 3. (A) m (r); (B) m (q); (C) m (p), (t); (D) m (s)

2. (A) m (q); (B) m (r); (C) m (s), (t); (D) m (p)

Comprehension Type Questions


1. (i) (D); (ii) (D); (iii) (D) 3. (i) (C); (ii) (B); (iii) (D)
2. (i) (C); (ii) (D); (iii) (B)

Integer Answer Type Questions


1. 3 6. 2
2. 3 7. 7
3. 5 8. 2
4. 4 9. 2
5. 5 10. 5
Circle 3
Contents
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Relation Between a Circle and a
Line in its Plane
3.3 Classification of Points in a
Plane w.r.t. a Circle in the Same
Plane
d 3.4 Relation Between Two Circles
Chor
3.5 Common Tangents to Two
Circles

r Worked-Out Problems
Diamete
Summary
Centre Exercises
T
Tangent
Answers

Arc

A circle is a simple shape of Euclid-


ean geometry consisting of those
points in a plane that are equidistant
Arc from a given point, the centre. A
circle can be defined as the curve
traced out by a point that moves so
Sector that its distance from a given point is
constant.
t
en
gm
Se
Circle
126 Chapter 3 Circle

In the previous chapter, we discussed about the straight line and pair of lines. It is known that a straight line is repre-
sented by first-degree equation in x and y and hence it is called first-degree curve. Curves represented by second-
degree equation in x and y are called second-degree curves. Some of the second-degree curves are pair of lines (studied
in the previous chapter), circle and conics. Among these second-degree curves, the circle has been known since ancient
times and has some special properties. In this chapter, we study the general equation of a circle, equation of the tangent
at a point, chord equation interval of its midpoint, chord of contact, orthogonal circles, etc. Subjective Problems have
been provided for the preceding sections. Students are advised to solve each and every problem to grasp the topics.

3.1 Introduction
We begin with the following definition.

DEFINITION 3.1 Circle Let A be a fixed point in a plane and r  0 a given real number. Then the locus of the point
P such that the distance AP is equal to r is called a circle with centre A and radius r (Fig. 3.1).

r P
A

FIGURE 3.1 A circle.

We translate the definition of the circle, and obtain the equations of a circle.

T H E O R E M 3.1 The equation of the circle with centre at the point A(h, k) and radius r is

( )2 ( )2  r 2

PROOF P(x, y) is a point on the given circle š(AP)2  r2 š(x − h)2 (y − k)2  r2, because the distance

AP  ( x h)2 ( y k )2

Note: If h  0, k  0 (i.e., origin is the centre), then the equation of the circle is x2 y2  r2.

QUICK LOOK 1

1. Equation of the circle with centre at origin and ra- is in the form x2 y2 2gx 2fy c  0, where g, f
dius r is x2 y2  r2. and c are real numbers.
2. Equation of the circle with centre at (h, k) and ra-
dius r is x2 y2 − 2hx − 2ky h2 k2 − r2  0, which

T H E O R E M 3.2 If g, f, c are real numbers and g2 f 2 – c  0, then the equation x2 y2 2gx 2fy c  0 represents
circle with centre at (−g, −f ) and radius g2 f 2 c.
2
PROOF x2 y2 2gx 2fy c  0 can be written as ( )2 ( )2   g f c which represents
circle with centre (−g, −f ) and radius g2 f 2 c according to Theorem 3.1.
3.1 Introduction 127

Note:
1. The locus represented by the equation (x − h)2 (y − k)2  0 is the single point (h, k) which is called point circle. In
fact, if the radius of a circle is zero, then it is called point circle.
2. If g2 f 2 – c  0, then the locus represented by x2 y2 2gx 2fy c  0 is the empty set and it represents point
circle if g2 f 2 – c  0. Further, the equation of the circle with centre (h, k) and radius r is of the form x2 y2
2gx 2fy c  0 (see Quick Look 1). With this understanding we refer the equation x2 y2 2gx 2fy c  0
as the general equation of a circle. Usually, when g2 f 2 – c  0, then we call the circle as imaginary circle.
3. If a ≠ 0, then the equation ax2 ay2 2gx 2fy c  0 can be written as x2 y2 2gax 2f ay ca  0, where ga  g/a, f a 
f/a, ca  c/a which represents circle in the broad perspective as per point (2). The equation ax2 ay2 2gx 2fy c  0
is called universal equation of the circle.
4. The second degree general equation S y ax2 2hxy by2 2gx 2fy c  0 represents a circle with positive radius
if and only if a  b  0 and g2 f 2  ac. The proof is not necessary.

T H E O R E M 3.3 If A(x1, y1) and B(x2, y2) are extremities of a diameter of a circle, then the equation of the circle is
(x − x1)(x − x2) (y − y1)(y − y2)  0.

PROOF Consider Fig. 3.2. Let P be any point on the circle whose coordinates are (x, y). It is clear that both
the points A and B satisfy the equation
(x − x1)(x − x2) (y − y1)(y − y2)  0 (3.1)

P (x,
x y)

90°

A(x
x1, y1) x2, y2)
B (x

FIGURE 3.2

Hence, we may assume P is not both A and B. From the elementary plane geometry, it is known that
angle in a semicircle is a right angle. Therefore, APB is a right angle. That is, the segments AP and
BP are at right angle to each other so that the product of their slopes is equal to −1. Therefore
¥ y y1 ´ ¥ y y2 ´
¦§ x x µ¶ ¦§ x x µ¶  1
1 2

Hence
(x − x1)(x − x2) (y − y1)(y − y2)  0
That is, every point on the given circle satisfies Eq. (3.1) and conversely, if any point Q(x, y) satisfies
Eq. (3.1), then we know that AQ and BQ are at right angles and hence Q must lie on the circle.
Hence, Eq. (3.1) represents the circle for which A(x1, y1) and B(x2, y2) are ends of a diameter.

