Evaluati on of the Wireless OSPF Routing Protocol

January

2008
WOSPF

[The goal of this project is to evaluate by

simulation the WOSFP extension. We had used the NS “Network Simulator” for that purpose and had compared different ad hoc routing protocols.]

Imam Muhammad Bin Saud Islamic University
College of Computer & Information Sciences

Department of Computer Science Graduation Project
Evaluation of the Wireless OSPF Routing Protocol

Ayoob Ibraheem Al Ali
Supervisor: Dr.Miled Tezeghdanti

2008
Evaluation of the Wireless OSPF Routing Protocol
Ayoob Al Ali (2311044)
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Jan 2008 Ayoob.ali@gmail.com

This report is submitted in partial fulfilment on the requirements for the degree of BSc Honours in College of Computer & Information Sciences Department of Computer Science at Imam Muhammad Bin Saud Islamic University, Saudi Arabia.

ABSTRACT
Routing in an Ad Hoc network is always a hot research topic and still an open issue. Many ad hoc routing protocols had been proposed by the network community and still no agreement on a giving solution as it is the case for wired networks. Recently, Boeing and Cisco had proposed the extension of the well known OSPF “Open Shortest

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Path First” routing protocol for the wireless word. The proposal suggests an optimization of the OSPF flooding mechanism for wireless networks. The goal of this project is to evaluate by simulation this extension. We had used the NS “Network Simulator” for that purpose and had compared different ad hoc routing protocols.

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Acknowledgements
I would like to thank Dr.Miled, my project supervisor, who allowed me to study, explore, and implement this really interesting project. I am also grateful to people who helped me through in one way or another, as: Dr.Humayun Bakht at Liverpool John Moores University, who provide me a good information about Ad Hoc networks. All people on the NS-2 mailing list, especially Mathieu Gallissot. Thanks also go to all open source software developers.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
ABSTRACT..................................................... ..................................4 Acknowledgements....................................................................... ......5 Chapter 1 Introduction................................................... .....................8 1. 1 Overview.................................................................... ............8 1.2 Problem statement.................................................. .................8 1.3 Project Goals...................................................... .....................9 1.4 Chapters’ Overview.................................................... .............9 Chapter 2 Wireless Networks..................................................... .......10 2.1 Definition.................................................... .............................10 2.2 Wireless types....................................................................... ....10 2.2.1 Infrastructure................................... ...................................10 2.2.2 Ad Hoc.................................................................. ..............11 Chapter 3 Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks.............................15 3.1 Introduction............................................................................. ....15 3.2 Ad Hoc Routing Protocols................................................ ........16 3.2.1 Proactive Protocols............................................ ..............16 3.2.2 Reactive Protocols......................................... ..................20 3.2.3 Hybrids Protocols....................................... .....................24 Chapter 4 WOSPF............................................................................ .25 4.1 Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)................................... ........25 4.1.3 OSPF Standard Header....................................... .............27 4.2 WOSPF Overview....................................................... ..........29 Chapter 5 Implementation............................................................. ....32 5.1 Network Simulator (NS2).....................................................32 5.2 Simulation Scenario and results............................................33 5.2.1 First Scenario:................................................................ ..34 5.2.2 Second Scenario:.................................... .........................35 5.2.3 Third Scenario:............................................ ....................36 5.2.4 Fourth Scenario:................................. .............................38 5.2.5 Fifth Scenario:.......................................... .......................39 5.2.6 Sixth Scenario:................................................................41 5.2.7 Scenario Visualization............................. ........................43 Chapter 6 Conclusion and Future Works.......................................... .45 References:.................................................... ...................................47 List of symbols and/or abbreviations................................................48 Evaluation of the WOSPF Page 6

List of Figures
Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure 1: Example of infrastructures mode (Access Point)........................................ ............10 2: Example of Ad Hoc networks................................................................... ..............11 3: Example of hidden terminal problem..................................................................... .12 4: A Request To Send (RTS) and Clear To Send (CTS) scheme. [3]...........................13 5: Example of DSDV (1).......................................................................... ..................17 6: Example of DSDV (2).......................................................................... ..................17 7: Example of AODV route discovery........................................................... .............21 8: flooding in a wireless network......................................................................... .......29 9: Wireless network with an optimized flooding scheme.................................... ........29 10: before and after implement AOR................................................................ ..........30 11: description of NS-2 (merge between C++ and OTCL).........................................31 12: packets received and packet lost.............................................................. .............33 13: CPU utilization Figure 14: Traffic engineering............................ ......................33 15 :packets received and packet lost.............................................................. .............34 16: CPU utilization Figure 17: Traffic engineering............................ ......................35 18: packets received and packet lost.............................................................. .............36 19: CPU utilization Figure 20: Traffic engineering............................ ......................36 21: packets received and packet lost.............................................................. .............37 22: CPU utilization Figure 23: Traffic engineering............................ ......................37 24: packets received and packet lost.............................................................. .............38 25: CPU utilization Figure 26: Traffic engineering........................... ........................39 27: packets received and packet lost.............................................................. .............40 28-a: CPU utilizationFigure 28-b: Traffic engineering.......................... ....................40 29: scenario of 6 nodes send from node 0 to 5.................................................... ........41 30: scenario of 30 nodes send from node 0 to 5................................................. .........41 31: scenario of 30 nodes randomly motion.................................................. ...............42

