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International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM)

Web Site: www.ijaiem.org Email: editor@ijaiem.org


Volume 8, Issue 6, June 2019 ISSN 2319 - 4847

Analysis of Two Level Real Time Load Flow


132/33/11kv Sub-Station using ETAP Software
Suparna Pal1, Avijit Ghosh2, Govinda Mandal3, Mainak Gon4 and Mrinal Karak5
1
Suparna Pal, Asst Prof, JIS College of Engineering, Kalyani, Nadia, West Bengal
2
Avijit Ghosh, Student, JIS College of Engineering, Kalyani, Nadia, West Bengal
3
Govinda Mandal, Student, JIS College of Engineering, Kalyani, Nadia, West Bengal
4
Mainak Gon, Student, JIS College of Engineering, Kalyani, Nadia, West Bengal
5
Mrinal Karak, Student, JIS College of Engineering, Kalyani, Nadia, West Bengal

ABSTRACT
Electrical power system provides a vital service to the society .For healthy operation of electrical power generation,
transmission and distribution, it is important that system should be balanced. Load flow is basic requirement to conduct power
system analysis of any system. The load flow gives us information about voltages, real and reactive power generation and
absorption and line losses across the entire system. After doing load flow we analysis short circuit and transient analysis of that
power system and showed how a real time software approach is used to analysis of power system so that without solving
complex mat lab programming. Because Mat lab programming is not so user-friendly approach for researchers those having
lack of programming knowledge, so in this paper we are highlighting use of ETAP software in solving real time load flow
which is highly reliable to analysis of further studies. After analysing load flow and short circuit we give a comparative idea of
different parameters of buses and on the basis of this analysis we give a solution of improvement of stability condition in power
system and also concluded a new idea for complete solving of power system stability analysis by two stage method. This paper
analysis is based on real live system (132/33/11kv) of Kalyani Substation of west Bengal. All the data used for real time analysis
are collected from 132/33/11kv substation under W.B.S.E.T.C.L.
KEYWORD: Research analysis, survey report, Load flow and short circuit analysis, implementation smart grid
1. INTRODUCTION
Electrical power system is back bone of the development of a nation. There is big issue of power quality for developed
nations but the developing countries like India the load is increasing rapidly but generation is not up to the level of
demand. Hence there is need of load flow management.
Load flow solution is a solution of the network under steady state condition subject to certain inequality constraints
under which the system operates. These constraints can be in the form of load nodal voltages, reactive power generation
of the generators, the tap settings of a tap changing under load transformer.
So the load flow solution gives the nodal voltages and phase angles and hence the power injection at all the buses and
power flows through interconnecting power channels (transmission lines)
Load flow solution is essential for designing new power system and for planning extension of existing one for increased
load demand. These analyses require the calculation of numerous load flows under both normal and abnormal
operating conditions. Load flow solution also gives the initial conditions of the system when the transient behaviour of
the system is to be studied.
So load flow studies are very important in every sector of power system network. So this paper is a part of our research
work where we show that in any live substation how the constrained are changed according to load and get a whole
idea of load flow studies and get different information about the system. We have been analysed 132 KV Kalyani
substations by Etap Software. Where each buses has been analysis and improved the system constraints.
The Load flow analysis using software is accurate and gives highly reliable results. This research makes effective use of
Electrical Transient Analyser Program (ETAP) to carry out load flow analysis of 132kV substation. The actual ratings
of Power Transformers, Circuit Breakers, Current Transformers, Potential Transformers and Isolating switches are
taken and modelled accordingly in ETAP. This 132kV substation is located in Kalyani district owned by West Bengal
State.
Electricity Transmission Corporation Limited (WBSETCL) which comprises of 6 Power Transformers, 22 Circuit
Breakers, 22 Current Transformers, 27 Buses, 3 Potential Transformers and 55 Isolating switches, and 18 Load
Centres.
Objective of the paper

Volume 8, Issue 6, June 2019 Page 8


International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM)
Web Site: www.ijaiem.org Email: editor@ijaiem.org
Volume 8, Issue 6, June 2019 ISSN 2319 - 4847