T H E O R E M 3.4 If P(x, y) is a point on the circle x2 y2  r2, then there exists P such that x  r cos P and y 
r sin P and conversely the point (r cos P, r sin P ) lies on the circle x2 y2  r2 for all P. The
equations x  r cos P, y  r sin P are called parametric equations of the circle x2 y2  r2.
PROOF Let P(x, y) be a point on the circle x2 y2  r2 (see Fig. 3.3). Draw PM perpendicular to the x-axis
and let MOP  P. From ΔMOP, we have that
x y
cos P  and sin P 
r r
128 Chapter 3 Circle

Therefore, x  r cos P, y  r sin P. Also


r2 cos2 P r2 sin2 P  r2
shows that (r cos P, r sin P ) lies on the circle x2 y2  r2.
y

P (x,
x y)
r
y
q
O x M x

FIGURE 3.3

Note:
1. By shifting the origin to the centre (h, k) of the circle (x − h)2 (y − k)2  r2 and using Theorem 3.4 we can see
that
x  h r cos P
and y  k r sin P
are the parametric equations of the circle (x − h)2 (y − k)2  r2.
2. Since (−g, −f ) and r  g 2 f 2 c are, respectively, the centre and radius of the circle x2 y2 2gx 2fy c  0, it
follows that
x  −g r cos P and y  −f r sin P
are its parametric equations.

3.2 Relation Between a Circle and a Line in its Plane


Let C be a circle with centre A and radius r and l be a straight line in the plane of the circle. Draw AM perpendicular
to the line l. Then
1. AM  r š the line l and the circle C have no common points [see Fig. 3.4(a)].
2. AM  r šthe line touches the circle [see Fig. 3.4(b)].
3. AM  r šthe line l intersects the circle C in two distinct points [see Fig. 3.4(c)].

A
r
A
r

90° l M
l M l M

(a) (b) (c)

FIGURE 3.4
3.2 Relation Between a Circle and a Line in its Plane 129

General Note: In the proofs of theorems, we consider the circle x2 y2  r2 only to avoid tediousness of the proofs.

T H E O R E M 3.5 The perpendicular bisector of a chord of a circle passes through the centre of the circle.
PROOF Let A(x1, y1) and B(x2, y2) be ends of a chord of the circle x2 y2  r2 whose centre is O(0, 0) (see
Fig. 3.5). Let M be the midpoint of the chord AB so that
¥ x x2 y1 y2 ´
M¦ 1 , µ
§ 2 2 ¶

Now, A and B are points on the circle implies


x12 y12  r2

and x22 y22  r2


Therefore
2 2 2 2
1 2) ( 1 2) 0
( 1 2 )( 1 2) ( 1 2 )( 1 2) 0
y1 y2 ( x1 x2 )
 
x1 x2 y1 y2

Now,
y1 y2
0
2 y y2 ( x1 x2 )
Slope of line OM   1 
x1 x2 x1 x2 y1 y2
0
2

Therefore
¥y y2 ´ ¥ y1 y2 ´
(Slope of chord AB)(Slope of OM )  ¦ 1  1
§ x1 x2 µ¶ ¦§ x1 x2 µ¶

and hence OM is perpendicular to AB.

O
90°
A B
M

FIGURE 3.5

Notation: Here onwards, we use the following notation.

S x 2 y2 2 gx
gx fy c
S1 x 1 yy1 g( x x1 ) f ( y y1 ) c
xx
S2 x 2 yy2 g(xx x2 ) f ( y y2 ) c
xx
S21 S12  x1 x2 y1 y2 g( x1 x2 ) f ( y1 y2 ) c
S11 x12 y12 2 gx1 2f 1 c
130 Chapter 3 Circle

In general

Sii xi2 yi2 2 gx


gxi ffyyi c

In particular if S y x2 y2 − a2, then 1 xx1 yy1 a 2, S11 x12 y12 a 2, etc .

T H E O R E M 3.6 If S  0 is a circle and (x1, y1) is a point in the plane of the circle (not the centre), then the equation
S1  0 represents a straight line which is perpendicular to the line joining the centre and the point
(x1, y1).

PROOF Let
S y x2 y2 2gx 2fy c  0
Therefore
S1 xxx1 yy1 g( x x1 ) f ( y y1 ) c
y ( g x1 ) x ( f y1 ) y gx1 fy1 c

Since (x1, y1) ≠ (−g, −f ), it follows that


S1 y (g x1)x (f y1)y gx1 fy1 + c  0
is a first-degree equation in x and y and hence it represents a straight line. Also, since the slope of
the line S1  0 is −(g x1)/(f y1), it follows that it is perpendicular to the line joining (−g, −f ) and
(x1, y1).

T H E O R E M 3.7 The equation of the chord joining two points P(x1, y1) and Q(x2, y2) on a circle S  0 is S1
S2  S12 and hence the equation of the tangent at (x1, y1) is S1  0.
PROOF Let S y x2 y2 2gx 2fy c  0. Since P(x1, y1) and Q(x2, y2) lie on the circle (see Fig. 3.6), we have

11 x12 y12 2gx


2 gx
gx1 ffyy1 c  0
S22 x22 y22 2gx
2 gx
gx2 fy2 c  0
fy

¥ x x2 y1 y2 ´
Let C  (−g, −f ) (centre) and M  ¦ 1 , µ (the midpoint of AB ). From Theorem 3.5,
§ 2 2 ¶
AB is perpendicular to CM so that the equation of the chord AB is
¥ x1 x2 ´ ¥ y1 y2 ´
( 1)¦ g ( 1)¦ fµ  0
§ 2 ¶ § 2 ¶
( )(xx1
1 )( x2 2gg ) ( y y1 )( y1 y2 f)  0
 x(x
( 1 x2 ) y(y( 1 y2 ) 2 gx 2 fy  x12 y12 x1 x2 y1 y2 2 gx1 2 fy1
y(y
 x( x1 x2 ) y( y1 y2 ) 2 gx 2 fy  x1 x2 y1 y2 c (& & S11  0)
 [ xx1 yy1 g( x x1 ) f ( y y1 ) c] [ xx2 yy2 g( x x2 ) f ( y y2 ) c]
 x1 x2 y1 y2 gx1 fy1 gx2 fy2 2c c

C (−g, −f )

A(x
x1, y1) B (x
x2, y2)
M

FIGURE 3.6
3.2 Relation Between a Circle and a Line in its Plane 131

Therefore

1 S2  x1 x2 y1 y2 g( x1 x2 ) f ( y1 y2 ) c S12

That is, equation of the chord AB is S1 S2  S12.