Chapter 1Introduction  1 Overview
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In a world of increasing mobility, there is a growing need for people to communicate with each other and have timely access to information regardless of the location of the individuals or the information. A phone call placed from a commuter train may close a business deal, remote access to medical records by a paramedic may save a life, or a request for reconnaissance updates by a soldier with a hand held device may affect the outcome of a battle. Each of these instances of mobile communications poses an engineering challenge that can be met only with an efficient, reliable, wireless communication network. The demand for wireless communication systems of increasing sophistication and ubiquity has led to the need for a better understanding of fundamental issues in communication theory and electro magnetic and their implications for the design of highly-capable wireless systems [1]. Wireless connectivity gives users the freedom of movement they desire. Most of the wireless networks required an underlying architecture of fixed position: this architecture in called infrastructure mode. That's means, mobile nodes communicate directly with access points. In contrast way, the mobile nodes create underlying architecture for communication between nodes: this architecture is called ad hoc mode.

1.2 Problem statement
Routing in an Ad Hoc network is always a hot research topic and still an open issue. Many ad hoc routing protocols had been proposed by the network community and still no agreement on a giving solution as it is the case for wired networks. Recently, Boeing and Cisco had proposed the extension of the well known OSPF “Open Shortest Path First” routing protocol for the wireless word. The proposal suggests an optimization of the OSPF flooding mechanism for wireless networks. The goal of this project is the evaluation by simulation this extension.

1.3 Project Goals
 Study OSPF protocol.

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 

Study wireless extensions of the OSPF protocol. Evaluate by simulation using NS “Network Simulator” the optimization of OSPF for wireless networks.

Compare WOSPF with some well known ad hoc routing protocols.

1.4

Chapters’ Overview

Chapter 2 Wireless Networks is an overview of wireless technologies and issues related to computer network. Chapter 3 Routing in Ad Hoc outlines about some approaches in MANET routing protocols. Chapter 4 WOSPF describes the extensions to OSPFv2 needed to support mobile ad hoc networking. Chapter 5 Implementation describes our scenarios, simulations and results over some protocols. Chapter 6 Conclusions and Future Work Conclusions on the implementation and suggestions for future work.

Chapter 2Wireless Networks 2.1 Definition
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Wireless is a term used to describe telecommunications in which electromagnetic waves (rather than some form of wire) carry the signal over part or all of the communication path. Some monitoring devices, such as intrusion alarms, employ acoustic waves at frequencies above the range of human hearing; these are also sometimes classified as wireless.

2.2 Wireless types
Wireless networks can operate in two modes: • Infrastructure • Ad hoc

2.2.1 Infrastructure
These networks are characterized by their use of access points (AP), or base stations. In addition to acting as a router within the network, an access point can also act as a bridge connecting, for example, the wireless network to a wired network. GSM, and its 3G counter part UMTS, are examples of well known cellular networks. Centralized routing and resource management by an AP implies less complexity than distributed routing. An AP, as opposed to individual nodes, usually possess more information about the network, and is therefore able to make intelligent routing decisions.

Figure 1: Example of infrastructures mode (Access Point).

2.2.2 Ad Hoc
Ad hoc is a Latin phrase which means "for this purpose". It generally signifies a solution that has been custom designed for a specific problem ht is non-generalizable and cannot be adapted to other purposes [11].

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2.2.2.1 MANET
MANET is abbreviation of (Mobile Ad Hoc Network), that’s means a collection of mobile nodes forming short live or temporary networks without the aid of any centralized structure. All nodes are capable of movement and are connected dynamically. In this type of network there is no base station that acts as a router, instead each node functions as a router, forwarding data for other nodes. Due to the recent advancements and commercial growth in wireless communication technology, MANET is expected to be very useful for the deployment of temporary networks in emergency situations such as fire, safety, rescue operations, meetings or conventions in which persons wish to quickly share information, and data acquisition operations using autonomous vehicles. The main challenge of MANET is that the connections between the nodes within the network are continuously changing. Thus routing protocols must be adaptive and fast enough to maintain routes in spite of the changing network topology.

Figure 2: Example of Ad Hoc networks.

2.2.2.2 Importance of Ad Hoc Networks
Ad-hoc networks are expected to play an important role in future commercial and military setting where mobile access to a wired network is either ineffective or impossible. Potential applications for this class of network include instant network infrastructure to support collaborative computing in temporary or mobile

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environments, emergency rescue networks in disaster, remote control of electrical appliance, emergency medical situations , communication systems for ITS such as IVC (Inter-Vehicle Communications) , and mobile access to the global Internet. Furthermore, ad-hoc networks have the potential to serve as a ubiquitous wireless infrastructure capable of interconnecting many thousands of devices with a wide range of capabilities and uses. In order to achieve this status, however, ad-hoc networks must evolve to support large numbers of heterogeneous systems with a wide range of application requirements.

2.2.2.3 Issues and Problems in Ad Hoc Networks:
 Hidden Terminal Problems
In our figure 3 we see the node B is in range of A and C, but A cannot detect C, and C cannot detect A.

Figure 3: Example of hidden terminal problem.