The objective of this paper is analysis of live substation load flow analysis and its applications. Previous researchers are
analysing about stability via load flow analysis but they are not utilising a live substation data, they are analysing IEEE
standard data. So here we have done this analysis of live Kalyani substation (WB), and show exactly what is done is
substation and what effect of bus fault in entire system. How they manage stable power flow.
Importance of load flow studies in stability analysis
Load flow studies are one of the most important aspects of power system planning and operation. The load flow gives
us the sinusoidal steady state of the entire system voltages, real and reactive power generated and absorbed and line
losses.
Theoretical Background
As our system depends on variable loads so faults is occurred in our system irregular interval. So the fault is the
abnormal condition of the electrical system which damages the electrical equipment and disturbs the normal flow of the
electric current. The fault reduces the insulation strength between phase conductors and earth or any earthed screen
surrounding the conductors. It also reduces the impedance between the conductors and earth due to which the heavy
short circuit current flows through the system and damage the power system equipment. The probability of the failure
or occurrence of abnormal faults is more on the transmission lines. According to the causes of incidence, the causes of
failures may be classified, as mentioned below;
Breakdown due to insulation may occur at normal voltage due to the decline or ageing of the insulation, and the
damages are caused by the unpredictable happening such as blowing of heavy winds, tree falling across the line,
vehicles colliding with the towers or poles, bird shorting out lines, aircraft colliding with the line, line breaks etc.
The breakdown may occur due to abnormal voltages caused by switching surges or lightning strokes which may be
either direct or induced.
The line and insulation apparatus may also be damaged due to the transient over voltage which is generated in the
switching operation. During the switching operation, the voltage rises at a rapid rate and may achieve a peak value
approaching three-time phase to neutral voltage. Hence the higher insulation level is provided for protecting the
equipment from damage. The fault can be minimised by improving the system design, better quality of the equipment
and maintenance. But the fault cannot be eliminated completely. So load flow analysis is very important for fault
analysis.
Software analysis:-
This paper is based on our undergraduate project. This paper is based real time data analysis of Kalyani substation.
Here we have analysis our system 4 ways.
 Load flow analysis of 132 kv substation as per real system and where we see that how loads are distributed to
the entire system. We observed that some buses are overloaded and some buses are under loaded. So making a
stabilized load flow we connected capacitor bank (same as Kalyani substation) and get an entire idea of how
system making itself balanced.

1. In above picture we can see that our project ‘s electrical layout of 132 KV sub-station is design in ETAP software
which contain several buses, transformers, circuit breaker, tie switches and several other electrical equipment
which is configured accordingly.

Volume 8, Issue 6, June 2019 Page 9


International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM)
Web Site: www.ijaiem.org Email: editor@ijaiem.org
Volume 8, Issue 6, June 2019 ISSN 2319 - 4847

2. In our project sub-station requirement are listed below.

2.1 table for transformer


ID MVA PRI KV SEC KV TYPE
T1 89 11 132 YNd
T2 50 132 33 YNd
T3 50 132 33 YNd
T4 0.100 33 0.433 Dyn
T6 0.100 33 0.415 Dyn
T7 0.100 33 0.415 Dyn
T8 6.3 33 11 Dyn
T9 6.3 33 11 Dyn
T10 6.3 33 11 Dyn
T11 67 11 132 YNd
TNd1 31.50 132 33 YNd

2.2 TABLE FOR LOAD


LOAD NAME WORKING VOLTAGE POWER REQUIRED LOAD TYPE
AIIMS 33 KV 2079 KW MOTERING
PHONIX 33 KV 1485 KW MOTERING
WBIIDC-2 33 KV 2970 KW MOTERING
UNIVERCITY-1 33 KV 7.260 MVA STATIC
UNIVERCITY-2 33 KV 6.435 MVA STATIC
DHA-HARINGHATA 33 KV 7.425 MVA STATIC
DABUR 33 KV 1069.2 KW MOTORING
BREWERIES 33 KV 475.20 KW MOTORING

LOAD NAME WORKING VOLTAGE POWER REQUIRED LOAD TYPE


PAPER MILL AREA 11 KV 445.5 MW MOTORING
MADANPUR EAST 11 KV 715 KVA STATIC
MADANPUR 11 KV 1870 KVA STATIC
INDUSTRIAL FEEDER 11 KV 1336.5 KW MOTORING
MAD.VIA 11 KV 1584 KVA STATIC
CHANDMARI
KLY.RLY STATION 11 KV 297 KW MOTORING
K.D.MARKET& 11 KV 1267 KW MOTORING
BLOCKA

