Name:Panagiotis Gorlitsas

The Multifunctionality of Forests in Austria
OBJECTIVES OF FOREST POLICY The main objective of forest policy is to maintain efficient agriculture and forestry in mountainous regions in consideration of their socio-economic requirements (income maintenance, tourist industry, improvement of infrastructure, sales management and sales increase, landscape management, protection of settlement areas, protection from natural catastrophes, etc.). The topography, as well as the property structure which is dominated by small holders, requires a special kind of forest management in order to safeguard the multifunctionality of forests in these regions. Considering the intentions of the resolutions of the Ministerial Conferences on the Protection of Forests in Europe (Strasbourg 1990 and Helsinki 1993) and the Alpine Convention (mountain forest protocol), Austria has prepared and taken appropriate measures and developed strategies for a practical application in order to meet this challenge of managerial functions in mountain forests, particularly in protective forests. STRATEGIC TARGETS OF FORESTRY The strategic targets of forestry are maintenance and improvement of forests with the following partial objectives: - improvement of protective forests - reafforestation in high-altitude areas - forest management and tending of woods that are nature oriented - safeguarding of forest seeds and propagation material in accordance with local conditions - appropriate forest area to fulfil all functions of the forest METHODS USED IN FOREST PLANNING The methods used in forest planning that permit the application of strategies of forest maintenance and forest regeneration should have:

- forest development plans (evaluation and determination of forest functions: commercial, protective, welfare, and recreational functions) - concepts of the federal provinces to improve the protective function of the forest - hazard zone plans (endangered areas in settlement areas in the catchment areas of torrents and avalanches) - provincial conferences on the promotion of forests (lists of priorities for subsidized projects in forestry of the individual federal provinces). PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF MEASURES The regional concepts of different strategic levels of agriculture and forestry are guidelines for the practical application of measures. The general list of measures for the tending of forests and forest improvement is applied and realized in particular in mountainous and Alpine forests within the framework of the following projects and programmes: a) Watershed management projects to improve the protective function of forests, including technical constructions with protective function. a1) Watershed management projects to improve protective forests by forestry measures include technical constructions with protective functions; a2) Watershed management projects to improve the condition of forests in catchment areas of torrents and avalanches by means of forestry measures. b) Projects of reafforestation of high-altitude areas (reafforestation of Alpine pastures and grazing areas, elevation of the forest limit). c) Promotion of forest management and tending of forests which are nature oriented. d) Programme for the maintenance of genetic resources The programme for the maintenance of genetic resources, for the maintenance of forestry seed and propagation material suited to the site comprises: - seed banks - seed orchards - forest stands which are to be conserved on site

The programme for the maintenance of genetic resources is carried out under the leadership of the Federal Forest Research Station, Vienna, in cooperation with the provincial forestry division and with the help of forest owners. List of measures for forest maintenance and forest improvement: - promoting the development of stocky forest stands in accordance with local conditions - promoting reafforestation in high-altitude areas and reafforestation of former agricultural areas - developing a control system of those seeking recreation in mountain forests in order to provide better protection for particularly sensitive ecosystems - counselling in view of an increase in the stability and structure of unstable forests - improving the accessibility of forests which are opened up insufficiently or not at all in order to increase the profitability and to ease silvicultural management - working out Forest Development Plans for common forest property - improving the training for forest owners and rural supervisors - promoting rural and municipal energy supply by biomass, using, in particular, timber as fuel - promoting common marketing initiatives - feasibility studies in all communities in question - encouraging counselling for prospective and economically interesting projects - promoting investments in the establishment of infrastructural constructions and in counselling - priority list of project subsidies in forestry in the individual federal provinces Methods of planning The methods used in forest planning should have: forest development plans; concepts of the federal provinces to improve the protective function; hazard zone plan; and provincial conferences on the promotion of forests.

White Oak
A medium-sized tree, the white oak grows 25 to 30 metres high and lives for 200 years. Its leaves have deep rounded sinuses and lobes. Its acorn has a cup that encloses about one quarter of the nut. The white oak is found on a variety of soils from southern Quebec and Ontario south to Georgia. It prefers hot, moist climates and is intolerant of harsh winters. It grows in broadleaf stands mixed with other oaks, basswood, hickories, sugar maple, and some conifers. It has been exported to certain tropical countries because of the many qualities of its wood. Its light brown wood is hard, strong and tough. Owing to its incredible flexibility, it can be bent almost to a right angle. It is therefore commonly used in maritime construction. In the United States, it is also used in house construction, furniture making and for railway ties. Leaf Fruit

Leaves, alternate, simple, with rounded shallow lobes.

Fruits, acorns with cup enclosing one quarter of nut.

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