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The typical solution for this so-called “Hidden terminal” problem is that the nodes coordinate transmissions themselves by asking and granting permission to send and receive packets. This scheme is often called RTS/CTS (Request To Send/Clear To Send). The basic idea is to capture the channel by notifying other nodes about an upcoming transmission. This is done by stimulating the receiving node to output a short frame so that nearby nodes can detect that a transmission is going to take place. The nearby nodes are then expected to avoid transmitting for the duration of the upcoming (large) data frame. The scheme is illustrated in Figure 4.

Figure 4: A Request To Send (RTS) and Clear To Send (CTS) scheme. First, A and C each transmit a packet simultaneously, causing a packet collision at B. Then A retransmits the packet before C does, thus capturing the channel. [3]

 security
As we know the signal is diffused in the air, then everybody is able to receive it. At present MANET do not have any stick security policy. This could possibly lead active attackers to easily exploit or possibly disable mobile ad hoc network. By the nature Mobile ad hoc networks are highly dynamic i.e. topology changes and link breakage happen quite frequently. We need a security solution which is dynamic too. [6]

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Chapter 3 Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
MANETs are a subset of wireless networks, as they can be viewed as wireless networks not dependent on existing infrastructure. An overview of routing in MANETs is given in this chapter, with some details to the most prominent MANET routing protocols.

3.1 Introduction
The routing is the process that selects paths in a computer network along which to send data.In infrastructure mode, the routing part is handled by the access point and the distribution system; every wireless device just has to forward all its traffic to this access point. But, in Ad Hoc networks, there is no centralises for connections, and, every device acts as a router. This scenario is totally new. Adding to this, devices are not fixed, they can be mobile, contrary to the Internet where every router has “fixed” neighbours (excepts if a link goes down). For solving this problem, the IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force), powerful standardisation authority in the communication world, created the MANET work group. This group has a mission to create and discuss routing protocols for Ad Hoc networks. This task is very important, due to the complexity of routing on Ad Hoc networks. The work started in January 1999, with the publication of the informational RFC 2501. This document presents the 4 main constraints for routing on Ad Hoc networks, such as dynamics topology, bandwidth constraints, energy constraints and low physical security. The group has then to comply with these constraints in order to build an efficient algorithm of route calculation. [2]

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3.2 Ad Hoc Routing Protocols
There are three classifications of Ad hoc routing protocols, more details in the follow subsections.

 Proactive
The basic manner that the routing table is built before the data has to be sent. That means these protocols are constantly making requests to their neighbours (if any) in order to draw a network topology, and then, build the routing table.

 Reactive
Reactive protocols are more specific to Ad Hoc networks. Contrary to the proactive algorithm, they ask their neighbours for a route when they have data to send. If the neighbours do not have any known route, they broadcast the request, and so on.

 Hybrids
A Hybrid protocols will use the two above algorithms. The main goal is to reduce broadcasts and latency, but improve the dynamism impact. The whole network will be separated into logical zones, and each zone will have a gateway. Inside each zone, a reactive protocol will be used. For inter-zone routing, a proactive protocol will be used.

3.2.1 Proactive Protocols
As proactive protocols are constantly updating their routing tables in order to be ready when data has to be sent, they are called table-driven protocols. This type of protocol is close to wired networks where the same mechanisms are used in order to take routing decisions. These mechanisms are used for finding the shortest path across the network topology; it can be the “Link state” method or the “Distance Vector” method. With the “Link State” method, each node has its own view of the network, including the states of its own channels. When an event on the channel occurs, the node floods the network topology with its own new view of the topology. Other nodes which receive this information use algorithms to reflect changes on the network table.

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With the “Distance Vector” routing approach, each node transmits to its close nodes its vision of the distance which separate it from all the hosts of the network. Based on the information received by the neighbourhood, each node performs a calculation in order to define routing tables with the shortest path to all destinations available in the network.

3.2.1.1 Destination Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV)
DSDV was one of the first proactive routing protocols available for Ad Hoc networks. It was developed by C. Perkins in 1994, 5 years before the informational RFC of the MANET group. It has not been standardised by any regulation authorities but is still a reference.

3.2.1.1.1

Algorithm

DSDV is based on the Bellman-Ford algorithm. First designed for graph search applications, this algorithm is also used for routing since it is the one used by RIP. With DSDV, each routing table will contain all available destinations, with the associated next hop, the associated metric (numbers of hops), and a sequence number originated by the destination node. Tables are updated in the topology per exchange between nodes. Each node will broadcast to its neighbours entries in its table. This exchange of entries can be made by dumping the whole routing table, or by performing an incremental update, that means exchanging just recently updated routes. Nodes who receive this data can then update their tables if they received a better route, or a new one. Updates are performed on a regular basis, and are instantly scheduled if a new event is detected in the topology. If there are frequent changes in topology, full table exchange will be preferred whereas in a stable topology, incremental updates will cause less traffic. The route selection is performed on the metric and sequence number criteria. The sequence number is a time indication sent by the destination node. It allows the table update process, as if two identical routes are known, the one with the best sequence number is kept and used, while the other is destroyed (considered as a stale entry).

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3.2.1.1.2

Illustration

Let us consider the two following topologies (figure 5 and figure 6). At t=0, the network is organized as shows figure 5. We suppose at this time the network is stable, each node has a correct routing table of all destinations.