Since the tangent at P(x1, y1) to the circle is the limiting position of the chord PQ as Q
approaches P along the circle (see Chapter 3, Vol. 3), the equation of the tangent is
S1 S1  S11 [ P( x1 , y1 ) lies on the circle]
Hence, S1 y xx1 yy1 g(x x1) f(y y1) c  0 is the tangent at (x1, y1).

QUICK LOOK 2

If S  x2 y2 − a2  0 is the circle, then the tangent at (x1, y1) is S1y xx1 yy1 − a2  0.

Example 3.1

Find the equation of the tangent to the circle x2 y2 − which implies that (2, 3) lies on the circle S  x2 y2 −
2x − 4y 3  0 at the point (2, 3). 2x − 4y 3  0. Here, (x1, y1)  (2, 3) so that the equation
of the tangent at (2, 3) is
Solution: We have
S1  x(2) y(3) − (x 2) − 2(y 3) 3  0
22 32 − 2(2) − 4(3) 3  16 − 16  0 that is, S1  x y − 5  0.

Example 3.2

Find the equation of the tangent to the circle 3x2 3y2 − Here, g  −2/3, f  −1, c  0 and (x1, y1)  (0, 0). The equa-
4x − 6y  0 at (0, 0). tion of the tangent at (0, 0) is
2
Solution: The equation of the circle is in the universal S1 x(0) y(0) ( x 0) 1( y 0) 0
form so that its general form is 3

4 That is, S1 y 2x 3y  0.
S y x2 y2 − ¥ ´ x − 2y  0
§ 3¶

Example 3.3

Find the equation of the tangent to the circle the tangent at (a, 0) is
x2 y2 2ay cot @ − a2  0 x(a) y(0) a cot @ (y 0) – a2  0
at (a, 0).  ax (c cot @)y − a2  0
 x y cot @ − a  0
Solution: Clearly, (a, 0) lies on the circle. Equation of

Example 3.4

Find the equation of the tangent to the circle x2 y2  a2 and (x1, y1)  (a cos P, a sin P )
at (a cos P, a sin P ).
The equation of the tangent at (a cos P, a sin P) is
Solution: We have in ) a 2  0
x(a cos Q ) y(a sin
S y x2 y2 − a2  0  x cos P y sin P − a  0
132 Chapter 3 Circle

Example 3.5

Find the equation of the tangent to the circle S y x2 y2  2 x y 6  0


2x − 2y − 3  0 at the point (1, 2) and also find the tan-  2x y 6  0
gent to the circle parallel to this tangent.

Solution: The equation of the tangent at A(1, 2) (see B (−3, 0) 2x + y + 6 = 0


Fig. 3.7) is

S1 y x(1) y(2) 1(x 1) − 1(y 2) − 3  0


(−1, 1)
 S1 y 2x y − 4  0 (3.2)
The tangent to the circle parallel to the tangent given by
Eq. (3.2) must be at the other end B(−3, 0) of the diam-
eter through the point A(1, 2). Therefore, the tangent at A (1, 2) 2x + y − 4 = 0
B(−3, 0) is
FIGURE 3.7
x( ) y( ) 1(x
(x
(x (y
) 1(y
(y ) 3  0

T H E O R E M 3.8 The condition for the line y  mx c, c ≠ 0 to touch the circle x2 y2  a2 is that c2  a2(1 m2) and
in such a case the point of contact is (−a2m/c, a2/c).
PROOF Suppose the line y  mx c touches the circle at the point P(x1, y1). Hence, by Theorem 3.7, the
equation of the tangent at P(x1, y1) is

S1 xxx1 yy1 a 2  0

That is, S1  0 and y  mx c represent the same line. Therefore

x1 y1 a 2
 
m 1 c
Therefore

a2 m a2
x1  and y1 
c c
Since (xl, y1) lies on the circle, we have

a4 m a4
 a2
c2 c2
 c 2  a 2 (1 m2 )

Conversely, suppose c2  a2(1 m2). Therefore

m( ) 0 c
a
1 m2

That is, the length of the perpendicular drawn from (0, 0) (i.e. the centre of the circle) onto the line
y  mx c is equal to the radius a. Hence, by point (2) in Section 3.2, the line y  mx c touches
the circle.

Note:
1. For any m ≠ 0, the two lines y  mx p a 1 m2 are parallel tangents to the circle x2 y2  a2.
3.3 Classification of Points in a Plane w.r.t. a Circle in the Same Plane 133

2. In general, to show that a line touches a circle, it is enough if we show that the length of the perpendicular drawn
from the centre onto the line is equal to the radius of the circle.

3.3 Classification of Points in a Plane w.r.t. a Circle in the Same Plane


Let C be a circle with centre at the point A and radius r and P be any point in the plane (Fig. 3.8). Then
1. P lies outside the circle š AP  r.
2. P lies on the circle (on the circumference) šAP  r.
3. P lies inside the circle šAP  r.

R (On the circle)


r
A

Q (Inter
nte nal point)

P (External point)

FIGURE 3.8

T H E O R E M 3.9 Let S  0 be a circle and P(x1, y1) be a point in the plane of the circle. Then P(x1, y1) lies outside
or inside or on the circle according as S11    0.

PROOF Let S  x2 y2 2gx 2fy c  0, A  (−g, −f) and r  g 2 f 2 c . Now


P(x1, y1) lies outside S  0 šAP  r
š( )2  r 2
2 2 2 2
š( 1 ) ( 1 )  g f c
š x12 y12 2 gx1 2 fy1 c  0
š S11  0

Similarly, P(x1, y1) lies inside S  0 šS11  0.

