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Challenges to Criminal Law Making in the New Global Information Society:
A Critical Comparative Study of the Adequacies of Computer-Related Criminal
Legislation in the United States. the United Kingdom and Singapore

Warren B. Chik*

Introduction

Computer and Internet usage is on the rise due to lower costs oI computer ownership and
connectivity as well as Iaster and easier accessibility. As it is another mode oI
commercial and personal transaction and one that is heavily dependent on interaction
through computers and automatic agents rather than Iace-to-Iace meetings, which
increases distance and allows anonymity, it is another avenue Ior crimes to perpetuate.

'Computer Crime¨ encompasses crimes committed against the computer, the materials
contained therein such as soItware and data, and its uses as a processing tool. These
include hacking, denial oI service attacks, unauthorized use oI services and cyber
vandalism. 'Cyber Crime¨ describes criminal activities committed through the use oI
electronic communications media. One oI the greatest concerns is with regard to cyber-
Iraud and identity theIt through such methods as phishing, pharming, spooIing and
through the abuse oI online surveillance technology. There are also many other Iorms oI
criminal behaviour perpetrated through the use oI inIormation technology such as
harassment, deIamation, pornography, cyber terrorism, industrial espionage and some
regulatory oIIences.

The existing criminal laws in most countries can and do cover computer-related crimes or
electronically perpetrated crimes. OIIences against the computer are relatively new as
they arise Irom and in relation to the digital age, which threatens the Iunctionality oI the
computer as an asset oI a borderless inIormation society. New laws are required in order
to nurture and protect an orderly and vibrant digital environment. OIIences through the
use oI computers merely constitute new ways to commit traditional oIIences using the
electronic medium as a tool. In this case, existing legislation may not be suitable or
adequate Ior several reasons; Ior example, the language in criminal statutes may not
apply, iurisdictional issues may arise and punishments may not be appropriate.

In this paper, I will conduct an overview oI the approach taken to criminal law making in
three common law iurisdictions across three continents - the United States, the United
Kingdom and Singapore. I will critically examine the adequacies or otherwise oI the law
making machineries oI each country to meet the challenges posed by computer-related
crimes. I will then assess the adequacies or otherwise oI the global response to what is
essentially a worldwide problem that requires a consolidated solution.

The selection oI the three iurisdictions as the subiect oI study is meant to provide a taste
oI the challenges Iacing diIIerent sovereign entities with their unique blend oI political,
social, cultural and economic personalities. It allows a comparison oI the treatment oI
laws by a Iederation oI states on the one hand and unitary states on the other, and oI the
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contrasting approaches between western and Asian as well as older and newer nations.
This will be set against a common law backdrop, as these countries share similar legal
systems and historical ties, and considered in the context oI nations with developed
inIormation technology inIrastructure. They will also provide a good springboard to
assess the current trends in domestic crime prevention initiatives and in regional and
global approaches to evaluate the current weaknesses in global response as well as to
extract some suggestions to better the international criminal regime relating to
electronically perpetrated crimes, which knows and respects no boundaries.

Because oI the breadth oI electronically perpetrated crimes and the depth to which an
analysis oI each type oI crime can plume, the case study Iocus oI this paper will be
centered only on one oI the most prominent Iorm oI crime that is relevant to both
computer and cyber crime laws - Cyber-Iraud and identity theIt - through the act oI what
is commonly known as 'phishing¨ and its progeny. The oIIence is also a useIul case
study as it is a universal oIIence` which is capable oI uniIorm treatment,
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and that makes
it a worthy subiect Ior a good comparative study.
2
'Phishing¨ is a term coined by the
relatively new Iorm oI modus operandi by which scams are perpetrated through the
Internet. It involves the theIt oI the identity oI a target organisation (the secondary target)
Ior the purpose oI stealing the identities oI its users or customers (the primary target)
without their knowledge or consent (i.e. a series oI identity theIt). This is done through
the use oI proIessional-looking, HTML-based e-mails that include company logos, Iont
styles, colours, graphics, and other elements to successIully spooI the supposed sender
(i.e. constituting Iraudulent conduct). Most also contain a hyperlink to a web site, which
is almost always an exact replica oI the spooIed site, to lure users or consumers into a
Ialse sense oI security and into relaying their personal inIormation. The motive may be
purely pecuniary but not always necessarily so. Also, the approach may be similar, but
the modus operandi has since mutated and taken on many innovative Iorms. Hence, the

* Assistant ProIessor oI Law, Singapore Management University. Executive Director, Society oI
International Law, Singapore. LLM in International Business Law, University College London, 2004. LLM
in International & Comparative Law, Tulane University, 2001. LLB, National University oI Singapore,
1996. Solicitor, England & Wales. Attorney & Counsellor at Law, New York. Advocate & Solicitor,
Singapore.
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Moreover, cyber-Iraud and identity theIt is probably the biggest threat to electronic transactions (in
particular, commercial transactions) today and it is the basis to many computer-related oIIences as well as
other concerns relating to electronic transactions such as privacy and data protection, and the protection oI
intellectual property rights.
2
In contrast, Ior example, content` related oIIences such as obscenity legislation and deIamation laws are
susceptible to a range and variety oI treatment in diIIerent iurisdictions depending on the political and
socio-cultural personality oI the nation. Hence they are less useIul as subiect matters oI a Iair comparison
oI laws. See, e.g., SoIya Peysakhovich, Jirtual Child Pornographv. Whv American and British Laws Are
At Odds With Each Other, 14 Alb. L.J. Sci. & Tech. 799 (2004); Katherine S. Williams, Child-
Pornographv and Regulation of the Internet in the United Kingdom. The Impact on Fundamental Rights
and International Relations, 41 Brandeis L.J. 463 (2003); and Dina I. Oddis, Combating Child
Pornographv on the Internet. The Council of Europes Convention on Cvbercrime, 16 Temp. Int`l &
Comp. L.J. 477 (2002). Moreover, and this will be relevant later on in this paper, they are also less likely to
be the subiect oI a universally harmonized legal response in the Iorm oI a widely subscribed treaty or oI a
consistently adopted model law. However, there are other approaches to dealing with such oIIences in as
consistent a manner as possible.
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type oI oIIence that may be implicated can vary and can constitute a computer crime, a
cyber crime, or both.

In Part 1 oI this paper, I shall diIIerentiate electronic criminal activities Irom its physical
analogue and delve deeper into the distinctions between computer crime and cyber crime.
The latest trends in the phishing case study will also be examined in some detail with
particular emphasis on the latest developments in the United States, the United Kingdom
and Singapore. In Part 2, I will analyze the current state oI criminal legislation in the
United States, the United Kingdom and Singapore with regards to computer and cyber
crime and consider amongst other things the promptness oI, and approaches to, law
making as well as the extent that they have each successIully or otherwise managed to
develop a response to new and novel types crime and Iorms oI criminal activities. Some
suggestions will be made to the current approaches to improve the system. The phishing
case study will Iurther illustrate the diversity in approaches and the problems relating
thereto. Finally, in Part 3, I will examine and propose a multilateral and multiIaceted
approach to criminal law making in this Iield to adequately and promptly address the
emergence oI new` oIIences and the evolution oI the ways in which old` oIIences are
perpetrated. In the process, I will provide an overview oI the current state oI aIIairs and
show that in Iact international eIIorts have already been made; they only need to be done
in a concerted, coordinated and consistent manner in order to be a more eIIicient and
eIIective weapon against crime in the cyber realm.

!art 1 - Electronically !erpetrated Criminal Activities: Similarities and Distinctions

Crimes committed against the computer are relatively new oIIences that relate to the
computer, the materials contained therein and its uses as a processing tool. This is to
ensure that owners and users oI the computer and electronic systems will continue to
enioy their usage with minimal incursion into their socio-economic well being or
personal space as a result oI the anti-social behaviour oI others who seek or Iacilitate
illegitimate access. It is the medium itselI that is threatened in the case oI computer
crimes. On the other hand, there are traditional crimes committed through the electronic
medium, which is used as a tool to commit oIIences that already exists. In such a case,
the digital media is merely used as an alternative instrument to perpetrate criminal
obiectives. In order to distinguish between the two and their separate legislative regime, a
diIIerent term will be used to describe them.

It is very common to deal with any computer-related oIIence under a singular term,
whether as 'computer crime¨ or as a Iorm oI 'cyber crime¨.
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However, it is important to
diIIerentiate oIIences that are more appropriately termed 'computer crime¨ and those
activities that Iall under the description oI 'cyber crime¨ and to accurately categorize
them.


3
See, Marc D. Goodman and Susan W. Brenner, The Emerging Consensus on Criminal Conduct in
Cvberspace, 2002 UCLA J. L. Tech. 3 (2002). The authors noted that cyber crimes are 'complex and
sometimes elusive phenomena¨ and that 'there is no comprehensive, globally accepted deIinition that
separates the sensational Irom the sensible and scientiIic¨.
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A. Computer Crime and Cyber Crime Are Different Offences

Computer crimes are to be distinguished Irom computer-enabled crimes. They relate to
crimes against computer hardware as well as the digital contents contained within it such
as soItware and personal data. Computer crimes have an adverse eIIect on the integrity
and trust in inIormation technology inIrastructure such as computer or
telecommunications networks and in the security oI transactions conducted through them.

'Computer crimes¨ is oIten used to deIine any criminal activities that are committed
against a computer or similar device, and data or program therein. In computer crimes,
the computer is the target oI criminal activities. The 'computer¨ in this context reIers to
the hardware, but the crimes, as we shall see, more oIten than not relate to the soItware
and the data or program contained within it. The criminal activities oIten relate to the
Iunctions oI the computer; in particular, they are oIten Iacilitated by communications
systems that are available and operated through the computer, thereby contributing to a
less secure computing environment. Examples oI interactive systems include Internet
connectivity Ior access to the World Wide Web (WWW) through PCs, laptops, tablets
and hand-held devices, and telephony or messaging connection through hand phones and
other mobile devices. Crimes are also perpetrated not merely through the means oI
connectivity alone but also through other soItware programs and applications that are
available Ior use in transaction and human interaction, such as electronic mail and instant
messaging services, audio-visual conIerencing programs and Iile transIer Iacilities.

Due to its very nature, computer crimes are generally new, technology-speciIic criminal
behavior Ior which specialized legislation is required.
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These oIIences are related to, Ior
example, computer usage and access and crimes against other`s interests and rights so
related. Examples oI such computer crimes include hacking, denial oI service attacks and
the sending oI unsolicited electronic or 'spam¨ mail. The array oI crimes relating to
cyber-trespassing has become more diverse due to advances in technological
developments. This is illustrated, Ior example, by the amendments made to the Singapore
Computer Misuse Act (Cap. 50A) (CMA) since its enactment in 1993, which expanded
the list oI such oIIences signiIicantly.

On the other hand, it is oIten the case that cyber crimes are considered adequately dealt
with under existing legislation albeit with some necessary modiIications in their language
and terms, particularly relating to their scope oI application as determined by their
deIinition and interpretation.

'Cyber crime¨ will be taken to mean oIIences committed through the use oI the computer
in contrast to 'computer crime¨ which reIers to oIIences against the computer. Under this

4
See, Douglas H. Hancock, To What Extent Should Computer Related Crimes Be the Subiect of Specific
Legislative Attention?, 12 Alb. L.J. Sci. & Tech. 97 (2001). See also, Neal Kumar Katyal, Criminal Law in
Cvberspace, 149 U. Pa. L. Rev. 1003, 1013 (2001). The author described diIIerent types oI computer
crimes without real-world analogue. See Iurther, Stephen P. Heymann, Legislating Computer Crime, 34
Harv. J. On Legis. 373, 373-91 (1997). The author analyzed technological advances that require new
criminal legislation.
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distinction, cyber crimes are a sub-set oI the general term 'crime¨ and the only diIIerence
is the use oI the computer as the Iacilitative device and the use oI electronic media as
another means to commit a traditional` oIIence. On the other hand, computer crimes, as
we have seen, are non-traditional crimes that arose directly Irom the advent oI the age oI
personal computing Ior managing inIormation and communication, and that do not exist
separately Irom its existence. One can characterize computer crimes as cyber-trespass
the crossing oI both tangible as well as intangible, but no less real, cyberspace boundaries
onto property that are owned and controlled by another without permission or
authorization. It can also involve the inIringement oI another`s rights including privacy,
inIormational, proprietary and economic rights.