Figure 5: Example of DSDV (1)

Then, we suppose G is moving, and at t+1, the topology is as shown in figure 6.

Figure 6: Example of DSDV (2) At this stage, the following events are detected, and actions are taken: On node C: link with G is broken, the route entry is deleted, and updates are sent to node D. On node A and F, a new link is detected, the new entry is added to the routing table and updates are sent to neighbours. On node G, two new links are detected (to A and F), and one is broken (to C), the routing table is updated and a full dump is sent to neighbours (as the routing table is entirely changed, a full dump equals an incremental update).

3.2.1.1.3

Performance

As with every table-driven protocol, DSDV reduces the latency by having a route when the data has to be sent. But, DSDV presents a few problems, mainly in the route table update process. One of the major problems is that data is exchanged only between neighbours, and then, a change in the topology can take time to be spread in the whole topology. That introduces the notion of route fluctuation. When a node disappears, it takes time for this change to be reflected in the whole topology. So, if the topology is dynamic, the routing layer will be unstable until changes are reflected everywhere. This route fluctuation problem can be demonstrated with the example in 3.2.1.1.2. Updates are sent after events, links broken and new links. At t+1, the routing protocol

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will transmit routing table updates according to the newly detected events. But, once these updates are processed by nodes D, B and E, nodes C and D still have no routes for G, and it will take two more updates until the entire topology will be updated on all nodes.

3.2.1.2 Optimized Linked State Routing (OLSR)
OLSR is another proactive protocol. Initiated by the INRIA, It has been proposed for standardisation to the IETF with the RFC 3626 in October 2003. As a proactive protocol (table driven), OLSR is table-driven. The change comparing to other proactive protocols is in the route updating process. [12]

3.2.1.3 Fisheye State Routing (FSR)
The FSR protocol is based on the “Fisheye” method proposed by Kleinrock and Stevens. This method was, as the Bellman-Ford algorithm, primarily designed for graph processing, in particular, the amount of data needed for drawing a graph. For routing, the fisheye approach tends to rely on the accuracy of routing tables. This means that on nearest nodes, the routing information will be much more accurate than for far nodes. This accuracy is represented by the amount of information exchanged and the time interval they are exchanged over.

3.2.1.4

Hierarchical State Routing (HSR)

HSR is a proactive routing protocol introducing a notion of hierarchy. It uses dynamic groups, hierarchic levels with an efficient management of localisation. With HSR, the topology of the network is saved on a hierarchic basis, and, the network is split into subsets, or groups. In each group, a node must be elected for representing other nodes. This representative node will be part of the higher level group, and then, must elect again another representative. The routing decision is taken using nodes’ addresses. The address scheme must be also hierarchic, following the same tree as the topology.

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3.2.1.5

Distance Routing Effect Algorithm for Mobility (DREAM)

DREAM is based on the localisation of mobile nodes, and introduces a notion of geography. Each node knows approximately its localisation in the topology. When data has to be sent, and the sender knows approximately the localisation of the destination, it broadcasts the packet in the destination direction. Otherwise, the packet is simply broadcast on the whole topology. In order to localise properly each node in the network, “TOPOLOGY CONTROL” packets with localisation information are broadcasted regularly.

3.2.2 Reactive Protocols
As covered in chapter 3.2.1, proactive protocols define a best path through the topology for every available node. This route is saved even if not used. Permanently saving routes cause a high traffic control on the topology, in particular in networks with a high number of nodes. Reactive protocols are the most advanced design proposed for routing on Ad Hoc networks. They define and maintain routes depending on needs. There are different approaches for that, but most are using a backward learning mechanism or a source routing mechanism.

3.2.2.1Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV)
AODV was proposed to standardisation by the RFC 3561 in July 2003. It was designed by the same people who designed DSDV. AODV is a distance vector routing protocol, which means routing decisions will be taken depending on the number of hops to destination. A particularity of this network is to support both multicast and unicast routing.

3.2.2.1.1Algorithm
The AODV algorithm is inspired from the Bellman-Ford algorithm like DSDV. The principal change is to be On Demand. The node will be silent while it does not have data to send. Then, if the upper layer is requesting a route for a packet, a “ROUTE

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REQUEST” packet will be sent to the direct neighbourhood. If a neighbour has a route corresponding to the request, a packet “ROUTE REPLY” will be returned. This packet is like a “use me” answer. Otherwise, each neighbour will forward the “ROUTE REQUEST” to their own neighbourhood, except for the originator and increment the hop value in the packet data. They also use this packet for building a reverse route entry (to the originator). This process occurs until a route has been found. Another part of this algorithm is the route maintenance. While a neighbour is no longer available, if it was a hop for a route, this route is not valid anymore. AODV uses “HELLO” packets on a regular basis to check if they are active neighbours. Active neighbours are the ones used during a previous route discovery process. If there is no response to the “HELLO” packet sent to a node, then, the originator deletes all associated routes in its routing table. “HELLO” packets are similar to ping requests. While transmitting, if a link is broken (a station did not receive acknowledgment from the layer 2), a “ROUTE ERROR” packet is unicast to all previous forwarders and to the sender of the packet.

