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1. A tabular summary of a set of data showing the fraction of the total number of items in
several classes is a
A. frequency distribution C. frequency
B. relative frequency distribution D. cumulative frequency distribution

2. The nominal level of measurement is represented in which variable below?

A. fear of crime C. income
B. temperature D. gender

3. Ordinal scales have the property of:

A. Absolution C. ranking
B. metricity D. variability

4. From a sample of students in your statistics class, you collect the following: the student's
name, gender, age, and their grade in a freshman level math class. The variable
student's name is measured on which scale of measurement?
A. Nominal C. Interval
B. Ordinal D. Ratio

5. Temperature, in Fahrenheit, is an example of a variable measured on the following

A. Nominal C. Interval
B. Ordinal D. Ratio

6. Which type of measurement scale describes typical test scores ranging from 0-100?
A. Nominal C. Interval
B. Ordinal D. Ratio

7. The most frequently occurring value of a data set is called the

A. Range C. mean
B. mode D. median

8. In SPSS, what is the "Data Viewer"?

A. A table summarizing the frequencies of data for one variable.
B. A spreadsheet into which data can be entered.
C. A dialog box that allows you to choose a statistical test.
D. A screen in which variables can be defined and labeled.

9. How would you use the drop-down menus in SPSS to generate a frequency table?
A. Open the Output Viewer and click: Save As; Pie Chart
B. Click on: Analyze; Descriptive Statistics; Frequencies
C. Click on: Graphs; Frequencies; Pearson
D. Open the Variable Viewer and recode the value labels

10. In which sub-dialog box can the Chi Square test be found?
A. Frequencies: Percentages C. Bivariate: Pearson
B. Crosstabs: Statistics D. Gender: Female

11. To generate a Spearman's rho test, which set of instructions should you give SPSS?
A. Analyze; Crosstabs; Descriptive Statistics; Spearman; OK
B. Graphs; Frequencies; [select variables]; Spearman; OK
C. Analyze; Compare Means; Anova table; First layer; Spearman; OK
D. Analyze; Correlate; Bivariate; [select variables]; Spearman; OK

12. The average of all values.

A. Variance C. Mode
B. Mean D. Median

13. Which of the following is not a measure of central location?

A. Mean C. variance
B. median D. mode

14. If the variance of a data set is correctly computed with the formula using n - 1 in the
denominator, which of the following is true?
A. the data set is a sample
B. the data set is a population
C. the data set could be either a sample or a population
D. the data set is from a census

15. The mean of a sample is

A. always equal to the mean of the population
B. always smaller than the mean of the population
C. computed by summing the data values and dividing the sum by (n - 1)
D. computed by summing all the data values and dividing the sum by the number of

16. What is the range of the set of data?

A. 16 C. 15
B. 18 D. 17

17. What is the mode?

A. 97 C. 82
B. 87 D. 90
18. What is the median?
A. 88 C. 87
B. 90 D. 91

19. What is the mean?

A. 82. 73 C. 80.73
B. 83. 73 D. 82.73

20. If a data set has an even number of observations, the median

A. cannot be determined
B. is the average value of the two middle items
C. must be equal to the mean
D. is the average value of the two middle items when all items are arranged in
ascending order

21. How is a variable name different from a variable label?

A. It is shorter and less detailed.
B. It is longer and more detailed.
C. It is abstract and unspecific.
D. It refers to codes rather than variables.

22. Standard deviation is used to:

A. Indicate the spread of values around the mean.
B. Work out the significance of any difference between two sets of data.
C. Identify the 68% of values that are significant.
D. Determine the average of a set of data.

23. The measure of dispersion that is influenced most by extreme values is

A. the variance C. the range
B. the standard deviation D. the interquartile range

24. Smaller p-values indicate more evidence in support of:

A. the null hypothesis C. the quality of the researcher
B. the alternative hypothesis D. further testing

25. A p-value is considered “convincing” if it is:

A. less than 0.01 C. 0.05 and 0.10
B. between 0.01 and 0.05 D. greater than 0.10

26. Which of these statements about the use of the t-test is not correct?
A. The data must have a normal distribution.
B. The sample size must be at least 10.
C. The test can be used to compare two sets of data.
D. The test is used to calculate the mean and standard deviation of a set of values.
27. The following are true statements about non-parametric tests except:
A. they can be sued on small samples
B. they can be used to analyze samples that are normally distributed
C. Student's paired t-test is a non-parametric test
D. they can be applied to ordinal data

28. Non-parametric tests include the following except:

A. Student's t-test C. Wilcoxon signed rank test
B. Chi-squared test D. Mann-Whitney U test.

29. Bob, believes that his supermarket's prices are lower than mine. We construct a list of
identical items and purchase them at our respective stores every week for two months.
Then Bob wants to know if his hypothesis is supported.
A. Paired samples t test C. One sample t test
B. Independent samples t test D. Correlation analysis

30. If I want to compare the performance of a particular group to an established,

accepted average but information about the population standard deviation is not
available. I should
A. Conclude that this cannot be C. Conduct a one-sample z-test.
done. D. Conduct a correlated t -test.
B. Conduct a one-sample t-test.