Cyber crimes are activities committed using the Internet or computer or other electronic
devices as the medium, in violation oI existing laws Ior which punishment is imposed
upon successIul conviction. What we call cyber crimes largely consists oI common
crime, the commission oI which involves the use oI computer technology, and Ior which
penalties already exists under existing legislation. For example, in the Singapore context,
the oIIences listed under its Penal Code (Cap. 224) and other criminal legislation and
provisions. Substantively, there is no diIIerence between generic individual crimes such
as Iraud, theIt, extortion, harassment, Iorgery, impersonation, and their cyber-analogues.
Only those that relate speciIically to computer usage and materials are specialized
oIIences Ior which the CMA has been speciIically enacted to tackle. OI course, in certain
cases, both computer crimes and cyber crimes may be committed by an act or a series oI
acts.
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In such a case, more than one charge may be brought in the alternative against the
oIIender.

Cyber crime also includes the use of digital resources to commit traditional crimes such
as theIt oI identiIiable inIormation and other Iorms oI proprietary inIormation or property
in both digital and phvsical form. The relevance oI this to the phishing case study will
become apparent in due course.

. Cyber Crime and Traditional Crimes Can Get 4st in 1ranslati4n

There are three main characteristics that diIIerentiate traditionally terrestrial crimes Irom
cyber crimes. First, the absence oI physical barriers such as customs to enter or exit the
WWW allow netizens to roam Ireely within it and to visit web pages wherever their
origin. In turn, this means that the actions and potential victims Ior cyber-criminals are
not geographically limited. Hence, Ior example, the randomness and volume oI emails
sent in the attempt to perpetrate scams online, most Iamously the 'Nigerian scam¨
involving advanced Iee Iraud. Second, the cyber realm aIIords the cloak oI anonymity,
Iakery and deception much more easily than the physical realm. This is even more so iI

5
For example, see section 4 oI the Singapore CMA which makes it an oIIence to cause a computer to
'perIorm any Iunction Ior the purpose oI securing access to any program or data held in any computer with
intent to commit an oIIence.involving property, Iraud, dishonesty or which causes bodily harm and which
is punishable on conviction with imprisonment Ior a term oI not less than 2 years.¨ This section will
overlap with the relevant provisions under other legislation, in particular the Penal Code that Iits the
criteria.
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the entire criminal transaction can be perIormed electronically without the need Ior
physical maniIestation. For example, electronic communications can lead to online
money transIers Ior the sale and purchase oI digital products and services that can be
delivered electronically without the need Ior any physical contact or movement at all.
Third, traditional evidence gathering techniques are not eIIective because cyber-criminals
can execute their schemes without being physically present and they can do so through
automatic agents. These pose unique challenges to law enIorcement and criminal
investigations and Iorensics. They all contribute to the electronic medium as an attractive
tool Ior criminal activity, over and above the speed, ease oI use, low costs (e.g. no need
Ior the middleman) and eIIiciency oI the digital realm.

Some people even go so Iar as to argue that cyber crime is a separate and distinct
phenomenon Irom traditional crime with material diIIerences that require a new approach
in the imposition oI criminal liability and in the administration oI criminal iustice.
Underlying this belieI is the perception that virtual crimes are actions in cyberspace, with
its shared virtual community and virtual citizens, and consisting oI a mixture oI real
identities, alter egos, clones and even virtual beings. Hence, it is Iundamentally diIIerent
Irom crimes committed in the physical world. As such, the application and standards oI
criminal laws Ior the virtual community should be markedly diIIerent Irom those
commonly applied in the courts oI the physical world. Though their views appear
Iuturistic and Iar-Ietched at this point in time, the potential Ior its Iull or partial adoption
may be Ioreseeable. Already, there are serious talk oI the creation oI cyber-courts to
administer and dispense cyber-iustice, which may entail punishments that are unique to
the medium and that may not have a real world equivalent (e.g. banishment Irom a cyber-
community such as an e-commerce portal).

As we are now aware, cyber crimes are traditional crimes committed through electronic
mediums such as PCs, laptops, tablets, blackberries, palmtops, mobile phones and pagers
(i.e. various Iorms oI electronic medium), and networks or programs such as the Internet,
telecommunications systems and messaging services. Cyber crimes are perpetrated across
the board against individuals, businesses, organizations and even governments, oIten
through Iraud, deception or stealth such as via system inIiltration. Let us consider some
oI the more prominent categories oI cyber crimes.

II the crime relate to political, religious or other such causes and to the administration,
they can constitute niche oIIences like sedition or even 'cyber-terrorism¨. These are a
separate type or breed oI problems with their own unique legal solutions, although the
modus operandi may remain the same. And then, oI course, there are the content-based
oIIences relating to obscene (e.g. pornographic, violent or otherwise oIIensive) materials
or deIamatory statements, which are susceptible to diIIerential treatment in diIIerent
iurisdictions. Last but not least, there are the inIamous cases oI cyber-Iraud and identity
theIt conducted through emails and other Iorms oI communications, which illustrate the
potential randomness and worldwide eIIect oI certain cyber-criminal activities.

Fraudsters are evolving with the times and always seem to be able to Iind new tricks to
perpetrate old crimes. We can expect the actual permutations oI cyber crimes to be larger
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iI we consider other lesser-known methods; and to grow as we see more innovative and
ingenuous technological ways to commit crimes.

Although cyber crimes are generally an extension oI traditional crimes in that the
electronic media is a relatively new instrument by which traditional oIIences are carried
out, that does not mean that existing laws are adequate or even appropriate to deal with
these new scenarios in terms oI coverage or public policy. Moreover, as we have seen,
there are more unique problems that relate to cyber crimes more than they do to real
world crimes, in particular, iurisdictional and enIorcement issues.
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There is a lost in translation phenomenon when it comes to country practices in updating
traditional penal laws in a piecemeal, statute-by-statute manner to cyberspace
transactions.
7
This happens whenever the process oI augmentation is either slower than
developments in cyber crime techniques or technology used to Iurther such oIIences, or is
Iraught with mistakes or is immediately outdated due to the speed oI developments in this
area. These lead to a lacuna in the law, which cyber criminals can take advantage oI.
Even where there is coverage, it does not mean that the punishment suits the crime as
some oI the existing provisions may contain penalties that are outdated or that Iail to
achieve other social policy obiectives such as in deterring or preventing Iurther oIIences
or in punishing or rehabilitating oIIenders. Examples in relation to the phishing case
study in the context oI United States, United Kingdom and Singapore law will be
considered in Part 2 oI this paper.

Returning to the question oI the signiIicance oI the distinction between the two categories
iust enunciated; it is clear that there is good reason to categorize them separately. They
are as Iollows:

Differences in Objective 4r Subject Matter

First, the elements Iorming both categories oI oIIences are very diIIerent, particular the
mens rea. For instance, the knowledge or intention element required to prove that a
computer crime has been committed generally relates to its use and its contents and
involves obiectiIying the computer and the contents therein as a Iorm oI property that is
inherently in need oI protection. Very oIten, motive is irrelevant either as an element oI
the oIIence or as a Iorm oI Iull or partial deIence. On the other hand, the range oI mental
elements involved in the prooI oI a cyber crime is more complex and relate to the
commission oI the speciIic oIIence concerned that has little or nothing to do with the

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Hence, many computer-related criminal legislation provides Ior extra-territorial application oI the statute
to acts perpetrated in another country even iI the activity may be lawIul where it is committed, which is
likely not the case. However, the true eIIects and reach oI such legislation is probably less eIIective than we
would preIer. See, Michael Geist, Cvberlaw, 44 B.C. L. Rev 323, 345-346 (2003).
7
See, Justin Hughes, The Internet and the Persistence of Law, 44 B.C. L. Rev. 359, 360 (2003). The author
noted three possible treatment oI the law and cyberspace relationship: The 'no-law Internet¨, the 'Internet
as a separate iurisdiction¨, and Internet law as 'translation¨. The latter is the most pragmatic approach,
which involves Iinding legal tools to approximately reach the same balance oI interests in the Internet that
we have developed Ior the real world. This is the approach that is endorsed in this paper and that is the
predominant approach in most iurisdictions.
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computer or its contents but more to its Iunctions, and even then only to the extent that it
is used as a conduit or instrument to perpetrate and realize the primary oIIence. The actus
reus Ior computer crimes relate directly to the computer and its contents while the
physical element Ior cyber crimes primarily relate to the oIIence concerned such as that
relating to tangible property, a person`s body or reputation, and public policy.

Differences in 1reatment Under S4me egal Svstems

Second, the comparative analysis to Iollow will show that in Iact the two categories oI
oIIences have been treated diIIerently as two separate regimes in some countries such as
Commonwealth countries, such as the United Kingdom, Singapore and Malaysia, which
enacted a speciIic statute to deal with computer crimes, while leaving cyber crime to be
dealt with under existing legislation; sometimes but not always with the necessary
amendments to ensure adequate coverage and appropriate enIorcement mechanisms.

3 Universal 4r Differential 1reatment in Different 1urisdicti4ns

Third, most computer crime oIIences are universal in treatment, whereas there are two
sub-categories oI cyber crimes. Cyber crimes consists oI those that are generally
universal in nature and hence are susceptible to equal and similar laws and punishments
in most, iI not all the countries in the world; and those that receive diIIerential treatment
in diIIerent iurisdictions due to the social and cultural make-up oI the country and the
political environment oI the iurisdiction concerned.
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On a more holistic level, there are similar policy obiectives between both categories oI
oIIences, which can together Iall under the umbrella term oI 'computer-related oIIences¨
or 'computer-related crimes¨. It is to protect individual users and consumers as well as
legitimate organizations and companies in their use oI computers and inIormation
technology to interact and to transact; and in so doing protecting and promoting the
eIIective and eIIicient use oI inIormation technology such as the Internet Ior human
interaction and transactions such as e-governance (i.e. G2B and G2C), e-commerce (i.e.
B2B and B2C) and e-communications (e.g. C2C).

C. The Great Expansion of Cyber Crime Activities: The ~!hishing¨ (Cyber-Fraud
and Identity Theft) Case Study

H4riz4ntal Expansi4n - 1he Rising Pr4blem 4f Electr4nicallv Perpetrated Criminal
Activities in Everv 1urisdicti4n

a. Latest Updates on Phishing Scams in the United States and the United Kingdom


8
However, it is Ioreseeable and it is indeed the case that Ior some oIIences there will be an overlap oI
coverage such that the relevant provisions oI both types oI crimes can be applicable. In such a situation,
which is common in criminal law, it is Ior the prosecuting authority in its discretion to select the criminal
law provisions Ior which the oIIender should be charged with, taking into account many Iactors such as the
proIile oI the oIIender, the magnitude and severity oI the oIIence, the available punishment and so on.
9
All the world is a pond Ior phishers. Scams including those perpetrated through the
phishing technique continue to grow despite the ongoing eIIorts by private technological
initiatives and public law enIorcement to combat them. This is due in part to the
extraterritorial nature oI such schemes, the availability oI crimeware and the ease oI
modiIication, use and abuse oI new technologies. Reports oI phishing scams, Ior
example, have been on the increase in the United States and the United Kingdom and
other countries where users have already experienced such scams Ior years; and they
show no signs oI abating. In the United States, the threat is treated with such seriousness
that the Department oI Homeland Security (DHS) has created a new position, the
Assistant Secretary oI Cyber Security and Telecommunications, to oversee the
department`s eIIort to address ongoing cyber threats.
9
Not only are the eIIects oI the
threat Ielt in the United States, they also increasingly originate Irom these countries.