3.2.2.1.2Illustration

Figure 7: Example of AODV route discovery

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In the example illustrated by figure 7, A needs to send a packet to I. A “ROUTE REQUEST” packet will be generated and sent to B and D (a). B and D add A in their routing table, as a reverse route, and forward the “ROUTE REQUEST” packet to their neighbours (b). B and D ignored the packet they exchanged each others (as duplicates). The forwarding process continues while no route is known (c). Once that receives the “ROUTE REQUEST” from G (d), it generates the “ROUTE REPLY” packet and sends it to the node it received from. Duplicate packets continue to be ignored while the “ROUTE REPLY” packet goes on the shortest way to A, using previously established reverse routes (e and f). The reverse routes created by the other nodes that have not been used for the “ROUTE REPLY” are deleted after a delay. G and D will add the route to I once they receive the “ROUTE REPLY” packet.

3.2.2.2Dynamic Source Routing (DSR)
As a reactive protocol, DSR has some similitude with AODV. Thus, the difference with AODV is that DSR focuses on the source routing rather than on exchanging tables [7].

3.2.2.3Temporally-Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA)
This protocol has been made for reducing the impact of mobility in Ad Hoc networks. For reducing this impact, each node is learning more than one route for each destination. By this way, if links are broken, the impact is minimal, only a few routes will be broken. Another characteristic of this protocol is that control messages are only concerned with nodes near the event source of these messages. For example, if a link is broken, the broadcast concerning this event will not be relayed on the whole topology. In this protocol, using the shortest path is not the most important, as using the longest path avoids traffic and latency related to the route discovery process. TORA also uses Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG), using the direction of the node for the broadcasting process.

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3.2.2.4Relative Distance Micro-discovery Ad Hoc Routing (RDMAR)
RDMAR has been made in order to reduce the amount of control traffic caused by quick topology changes. This protocol uses a new way to discover routes, called Relative Distance Micro-discover (RDM). The idea of RDM is to rely on the fact that broadcast messages can be based on a relative distance (RD) between two nodes. An algorithm is used for estimating the distance between two nodes, using information about node mobility, time past between the last communication and the last value of the RD. Based on this new RD, flooding can be made only in the direction where the node might be found.

3.2.3Hybrids Protocols
A routing protocol is proactive when it continually maintains its routing table. By this way, routes are available when needed. Reactive protocol starts a route discovery process when data has to be sent. The advantage of a proactive protocol is that when a datagram must be sent, the route is already available, so, the processing time to find a route in the routing table is not important. Reactive protocols require much more time for finding a route as they are “On Demand”. But, in an Ad Hoc environment, nodes are willing to move, and then, it reflects frequent changes in the topology. In such an environment, reactive protocols are much more reliable and efficient as proactive protocol will require exchanging a lot of data. Hybrid protocols tend to merge advantages of reactive and proactive protocols. Their aim is to use an “On Demand” route discovery system, but, with a limited research cost.

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Chapter 4WOSPF
This chapter describes the extensions to OSPFv2 [4] needed to support mobile ad hoc networking. The extensions are based on the ideas proposed in Cisco’s Internet-draft [8] proposing a MANET extension to OSPFv3. Throughout this thesis, the term “Cisco’s draft” will refer to [8]. Before describes the WOSPF, I Make some important details to understand the OSPF protocol.

4.1Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)
OSPF is a very comprehensive and complex routing protocol, and has implemented several extensions to adapt to different network types. This section describes a selected OSPF relevant to the wireless extensions described in this chapter. Which is OSPFv2 (described in RFC 2328).

4.1.1 Overview
OSPF is a link-state (LS) routing protocol. Each router running OSPF maintains a database describing the Autonomous System's (AS) topology. The database is referred to as the Link-State database (LS-database). All routers run the same algorithm in parallel. From the LS-database each router constructs a tree of shortest path to the rest of the network with itself as a root. Each router distributes its local state throughout the AS by flooding. OSPF routes IP packets based solely on the destination IP address; they are routed "as-is", then, they are not encapsulated in any further protocol headers. When several equal-cost routes to a destination exist, traffic is distributed equally among them. The cost of a route is described by a simple dimensionless metric. OSPF allows sets of networks to be grouped together on areas. The topology of an area is hidden from the rest of the AS. All OSPF protocol exchanges are authenticated. Externally derived routing data is advertised throughout the AS.Two routers that have interfaces to a common network are called neighboring routers. These routers form relationships between them called adjacencies. The adjacencies are formed to exchange routing information.The unit of information describing the local state of a router is

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called a Link-State Advertisement (LSA). These advertisements are flooded throughout the routing domain. The flooding is done using the Hello protocol.Each network that has at least two routers has a Designated Router (DR) that is elected by the Hello protocol. This router enables a reduction in the number of adjacencies required to run OSPF.

4.1.2 OSPF Functional Summary A separate copy of OSPF's routing
algorithm runs in each area. Routers having interfaces to multiple areas run multiple copies of the algorithm. Routing algorithm is as follows:

• Intra-Area RoutingWhen a router starts, it first initializes the routing
protocol data structure. Then, it waits for indication from the lower-level protocols that its interfaces are functional. Being the interfaces functional, the router sends Hello packets to its neighbors, and in turn receives Hello packets. The router will attempt to form adjacencies with some of it’s newly acquired neighbors. LS-databases are synchronized between pairs of adjacent routers. The Designated Router (DR) determines which routers should become adjacent. Adjacencies control the distribution of routing information; routing updates are sent and received only on adjacencies. A router periodically advertises its link-state. Link-state is also advertised when a router's state changes. Router's adjacencies are reflected in its LinkState Advertisements (LSAs). The relationship between adjacencies and link-state allows the protocol to detect dead routers in a timely fashion. LSAs are flooded throughout the area. The flooding algorithm ensures that all routers in an area have the same LS-database. The database consists of the collection of LSAs originated by routers belonging to the area. From this database, each router calculates a shortest-path tree with itself as root. From this tree a routing table is built for the protocol.