LOAD 3 0.415 KV 43 KVA STATIC


LOAD 16 0.415 KV 48 KVA STATIC
LOAD 1 0.433 KV 55 KVA STATIC
TABLE ABOUT SOURCE
SOURCE VOLTAGE REAL POWER APP. POWER
DHARAMPUR 11 KV 80 KW 94.118 KVA
BTPS 11 KV 60 KW 70.588 KVA
Table for bus bars
BUS BAR ID VOLTAGE CONTANT KVA CONTANT Z
BUS 4 11 KV 0.477 MW 0.201 MVAR -
BUS 5 132 KV - - -
BUS 6 132 KV - - -
BUS 7 132 KV - - -
BUS 8 33 KV - - -

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International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM)
Web Site: www.ijaiem.org Email: editor@ijaiem.org
Volume 8, Issue 6, June 2019 ISSN 2319 - 4847

BUS 9 33 KV - - -
BUS 10 33 KV - - -
BUS 11 33 KV - - -
BUS 14 33 KV - - -
BUS 15 33 KV - - -
BUS 16 0.433 KV - - 0.055 MW
BUS 17 0.415 KV - - 0.048 MW
BUS 18 0.415 KV - - 0.043 MW
BUS 19 11 KV - - -
BUS 23 33 KV 2.209 MW 0.888 MVAR -
BUS 24 33 KV 1.581 MW 0.642 MVAR -
BUS 25 33 KV 3.150 MW 1.251 MVAR -
BUS 26 33 KV - - 7.260 MW
BUS 27 33 KV - - 6.435 MW
BUS 28 33 KV - - 7.425 MW
BUS 29 33 KV 1.140 MW 0.468 MVAR -
BUS 30 33 KV 0.509 MW 0.214 MVAR -
BUS 31 11 KV - - 0.715 MW
BUS 32 11 KV - - 1.870 MW
BUS 33 11 KV 1.424 MW 0.580 MVAR -
BUS 34 11 KV - - 1.584 MW
BUS 35 11 KV 0.319 MW 0.136 MVAR -
BUS 36 11 KV 1.371 MW 0.559 MVAR -
BUS 38 11 KV - - -
BUS 39 11 KV - - -
MAIN BUS 132 KV - - -
TRANSFER BUS 132 KV - - -

In this SUB- STATION we have two power sources which are from generating station DHARANPUR and BTPS
Supply power to our sub-station and this power is fed to different transformers accordingly to its demand and fed to the
load with appropriate safety measurement of equipment present in sub-station. After implementation of design in
ETAP we run a load flow study and get output result .

From load flow analysis we get some bus bars are under voltage that implies there is load distribution is not welled
scheduled.

Volume 8, Issue 6, June 2019 Page 11


International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM)
Web Site: www.ijaiem.org Email: editor@ijaiem.org
Volume 8, Issue 6, June 2019 ISSN 2319 - 4847

After analysis we get some of bus bars are under voltage. For that we have to compensating design so that it can’t
hampering the overall system for that we have to inject a reactive power VAR to the system for minimizing the effect
that can be done simply adding a capacitor bank with the system buses. The value of capacitor bank is being calculated
by load flow analysis.
After adding a cap bank to the system we saw that our system become more stable that its previous state run flow and
when we compared load flow data with after placing cap bank data we find out that there are some changes occurred
and these changes are listed below.