T H E O R E M 3.10 Through every external point, two distinct tangents can be drawn to a circle.
PROOF Let S y x2 y2 − a2  0 be a circle and P(x1, y1) be an external point to the circle, so that

11 x12 y12 a2  0

By Note (1) under Theorem 3.8, we know that y  mx a 1 m2 touches the circle S y x2 y2

− a2  0. This line passes through P(x1, y1)

š y1  mx1 a 1 m2
2
š( 1 1)  a2 ( 2
)
2 2
š( 1 )m 2 x1 y1 m y12 a 2  0
2
(3.4)
134 Chapter 3 Circle

Equation (3.4) is a quadratic equation in m whose discriminant is

4 x12 y12 4( x12 a 2 )( y12 a 2 )  4a 2 ( x12 y12 a2 )


 4a 2 S11 0 (& S11  0)
0

Therefore, the quadratic equation [Eq. (3.4)] in m has two distinct roots, say m1 and m2, so that
there are two tangents through (x1, y1) with slopes m1 and m2 and

y12 a2
m1 m2 
x12 a2

QUICK LOOK 3

The two tangents through (x 1, y 1) to the circle Therefore, the locus of (x1, y1) is the circle x2 y2  2a2,
S y x 2 y 2 − a 2  0 are at right angles implies and is which is a circle concentric with S  0 and having radius
implied by (š) 2 times the radius of S  0. That is, the locus of the
point through perpendicular tangents drawn to a circle
y12 a2 S  0 is also a circle concentric with S  0 and radius
m1 m2  1 š 1
x12 a2 equal to 2 times the radius of S  0.
š x12 y12  2a 2

DEFINITION 3.2 Director Circle The locus of the point through which perpendicular tangents are drawn to a
given circle S  0 is a circle called the director circle of S  0.

QUICK LOOK 4

If the centre and radius of a circle are A and r, respectively, then the centre and radius of its director circle are A
and r 2, respectively.

Example 3.6

Find the locus of the point of intersection of perpendicu- director circle of S  0 is


lar tangents to the circle S y x2 y2 − 2x 2y − 2  0. That
is, find the director circle of S  0. ( )2 ( )2  ( )2  8

Solution: The centre and radius of the circle S  0 are That is,
(1, −1) and 2, respectively. Hence, the equation of the x2 y2 − 2x 2y − 6  0

T H E O R E M 3.11 The length of the tangent drawn from an external point P(xl, y1) to the circle S  0 is S11 .

PROOF Let S y x2 y2 2gx 2fy c  0, centre A  (−g, −f ) and radius r  g 2 f 2 c . Let T be the
point of contact of the tangent from P to the circle. See Fig. 3.9. From Pythogoras theorem, we
have
(AP)2  (PT)2 (AT)2
 (x1 g)2 (y1 f )2  (PT)2 (g2 f 2 − c)
 (PT )2  x12 y12 2gx1 2fy1 c  S11  0
3.3 Classification of Points in a Plane w.r.t. a Circle in the Same Plane 135

because P(x1, y1) is an external point (see Theorem 3.9). Therefore


PT  S11

A (−g, −f )

P (x
x1, y1) T

FIGURE 3.9

DEFINITION 3.3 Chord of Contact Let C be a circle and P be an external point to C. Let A and B be the points
of contact of the tangents drawn from P to C. Then the chord AB is called the chord of con-
tact of the point P with respect to the circle C.

T H E O R E M 3.12 The equation of the chord of contact of a point P(x1, y1) with respect to the circle S  0 is S1  0.

PROOF Let AB be the chord of contact of P (see Fig. 3.10). Suppose A  (x2, y2) and B  (x3, y3). The
equation of the tangent at A(x2, y2) is S2  0.
This tangent passes through ( x1 , y1 ) S21 S12 . Therefore, the point A(x2, y2) satisfies
the first-degree equation S1  0. Similarly, S13  0 implies that the point B(x3, y3) satisfies the first-
degree equation S1  0. Hence, the equation of the chord AB is S1  0.

P (x
x1, y1) A

FIGURE 3.10

QUICK LOOK 5

The chord of contact AB of P is perpendicular to the line joining P with the centre of the circle (see Theorem 3.6).

T H E O R E M 3.13 The equation of the chord of the circle S  0 whose midpoint is M(x1, y1) is S1  S11 (see Fig. 3.11).

C (−g, −f )

A B
M (xx1, y1)

FIGURE 3.11
136 Chapter 3 Circle

PROOF Let C(−g, −f ) be the centre of the circle S y x2 y2 2gx 2fy c  0. Let M(x1, y1) be the
midpoint of the chord AB. Since AB is a chord perpendicular to CM, the equation of AB is
( 1 )( 1 ) ( 1 )( 1 )0
 xx1 yy1 gx fy  x12 y12 gx1 fy1
 xx1 yy1 g(x x1) f(y y1) c  x12 y12 2gx1 2fy1 c
 S1  S11

Subjective Problems (Sections 3.1 till 3.3)


1. If the circle S y x2 y2 2gx 2fy c  0 intersects the Solution: Let the circle intersect the line in A and B
x-axis in two points, then show that the length of the and M be the midpoint of AB. If C is the centre of the
circle (see Fig. 3.13) then p  CM. Using Pythagoras the-
intercept is 2 g 2 c.
orem, we have
Solution: Let the circle meet the x-axis in A(x1, 0) and A  2 r2
AB  2 AM p2
B(x2, 0) (see Fig. 3.12) so that x1, x2 are the roots of the
equation x2 2gx c  0 (since the x-axis equation is y  0).
Therefore
x1 x2  −2g and x1x2  c C
Hence r
p

(AB)2  (x1 − x2)2  (x1 x2)2 − 4x1x2  4g2 − 4c  4(g2 − c) A M B

 AB  2 g 2 c
FIGURE 3.13
Similarly, the length of the intercept made by the circle
3. Two rods of lengths 2a and 2b slide along the coor-
S  0 on y-axis is 2 f 2 c.
dinate axes such that their ends are always concyclic.
y Find the locus of the centre of the circle.
y

N P (h, k )