• Inter-Area RoutingIn order to be able to route to destinations outside of
the area, the area border routers (ABRs) inject additional routing information into the area. This information is a distillation of the rest of the AS's topology. Each ABR is connected to the backbone; each of them summarizes the topology of its attached non-backbone areas for

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transmission on the backbone and hence to all other ABRs. Each ABR then has complete topological information concerning the backbone and the area summaries from each of the other ABRs. From this information the router calculates paths to all inter-area destinations. The router then advertises these paths into its attached areas. This enables the internal routers to pick the best exit route when forwarding to inter-area destinations.

• AS external routesRouters

that have information regarding other ASs

can flood this information throughout the AS. This information is distributed verbatim to every router, except for those belonging to stub areas.

4.1.3

OSPF Standard Header

OSPF runs directly over IP. All OSPF packets share a common protocol header. Every OSPF packet starts with a standard 24 byte header. This header contains all the information necessary to determine whether the packet should be accepted for further processing.

Version #: The version number of the protocol. Packet Type The OSPF packet types are one of this as follow:

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Type 1 2 3 4 5

Packet name Hello Database Description Link State Request Link State Update Link State Ack

Protocol function Discover/maintain neighbors Summarize database contents Database download Database update Flooding acknowledgment

Packet Length: Total length, including the standard header.Router ID: Router identification of the packet's originator.Area ID: The OSPF area that the packet is being sent into.Checksum: Standard IP 16-bit one's complement checksum of the entire packet, excluding the 64-bit authentication field.AuType and Authentication: AuType indicates the type of authentication procedure in use. The 64-bit field is then used by the chosen authentication procedure.

4.2WOSPF Overview
Deploying a legacy routing protocol defined for wired networks in an OSPF-MANET calls for modifications and optimizations. First of all, non-MANET routing protocols are not designed for operation in a multi-hop environment. Second, dissemination of routing packets in a network whose topology is rapidly changing requires intelligent and optimized techniques, unless resource consuming, pure flooding is to be used. OSPF-MANET interfaces should take into account the different aspects of resource constrained OSPF-MANET environments; the bandwidth may be scarce, topology is unpredictable, and link quality poor. The wireless extensions described in this chapter aim to define an interface that can cope with these properties.

4.2.1

OSPF Extensions

Since the winter of 2005 a working group, referred to as the OSPF MANET design team, within the IETF have been focusing on two active Internet drafts. One of these is Cisco’s draft [8]. The other (and competitive) draft is a draft published by Boeing [10]. The approach proposed in [10] is often referred to as OSPF MANET Designated

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Router (OSPFMDR), while the approach proposed in Cisco’s draft is referred to as Overlapping Relays.

• Wireless OSPF-OR
This draft comes from Cisco’s draft, elects a source dependent set of routers that are to relay routing packets. It is close connection with OLSR.

• Wireless OSPF-MDR
Elects a source independent set3 of routers that are to relay routing packets extends the OSPFv3 Hello packet to carry such information

4.2.2

WOSPF-OR

One of the most deployed flooding optimizations used in OSPF networks today, the DR mechanism, will not perform correctly in OSPF-MANETs. This is because OSPFMANETs are not true multi-access networks, as is a DR assumption, in OSPFMANETs, two nodes on the same network segment cannot be assumed to have twoway connectivity. Therefore, the [3] adopt the ideas behind the OLSR optimized flooding scheme MPR Relays, and implement the overlapping relays mechanism. Figure 8 depicts a very simple scenario, consisting of only four nodes. It is assumed that the leftmost node is the originator of the packet, although the flooding would be exactly the same for either of the nodes. As the figure shows, every node (except the packet originator) retransmits the packet. Hence, we have n − 1 retransmissions. This scheme is not optimal, as many duplicate packet received are the result of an unnecessary transmission. This scheme could benefit from some flooding modifications designed especially for OSPF-MANETs as in figure 9.

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Figure 8: flooding in a wireless network

Figure 9: Wireless network with an optimized flooding scheme.

4.2.3

Active Overlapping Relay (AOR)

The AOR is method used in WOSPF-OR that deals with wireless OSPF MANET routing protocol, the algorithm which that used on AOR is as follow:

1.

Select all neighbors which have one hop from originator.

2. On each neighbor compute the number of the one hop. 3. Remove the ones neighbor which is already exist on originated. 4. Select the node with the highest number of neighbor as an AOR, after that recomputed the number of neighbors of the originated. 5. Return step 4 until create own network. As we see in figure below, in this situation before calculating and manipulating the AOR. In figure, the OR selected an AOR set which that can be forward data from originator to the next hop.