Statistics collated by the Anti-Phishing Working Group (APWG)
10
show that the number
oI targeted brands Ior phishing activities has increased within a one-year span.
11
The
United States and to a lesser extent the United Kingdom and some other countries have
already seen litigation on phishing scams, but these have invariably been based on non-
speciIic legislation.
12


These phishers oI men believe in casting their nets Iar and wide. Even countries that have
a smaller base oI computer users or less developed Internet connectivity are starting to
see the emergence oI such activities, partly due to the randomness and expansion oI the
scammer`s activities and the transnational nature oI their activities. In these countries, the
authorities are beginning to see the need to educate its public and enhance security
measures, including the prescription and enIorcement oI relevant criminal provisions.

b. The Singapore Experience. New Phishes in the Pond


9
See, Leroy Baker, IRS Sends Out Warning After New Wave Of 'Phishing` Scams (Tax-News.com, N.Y.,
11 July 2006), available at: http://www.investorsoIIshore.com/asp/story/storyinv.asp?storyname÷24193;
and Brooke Nelson, I.R.S. Warns. E-mail Fraud on the Rise (Standard-Examiner, 11 July 2006), available
at: http://www.standard.net/standard/84203. This appointment Iollows in the shadow oI a 2003 report
entitled 'National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace¨ that detailed the possible threats Iaced by United States,
and how the private and public sectors might combat those threats. The new Assistant Secretary will be
working closely with the United States Computer Emergency Readiness Team (US-CERT) a partnership
created in 2003 between DHS and private businesses to protect the Internet inIrastructure deIending against
and responding to cyber attacks.
10
The Anti-Phishing Working Group (APWG) web site is at: http://www.antiphishing.org/. The APWG is
'the global pan-industrial and law enIorcement association Iocused on eliminating the Iraud and identity
theIt that result Irom phishing, pharming and email spooIing oI all types.¨ It has a data repository that
contains updated inIormation on phishing trends.
11
See also, Bob Sullivan, Consumers Still Falling for Phish. FTC. DOJ Announce Prosecution of Teenager
(MSNBC, 22 March 2004), available at: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/4580909.
12
See, e.g., FTC, FTC. Justice Department Halt Identitv Theft Scam. Spammer Posed as AOL and Pavpal
to Con Consumers Into Providing Credit Card Numbers (FTC News Release, 22 March 2004), available at:
http://www.Itc.gov/opa/2004/03/phishinghillioint.htm.
10
In Singapore, reported cases oI phishing have only emerged more recently but it seems to
have become more prevalent.
13
In July 2006, National news agencies reported that two
banks in Singapore have been the targets oI the latest phishing scam.
14
Emails
purportedly Irom Citibank and OCBC Bank were sent to their customers asking the
recipients Ior their personal data in order to veriIy their accounts, otherwise access to
their accounts would be denied. OCBC Bank issued a media release to advise the
recipients to ignore the email, stating that it was not the bank`s practice to conduct such
random security veriIication checks on customers in this manner. It also warned its
customers not to respond to emails requesting them to provide their passwords, PIN or
conIidential inIormation via hyperlinks, redirection links within an email or on a third
party website. The Iraudulent sites have since been closed and the matter was brought to
the attention oI the Monetary Authority oI Singapore (MAS) and the Singapore Computer
Emergency Response Team (SCERT) Ior Iurther investigations and action.
15
The
Singapore Police Force (SPF) and the InIocomm Development Authority (IDA) are also
currently working with local banks to monitor phishing scams closely. Ironically, the
MAS itselI was a target oI phishing within the same month.
16


A new poll conducted on a regional news channel, channelnewsasia.com, indicated
unsurprisingly that Singaporeans want more security Irom banks and companies while
transacting online.
17
Visitors to channelnewsasia.com were asked Ior their views are on
Internet banking and shopping transactions. The latest Iigures read that 44 percent oI
them want additional security when shopping and banking, but another quarter Ielt it was
really up to the individual user to take personal precautions.
18
It was also reported that the
sentiment on the street showed a similar wariness oI the Internet.

Jertical Expansi4n - 1he C4nstantlv Ev4lving 1echn4l4gical andscape and
Emerging Crimeware 1echnique


13
One case was reported in 2004 and another in 2005. This year so Iar two cases have been reported to the
police.
14
Wong Mun Wai, Two Banks the Targets of Latest Phishing Scam (Channel NewsAsia, 11 July 2006),
available at: http://www.channelnewsasia.com/stories/singaporelocalnews/view/218454/1/.html.
15
In the meantime, warnings have also been made to the public oI Iraudulent emails and web sites through
the media. Warning even appear on Auto-Teller Machine (ATM) screens advising its users to be alert to
devices attached to the card reader oI money dispensing machines that have been installed by Iraudsters to
steal their Iinancial passwords and identiIication numbers in order to access their bank accounts to
withdraw or transIer their money. See also, Joyce Chen, Two Banks Hit bv a Spate of Phishing (Today
Paper, 1 August 2006), available at: http://www.todayonline.com/articles/130010.asp.
16
Lorna Tan, Singapores Central Bank Targeted bv Phishing Scam (Straits Times, 29 July 2006) at H7.
The Central Bank issued a statement that it had learnt oI 'isolated cases oI Iraudulent e-mails containing
the MAS` name, logo and letterhead¨. The matter had been handed over to the Commercial AIIairs
Department Ior investigations. The matter was given coverage on the local newspapers to alert and educate
te public. It is worth nothing that these cases oI phishing were all notiIied by suspicious consumers and
users, which shows the importance and power oI public education and involvement in crime prevention.
17
Wong Mun Wai, Channel NewsAsia poll suggests online banking & shopping securitv important
(Channel NewsAsia, 13 July 2006), available at:
http://www.channelnewsasia.com/stories/singaporelocalnews/view/218999/1/.html.
18
That was the response oI 960 people that had responded at the time oI reporting.
11
Practices, targets and obiectives relating to phishing and other activities have expanded
thereby greatly exacerbating the problem. For example, backdoor Troians, which are
malware programs that perIorm unexpected or unauthorised actions on the user`s
computer, are now also used to enable unauthorised access to a user`s computer and the
inIormation contained therein by remote systems. Phishing has also now expanded its
bait to include e-government web sites such as monetary, tax and social security
agencies, where users oIten transact, sometimes in Iinancial assets, using personal
inIormation. Phishing may involve the theIt oI identity Ior purposes other than mere
illegitimate pecuniary gain.

New technologies emerge that can be both used and abused, such as surveillance
technology. The phenomenon oI emerging innovative crimeware techniques and oI
'blended threats¨ are due to, Iirst, the changing intent oI soItware creators, in particular
oI malware writers, and second, the attempts by them to keep one step ahead oI the
increasingly sophisticated Internet users in order to perIorm acts on and in relation to
their computers and its communications Iunction.

The proIile oI malware creators is not one-dimensional. They can be motivated by a
variety oI purpose and even by more than one obiective. There are those who create such
programs Ior Iame and respect, particular within the programming community; others do
so Ior the purposes oI Iinancial gain
19
or Ior business advantage;
20
and there are also
those motivated by genuine personal interest and intellectual stimuli. The proIiles oI
malware users are more varied as they can be motivated by curiosity, greed, revenge or
any other obiective. The threat in itselI is a problem Ior inIormation integrity and
Iinancial security, which require the maintenance oI privacy and conIidentiality oI
personal data, transactions and communications.

Because oI the abovementioned motivations oI the malware creator and user and the Iact
that the ongoing eIIectiveness oI a malware depends very much on its evolution to
maintain its immunity against anti-malware programs and the increasingly sophisticated
Internet user, crimeware evolves in several ways through the conIluence oI technology
and techniques:

a. New Technologies

The APWG in their web site reIers to 'technical subterIuge¨ as 'schemes |to| plant
crimeware onto PCs to steal credentials directly, oIten using Troian keylogger spyware.
Pharming crimeware misdirects users to Iraudulent sites or proxy servers, typically

19
Involving the intention to steal passwords, bank account inIormation, credit card numbers, social security
numbers, and other Iorms oI sensitive inIormation in order to use that inIormation Ior the illegal purpose oI
transIerring Iinancial or other assets (e.g. intellectual assets such as trade secrets, client lists and other
valuable conIidential inIormation) belonging to the victim to the malware creator/user who installed it on
the user`s computer, with or without any action Irom the latter but without his knowledge or consent.
20
E.g. Corporate or industrial espionage. Anyone can be a victim, whether targeted or otherwise, oI such
technologies including individuals and corporations, public sector or private sector entities, employers and
employees, etc.
12
through DNS hiiacking or poisoning.¨
21
It is only the use oI new technologies per se iI
there is no active engagement oI the victim, such as subterIuge through the use oI
spooIed emails and counterIeit web sites in order to get the victim to actively download
the crimeware albeit while under a Ialse assumption. New technologies also include new
Iorms oI inIormation technology such as Instant Messenging (IM) Systems, where we
already see new variants oI phishing emerging.
22


b. Blended Techniques

An example oI this is what is known as 'spy-phishing¨ which is the progeny oI spyware
23

and phishing or backdoor Troians. 'It uses phishing techniques to initially present itselI
to users, then typically engages a host oI other techniques and exploits to surreptitiously
download and install spyware applications in the background. These applications
oItentimes download additional spyware applications to Iurther extend their
Iunctionality.¨
24


c. New Techniques

One new method oI stealing identiIiable inIormation and other Iorms oI personal and
corporate inIormation, in particular through capturing password and login data, is through

21
See, the APWG web site at: http://www.antiphishing.org/. The APWG reIers to the current two main
phishing methods as 'social engineering¨ and 'technical subterIuge¨. The Iormer is used to describe the
original method that is phishing.
22
See, New Cvber Scams. Online Con Artists Are Getting Smarter (Straits Times Digital LiIe, 25 July
2006); in particular Chua Hian Hou, Phishing Methods Get More Inventive. Ibid. at p.3. See also, Chua
Hian Hou, The Essential Cheat Sheet. Ibid. at p.4 (introducing readers to new scamming methods like
'escrow¨, 'vishing¨ and 'reshipping¨). Just as phishing derived its moniker Irom 'phreaking¨ (telephone
scams), it has in turned spawned the names oI new electronic communications conduits Ior scams including
'pharming¨ and 'vishing¨ (i.e. VoiP scams). On the more recent phenomenon oI vishing scams, see
Andrew Lavallee, Email Scammers Trv New Bait in Jishing For Fresh Jictims (The Wall Street Journal,
17 July 2006), available at: http://online.wsi.com/public/article/SB115309244673308174-
dWwztRkdlWIvH6bLmhk7RlSW7I20070717.html?mod÷blogs; and Justin Cole, Jishing. Beware of E-
mail Asking You To Phone Your Bank (AFP, 23 July 2006), available at:
http://news.yahoo.com/s/aIp/20060723/lIaIp/usbankinginternet060723223705.
23
'Spyware¨ are soItware that secretly installs itselI on a user`s computer and runs in the background in
order to log the user`s personal inIormation and perIorm surveillance on the user`s actions without his
knowledge or real consent, although the user may have downloaded the soItware inadvertently or installed
the spyware by his own actions.
24
Internet security company Trend Micro has also issued a warning against spy-phishing, which uses the
phishing technique as well as spyware programs to target online banks and other password-driven sites. It
sees spy-phishing as the next step Ior phishers and spyware authors who want to steal money and personal
inIormation Irom users. Some do this by creating programs to steal credit card numbers, account log-ins or
a variety oI other types oI personal inIormation. See, Daniel Lim, Trend Micro Warns Against Spv-
Phishing (HardwareZone.com News, 12 July 2006), available at:
http://www.hardwarezone.com/news/view.php?id÷4939&cid÷8&src÷rss. 'According to data collected by
Trend Micro, the amount oI Troian spyware such as that employed in spy-phishing attacks has been
steadily increasing. According to the Trend Micro Troian Spyware Index, the incidence oI Troian spyware
has increased by over 250 per cent over the past 16 months. Similarly, according to a report published by
the Anti-Phishing Working Group, an average oI more than 188 new samples oI Troian spyware have been
utilised in spy-phishing attacks each month in the Iirst Iour months oI 2006 a 234 per cent increase over
the same period in 2005.¨
13
what is known as 'pharming¨ which is a derivative term oI phishing. It involves either
the exploitation oI vulnerability in the Domain Name System (DNS) soItware or by
changing the hosts Iile on the victim`s computer in order to acquire the domain name Ior
the pharmer`s web site so that the traIIic that would normally be directed to the original
and genuine web site will instead be redirected to his web site.

!art 2 - A Comparison of Computer and Cyber Crime Legislation in the United
States. the United Kingdom and Singapore featuring Cyber-Fraud and Identity
Theft Legislation

A. The United States

The United States is a Federal Republic and its Constitution allocates lawmaking
authority between the Iederal and state levels in accordance with certain principles.
25

Federal legislative iurisdiction is limited and is exercised only where intervention at that
level is required such as where problems are national in scope and the solution lies in a
uniIorm and consistent law that is common to all states. In that sense, computer crimes
and cyber crimes that are easily perpetrated across borders and that are considered illegal
in all states is a good example oI an area oI law that is susceptible to Iederal treatment. In
actual Iact, computer crime and cyber crime legislation have been Iormulated and
adopted at both Iederal and state levels.