O A B x C

O A M B x
FIGURE 3.12

QUICK LOOK 6
FIGURE 3.14
1. x-axis touches the circle S  0 š g2  c.
y-axis touches the circle S  0 šf 2  c. Solution: P(h, k) is the centre of the circle passing
2. The circle S  0 touches both the axes šg2  c  through points A, B, C and D (Fig. 3.14) where AB  2a and
f2 š g c f . DC  2b. This implies and is implied by (š)
3. The equation of the circle, with radius a, which
touches both axes, is given by x2 y2 ± 2ax ± 2ay PA  PC  radiuss of the circle
a2  0 (one in each of the quadrants). š ( PA)2  ( PC )2
š ( AM )2 ( PM )2  ( PA)2  ( PC
P )2 N )2
( PN (CN )2
2. Find the length of the intercept on a straight line by a
circle with radius r and the length of the perpendicu- where M and N are the midpoints of AB and CD, respec-
lar from the centre of the circle onto the line being p. tively. From the above, we have
3.3 Classification of Points in a Plane w.r.t. a Circle in the Same Plane 137

6. Find the equation of the circle passing through the


a2 k 2  h2 b2
points P(−1, 2), Q(3, −2) and whose centre lies on
šk 2 2
h b 2
a 2 the line x  2y.

(h, k ) is y2
š Locus of (h x 2  b2 a2 Solution: Let S y x2 y2 2gx 2fy c  0 be the
required circle. Since its centre (−g, −f ) lies on the line
4. Find the equation of the circle passing through the x  2y, we have
points A(0, 1), B(2, 3) and C(−2, 5). g − 2f  0 (3.6)
Solution: Let S y x2 y2 2gx 2fy c  0 be the circle The circle passes through the points P(−1, 2) and
passing through points A, B and C. Therefore Q(3, −2). Hence
2f c 1 −2g 4f c  −5 (3.7)

4 g 6 f c  13 6g 4f c  −13 (3.8)
44 g 10 f 29 (3.5) Solving Eqs. (3.6), (3.7) and (3.8), we obtain g  −2, f 
−1 and c  −5. Therefore, the equation of the circle is
Solving the system of equations provided in Eq. (3.5), we
given by S y x2 y2 − 4x − 2y − 5  0.
get g  1/3, f  −10/3 and c  17/3 so that the equation of
the circle is
7. The line x  y is tangent at (0, 0) to a circle of radius 1.
2 20 17 Find the centre of the circle.
x2 y2 x y 0
3 3 3
Solution: Let C(x1, y1) be the centre of the circle (see
3xx 2 y2 2 x 220y
0 y 17 0 Fig. 3.16). The line joining C(x1, y1) and O(0, 0) is perpen-
dicular to the line y  x. Therefore
Note: Under the given hypothesis, to find the equation
of the circle, it is sufficient if we find its centre and radius y1
 1  y1 x1
or assume the circle as x2 y2 2gx 2fy c  0 and find x1
the values of g, f and c.
Hence
5. Find the equation of a circle with the centre at point
1
(6, 1) and touching the line 5x 12y − 3  0. 1  x12 y12  2x12  x1  p
2
Solution: Let A be (6, 1). Since the line 5x 12y − 3  0
touches the circle (say, at M as shown in Fig. 3.15), the 1
and y1  p
distance of the line from the centre is equal to the radius. 2
Therefore, the radius is given by
Therefore
5(6) 12(1) 3 39
r  3 ¥ 1 1 ´ ¥ 1 1 ´
52 12 2 12 (x1, y1)  ¦ ,
§ 2 µ¶ or ¦§ , µ
2 2 2¶
Therefore, the equation of the circle is (x − 6)2 (y − 1)2  9.
That is, x2 y2 − 12x − 2y 28  0.

1
A (6, 1)

r O (0, 0) y =x

FIGURE 3.16
M 5x + 12y − 3 = 0
8. Determine the position of the point (−1, −2) relative
FIGURE 3.15
to the circle S y x2 y2 4x 6y 9  0.
138 Chapter 3 Circle

Solution: We have Solution: The line lx my  1 touches the circle x2


y2  a2. This implies that the length of the perpendicular
S11  ( 1)2 ( 2)2 4( 1) 6( 2) 9 drawn from the centre (0, 0) onto the line is equal to the
 14 16  2 0 radius a. Therefore,
Therefore, by Theorem 3.9, the point (−1, −2) lies inside 1
the circle. a
l m2
2

9. From each point on the line 2x y − 4  0, a pair of 1


 l 2 m2 
tangents are drawn to the circle x2 y2  1. Prove that a2
the chords of contact pass through a fixed point.
Therefore, the point (l, m) lies on the circle x2 y2  1/ 2 .
Solution: Let P(x1, y1) be a point on the line 2x y −
4  0. Therefore
12. Show that the line 3x − 4y − 1  0 touches the circle
2x1 y1 − 4  0 (3.9) x2 y2 − 2x 4y 1  0 and find the coordinates of
By Theorem 3.12, the equation of the chord of contact of the point of contact.
(x1, y1) with respect to the circle
Solution: The centre of the circle is (1, −2) and its ra-
S y x2 y2 − 1  0 dius is 12 2 2 1 2. The distance of the line from the
is given by centre (1, −2) is given by
S1 y xx1 yy1 − 1  0 (3.10) 3(1) 4( 2) 1 10
 2
From Eq. (3.9), we get y1  4 − 2x1. Substituting the value 3 2
4 2 5
of y1 in Eq. (3.10), we have
which is equal to the radius of the circle. Therefore, the
(x − 2y)x1 + (4y − 1)  0
line touches the circle. Let (x1, y1) be the point of contact.
so that the line passes through the point of intersection That is, at (x1, y1), the line
of the lines x − 2y  0 and 4y − 1  0 which is given by
3x – 4y − 1  0 (3.11)
¥ 1 1´
, is the tangent. But, by Theorem 3.7, the equation of the
§ 2 4¶
tangent at (x1, y1) is
10. Find the equations of the tangent to the circle x2 S1 x 1 yy1 ( x x1 ) 2( y y1 ) 1  0
xx
y2  9 which is perpendicular to the line 2x 3y
That is,
7  0.
S1 ( x1 1) x ( y1 2) y x1 2 y1 1  0 (3.12)
Solution: Any line perpendicular to the line 2x 3y
7  0 is of the form 3x − 2y c  0. This line touches the Equations (3.11) and (3.12) represent the same straight
circle x2 y2  9 if and only if the perpendicular drawn line. Therefore,
onto the line 3x − 2y c  0 from the centre (0, 0) is equal x1 1 y1 2 x1 2 y1 1
to the radius 3. That is,   t( )
3 4 1
c Hence
3
32 22 x1 3t 1 y1 4t 2