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Figure 10: before and after implement AOR

4.2.4

Flooding in WOSPF-OR and OLSR

As MANETs typically consist of resource constraint nodes communicating over low capacity wireless links, some sort of flooding optimization would clearly be beneficial. The flooding scheme used in WOSPF-OR is essentially the same as the use of MPRs in the OLSR protocol.

Chapter 5Implementation

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In this chapter we discuss our implementation. I used some of tools that help me to reach at my goals. The main software I used with along of my project is The Network Simulator NS-2, Network Animator NAM, XGRAPH, TCL & C++ programming, kivio and Linux OS. I made some evaluation between different ad hoc routing protocols, since the WOSPF-OR It is close connection with OLSR I am used OLSR rather than WOSPF-OR.

5.1Network Simulator (NS2)
NS is a discrete event simulator targeted at networking research provided by USC/ISI [NS2]. It is open source which allows to modification. It models system as events, which the simulator has, list of the process is made such way: “take next one, run it, until done”. Each event happens in an instant of virtual (simulated) time, but takes an arbitrary amount of real time. The design of the simulator is separating the “data” from the control: C++ for “data” (per packet processing, core of ns, fast to run, detailed, complete control); and OTCL for control (simulation scenario configurations, periodic or triggered action, manipulating existing C++ objects, fast to write and change).

Figure 11: description of NS-2 (merge between C++ and OTCL) “NS” Components are Ns the simulator it self and Nam the network animator that permits to visualize ns output and that provides a GUI interface to generate ns scripts. For the wireless part, NS provides ad hoc routing and mobile IP. NS provides also traffic and topology generators and simple trace analysis.

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For running a simulation using NS2, the first thing to do is describe the scenario to simulate using a TCL script. Then, NS2 will compute the simulation and produce a trace file of events happened. This trace file contains data about packets sent, received, forwarded, dropped, size of packets, type of packets, and It also contains nodes moved logs. [6]

5.2Simulation Scenario and results
The scenarios for simulation must demonstrate efficiency of protocols depending on Ad Hoc specifications. I used the sixth different scenarios and implemented in each our routing protocol that we considered before (OLSR, AODV, and DSDV). The evaluations metric which I am supposed are as follow:

• •

Packet receives and packet lost. CPU utilization. Traffic engineering.

5.2.1First Scenario:
Number of nodes: 6 nodes. Mobility: no. Topology: 800m * 800m. Time of simulation: 120s (2minutes).

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Figure 12: packets received and packet lost.

Figure 13: CPU utilization

Figure 14: Traffic engineering

Result:
As we saw in figure 12 the AODV routing protocol gives us the best result regarding packets received and good result regarding lost packets. On the other hand side, the DSDV routing protocol gives us the best result regarding packets lost and not enough result regarding received packets. Then, in figure 13 the OLSR routing protocol gives us the best result regarding CPU utilization. Finally, The AODV in figure 14 gives us the best result regarding traffic engineering

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Regarding this scenario we conclude the best protocol is AODV routing protocol.

5.2.2Second Scenario:
Number of nodes: 6 nodes. Mobility: only one node that have mobility. Topology: 800m * 800m. Time of simulation: 120s (2minutes).

Figure 15 :packets received and packet lost.

Figure 16: CPU utilization

Figure 17: Traffic engineering

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Result:
As we saw in figure 15 the OLSR routing protocol gives us the best result regarding packets received and the best result regarding lost packets. On the other hand side, the AODV routing protocol gives us good result regarding packets received but not good result regarding packets lost. Then, in figure 16 the DSDV routing protocol gives us the best result regarding CPU utilization. Finally, The AODV in figure 17 gives us the best result regarding traffic engineering Regarding this scenario we conclude the best protocol is OLSR routing protocol.

5.2.3Third Scenario:
Number of nodes: 6 nodes. Mobility: yes, with random mobility. Node speed: randomly change between 0-20m/s with 2s pause time Topology: 800m * 800m. Time of simulation: 120s (2minutes).

Figure 18: packets received and packet lost.

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Figure 19: CPU utilization

Figure 20: Traffic engineering

Result:
As we saw in figure 18 the DSDV routing protocol gives us the best result regarding packets received and good result regarding lost packets. On the other hand side, the OLSR routing protocol gives us good result regarding packets received and the best result regarding packets lost. Then, in figure 19 the OSLR routing protocol gives us the best result regarding CPU utilization. Finally, The DSDV in figure 20 gives us the best result regarding traffic engineering. Regarding this scenario we conclude the best protocol is DSDV routing protocol.

5.2.4Fourth Scenario:
Number of nodes: 30 nodes. Mobility: no. Topology: 800m * 800m. Time of simulation: 120s (2minutes).

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Figure 21: packets received and packet lost.

Figure 22: CPU utilization

Figure 23: Traffic engineering

Result:
As we saw in figure 21 the AODV routing protocol gives us the best result regarding packets received and bad result regarding lost packets. On the other hand side, the OLSR routing protocol gives us the best result regarding packets lost. Then, in figure 22 the DSDV routing protocol gives us the best result regarding CPU utilization. Finally, The DSDV in figure 23 gives us the best result regarding traffic engineering.

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Regarding this scenario we conclude the best protocol is DSDV routing protocol.

5.2.5Fifth Scenario:
Number of nodes: 30 nodes. Mobility: only one node which is received data that have mobility. Topology: 800m * 800m. Time of simulation: 120s (2minutes).