Due to its political structure, computer-related crime legislation and enIorcement remain
largely under state iurisdiction oI prescription, adiudication and enIorcement.
26
Each state
has its own unique set oI criminal legislation and there is no Iormal mechanism
compelling them to adopt uniIorm or consistent laws.
27


The United States Department oI Justice (DOJ) have deIined 'computer crime¨ as 'any
violations oI criminal law that involve a knowledge oI computer technology Ior their
perpetration, investigation, or prosecution¨,
28
which Ior our purposes would be the same
as 'computer-related crime¨. However, the DOJ had also Iurther divided computer-
related crimes into three categories according to the computer`s role in the particular
crime: The computer as the 'obiect¨ oI a crime, as the 'subiect¨ oI a crime (i.e. computer
crimes Ior which there is no analogous traditional crime and Ior which special legislation

25
See, U.S. CONST. Art. I § 8, which lists the United States Congress` power to legislate in various areas;
and U.S. CONST. Amend. X, which states that: 'The powers not delegated to the United States by the
Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.¨
26
See, Susan W. Brenner, State Cvbercrime Legislation in the United States of America. A Survev, 7 RICH.
J.L. & TECH. 28 (Winter 2001), available at http://www.richmond.edu/iolt/v7i3/article2.html.
27
Except, Ior example, insoIar as Iederal legislation preempts state laws where they conIlict. However,
there are many non-mandatory instruments that seek to persuade states to adopt laws in as similar a Iashion
as possible, including Restatements oI Law, UniIorm Acts and the Model Laws (e.g. the Model Penal
Code).
28
NAT`L INST. OF JUSTICE, U.S. DEP`T OF JUST., COMPUTER CRIME: CRIMINAL JUST.
RESOURCE MANUAL 2 (1989).
14
is needed), or as an 'instrument¨ oI traditional crimes.
29
This compartmentalization
resembles the categorizations made under Part 1.

Since 1984, the United States Congress has pursued a dual approach to combating
computer crime.
30
The CounterIeit Access Device and Computer Fraud and Abuse Law
oI 1984 and subsequent amending Acts address crimes in which the computer is the
'subiect¨. This line oI statutes culminated in the National InIormation InIrastructure
Protection Act oI 1996 (NIIPA).
31


The Iederal government`s approach to regulating crimes involving the computer as an
'instrument¨ has been to update traditional criminal statutes in order to reach similar
crimes involving computers. The Iederal government has also used the United States
Sentencing Guidelines (USSG) to enhance sentences Ior traditional crimes committed
with the aid oI computers. In Iact, there have already been initiatives at the Iederal level
to deal with cyber crimes and crime-speciIic legislation continues to surIace at the
national level that is worth serious consideration.
32


There are several Iederal computer crime and cyber crime statutes including the omnibus
Iederal computer crime/cyber crime statute which makes it an oIIence to, among other
things, gain unauthorized entry to a computer and thereby gain access to inIormation to
which the perpetrator is not entitled to have access; and to gain unauthorized access to a
computer and thereby Iurther the perpetration oI a Iraud.
33
These are essentially computer

29
Ibid. at Note 1.
30
See, Dana L. Bazelon, Yun Jung Choi and Jason F. Conaty, Computer Crimes, 43 Am. Crim. L. Rev.
259, 264 (2006).
31
18 U.S. Code § 1030. The latest amendments came Irom the inIamous Uniting and Strengthening
America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act oI 2001 (USA
PATRIOT Act) as well as Irom the Cyber Security Enhancement Act oI 2002 and the Computer SoItware
Privacy and Control Act oI 2004. Ibid. at 265-273.
32
Ibid. at 273-290 (discussing the most prominent statutes that are used to prosecute traditional crimes
committed with the aid oI a computer). In relation to phishing and its relation to identity theIt in particular,
any number oI Iederal legislation may be implicated depending on the method and obiective oI the
perpetrator including statutes relating to wire Iraud, credit card Iraud, bank Iraud, computer Iraud, anti-
spam and consumer protection. See, Matthew Bierlein and Gregory Smith, Internet. Privacv Year in
Review. Growing Problems with Spvware and Phishing. Judicial and Legislative Developments in Internet
Governance. and the Impacts on Privacv, 1 ISJLP 279, 308-309 (2005).
33
18 U.S. Code § 1030. The statute contains other computer-related oIIences as well. Other statutes include
18 U.S. Code § 1028 (making it a crime to produce, transIer or possess a device, including a computer, that
is intended to be used to IalsiIy identiIication documents); and 18 U.S. Code § 2319 (making it a Iederal
oIIense to inIringe a valid copyright.). Other existing criminal statutes and provisions may also apply to
computer-related transactions as well. For example, sex-related statutes such as 18 U.S. Code § 1462-1463
(prohibiting the use oI a computer to import obscene material into the United States or to transport such
material in interstate or Ioreign commerce); 18 U.S. Code 2251-2252A (making it a crime to employ or to
induce participation by a minor in the making oI a visual depiction oI a sexually explicit act iI it was
created using materials that had been transported, including by electronic means, in interstate or Ioreign
commerce; prohibiting the use oI a computer to sell or transIer custody oI a minor knowing the minor will
be used to create a visual depiction oI sexually explicit conduct; and making it a crime to use a computer to
transport child pornography in interstate or Ioreign commerce). For more on the Computer Fraud and
Abuse Act, see Reid Skibell, Cvbercrimes & Misdemeanors. A Reevaluation of the Computer Fraud and
Abuse Act, 18 Berkeley Tech. L.J. 909 (2003); and Jo-Ann M. Adams, Controlling Cvberspace. Applving
15
crime oIIences that are relevant to but not speciIically applicable to phishing scams and
other Iraud schemes involving identity theIt and, in certain cases, to Iurther the obiective
oI Iinancial cheating or stealing Irom the primary target.

More speciIically in relation to phishing practices, a new Iederal law that is already in
eIIect that is relevant to phishing, albeit indirectlv, is the Identity TheIt Penalty
Enhancement Act oI 2004 (ITPEA),
34
which establishes the Iederal criminal oIIense oI
aggravated identity theIt and creates more stringent means and stronger penalties to
punish phishers. Legislation aimed directlv at phishing practices was Iirst introduced to
the United States Congress in 2004,
35
and again in 2005 in the Iorm oI the Anti-Phishing
Act oI 2005.
36
The Bill targets the entire scam process Irom the sending oI the email to
the creation oI Iraudulent sites.
37
It stipulates that the perpetrator must have the speciIic
criminal purpose oI committing a crime oI Iraud or identity theIt beIore an oIIence is
made out.
38


the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act to the Internet, 12 Santa Clara Computer & High Tech. L.J. 403, 409
(1996). See also Sara R. Paul, Identitv Theft. Outline of Federal Statutes and Bibliographv of Select
Resources (LLRX.com, 18 September 2005), available at: http://www.llrx.com/Ieatures/idtheItguide.htm.
34
18 U.S Code § 1028A. An individual commits aggravated identity theIt iI, while engaging in an
enumerated identity theIt related oIIense, the individual 'knowingly transIers, possesses, or uses, without
lawIul authority, a means oI identiIication oI another person.¨ The commission oI aggravated identity theIt
results in a mandatory minimum sentence oI 2 years imprisonment in addition to the punishment imposed
Ior the original oIIence. Ibid. at subsection (a)(1). See also DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE, CRIMINAL
DIVISION, SPECIAL REPORT ON 'PHISHING¨, available at
http://www.usdoi.gov/criminal/Iraud/Phishing.pdI.
35
It was introduced by Democratic Senator Patrick Leahy oI Vermont as an Act to criminalize Internet
scams 'involving Iraudulently obtaining personal inIormation, commonly known as phishing¨. S. 2636,
108th Cong. (2004), available at: http://Irwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-
bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname÷108congbills&docid÷I:s2636is.txt.pdI. See U.S. Senator Patrick Leahy, Senate
Floor Speech. New Leahv Bill Targets Internet 'PHISHING` And 'PHARMING` That Steal Billions Of
Dollars Annuallv From Consumers (28 February 2005), available at:
http://leahy.senate.gov/press/200503/030105.html. For an overview, see Robert Louis B. Stevenson,
Plugging the 'Phishing` Hole. Legislation Jersus Technologv, Duke L. & Tech. Rev. 6 (2005), available
at: http://www.crime-research.org/analytics/phishingduke/.
36
The 2005 Bill was similarly introduced by Democratic Senator Patrick Leahy oI Vermont Ior the same
obiective as the 2004 version. S. 472, 109th Cong. (2005), available at: http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-
bin/bdquery/z?d109:S.472: and http://www.theorator.com/bills109/s472.html. See also, Grant Gross,
Proposed Law Aims to Fight Phishing. Anti-Phishing Act of 2005 Allows for Prison Time and Heftv Fines
(IDG News Service, 5 March 2005), available at:
http://www.pcworld.com/news/article/0,aid,119912,00.asp; Gearhead, Will the Anti-Phishing Act Make a
Difference (NetworkWorld.com, 18 March 2005), available at:
http://www.networkworld.com/weblogs/gearblog/2005/008234.html and
http://www.internetnews.com/security/article.php/3487271.
37
The 2005 Bill is similar to the 2004 version and covers both phishing and pharming scams. Parody web
sites, both commercial and political, are exempted Irom the penalties in the bill, thereby avoiding Iree
speech issues and Constitutional impediments.
38
The statute seeks to amend the Iraud and identity statute by including speciIic provisions on Internet
Iraud. The statute is directed at those with the intention oI carrying on any activity that would be a Iederal
or state crime oI Iraud or identity theIt. II an individual knowingly engages in cybersquatting or spooIs a
domain name to induce or solicit an individual to provide inIormation, he may be subiect to a Iine,
imprisonment, or both. II an individual sends an email or other Internet communication, which Ialsely
represents itselI as being sent by a legitimate business, reIers or links users to a cybersquatted or spooIed
location, and induces or solicits personal inIormation, he may be subiect to the same punishment. For other
16

A Ieature oI the bill that is worth promoting as a model Ior other iurisdictions Ior any
international treaty on such oIIences is that it criminalizes the bait. This poisoned bait`
approach criminalizes the conduct engaged in beIore the actual commission oI the Iraud.
For example, it makes it illegal to knowingly send out spooIed email that links to Ialse
web sites, with the intention oI committing a crime. It also criminalizes the operation oI
such web sites that are the locus oI the wrongdoing. This creates an opportunity to
prosecute beIore the actual Iraud takes place, not iust to successIul phishing occurrences.
It thus has a pre-emptive eIIect to such crimes and emphasizes the importance oI
deterrence and crime prevention.
39
The penalty oI imprisonment and Iine are also
appropriately strong and will, hopeIully, provide greater deterrent eIIect. But even then
there continue to exist territorial limitations, both in law (i.e. the reach oI the legislation)
and in Iact (i.e. in actual and eIIective implementation and enIorcement).
40
The bill has
also yet to be passed.
41


The United States will continue to produce state-centric computer-related crime
legislation as it does Ior other laws. However, two idiosyncrasies oI cyberspace support
greater Iederal involvement in computer-related criminal law making. First the
borderless` nature oI such criminal activities and the Iact that iurisdictional rules that
Iunction eIIectively Ior physical activities do not translate well to the cyber realm.
42

Second, the diversity in procedural augmentation has led to a conIusing cacophony oI
state laws that exacerbates the iurisdictional problems oI adiudication and enIorcement.
43


relevant legislation, see also, the Internet False IdentiIication Prevention Act oI 2000 and the Fraudulent
Online Identity Sanctions Act oI 2004 (proposed amendment to the Trademark Act oI 1946).
39
The deterrent cum preventative aspect oI legislation is very important, particularly to the primary policy
obiective oI protecting and rebuilding trust and integrity in the Internet system oI transaction. See JenniIer
Lynch, Identitv Theft in Cvberspace. Crime Control Methods and Their Effectiveness in Combating
Phishing Attacks, 20 Berkeley Tech. L.J. 259 298-299 (2005). See also Anita Ramasastry, The Anti-
Phishing Act of 2004. A Useful Tool Against Identitv Theft (Findlaw Comentary, 16 August 2004),
available at: http://writ.news.Iindlaw.com/ramasastry/20040816.html. Criminalizing aIter the Iact and low
rates oI reporting and enIorcement action makes existing Iederal laws that indirectly criminalizes phishing
acts inadequate.
40
Another valid criticism is that currently many oI the proposed solutions to phishing relates to the
technique in general rather than the oIIence in particular. See Matthew Bierlein and Gregory Smith,
Internet. Privacv Year in Review. Growing Problems with Spvware and Phishing. Judicial and Legislative
Developments in Internet Governance. and the Impacts on Privacv, 1 ISJLP 279, 308-309 (2005). '|Many
proposed solutions are still targeting spam in general and not the speciIic bad acts presented by phishing.¨
Ibid. at 280. This can be limiting particularly when technology and techniques vary and change.
41
Meanwhile, some states have already produced speciIic anti-phishing legislation. At the National
ConIerence oI State Legislatures web site at: http://www.ncsl.org/programs/lis/phishing06.htm, statistics
show that as oI 13 July 2006, ant-phishing bills have been introduced in at leas ten states and enacted in at
least six states. See also, Hohn D. Saba, The Texas Legislature Goes Phishing, 68 Tex. B.J. 706 (2005); and
HNS StaII, Details From the Anti-Phishing Act of 2005, (Net-Security.org, 5 October 2005) on CaliIornia
as the pioneering state to legislate against phishing.
42
E.g. where is a 'harm caused¨? Where is a criminal oIIence 'committed¨?
43
States have to varying extents amended or adopted legislation that target procedural and substantive
issues relating to computer-related crime. Some have amended existing legislation in an attempt to update
crime-speciIic statutes or general criminal statutes, while others have enacted entirely new laws.
Jurisdiction, deIinitions and penalty provisions are iust some oI the changes made in an attempt to make
their criminal law relevant to electronically perpetrated crimes. As one oI the more technologically
17
Seeking a consistent solution at the national level is preIerable to sub-national eIIorts
with varying degrees oI eIIectiveness,
44
particularly iI the obiectives oI eliminating or at
least reducing computer-related crimes, through deterrence and punishment oI oIIenders,
are to be met.
45
Years aIter the United States signed the Cybercrime Convention, the
United States Senate Iinally ratiIied the Convention in August 2006 becoming the
sixteenth country to do so.
46
The signiIicance oI its ratiIication will only become apparent
in time.
47