Therefore and t  x1 2 y1 1  ( 3t 1) (8t 4) 1  11t 4


c  ±3 13 2
t
Hence, the equations of the required tangent are 5
3 x y 3 13  0 Therefore,

and 3 x y 3 13  0 6 1
x1 3t 1  1
5 5
11. If the line lx my  1 touches the circle x2 y2  a2, 8 2
then show that the point (l, m) lies on the circle and y1 4t 2  2 
2 5 5
x2 y2  / .
3.3 Classification of Points in a Plane w.r.t. a Circle in the Same Plane 139

Hence passing through the point (2, 3) is the circle x2 y2 −


2x − 3y  0.
¥ 1 2 ´ (IIT-JEE 1989)
( 1 , y1 ) ,
§ 5 5¶
Solution: Let M(h, k) be the foot of the perpendicular
13. Find the length of the chord of the circle x2 y2 − drawn from the origin O(0, 0) to a line passing through
10x − 20y − 44  0 on the line 3x − 4y  0. the point (2, 3) as shown in Fig. 3.18. Therefore, OM is the
perpendicular drawn to the line so that
Solution: C  (5, 10) is the centre and r  13 is the ra-
(Slope of OM ) (Slope of the line)  1
dius of the given circle. Suppose the line 3x − 4y  0 cuts
the circle at points A and B and M is the midpoint of AB ¥ k ´ ¥ k 3´
  1
(see Fig. 3.17). Therefore, CM is the perpendicular drawn § h¶ § h 2¶
to AB (see Theorem 3.5) which is given by  h(h 2) k(k 3)  0
3(5) 4(10) Therefore, the locus of the point (h, k) is x2 y2 − 2x −
CM  5
32 42 3y  0 which is equivalent to the circle described on the
line joining the points (0, 0) and (2, 3) as diameter.
Therefore,
AB  2 AM
y (2, 3)
2 2
 2 CA CM
M (h, k )
 2 1132 52  2 s 12  24

O x

C (5, 10)

90° 3x − 4y = 0 FIGURE 3.18


A M B
15. Find the equation of the circle passing through the
FIGURE 3.17 origin which is cutting the chord of equal length 2
on the lines y  x and y  −x.
Aliter: Put y  3x/4 in the equation of the circle so that
we have Solution: Let S y x2 y2 2gx 2fy c  0 be the re-
quired circle. Since it passes through the origin (0, 0), c  0.
9x2 ¥ 3x ´ Put y  x in S  0. Then x2 (g f )x  0. Therefore, x  0, x
x2 10 x 20 44  0
16 § 4¶  −(g f ) so that the points of intersection are A(0, 0) and
That is, B[−(f g), −(f g)]. Now

25 x 2
400 x 704  0 AB  2
 (5 x 8)(5 x 88) 0  f g  p1

Therefore, Similarly,

88 8 g − f  ±1
x ,
5 5 Therefore, the centres of circles are given by (1, 0), (−1,
Hence, the points are A  (88/5, 66/5) and B  (−8/5, −6/5) 0), (0, 1) and (0, −1) and the equations of the circle are
and the length is given by given by x2 y2 ± 2x  0 and x2 y2 ± 2y  0.

2 2 16. The angle between the pair of tangents from a point


¥ 88 8 ´ ¥ 66 6 ´
AB   576  24 P to the circle S y x2 y2 4x − 6y 9 4cos2 @  0
§ 5 5¶ § 5 5¶
is 2@. Show that the point P lies on the circle x2 y2
14. Show that the equation of the locus of the foot of the 4x − 6y 9  0 and hence find the equation of the
perpendicular drawn from the origin upon any line director circle of S  0.
140 Chapter 3 Circle

Solution: The centre of the circle S  0 is (−2, 3) and its Solution: Let S y x2 y2 − 2ax  0 and P  (h, k) be a
radius is 2sin @ (note that 2@ being the angle between point on S  0. Therefore
the tangents, we have 0  @  O/2). Let P  (h, k) as shown
in Fig. 3.19. Then h2 k 2 2ah
h 0 (3.13)
CT 2sin A Now, Q (h / 2, k / 2) is the centre of the circle drawn on
sin @  
CP 2 2 OP as the diameter. From Eq. (3.13), we have
( ) ( )
2 2
¥ h´ ¥ k´ ¥ h´
Therefore a 0
§ 2¶ § 2¶ § 2¶
(h 2)2 (k − 3)2  4
Therefore, the locus of Q is x2 y2 − ax  0.
Hence, (h, k) lies on the circle
(x 2)2 (y − 3)2  4 or x2 y2 4x − 6y 9  0 19. Find the point for which the line 9x y − 28  0 is the
chord of contact with respect to the circle 2x2 2y2 −
If @  O/4, then 2@  O/2 and therefore the equation of 3x 5y − 7  0.
the director circle of S y x2 y2 4x − 6y 11  0 is given
by x2 y2 4x − 6y 9  0. Solution: The given circle is
T 3 5 7
S x 2 y2 x y  0
2sin a 2 2 2
C (2, 3) Let P(x1, y1) be the point whose chord of contact with
respect to S  0 is
2sin a
a
9x y − 28  0 (3.14)
a
P T But, in fact, the chord of contact of P(x1, y1) with respect
to S  0 is given by
FIGURE 3.19
3 5 7
xx1 yy1 ( x x1 ) ( y y1 )  0
17. Prove that the locus of the point whose chord of con- 4 4 2
tact with respect to a circle subtends a right angle at That is,
the centre of the circle is its director circle.
( 1 ))x ( 1 ))yy 3 1 5 y1 14  0 (3.15)
Solution: P is a point and AB its chord of contact with Equations (3.14) and (3.15) represent the same line.
respect to a circle with centre C (see Fig. 3.20) such that Therefore,
BCA  90°. Since CA and CB are at right angles to the
tangents PA and PB, respectively. It follows that APB 4 x1 3 4 1 5 33 x1 5 y1 14
  t ( )
is a right-angled triangle. Hence, point P lies on the di- 9 1 28
rector circle of the given circle.
Hence
3 9t
x1 
4
t 5
B C and y1 
90° 4
so that
90°° ¥ 3 9t ´ ¥ t 5´
P A 28t  3 5 14
§ 4 ¶ § 4 ¶
FIGURE 3.20
 112t  99 2277t 5t 25 56
18. Point P is on the circle x2 y2 − 2ax  0. A circle is  90 90
drawn on OP as diameter where O is the origin. As
P moves on the circle, find the locus of the centre of t1
the circle.
3.3 Classification of Points in a Plane w.r.t. a Circle in the Same Plane 141