Figure 24: packets received and packet lost.

Figure 25: CPU utilization

Figure 26: Traffic engineering

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Result:
As we saw in figure 24 the DSDV routing protocol gives us the best result regarding packets received and the best result regarding lost packets. On the other hand side, the AODV routing protocol gives us good result regarding packets received and good result regarding packets lost. Then, in figure 25 the DSDV routing protocol gives us the best result regarding CPU utilization. Finally, The AODV in figure 26 gives us the best result regarding traffic engineering. Regarding this scenario we conclude the best protocol is DSDV routing protocol.

5.2.6Sixth Scenario:
Number of nodes: 6 nodes. Mobility: yes, with random mobility. Node speed: randomly change between 0-20m/s with 2s pause time Topology: 800m * 800m. Time of simulation: 120s (2minutes).

Figure 27: packets received and packet lost.

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Figure 28-a: CPU utilization Figure 29-b: Traffic engineering

Result:
As we saw in figure 27 all routing protocols gives us the worst result regarding packets received and packets lost, in this situation the AODV routing protocol gives us best result regarding packets received relatively the others protocols. Then, in figure 28-a the AODV routing protocol gives us the best result regarding CPU utilization. Finally, the DSDV in figure 28-b gives us the best result regarding traffic engineering. Regarding this scenario we conclude the best protocol is AODV routing protocol.

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5.2.7Scenario Visualization

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Figure 30: scenario of 6 nodes send from node 0 to5.

Figure 31: scenario of 30 nodes send from node 0 to 5.

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Figure 32: scenario of 30 nodes randomly motion.

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Chapter 6Conclusion

and Future Works

This chapter concludes this final project. We discovered during this project the problems associated with Ad Hoc networks, more specifically routing on Ad Hoc networks. We also discovered some of solutions for these problems. Then, we discovered in more details the OSPF and WOSPF and conclude it by similarities with OLSR. After that, we make six different scenarios and applied over three protocols, which are “OLSR”, “AODV”, and “DSDV” to evaluate performance. We saw in the first scenario of 6 fixed nodes the AODV is the best choice. In the second scenario 6 nodes only the receiving nodes have mobility in the topology, the OLSR is the best choice. In the third scenario 6 nodes with random motion in the topology, the DSDV is the best choice. In the fourth scenario 30 fixed nodes, the DSDV is the best choice. In the fifth scenario 30 nodes only the receiving nodes have mobility in the topology, the DSDV is the best choice. In the sixth scenario 30 nodes with random motion in the topology, the AODV is the best choice. Even by testing these three protocols, there is no perfect solution to make decision that an X protocol is the best. It is dependent on the context. So we suggest that you use the NS simulator as a tool for choosing the most adequate ad hoc routing protocol for your wireless ad hoc network before implementing it. At the end of this project, we get a lot information and knowledge such as: • Simulation 1. Perform NS simulation

2.

Wireless OTCL scripts

3. Extension to the NS simulator 4. Ability to add contributed modules to NS even with different versions (which required some modification to some NS source code). 5. Ability to implement a new protocol in NS (in both parts C++ and OTCL). • Networking

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1. I had learned OSPF which is the most complex Internet protocol. 2. I had learned MANET routing protocol.

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References:
[1]http://www.ece.clemson.edu/commnet/import.htm [2] Mathieu Gallissot “Routing on Ad Hoc Networks” may 2007. [3] Kenneth Holter, Wireless Extensions to OSPF, Master thesis, 2nd May 2006. [4] RFC 2328 : OSPF Version 2 [5] Humayun Bakht, “Problems in MANET” presentation. [6] Henrik Christiansen, ” Simulator requirements“ , sep 2003 [7] David A. Maltz, On-Demand Routing in Multi-hop Wireless Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, Doctor of Philosophy thesis, May 2001 [8] M. Chandra, Extensions to OSPF to Support Mobile Ad Hoc Networking, IETF, April 2005. [9] A. Roy, .Adjacency Reduction in OSPF using SPT Reachability,.Internet-Draft (work in progress) draft-roy-ospf-smart-peering-01, IETF, November 2005. [10]R. Ogier and P. Spagnolo, .MANET Extension of OSPF using CDS Flooding,. Internet-Draft (work in progress) draft-ogier-manet-ospfextension- 07, IETF, March 2006. [11]http://en.wikipedia.org [12]Philippe Jacquet, OLSR for MANET, INRIA.

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List of symbols and/or abbreviations
GSM: Global System for Mobile Communications IETF: Internet Engineering Task Force MANET: Mobile Ad hoc NETworks RFC: Request for Comments INRIA : French National Institute for Research in Computer Science and Automatic Control OSPF : Open Shortest Path First. WOSPF : Wireless Open Shortest Path First. DSDV : Destination Sequenced Distance Vector. OLSR : Optimized Linked State Routing FSR : Fisheye State Routing HSR : Hierarchical State Routing DREAM : Distance Routing Effect Algorithm for Mobility AODV : Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector DSR : Dynamic Source Routing TORA : Temporally-Ordered Routing Algorithm RDMAR : Relative Distance Micro-discovery Ad Hoc Routing ZRP : Zone Routing Protocol HSLS : Hazy Sighted Link State Routing Protocol NS-2 : Network Simulator NAM : Network Animator

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