. The United Kingdom

The European community and its neighbouring countries inIluence the public policy and
laws oI the United Kingdom. The CoE has issued a number oI documents, which have
inIluenced the British criminal iustice system. For example, through its acknowledgement
oI the standards set by the Council oI Europe (CoE) in its Cybercrime Convention as a
signatory state, the United Kingdom signiIied its intention to bring the provisions under
the Convention into eIIect within the country.
48
The reason Ior the inIluence is the Iact

advanced countries in the world, the non-uniIormity oI treatment and lack oI comprehensiveness oI its
substantive computer-related crime legislation is disappointing. The way the United States and many other
iurisdictions have dealt with computer-related crime, that is, piecemeal and as it arises, can be analogized to
how MicrosoIt continues to issue 'patches¨ Ior its programs. It works to some extent, but not in a
particularly satisIactory manner.
44
Indeed, the United States has produced more than Iorty diIIerent Iederals statutes that contain criminal
provisions Ior computer-related crimes. See, Heather Jacobson and Rebecca Green, Computer Crimes, 39
Am. Crim. L. Rev. 273, 287-304 (2002); Eric J. Bakewell, Michelle Koldaro and JenniIer M. Tiia,
Computer Crimes, 38 Am. Crim. L. Rev. 481, 287-304 (2001); Laura J. Nicholson, Tom F. Shebar and
Meredith R. Weinberg, Computer Crimes, 37 Am. Crim. L. Rev. 207, 220-231 (2000); Michael Hatcher
and Jay McDannell and Stacy OstIeld, Computer Crimes, 36 Am. Crim. L. Rev. 397, 411-418 (1999); and
Sheri A. Dillon, Douglas E. Groene and Todd Hayward, Computer Crimes, 35 Am. Crim. L. Rev. 503,
513-519 (1998).
45
The obiectives oI harmonization and consistent laws that are enIorceable anywhere in the world are
equally applicable here at the national plane. See below Part 3 on the 'Obiectives oI Multilateralism¨.
46
See Nate Anderson, 'Worlds Worst Internet Law` ratified bv Senate (arstechnica.com , 4 August 2006),
available at: http://arstechnica.com/news.ars/post/20060804-7421.html. As noted, civil libertarians have
criticized the move, warning oI the potential problems associated with the apparent dispensation oI the dual
criminality requirement in some cases Ior law enIorcement. See also, Dan Kaplan, Senate Ratification of
Cvbercrime Treatv Praised (SC Magazine, 4 August 2006), available at:
http://www.scmagazine.com/uk/news/article/576037/senate-ratiIication-cybercrime-treaty-praised/; and
Anon., Senate Ratifies Convention on Cvbercrime (Tech Law Journal, 3 August 2006), available at:
http://www.techlawiournal.com/topstories/2006/20060803b.asp.
47
Also, how this translates into its laws and how it will relate to existing Iederal and state laws will require
closer examination.
48
The U.K. Government was involved in the creation oI two treaties on the prevention oI cybercrime,
under the CoE and the EU, both oI which originated in Europe and both oI which calls Ior international
coordination to tackle abuses oI computer systems. They are the Cybercrime Convention oI 2001 and the
E.U. Council Framework Decision on Attacks Against InIormation Systems (OJ L 069, 16 March 2005),
which was proposed on 19 April 2002, adopted on 24 February 2005 and required to be transposed into
national law by 16 March 2007 by member states.
18
that European countries are a closely interconnected community oI nations historically,
geographically and economically.
49


The United Kingdom computer crimes legislation is the Computer Misuse Act oI 1990
(CMA).
50
The government is currently proposing amendments to the CMA to update it
with more expansive provisions and stiIIer penalties.
51
The amendments have been sent
to the House oI Lords Ior consideration as part oI the Police and Justice Bill.
52
The only
overlapping provision under the CMA with cyber crime oIIences is section 2 which
makes it an oIIence to gain unauthorized access to any program or data held in any
computer with the intention oI committing or Iacilitating the commission oI Iurther
oIIences that satisIy a set oI criteria.
53


Unlike the Cybercrime Convention that provides Ior both computer crime and cyber
crime under one instrument, the United Kingdom itselI has a distinctive dual track
approach by enacting the CMA Ior computer crimes while leaving computer-enabled
commission oI more traditional oIIences to be dealt with under existing criminal
legislation. Amendments to speciIic legislations and provisions have also been made to
cover possible lacunas as a result oI developments brought on by the advent oI the
electronic age. The application oI traditional criminal concepts to non-traditional acts and
actors, instruments, inIormation and products arising Irom new technology require
amendments, in particular relating to deIinition, interpretation and scope. The United
Kingdom government has done this Ior some oI its legislation such as those pertaining to
Iraud and theIt, pornography and intellectual property oIIences.

With regards to amendments to Iraud and theIt legislation, which is relevant to our case
study, section 2 oI the CMA is a useIul net to catch oIIences that are perpetrated through

49
In contrast, the United States is not strongly inIluenced by the rule oI law oI Europe. Even iI the United
States government adopts some oI the propositions set out by the European community, it is not bound to
the same extent that other European countries are bound.
50
The United Kingdom CMA is available at:
http://www.opsi.gov.uk/acts/acts1990/Ukpga19900018en1.htm. For an overview, see generally, Martin
Wasik, The Computer Misuse Act, 1990 Crim. L. Rev. 767. This CMA became the model and Iormed the
template Ior many similar Acts in other Commonwealth iurisdictions including Singapore and Malaysia.
51
Although the United Kingdom pioneered computer crime legislation, it has since been overtaken in terms
oI its relevance by other countries such as Singapore, which has seen many changes to it since it has been
originally enacted, in particular, taking into account new problems relating to the uses oI the computer Ior
communications and as the gateway to the Internet. See, Lilian Edwards, Dawn of the Death of Distributed
Denial of Service. How To Kill Zombies, 24 Cardozo Arts & Ent LJ 23, 36 (2006).
52
See, Jeremy Kirk, Analvsts Warv of U.K. Cvbercrime Law Revamp. Tougher Penalties. But Can the Law
Stav Up to Date? (IDG News Service, 7 June 2006), available at:
http://www.computerworld.com/action/article.do?command÷viewArticleBasic&taxonomyName÷Cybercri
meHacking&articleId÷9000999&taxonomyId÷82 and http://www.networkworld.com/news/2006/060706-
analysts-eye-revamp-uk-cybercrime.html?prl. An earlier proposal Ior revision, the Computer Misuse Act
1990 (Amendment) Bill, 2004-2005, H.C. Bill |102|, sponsored by the chair oI the All Party Parliamentary
Internet Group (APIG), Iell through when Parliament was prorogued in April 2005.
53
Under subsection 2: '|O|IIences Ior which the sentence is Iixed by law; or Ior which a person oI twenty-
one years oI age or over (not previously convicted) may be sentenced to imprisonment Ior a term oI Iive
years.¨ CI. section 4 oI the Singapore CMA.
19
electronic means. Also, an oIIence oI 'obtaining a money transIer by deception¨
54
was
created under the TheIt Act oI 1968, which required that property 'belonging to
another¨
55
must be obtained Ior Iraud because it did not cover, Ior instance, an accounts-
related Iraud case where the data recorded in a set oI accounts was altered, since it did not
constitute the obtaining oI propertv 'belonging to another¨.
56
This appears to cover most
phishing and related oIIences, since in all likelihood there will be some Iorm oI money
transIer involved. However, the transIer oI other Iinancial or other assets such as
something that is only oI sentimental value, in particular those in digital Iorm may not
Iall under either 'money transIer¨ or 'property¨.
57


In the meantime, in a new development, a Fraud Bill has been tabled in Parliament Ior
consideration, which is oI direct relevance to the act oI phishing and other such
Iraudulent acts.
58
It was introduced into the House oI Lords on 25 May 2005 with the aim
oI modernizing the deIinitions oI Iraud, which have not been changed to take into
consideration technological advances since 1968.
59
II enacted into law, it will ensure that
criminals utilizing technology to commit oIIences will not escape prosecution due to a
loophole in the law based on outdated and narrow deIinitions. For example, under the
current narrowly deIined oIIences oI deception in the TheIt Acts, criminals operating
online oIten escape prosecution, as their crime does not technically Iall within the
deIinition oI the oIIence.


54
Money can be transIerred to a third party Ior the purchase oI goods or it can be transIerred to the
oIIender`s own account.
55
Under the Act, '|a| person is guilty oI theIt, iI he dishonestly appropriates property belonging to another
with the intention oI permanently depriving the other oI it¨. Section 4 deIines 'property¨ as 'include|ing|
all personaltv, i.e. land itselI cannot be stolen but anything severed Irom the land (with the exception oI
wild Ilowers) can be stolen, as can intangible property such as a chose in action.¨
56
See section 1 oI the TheIt (Amendment) Act oI 1996, available at:
http://www.opsi.gov.uk/acts/acts1996/1996062.htm. There are now Iive oIIences, namely: Obtaining
services by deception under section 1; evasion oI liability by deception under section 2; obtaining property
by deception under section 15; obtaining a money transIer by deception under sections 15A and 15B; and
obtaining a pecuniary advantage by deception under section 16. It is also an oIIence to make oII without
paying. This does not require a deception.
57
The Act also does not cover the use oI improperly obtained passwords and identiIiable inIormation per se
or its use to access data or inIormation. It appears that that is leIt to other laws including the CMA and laws
relating to trade secrets, conIidential inIormation, privacy and data protection.
58
Bill 166 Sess. 2005-2006, available at the U.K. Parliament web site at:
http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200506/cmbills/166/06166.i-i.html or
http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200506/cmbills/166/2006166.pdI. For the latest updates, see:
http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/pabills/200506/Iraud.htm. See Iurther, the House oI Lords
Explanatory Notes on the Fraud Bill, available at:
http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld200506/ldbills/007/en/06007x--.htm; and the House oI
Commons Explanatory Notes on the Fraud Bill, available at: http://www.parliament.the-stationery-
oIIice.co.uk/pa/cm200506/cmbills/166/en/06166x--.htm.
59
The Government`s Response to the views expressed in earlier consultations was published on the U.K.
Home OIIice web site on 24 November 2004, available at: http://www.homeoIIice.gov.uk/documents/cons-
Iraud-law-reIorm).
20
The new Bill creates a general oIIence oI Iraud which can be committed in one oI three
ways: False representation,
60
Iailure to disclose inIormation, and abuse oI position. Other
new oIIences relating to obtaining services dishonestly,
61
and possessing, making and
supplying articles Ior use in Iraud have also been created under the Bill.
62
The wording oI
the Bill has been speciIically draIted to include online Iraud and other oIIences involving
the use oI technology. It is to be noted that Iraud by Ialse representation is committed
irrespective oI whether the intended victim is deceived. Hence, it has a pre-emptive eIIect
similar to that which is oIIered in the United States Anti-Phishing Bill, and punishes an
oIIender without requiring a victim to materialize in the Iirst place. II and when it is
passed, it will overtake many oI the oIIences under the TheIts Act.
63


C. The Singapore Model

Unlike the United States and the approach taken by the CoE Ior the Cybercrime
Convention, which combined computer crimes and cyber crimes in a single instrument,
the Singapore legislature Iocused its eIIorts on producing a computer crime speciIic
legislation, while attempting to leave cyber crime to be dealt with under its existing
statutes through augmentation by amendment. Thus, it Iollows the United Kingdom
model and approach to the problem. This stems Irom the perception that since the actual
criminal acts relate to traditional oIIences, the inclusion oI deIinitions and reIerences to
electronic modes oI communication and commission oI oIIences will be suIIicient.
However, as it will be shown in the case oI phishing and similar oIIences oI Iraud
involving identity theIt, this approach is clearly inadequate as to its coverage under
current legislation. It is also not able to satisIactorily meet public policy obiectives such
as crime deterrence, prevention and punishment.