Therefore Since AOB  90°, from the above equation,


3 + 9t 12 Coefficient of x2 Coefficient of y2  0
x1   3
4 4
2 gh 2ch2 2 fk 2ck 2
t 5 4  1 1 0
and y1    1 (h 2 k 2 ) ( h 2 k 2 )2 (h 2 k 2 ) ( h 2 k 2 )2
4 4
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Hence, P  (3, −1).  2( ) 2( )( ) 2 ( )0

 h2 k 2 gh kf c  0
20. Show that the circle x2 y2 4x − 4y 4  0 touches
both axes and find the points of contact. Hence, the locus of (h, k) is given by

Solution: The centre is (−2, 2) and the radius is 2. The x2 y2 gx fy c  0


distance of the centre (−2, 2) from the coordinate axes is y
equal to 2. Hence, the circle touches both coordinate axes,
and the points of contact are given by (−2, 0) and (0, 2).
B N (h, k )
21. Find the equations of the circle touching both axes
90° A
and passing through the point (2, 1).
90°
Solution: Since the circle touches both axes and passes O x
through the point (2, 1), the centre of the circle must be
in the first quadrant. Hence, its equation should be of the
form x2 y2 − 2ax − 2ay a2  0. It passes through the
point (2, 1) which implies that FIGURE 3.21
5 4a 2a 2 0
23. Find the equation of the circle which touches the
 ( 1)( 5)  0
x-axis at (a, 0) and cuts of chord of length l on the
 1 5 positive y-axis. Determine the equation of the circle
The equations of the circle are x2 y2 − 2x − 2y 1  0 when a  12 and l  10.
and x2 y2 − 10x − 10y 25  0.
Solution: Let S y x2 y2 2gx 2fy c  0. Since the
22. The chords of the circle x2 y2
2gx 2fy 2c  0 circle touches x-axis (see Fig. 3.22), we have
subtend right angle at the origin. Show that the locus
of the foot of the perpendiculars from the origin to g2  c (Quick Look 6)
these chords is the circle x2 y2 gx fy c  0. Therefore

Solution: Let AB be a chord of the circle S y x2 y2 a2  c (Problem 1)


2gx 2fy 2c  0 subtending right angle at the origin Also l is the y-intercept. This implies that
( AOB  90°) and N(h, k) be the foot of the perpendicu-
lar drawn from the origin O to the chord AB (see Fig. 2 f2 cl ( )
3.21). Since the slope of ON is k/h, the equation of the
chord AB is l2
 f2 c
4
h
y k  ( x h)
k l2 l2
 f2  c  a2
hx ky  h2 k2 4 4

Therefore, the combined equation of the pair of lines


F E F E l2 4a 2
f p
OA and OB is given by 2
2
¥ hx ky ´ ¥ hx ky ´ Since the intercept is on the positive y-axis, we have
x2 y2 (2gx 2ffy) 2c 2 0
§ h2 k 2 ¶ § h k2 ¶
l2 a2
(by Theorem 2.33) f±
2
142 Chapter 3 Circle

Hence, the required equation of the circle is Since n ≠ 1, the locus is the circle (n2 − 1)(x2 y2)
2a(n2 1)x (n2 − 1)a2  0.
x2 y2 2ax
ax ( l 2 a2 )y a2  0
2 Note: In the above problem, if n  1, then the locus of P
¥ l 2 a2 ´ l 2 a2 is the perpendicular bisector of the segment AB .
 ( )2 ¦ y µ 
§ 2 ¶ 4
26. Prove that from a point (a, b) of the circle x(x − a)
y y(y − b)  0, two chords, each bisected by the x-axis,
Q can be drawn if and only if a2  8b2.

Solution: If P  (a, b), then the equation x(x − a) y(y


− b)  0 represents the circle with O and P as extremities
l
of a diameter (see Fig. 3.23). Let M(h, 0) be the midpoint
of a chord of the circle. Equation of this chord is

P a b
x
xh y( ) ( x h) ( y ) h2 ah
O A (a, 0) 2 2
(see Theorem 3.13)
That is,
FIGURE 3.22 ¥ a´ b ah
h x y h2
§ 2¶ 2 2
24. A point moves such that the length of the tangent
from it to the circle x2 y2 4x − 5y 6  0 is double This chord is passing through (a, b). This implies
the length of the tangent to the circle x2 y2  4.
¥ a´ b2 ah
Show that the locus is a circle. Find its centre and h a  h2
radius. § 2¶ 2 2
š 2 h a 2 b 2  2 h 2 ah
x2 y2
Solution: Let S y 4x − 5y 6  0 and Sa y x2
y2 − 4  0. Let P(x, y) be a point from which the tangent š 2 h2 3ah a 2 b2  0 (which has two distinct root
o s)
to S  0 is double the tangent to Sa  0. By hypothesis, 2 2 2
š9  8( )
2 2
S11 a
S11 (see Theorem 3.11) š a  8b
Therefore y

S11  4Sa11 P (a, b )

 x12 y12 4 x1 5 y1 6  4( x12 y12 4)


 3 x12 3 y12 4 x1 5 y1 22  0

Hence, the locus is a circle whose equation is given by O M x


3x2 3y2 − 4x 5y − 22  0.