For items 31-32

31. How would you interpret the p value?

A. The result is significant at 1% level
B. The result is significant at 5% level
C. The result is significant at 10% level
D. The result is not significant

32. Draw a conclusion.

A. Sales before is significantly higher C. Sales before and after were equal
B. Sales after is significantly higher D. There’s no difference between the sales
For item 33

33. A test of normality is shown above. What can you conclude?

A. The data is normally distributed C. The data is right skewed
B. The data is not normally distributed D. The data is left skewed

34. What is an outlier?

A. A type of variable that cannot be quantified
B. A compulsive liar who is proud to be gay
C. A score that is left out of the analysis because of missing data
D. An extreme value at either end of a distribution
35. If the regression equation is equal to Y=23.6–54.2X, then 23.6 is the ______ while -54.2 is
the ____ of the regression line.
A. Slope, intercept C. Slope, regression coefficient
B. Intercept, slope D. Radius, intercept

36. A regression model in which more than one independent variable is used to predict the
dependent variable is called
A. a simple linear regression model C. an independent model
B. a multiple regression model D. none of these

37. A term used to describe the case when the independent variables in a multiple
regression model are correlated is
A. Regression C. multicollinearity
B. correlation D. heteroscedasticity

38. The existence of a correlation between two variables tells us that:

A. One variable has caused a change in the other.
B. A scientific experiment has been carried out.
C. There may be a relationship between the two variables.
D. As one variable increases, the other decreases.

39. The best fitting trend is one for which the sum of squares of error is
A. Zero C. Maximum
B. Minimum D. Infinite

40. In binomial logistic regression the dependent (or criterion) variable:

A. is a random variable
B. Is like the median and is split the data into two equal halves.
C. Consists of two categories.
D. Is expressed in bits.

41. . Which analysis is appropriate if the dependent variable is categorical?

A. Logistic Regression C. Multinomial Regression
B. Poission Regression D. Ordinal Logistic Regression

42. Which analysis is appropriate if the dependent variable is dichotomous?

A. Logistic Regression C. Multinomial Regression
B. Poission Regression D. Ordinal Logistic Regression

43. If there were a perfect positive correlation between two interval/ratio variables, the
Pearson's r test would give a correlation coefficient of:
A. - 0.328 C. +0.328
B. +1 D. – 1

44. If two variables oppose each other then the correlation will be:
A. Positive Correlation C. Perfect Correlation
B. Zero Correlation D. Negative Correlation

45. If X and Y are independent to each other, the Coefficient of Correlation is

A. -1 C. +1
B. 0 D. 0.001

46. If all the values fall on the same straight line and the line has a positive slope then what
will be the value of the Correlation coefficient ‘r’:
A. 0≤r≤1 C. r=+1
B. r≥0 D. r=−1

47. If the scatter diagram is drawn the scatter points lie on a straight line then it indicate
A. Skewness C. No correlation
B. Perfect correlation D. Normal distribution

48. What does a beta of 0.478 mean?

A. This means that for every unit increase in your independent variable, your dependent
variable increases by 0.478 units
B. That the regression is not significant
C. That the relationship between the independent and dependent variables is not linear
D. That there is no predictive power in your independent variable

For items 49 -51

49. . Which of the following variable has a significant relationship with the total score?
A. Age C. Weekly allowance
B. Sex D. Mother’s education

50. . Which of the following is true:

A. The higher the educational attainment of the father, the lower the score.
B. As weekly allowance increases, total score increases.
C. Those who are in their lower year earned high scores.
D. Business students has higher scores than those who are not.

51. Which variable is least significant?

A. Weekly allowance C. Mother’s education
B. Father’s education D. Age

For items 52 - 53

52. Which of the following is true?

A. There is a significant relationship between risk diversification and interest.
B. There is a significant relationship between risk diversification and inflation.
C. There is a significant relationship between interest and inflation.
D. All the variables are highly correlated.

53. Knowledge about risk diversification if predicted by the knowledge in __________.

A. Interest C. Both interest and inflation
B. Inflation D. Neither interest nor inflation

54. Like linear regression logistic regression

A. Has one or more independent variables.
B. provides a value directly from an equation for the dependent variable
C. Uses the same method to estimate b weights.
D. Has a dependent variable.

55. It refers to the process of determining the distribution of cases or respondents under
given categories of information/responses and measuring of trends and patterns
observed on the data.
A. Interpretation C. Data analysis
B. Data collection D. Instrumentation

56. In a sample of 800 students in a university, 160, or 20%, are Business majors. Based on
the above information, the school's paper reported that "20% of all the students at the
university are Business majors." This report is an example of
A. a sample C. statistical inference
B. a population D. descriptive statistics

57. What is the purpose of the conclusion in a research report?

A. It just a summary what the article already said.
B. It summarizes the key findings in relation to the research questions.
C. It contains a useful review of the relevant literature.
D. It outlines the methodological procedures that were employed.

58. In statistical analysis, the burden of proof lies traditionally with:

A. the alternative hypothesis C. the analyst
B. the null hypothesis D. the facts

59. A hypothesis test is done in which the alternative hypothesis is that more than 10% of a
population is left-handed. The p-value for the test is calculated to be 0.25. Which
statement is correct?
A. We can conclude that more than 10% of the population is left-handed.
B. We can conclude that more than 25% of the population is left-handed.
C. We can conclude that exactly 25% of the population is left-handed.
D. We cannot conclude that more than 10% of the population is left-handed.
60. A result is called “statistically significant” whenever
A. The null hypothesis is true.
B. The alternative hypothesis is true.
C. The p-value is less or equal to the significance level.
D. The p-value is larger than the significance level.

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