Like the United Kingdom, only computer crime is dealt with under the Computer Misuse
Act (Cap. 50A) (CMA).
64
Cyber crime remains to be dealt with under the provisions oI

60
'This oIIence would also be committed by someone who engages in 'phishing¨: i.e. where a person
disseminates an email to large groups oI people Ialsely representing that the email has been sent by a
legitimate Iinancial institution. The email prompts the reader to provide inIormation such as credit card and
bank account numbers so that the 'phisher¨ can gain access to others' personal Iinancial inIormation.¨ See
the House oI Lords Explanatory Notes on the Fraud Bill at para. 14; and the House oI Commons
Explanatory Notes on the Fraud Bill at para. 16.
61
E.g. Iraudulent credit card transactions on the Internet.
62
See, Susan Barty and Phillip Carnell, Fraud Bill Offers Protection from IT Fraud (dCode.co.uk, 11 July
2005), available at: http://www.dcode.co.uk/site/home/20050711Iraud.html; or Susan Barty and Phillip
Carnell, United Kingdom. New Protection Against Technologv Abuse Under Governments Fraud Bill
(Mondaq, 5 July 2005), available at: http://www.mondaq.com/article.asp?articleid÷33546&lastestnews÷1.
63
Meanwhile, the United Kingdom recently Iolded its national computer crime unit, the National Hi-Tech
Crime Unit, into a new agency known as the Serious Organized Crime Agency (SOCA); while the Crown
Prosecution Service (CPS) is sending its legal oIIicers Ior special training on computer-related crimes in
order to educate them on the technical aspects oI such oIIences and to keep them abreast oI developments
so as to update their skills and knowledge in this area.
64
In summary, the CMA adopts Iour approaches to Iight computer crimes: First, creating oI new computer
crimes Ior new problems that arise which require regulation; second, providing appropriate penalties as
punishment and Ior deterrent eIIect, oIten increasing penalties, particularly in relation to the seriousness oI
the oIIence, such as the increased penalties where 'damage¨ occurs (sentencing guidelines and policy
Iurther complement this approach); third, giving enhanced and speciIic powers oI investigation to law
21
the Penal Code (Cap. 224) and the provisions oI a host oI other legislations,
65
which as
stated are inadequate to deal with the problem in terms oI both applicability and the
eIIects oI the punishment.
66


The problem with relying on a legislation that was draIted beIore the electronic age, and
that has not been amended, is that certain words and their interpretation do not apply to
the electronic Iorm oI transacting or to such an environment. Under the current version oI
the Penal Code, the oIIence oI cheating should apply to acts oI phishing with the purpose
oI using stolen inIormation Ior unlawIul economic gain. A person cheats 'by deceiving
any person, |and| Iraudulently or dishonestly induces the person so deceived to deliver
any property to any person, or to consent that any person shall retain any property, or
intentionally induces the person so deceived to do or omit to do anything which he would
not do or omit iI he were not so deceived, and which act or omission causes or is likely to
cause damage or harm to that person in body, mind, reputation or property.¨
67
The victim
could be the person whose inIormation is stolen, provided that such inIormation can
constitute 'property¨ (which shall be an issue to be considered in relation to other
property oIIences), or it could be the person or organization which is deceived or
intentionally induced into transacting with the oIIender on the basis oI that inIormation
(which can include banking and Iinancial institutions, companies and business, and other
Iorms oI organization).

The deIinition oI 'property¨ here is a crucial one in order Ior there to be an actionable
oIIence oI cheating in relation to the theIt oI the users or customers` (the primary target)
identity and other personal data and inIormation such as passwords and identiIiable codes
per se.
68
In order Ior the scammer to Iace criminal prosecution in such a case, irrespective
oI any subsequent transaction on other Iorms oI property occurring through the use oI the
identity or inIormation, it must be accepted that personal data and inIormation can
constitute property. There is no general interpretation oI 'property¨ under the

enIorcement agencies and creating specialised agencies with trained proIessionals and experts to deal with
what are specialty crimes; and Iourth, acknowledging the trans-national nature oI such oIIences and its
eIIects by giving extra-territorial eIIect to the oIIences under the Act and making it also an oIIence to abet
and even to attempt the commission oI such oIIences. The CMA Iurther enhances computer security, by
broadening the powers oI the police to investigate such misdeeds and by giving it extra-territorial eIIect. In
relation to law enIorcement, on top oI broader police powers, the Singapore government has also
established specialized technology units to handle computer crime investigations. These are the Computer
Crimes Branch oI the Criminal Investigation Department (CID), the Computer Forensics Branch oI the
Singapore Police Force (SPF), and the Singapore Computer Emergency Response Team (SingCERT) oI the
IDA. They were considered necessary to cope with the technological aspects oI such cases and the
increasing sophistication oI computer programs and Iunctions as well as oI computer users. Finally, it is
worth noting that section 4 oI the CMA reIers to oIIences involving 'property¨, 'Iraud¨ and 'dishonesty¨
(all oI which appear mostly in the cheating provisions) or which causes bodily harm (oIIences against the
person). However, the prerequisite oI a punishable 2-year iail term appears arbitrary.
65
E.g. the Miscellaneous OIIences (Public Order and Nuisance) Act (Cap.184).
66
This statement relates to the general criminal oIIence provisions under the Penal Code (Cap. 224) alone.
There may be other provisions in speciIic legislation providing against Iraud and Iraudulent transactions
pursuant to the use oI stolen inIormation that can cover phishing and related activities.
67
Section 415 oI the Penal Code (Cap. 224).
68
Additionally, the spooIing oI the target organization`s (the secondary target) web site can constitute
copyright and trademark inIringement under intellectual property laws.
22
Interpretation Act (Cap 1). However, there is a deIinition oI 'immovable property¨ under
section 2 oI the Interpretation Act which 'includes land, beneIits to arise out oI land and
things attached to the earth or permanently Iastened to anything attached to the earth¨,
and oI 'movable property¨ which means 'property oI every description except
immovable property¨. What 'property oI every description¨ means and whether it
extends to personal data and inIormation, and in particular, digital and electronic
inIormation, in the context oI the Penal Code and other criminal provisions is still
unclear. A purposive interpretation may still yield criminal recourse against perpetrators
oI phishing and similar oIIences.
69
Certainly, it would appear that it is easier to prove
cheating iI a subsequent transaction on Iinancial or tangible assets takes place through the
use oI such personal data or inIormation, as can be seen in sections 421 to 424 which
deals with Iraudulent deeds and dispositions oI property. However, they still relate to a
diIIerent set oI transactions.
70
The oIIence oI cheating also does not have the eIIect oI
pre-empting Iurther oIIences Irom occurring such as by allowing Ior the prosecution oI
theIt oI data or inIormation per se.

Unlike the cheating provisions, which can still possibly to cover phishing and related
scams, some other potential criminal oIIences are rendered inapplicable due to the limited
scope oI the 'property¨ that Iorms the subiect matter oI the oIIence and one oI its
essential element. The preamble to section 2 oI the Interpretation Act states that the
deIinitions contained within it are only applicable to the extent that they are not
inconsistent with the construction due to the subiect or context in which they appear or
unless it is otherwise expressly provided. Section 22 oI the Penal Code provides that
'movable property¨ is intended to include 'corporeal property oI every description,
except land and things attached to the earth, or permanently Iastened to anything which is
attached to the earth.¨ The ordinary meaning oI 'corporeal¨ is that which relates to, or
has the characteristic oI a material or tangible Iorm. Personal inIormation such as identity
numbers and Iinancial inIormation do not appear to Iall under this deIinition; neither will
digital materials and property. Hence, it is unlikely that the oIIence oI theIt or criminal
misappropriation oI property, Ior example, will be useIul in relation to cyberspace
transactions as these oIIences reIer to 'movable property¨ only.

We have seen in the context oI the United States and the United Kingdom there are two
levels to the problems relating to phishing and its progeny: Fraud and identity theIt. The
solution to Iraud, whether or not it leads to the theIt oI other Iorms oI property comes in
the Iorm oI general criminal legislation, such as provisions under a Criminal Code;
speciIic legislation, such as a TheIt and/or Fraud Act, or both. Identity theIt can also
constitute a criminal oIIence iI it is provided as such under legislation as the United

69
Clarity in the law such as in the language oI the criminal provisions themselves as well as explanatory
notes and modern illustrations will be most useIul to remove any ambiguities.
70
Forgery is another oIIence that can be applicable to cyber-Iraud cases. It is a criminal oIIence to commit
Iorgery Ior the purpose oI Section 464 states that: 'Whoever makes any Ialse document or part oI a
document with intent to cause damage or iniury to the public or to any person, or to support any claim or
title, or to cause any person to part with property, or to enter into any express or implied contract, or with
intent to commit Iraud or that Iraud may be committed, commits Iorgery.¨
23
States have done.
71
Privacy and data protection laws as well as computer crime
legislation also play a part iI applicable to the Iact situation. In Singapore`s case, as we
have seen, the basis Ior a Iraud or theIt action oI intangible property such as digital assets
and personal inIormation is archaic and in need oI reIorm, and there are no privacy or
data protection laws against identity theIt and personal data.
72


There are also problems relating or extending other subiect matters oI penal provisions to
their digital analogues such as 'book, paper, writing, valuable security or account¨
73
and
'document¨
74
.

On the other hand, it is to be noted that despite its deIiciencies in cyber crime law
making, the Singapore CMA has been constantly amended and is more progressive than
the United Kingdom`s CMA, upon which it was originally modeled aIter.
75


D. General Observations. Comments and Criticisms

There are Iresh legal challenges to cyber crimes that do not Ieature largely or at all in
terrestrial crimes. Traditional crimes oI theIt and Iraud oIten takes place within

71
E.g. the United States` Internet False IdentiIication Prevention Act oI 2000 and the Fraudulent Online
Identity Sanctions Act oI 2004 (proposed amendment to the Trademark Act oI 1946).
72
It is also an oIIence to cheat by personation under section 416 oI the Penal Code (Cap. 224), punishable
under section 419. However, it has to involve the impersonation oI a 'person¨, whether real or imaginary,
and does not extend to artiIicial entities or automatic agents. In Singapore, there is selI-regulation in the
private sector Ior some Iorm oI data protection but no general legal recourse, civil or criminal, Ior the
taking oI personal identiIiable inIormation per se.
73
See section 477A, which is a Iorgery oIIence that may be applicable, Ior example, to the case oI the
deIrauding employee.
74
Which is deIined under section 29 oI the Penal Code as: '|A|ny matter expressed or described upon any
substance by means oI letters, Iigures or marks, or by more than one oI those means, intended to be used, or
which may be used, as evidence oI that matter.¨ Explanation 1 Iurther states that: 'It is immaterial by what
means, or upon what substance, the letters, Iigures or marks are Iormed, or whether the evidence is
intended Ior, or may be used in, a court oI iustice, or not.¨ Explanation 2 Iurther states that: 'Whatever is
expressed by means oI letters, Iigures or marks, as explained by mercantile or other usage, shall be deemed
to be expressed by such letters, Iigures or marks within the meaning oI this section, although the same may
not be actually expressed.¨ However, this does not shed much light on whether electronic or digital Iorms
oI inIormation or record are included in the deIinition. The Interpretation Act does not have a deIinition oI
'document¨.
75
However, the United Kingdom CMA is in the process oI amendment. See, the Computer Misuse Act
1990 (Amendment) Bill. Bill 102 Sess. 2004-2005. See also, the U.K. Parliament web site at:
http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200405/cmbills/102/2005102.htm. In particular, it
incorporates denial oI services attacks as a computer crime. See, The Police and Justice Bill. Bill 119 Sess.
2005-06. See also, the U.K. Parliament web site at:
http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200506/cmbills/119/2006119.htm. It contains amendments to
the CMA in Miscellaneous Part 5. It is likely to be accepted into law by the end oI 2006. II it becomes law
it will amend section 1(3) oI the CMA by increasing the penalties Ior unauthorised access to computer
material; section 3 oI the CMA, by broadening the oIIence oI unauthorised acts with intent to impair
operation oI computer to 'any unauthorised act in relation to a computer¨, which will widen the scope oI
the CMA to include denial oI service attacks. The Bill is now at the House oI Lords Committee (see:
http://www.lga.gov.uk/Legislative.asp?lsection÷59&ccat÷1156). See also, Bill Thompson, How to
Legislate Against Hackers (BBC News, 13 March 2006), available at:
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/technology/4799338.stm.
24
iurisdiction, unless it involves large scale or cross-border scams such as through
syndicates and conspiracies respectively, whereas it is the norm Ior Internet scams to
largely transcend borders and originate Irom countries with laxer law and enIorcement
mechanisms.