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International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM)
Web Site: www.ijaiem.org Email: editor@ijaiem.org
Volume 8, Issue 6, June 2019 ISSN 2319 - 4847

BUS ID VOLT VOLTAGE REALP MW REAC MVAR MVA MVA AMP AMP
AGE MAG.% OWER WITH TIVE( WITH WITH WITH
MAG. WITH CAP. (MW) CAP. MVAR CAP. CAP. CAP.
% BANK )

BUS 4 97.772 100.5 0.48 0.477 0.201 0.201 0.518 0.518 27.8 27.1
BUS 5 99.363 99.76 8.988 9.002 39.6 39.5
BUS 6 99.363 99.76 14.27 14.29 62.8 62.6
BUS 7 99.363 99.76 14.27 14.29 62.8 62.6
BUS 8 98.723 99.6 8.93 8.987 158 157.9
BUS 9 98.723 99.6 14.17 14.27 251 250.6
BUS 10 98.723 99.6 14.17 14.27 251 250.6
BUS 11 98.723 99.6 37.28 37.68 661 661.9
BUS 14 98.723 99.6 7.794 8.48 138 149
BUS 15 98.723 99.6 0.141 0.143 2.5 2.5
BUS 16 97.517 98.38 0.05 0.053 0 0 0.052 0.053 71.5 72.1
BUS 17 97.67 98.54 0.05 0.047 0 0 0.046 0.047 65.2 65.8
BUS 18 97.78 98.65 0.04 0.042 0 0 0.041 0.042 58.5 59
BUS 19 97.772 100.5 0 0 0 -4.99 7.719 9.263 414 483.7
BUS 23 98.723 99.6 2.21 2.209 0.888 0.888 2.381 2.381 42.2 41.8
BUS 24 98.723 99.6 1.58 1.581 0.642 0.642 1.706 1.706 30.2 30
BUS 25 98.723 99.6 3.15 3.15 1.201 1.201 3.389 3.389 60.1 59.5
BUS 26 98.723 99.6 7.2 7.076 0 0 7.076 7.202 125 126.5
BUS 27 98.723 99.6 6.38 6.272 0 0 6.272 6.383 111 112.1
BUS 28 98.723 99.6 7.37 7.237 0 0 7.237 7.365 128 129.4
BUS 29 98.723 99.6 1.14 1.14 0.468 0.468 1.232 1.232 21.8 21.6
BUS 30 98.723 99.6 0.51 0.509 0.214 0.214 0.552 0.552 9.8 9.7
BUS 31 97.772 100.5 0.68 0.722 0 0 0.683 0.722 36.7 37.7
BUS 32 97.772 100.5 1.79 1.889 0 0 1.788 1.889 96 98.7
BUS 33 97.772 100.5 1.42 1.424 0.58 0.58 1.537 1.537 82.5 80.3
BUS 34 97.772 100.5 1.51 1.6 0 0 1.514 1.6 81.3 83.6
BUS 35 97.772 100.5 0.32 0.319 0.136 0.136 0.347 0.347 18.6 18.1
BUS 36 97.772 100.5 1.37 1.371 0.559 0.559 1.481 1.481 79.5 77.3
BUS 38 100 100 15.9 16.14 3.295 1.163 16.22 16.18 851 849.2
BUS 39 100 100 21.1 21.44 4.377 1.545 21.54 21.49 1131 1128
MAIN 99.363 99.71697.77 37.52 37.52 165 164.1
BUS 2
TRANS 99.363 99.72
FER
BUS

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International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM)
Web Site: www.ijaiem.org Email: editor@ijaiem.org
Volume 8, Issue 6, June 2019 ISSN 2319 - 4847

So we have seen that in a substation load flow is more stabilised compare then previous one (with out capacitor bank.
And also reactive power is also reduced and voltage profile is improved

Volume 8, Issue 6, June 2019 Page 14


International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM)
Web Site: www.ijaiem.org Email: editor@ijaiem.org
Volume 8, Issue 6, June 2019 ISSN 2319 - 4847

Conclusion: - As researchers these are not possible to work live in substation with their real-time software. So in ETAP
we can analysis everything of load flow and get a overall idea of load flow analysis and how load data analysis is
essential to determine the system stability state. Here we have seen that voltages, active powers and reactive powers of
all lines and buses more stable as compare then previous one(with out capacitor bank).So power compensation is also
essential to make system more stabilized. Hope that, this paper will be helpful for future researcher.

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International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM)
Web Site: www.ijaiem.org Email: editor@ijaiem.org
Volume 8, Issue 6, June 2019 ISSN 2319 - 4847

[25] D. Das, H.S.Nagi and D.P. Kothari , “Novel Method for solving radial distribution networks,” Proceedings IEE
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