25. If A and B are two fixed points and P is a variable


point such that PA:PB  n:1, then show that the locus FIGURE 3.23
of P is a circle if n ≠ 1.
27. Find the points on the line x − y 1  0, the tan-
Solution: Without loss of generality, we take A  (a, 0) gents from which to the circle x2 y2 − 3x  0 are of
and B(−a, 0). Let P be (x1, y1). So length 2.
PA  nPB Solution: Let P(x1, y1) be a point on the line x − y
š (PA)2  n2(PB)2 1  0 from which the length of the tangents to the
circle S y x2 y2 − 3x  0 is of length 2. Therefore
š( 1 )2 y12  n2 [( x1 a)2 2
1]
x1 y1 1 0 and S11  2
2 2 2 2
š( ))(( 1 1) a( ) x1 (n2 1)
1 2
0
x1 y1 1 0 a d x12 y12 3x
3 x1 4
3.3 Classification of Points in a Plane w.r.t. a Circle in the Same Plane 143

Therefore a( x12 y12 a 2 ) /2 3/ 2


aS11
 
x12 ( x1 1)2 3 x1  4 x12 y12 (OP )2
2 12 x1
 2x 30
B
 2 x12
2 x1 3x
2x 3 x1 3  0
 (2x
2 1 3)( x1 1) 0 a

Hence O (0, 0)
M
3 P (x1, y1) a
x1  1,
2
x1 y1  x1 1 A

1 0 FIGURE 3.24
3 5
2 2 29. Tangents are drawn to the circles x2 y2  a2 and x2
y2  b2 at right angles to one another. Find the locus
Therefore, the points on the line are given by (−1, 0) and of their point of intersection.
(3/2, 5/2).
Solution: Both circles are concentric at the origin (see
28. Show that the area of the triangle formed by the two Fig. 3.25). From the Note given under Theorem 3.8, the
tangents from (x1, y1) to the circle x2 y2  a2 and lines
their chord of contact is

a( x12 y12 a 2 )3 /2 y  mx a 1 m2
x12 y12 1 1
y x b a 2
m m
Solution: Let P  (x1, y1), O  (0, 0) and AB be the
are tangents to the given circles and are at right angles.
chord of contact (see Fig. 3.24). Suppose OP meets the
Therefore,
chord AB at point M so that AM  MD and OM is per-
pendicular to AB. The equation of chord AB is given by ( )2 ( )2  ( 2 2
)( 2
)
S1 y xx1 yy1 − a2  0 (see Theorem 3.12) ( 2 2
)( 2
) ( 2 2
)( 2
)
Therefore That is, x2 y2  a2 b2 is the required locus.
a2
OM 
x12 y12
and

a4 x12 y12 a 2 O (0, 0)


AM  OA2 OM 2  a 2 a
x12 y12 x12 y12

Also

x12 y12 a 2
PM 
x12 y12 P

x12 y12 a 2 FIGURE 3.25


 (& P lies outsidee thee circle)
x12 y12 Note: In the problem, if b  a, then the equation of the
Now, the area of $PAB is given by director circle of x2 y2  a2 is x2 y2  2a2.

1 a x12 y12 a 2 ( x12 y12 a 2 ) 30. Find the equations of the tangents to the circle x2
AB – PM  AM – PM  s y2 − 6x − 4y 5  0 which make an angle of 45° with
2 x12 y12 x12 y12 positive direction of the x-axis.
144 Chapter 3 Circle

Solution: In the circle S y x2 y2 − 6x − 4y 5  0, the 32. Find the equations of the tangents to the circle S y
centre is (3, 2) and radius is 2 2. The given line is x2 y2 8x 4y − 5  0 from the point (3, −3).
y  x c (& tan 45° 1)
Solution: The centre and the radius of the circle S  0
The line touches the given circle if and only if the dis- are (−4, −2) and 5, respectively. We have S11  32 (−3)2
tance of the line from the centre is equal to the radius. 8(3) 4(−3) − 5  25  0. Hence, (3, −3) is external to S
Therefore  0. Let y 3  m(x − 3) be a line passing through (3, −3).
3 2 c This line touches the circle S  0. This implies that
2 2
12 12 m( ) 2 3
2
5
 ( 1) 16 2
m 1
 1 4 ( m )2 25(m2 )
 3 5
 24 m2 14 m 24  0
Hence, the required equations of the tangents are x − y  12 m2 7 m 12 0
3  0 and x − y − 5  0. 2
 12 16 m 9 12 0
31. Prove that the tangent to the circle x2
 5 at the y2  4 (3 4) 3(3 4)  0
point (1, −2) also touches the circle x2 y2 − 8x − 6y − 4 3
20  0 and find the coordinates of the point of contact.   ,
3 4
Solution: Tangent to the circle S y x2 y2 − 5  0 at Therefore, the tangents from (3, −3) to the circle S  0
(−1, −2) is given by are

S1 x( 1) y( 2) 5 0 4
y 3 ( x 3)
S1 x 2y
2y 5  0 3
S1 x 2y 5  0 (3.16) 3
and y 3 ( x 3)
4
Now, this line [Eq. (3.16)] also touches the circle x2 y2
− 8x − 6y − 20  0. This implies that the distance of its That is,
centre (4, 3) from the line [Eq. (3.16)] is equal to the 4 x 3 y 21  0
radius 3 5. So
4y 3 0
3 x 4y
4 6 5
3 5 33. A circle passes through the points (−1, 1), (0, 6) and
12 22
(5, 5). On this circle, find the points at which the tan-
Hence, the tangent at (−1, −2) to x2 y2  5 also touches gents are parallel to the line joining origin to the cen-
the circle x2 y2 − 8x − 6y − 20  0 at say (x1, y1). But, the tre of the circle.
tangent at (x1, y1) is given by
Solution: Let S y x2 y2 2gx 2fy c  0 be the
xx1 yy1 4( x x1 ) 3( y y1 ) 20  0
circle passing through the points (−1, 1), (0, 6) and (5, 5).
 ( x1 4) x ( y1 3) y (4x
4 x1 3 y1 20)  0 Therefore,
x 4 y1 3 (4 x1 3 y1 20)
 1    t (say) 2 g 2 f c  2 º
1 2 5 ®
 x1  t 4 1 2t