As we have seen, although existing laws can and do cover electronically perpetrated
crimes, they may not be suitable, appropriate or relevant Ior several reasons, including
the Iollowing main ones:
1. The punishment is generic and is inadequate to meet public policy obiectives such as
crime prevention and control as well as the maintenance oI the integrity and security
oI inIormation technology networks.
2. Jurisdiction is still conIined to acts perpetrated within the country and territorial
iurisdiction is still the rule and only speciIied exceptions are triable within Singapore
even iI the acts are committed beyond it.
76

3. Some provisions are rendered inapplicable due to antiquated deIinitions oI key
elements or words and statutory examples such as explanatory notes and illustrations
are also outdated.

There are two possible legislative approaches in response to computer-related crime:
Augmentation oI existing criminal statutes or provisions through amendments; or the
creation oI new legislation, whether in the Iorm oI an omnibus statute which
comprehensively deals with computer crime, cyber crime or both, or speciIic statutes
addressing speciIic Iorms oI electronically perpetrated crimes, particularly cyber crime.
AIter looking at the general treatment oI computer-related crimes, and also speciIically
on their responses to cyber-Iraud and identity theIt oIIences, we see that there are
additional problems including disparity oI treatment and slow, inadequate and the lack oI
comprehensive legislative response to new problems. In summary, the main diIIerences
are displayed in Table 1.

Table 1. Comparison of Legal Treatment of Computer-Related Crime in the U.S..
the U.K. and Singapore

Country

Subject Matter

U.S.

U.K.

Singapore
Legal Structure at
the
National Level

Federation
(consists oI 50 state
which together Iorm
the Iederal state)
State
(political union oI 4
constituent
countries)
State
(single sovereign
state)
Legal Involvement
at the
International Level
(with the CoE
Cybercrime
O Involved in the
draIting
O Member Party
(recently ratiIied
in August 2006)
O Involved in the
draIting
O Signatory Party
O Member oI the
EU and part oI
O Not involved in
the draIting
O Not a party

76
E.g., see sections 2 and 3 oI the Singapore Penal Code respectively.
25
Convention)

its regional
initiative
Legal Treatment of
Computer-Related
Crime Generally
Parallel system,
overlapping Federal
and State laws
Separate treatment
oI computer crime
and cyber crime
Separate treatment
oI computer crime
and cyber crime
Legal Treatment of
Cyber-Fraud and
Identity Theft
(the !hishing Case
Study)
Protection against
both Iraud and
identity theIt but no
comprehensive or
coherent structure;
piecemeal and
duplicitous in
approach
Protection against
both Iraud and
identity theIt in the
Iorm oI both
amendments
existing legislation
and the creation oI
new legislation
Limited protection
against Iraud and no
protection against
identity theIt except
indirectly through
other legislative
provisions

Just in relation to the case study on cyber-Iraud and identity theIt through such methods
as phishing and similar activities, there are several levels to the problem Ior which a
solution can and has be Iormulated in diIIerent countries.

Table 2. Levels to !hishing and Related Electronic Fraud/Theft Activities

!otential
Victim
!roperty` Stolen
through Deception
!ossible Legal
Recourse
!olicy Objective
of Criminalization
Secondary
Target
(spoofed
entity)
1. Corporate or
public identity
O Copyright and
Trademark
inIringement
protection laws
O Criminal law, iI any
O The integrity oI
inIormation
technology Ior
interaction and
transactions
O Pre-emptive eIIect
(deters and prevents 2.
& 3.)
O Punitive eIIect
!rimary
Target
(individual
user or
consumer)
2. Identity and
IdentiIiable
InIormation (e.g.
passwords, ID,
security codes, etc.)
O Privacy and data
protection laws
O Other laws (e.g.
various Iorms oI
Iraud)
O Criminal law, iI any
O Protecting human
dignity and personal
privacy
O Pre-emptive eIIect
(deters and prevents
3.)
O Punitive eIIect
!rimary
Target
(individual
user or
consumer)


3. Other assets,
Iinancial or
otherwise, in
physical or digital
Iorm (e.g. transIer
oI assets) owned by
an individual that
O Criminal law, iI
applicable (e.g.
existing criminal
law such as theIt
and cheating)
O Pre-emptive and
punitive eIIect iI
oIIence is made out
without the oIIence
necessarily carried out
(criminalizing
26
Secondary
Target
(other
entities)
may be in the
custody or control
oI another entity
O Other laws (e.g.
various Iorms oI
Iraud)
preparation and
intention)
O Punitive eIIect iI
oIIence is required to
be made out
(criminalizing
realization and
intention)

As we can see Irom Table 2, there are two types oI property that are implicated in any
electronic scams such as phishing, which should be kept in mind when legislating on the
matter:

1. Identity and other personal inIormation:
77
The protection oI private inIormation or
data and identity through criminalization oI identity and inIormation theIt per se such
as those conducted through Iraud or scams is necessary,
78
not iust the use oI such
inIormation and data Ior the Iurther perpetration oI other oIIences such as the transIer
oI money or other assets. InIormation in itselI is valuable and requires protection, and
they can include personal, corporate, organizational and governmental inIormation.
The question is, Iirst, whether such laws already exists, and second, are they
adequate, particularly in relation to the punishment and the obiectives that they are
meant to serve.
79


2. Physical and digital assets: The act oI inIormation and data manipulation and
collection through Iraud and identity theIt is Ior many criminals a means to an end. It

77
See, Jacqueline Lipton, Protecting Jaluable Commercial Information in the Digital Age. Law. Policv
and Practice, 6 J. Tech. L. & Pol`y 2 (2001). The author notes that governments can and should do some
work both at the domestic and international level to protect valuable commercial inIormation. See also,
Jacqueline Lipton, Mixed Metaphors in Cvberspace. Propertv in Information and Information Svstems, 35
Loy. U. Chi. L.J. 235 (2003).
78
18 U.S. Code § 1028. See the United States` Identity TheIt and Assumption Deterrence Act oI 1998,
available at: http://www.Itc.gov/os/statutes/itada/itadact.htm and
http://www4.law.cornell.edu/uscode/html/uscode18/uscsec1800001028----000-.html. For an overview,
see the United States Federal Trade Commission web site at:
http://www.Itc.gov/bcp/conline/pubs/credit/idtheIt.htm. For more inIormation, Iollow the links provided at
the crime-prevention.org web site at: http://www.crime-prevention.org/identity-theIt-and-assumption-
deterrence-act.html.
79
E.g. as mentioned, iI the Anti-Phishing Act is passed in the United States, the act or even the attempt to
commit Iraud or identity theIt constitutes an oIIence. But iI an additional element such as an intention to
commit another oIIence is required Ior an oIIence to be made out, then a lacuna may exist. This problem
may, however, be overstated as private inIormation and data are more oIten than not invariably used Ior a
purpose that constitutes a separate oIIence under other statutory provisions. In the United States, Ior
instance, there is a variety oI Iraud under Iederal law alone, including identiIication Iraud (18 U.S. Code §
1028), credit card Iraud (18 U.S Code § 1029), computer Iraud (18 U.S Code § 1030), mail Iraud (18 U.S
Code § 1341), wire Iraud (18 U.S Code § 1343), or Iinancial institution Iraud (18 U.S Code § 1344). See
the U.S. DOJ, Whats the Department of Justice Doing About Identitv Theft and Fraud, at:
http://www.usdoi.gov/criminal/Iraud/idtheIt.html. However, recognizing inIormation itselI as an asset
worth protecting is already a strong policy consideration Ior legal sanction. Hence, to Iraudulently obtain
inIormation Ior possession should constitute an oIIence in itselI.
27
is usually a preparatory act to Iacilitate the commission oI other oIIenses such as theIt
and cheating to obtain various Iorms oI property, both in physical and digital Iorm,
80

such as products, Iinancial assets and title to real property.

!art 3 - A Global Multifaceted and Multilateral Regime for a orderless World of
Criminal Activity

During the Euro-Southeast Asia InIormation Communication Technology (ICT) meeting
held in June 2006, the problem oI abuse oI the Internet, which is an important medium oI
trade, commerce and communications, was raised. Member countries oI both regional
groupings were urged to improve their security measures to address the problem. The
value and importance oI multinational legal and cooperative measures were also brought
up. In Iact, the Singapore Minister Ior Community Development noted the importance oI
discussing issues within these fora in order to produce 'Iuture collaboration under the
aegis oI multilateral international security¨.
81


There are two main obiectives oI multilateralism:
1. To remove or minimize legal obstacles to international cooperation that currently
impedes investigations and prosecutions oI computer-related crime.
2. To remove or minimize legal obstacles to comprehensive ratiIication, which will
remove 'saIe havens¨ to cyber criminals.

There are three main iurisdictional hurdles to computer-related crimes such as phishing
that have to be addressed by any eIIective prohibitory model oI legislation:
1. Prescription and the harmonization and consistency oI treatment, as Iar as possible, oI
categories oI oIIences (challenge oI optimization).
82

2. Adiudication and the problem oI iurisdiction and need Ior extra-territorial reach and
eIIect (challenge oI space).
3. EnIorcement and the obiectives oI criminalization including deterrence (oI oIIender),
prevention (by victims, etc.) and punishment (social iustice); which involve
considerations oI eIIective investigation (e.g. procedural assistance in apprehension
and the gathering oI evidence) and implementation (e.g. extradition and suIIiciency or
eIIectiveness oI remedies) (challenge oI cooperation).

A. Structure (Form)


80
It can be an electronic Iorm or representation oI a physical asset or an entirely digital Iorm oI asset.
81
See, Anon., E.U.. Asia Urged to Beef Up Internet Securitv (newKerala.com, 19 June 2006), available at:
http://www.newkerala.com/news3.php?action÷Iullnews&id÷11164.
82
E.g. by apply a similar sort oI principle that appears in international law which is called the 'peremptory
norm or ius cogens ('compelling law¨) that applies to norms that are universally accepted and that cannot
be violated by state entities (e.g. war, crimes against humanity, war crimes, genocide, slavery, torture and
piracy) but applying it to the context oI individuals and non-state entities. One author has suggested the use
oI the customary international law (which is an international law source oI law) as an additional instrument
to combat cybercrime. See, Jason A. Cody, Derailing the Digitallv Depraved. An International Law and
Economics Approach to Combating Cvbercrime and Cvberterrorism, 11 MSU-DCL J. Int`l L. 231 (2002).
28
What model the multilateral approach should take will in turn inIluence its transposition
into domestic law both as to its Iorm and substance. Hence the type oI international law
instrument is important in order to promote and produce a comprehensive and optimal
legal response to computer-related crime. However, in the end, the approach will depend
on the legal and political make-up oI each country. But the virtues oI clear, succinct and
transparent laws Ior easy understanding and access, whether through umbrella legislation
or a speciIic legislation, should be kept in mind by policy-makers.

C4mbined Appr4ach

The beneIit oI an omnibus legislation is that it oIIers the most comprehensive treatment.
It can serve as the impetus Ior convergence and compromise and as a collective statement
oI purpose reIlecting international policy obiectives and indicative oI the mission to all
stakeholders. A treaty that is widely ratiIied can create a consistent set oI laws and
enIorcement processes in diIIerent countries.

However, the disadvantage oI a broad-based treaty is that it must necessarily be broad-
based and non-speciIic in order to achieve consensus. An example oI this is the
Cybercrime Convention, which provisions are painted in broad strokes, and even then it
has not been ratiIied by many oI the countries that were involved in its draIting and that
have signed the Convention. There may also be tensions between segments oI society.
83

Moreover, too many reservations (and even declarations) may dilute the eIIects and
reciprocal undertaking between signatory countries.
84


In any event, the Cybercrime Convention is still a good basis upon which to build some
general consensus, promote discussion with a view to exchange oI inIormation,
knowledge, experience and views, and to set the momentum going on more eIIective
global legal solutions.

a 1he Eur4pean C4nventi4n 4n Cvbercrime (Cvbercrime C4nventi4n)
85


83
E.g. there are some human rights and privacy concerns with regard to the Cybercrime Convention in
some countries such as the United States and Canada. See Ryan M.F. Baron, A Critique of the International
Cvbercrime Treatv, 10 CommLaw Conspectus 263 (2002); and see, Jason M. Young, Surfing While
Muslim. Privacv. Freedom of Expression & the Unintended Consequences of Cvbercrime Legislation. A
Critical Analvsis of the Council of Europe Convention on Cvber-Crime and the Canadian Lawful Access
Proposal, 9 Int`l J. Comm. L. & Pol`y 9 (2005).
84
Under Article 2(1)(d) oI the Vienna Convention on the Law oI Treaties, 'reservations¨ constitute
unilateral statements purporting to exclude or to modiIy the legal obligations and their eIIects on the
reserving state. They are generally permitted so long as they are not inconsistent with the obiectives and
purposes oI the treaty in question.
85
The European Convention on Cybercrime (Budapest, 23.XI.2001) is available at:
http://conventions.coe.int/Treaty/EN/Treaties/Html/185.htm. The CoE Explanatory Report (ETS No. 185)
is available at: http://conventions.coe.int/Treaty/en/Reports/Html/185.htm. For more background
inIormation, see The Council oI Europe`s (CoE) APC European Internet Rights Proiect web site
(http://europe.rights.apc.org/coe.html#cybercrime); the U.S. Justice Department`s web site with FAQs on
the Convention (http://www.usdoi.gov/criminal/cybercrime/COEFAQs.htm). The Convention is open Ior
signature to all countries. For an updated list oI members, see:
http://conventions.coe.int/Treaty/Commun/ChercheSig.asp?NT÷185&CM÷8&DF÷&CL÷ENG.
29

The Cybercrime Convention is the Iirst and only international treaty aimed at protecting
society Irom computer-related crime, such as crimes committed via the Internet and other
computer networks. The idea Ior the Cybercrime Convention grew Irom studies by the
Council oI Europe (CoE) Irom 1989 to 1995. The CoE established the Committee oI
Experts on Crime in Cyberspace to draIt the Cybercrime Convention in 1997. It was
completed in May 2001 and opened Ior signature and ratiIication on 23 November 2001
in Budapest, Hungary. To become eIIective, the Cybercrime Convention required
ratiIication by Iive countries, at least three oI which were in the Council oI Europe. Those
conditions were met and the Convention entered into Iorce on 1 July 2004.
86
Many
European Union (EU) member countries as well as some non-EU countries such as the
United States have since signed and ratiIied it.
87


The stated purpose oI the Cybercrime Convention is to pursue a common policy aimed at
combating computer-related crime through appropriate legislation and international
cooperation. The Cybercrime Convention addresses three main topics, which also Iorm
its main mission:

1. The harmonization oI national substantive laws regarding computer-related crime.
First, the Convention aimed to create a level oI consistency among signatory states on
the nature and Iorm oI legislation criminalizing computer-related crime.
88
For
example, it requires consistency in the legal deIinitions oI 'computer system¨,
'computer data¨, 'service provider¨ and 'traIIic data¨,
89
and sets out substantive
computer and cyber crimes.
90
The Convention does not set out the oIIences in detail
but merely lays out the required elements oI each oIIence in broad strokes.
91


86
See, Peter Csonka, The Council of Europe Convention on Cvber-Crime. A Response to the Challenge of
the New Age. in Cvber-Crime. The Challenge in Asia 303 (Roderic Broadhurst & Peter Grabosky eds.,
2005).
87
In 2003, President George W. Bush recommended its ratiIication to the Senate
(http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/11/20031117-11.html). In 2005, the Senate Foreign
Relations Committee recommended ratiIication oI the Convention. The bill has been opposed by the
privacy community, endorsed by soItware companies and industry groups, and received broad support Irom
the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. The Convention was Iinally ratiIied in 2006. It is to be noted that
the United States already have laws that addresses many oI the treaty`s general provisions, particularly
those relating to the enactment oI substantive oIIences. However, the extent oI its responsibilities relating
to mutual cooperation and procedural processes vis-a-vis other countries have yet to be tested.
88
The CoE created the Cybercrime Convention to resolve the unique legal issues raised by electronically
perpetrated oIIences both as a means and as an end by promoting a common, cooperative approach to
prosecuting people who commit computer-related crime. For example, the Cybercrime Convention requires
signatory states to criminalize certain activities, such as hacking and child pornography, while stiIIening
criminal liability Ior other intellectual property-related violations.
89
Chapter I oI the Convention.
90
Under Chapter II, Section 1, Titles 1 and 2 to 4 oI the Convention respectively. Covering the basic and
most common types oI computer crimes, such as illegal access, illegal interception, data interIerence,
system interIerence, misuse oI devices; and cyber crimes including Iorgery, Iraud, child pornography,
copyright and neighboring rights crimes.
91
The Cybercrime Convention provides a Iramework oI measures Ior implementation by sovereign states.
Like other multilateral conventions, the language is general and Ilexible to allow Ior adaptation by a variety
oI legal systems.
30

2. The establishment oI eIIective domestic investigative powers and procedures
regarding computer-related crime and electronic evidence. The second goal oI the
Convention is to ensure that signatory states have consistent powers Ior investigating
such crimes and in evidence gathering.
92
These powers include search and seizure,
preservation oI data, disclosure oI traIIic data, production order and interception oI
content data.
93


3. The establishment oI a prompt and eIIective system oI international cooperation
regarding the investigation and prosecution oI computer-related crime. The third main
purpose oI the Convention is to provide a mechanism Ior mutual legal assistance
among signatory states. International mutual legal assistance is even more important
given the borderless nature oI the Internet, as crimes are oIten committed in one
country with the eIIects Ielt in another.
94
However, as they say, the devil is in the
detail as the Convention merely provides Ior general statements oI principles.

It allows member states to ratiIy with reservations regarding various obligations.

b W4rk in Other Regi4nal 4r Internati4nal Organizati4ns and Cr4upings

Although the work oI the CoE and the Cybercrime Convention is currently at the
IoreIront oI international eIIorts to handle the challenges oI technological abuse, other
regional multilateral political and non-political organizations have also been considering
the issue Ior many years and have produced international policy and Iormulated some
consensus on the problem oI computer-related crime within their respective fora.
95
Some
examples are as Iollows:

1. G8:
96
The G8 has been Iormulating policy and action plans to deal with high-tech and
computer-related crimes Ior about a decade now. In December 1997, representatives
Irom the eight maior industrialized nations Iorming the G8 adopted ten principles and
agreed on a ten-point action plan to Iight international computer-related crime. The

92
Chapter II, Section 2 oI the Convention.
93
It also expands the powers oI law enIorcement to compel Internet service providers to monitor user
content.
94
Chapter III oI the Convention provides Ior international cooperation. Traditional mutual legal assistance
includes situations where no legal basis exists between parties such as by treaty or reciprocal legislation.
When legal basis exists, existing arrangements apply to mutual legal assistance under this Convention.
95
See generally, U.S. DEP`T OF JUST., COMPUTER CRIME AND INTELL. PROP. SECTION,
INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF COMPUTER CRIME, available at:
http://www.usdoi.gov/criminal/cybercrime/intl.html. It provides cases, recent law, press releases, speeches,
testimony, reports, letters, manuals, and other documents relating to the eIIorts oI G8, the European Union
(EU) and the Organization Ior Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to combat cybercrime.
See also, Michael A. Sussman, The Critical Challenges From the International High-Tech and Computer-
Related Crime at the Millennium. 9 Duke J. Comp. & Int`l L. 451, 481 (1999); Shannon C. Sprinkel,
Global Internet Regulation. The R Computer Jirus and the Draft Convention on Cvber-Crime, 25 SuIIolk
Transnat`l L. Rev. 491 (2002); and Marc D. Goodman and Susan W. Brenner, The Emerging Consensus on
Criminal Conduct in Cvberspace, UCLA J. L. Tech. 3 (2002).
96
See the OIIicial web site oI the G8 presidency oI the Russian Federation in 2006 at: http://en.g8russia.ru/.
31
leaders oI the G8 countries endorsed this template and G8 experts Iorming the
Subgroup on High-Tech Crime continue to meet regularly to cooperate on the
implementation oI the action plan.
97
The Subgroup was charged with the task oI
enhancing the abilities oI G8 countries to prevent, investigate and prosecute crimes
involving computers, networked communications, and other new technologies. They
have also expanded their work with non-G8 countries in this respect. The Subgroup
meetings are attended by multi-disciplinary delegations that include cyber crime
experts, investigators and prosecutors.
98
It is to be noted that as part oI a holistic
strategy, the Subgroup closely cooperates with private industries to achieve these
ends.
99
The G8 has remained dedicated to the issue and to Iinding an international and
concerted solution to the problem.
100


2. OECD:
101
The Organization Ior Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)
conducted a study Irom 1983 to 1985 on the need Ior consistent national cyber crime
laws, which culminated in a 1986 report listing a core group oI cyber crimes that
countries should outlaw. In 1992, the OECD adopted a recommendation concerning
the security oI inIormation systems and the Guidelines Ior the Security oI InIormation
Systems were appended to the recommendation. Among other things, the Guidelines
suggested that member states develop procedures to Iacilitate mutual legal assistance
in dealing with cyber crimes. It was revised in 2002 to take into consideration the
changes in the technology landscape since it was Iirst draIted.
102
The Committee Ior

97
In Iact, expert group meetings began in 1995 and it was the recommendations oI the 1996 Lyon Group oI
experts that triggered Recommendation Sixteen which Iirst called Ior countries to 'review their laws in
order to ensure that abuses oI modern technology that are deserving oI criminal sanctions are criminalized
and that problems with respect to iurisdiction, enIorcement powers, investigation, training, crime
prevention and international cooperation in respect oI such abuses are eIIectively addressed.¨ The Lyon
Sub-Group on High-Tech Crime was created to implement the recommendations related to the subiect, and
they meet regularly to work on implementation. The G8 leaders also consider these matters at their annual
meetings. See, Michael A. Sussman, The Critical Challenges From International High-Tech and
Computer-Related Crime at the Millennium, 9 Duke J. Comp. & Int`l L. 451, 481-487 (1999).
98
SigniIicant achievements oI the Subgroup include: (i) The creation oI its Network Ior 24-Hour Points oI
Contact Ior High-Tech Crime and an international Critical InIormation InIrastructure Protection Directory;
(ii) organizing international training conIerences Ior national agencies and reviewing each country`s legal
systems and their adequacies relating to high-tech crimes; (iii) the negotiation oI widely-accepted principles
and action plan to combat high-tech crime to be adopted by the G8, which are recognized at other
international fora; (iv) producing best practices documents, including guides Ior security oI computer
networks, international requests Ior assistance, legislative draIting, and tracing networked communications
across borders; and (v) matters relating to the location and identiIication oI computer criminals.
99
See, John T. Soma et al., Transnational Extradition for Computer Crimes. Are New Treaties and Laws
Needed? 34 Harv. J. on Legis. 317, 359-360 (1997).
100
They acknowledged that international eIIorts to develop a global inIormation society must be
accompanied by coordinated action to Ioster a crime-Iree and secure cyberspace. The G8 has also
established a 'Digital Opportunity TaskIorce¨ to explore how to integrate the eIIorts oI the G8 members
into 'a broader international approach¨. The approach was set out in paragraph eight oI the Okinawa
Charter on Global InIormation Society. See, Susan W. Brenner and Joseph J. Schwerha IV, Transnational
Evidence Gathering and Local Prosecution of International Cvbercrime, 20 J. Marshall J. Computer &
InIo. L. 347, 364-365 (2002).
101
See the OECD web site at: http://www.oecd.org.
102
For publications and documents relating to its InIormation and Communications Policy, see the OECD
web site at: http://www.oecd.org/department/0,2688,en26493422311111,00.html.
32
InIormation, Computer and Communications Policy (ICCP) was set up to address
issues arising Irom the 'digital economy¨, the developing global inIormation
inIrastructure and the evolution towards a global inIormation society.

3. UN: The United Nations (UN) has also done some work in their attempt to provide
some solution to the problem.
103
It has hosted eleven crime congresses so Iar and the
issue oI computer-related crimes oIten Ieatures on their agenda.
104
For example, in the
Eighth United Nations Congress held in 1990 in Havana, Cuba, the Congress adopted
a resolution on computer-related crime calling upon its member states to intensiIy
their eIIorts to combat computer crime.
105
The UN also produced a Manual on the
Prevention and Control oI Computer-Related Crime in 1995, which examined the law
governing such crime and the need Ior international cooperation in investigations.
Workshops were likewise held in the tenth and eleventh congresses, with some Iocus
on public-private sector cooperation and between countries. Even the UN General
Assembly (UNGA) has addressed the issue. In December oI 2000 the UNGA adopted
Resolution 55/59, the Vienna Declaration on Crime and Justice: Meeting the
Challenges oI the Twenty-First Century, which committed member states to work
towards enhancing their ability to prevent, investigate and prosecute computer-related
crime.
106


4. INTERPOL:
107
As the world`s largest international police organization created to
Iacilitate transnational police cooperation and other crime Iighting organizations,

103
Similarly, a regional example is the Council Ior Security Cooperation in the Asia PaciIic (CSCAP),
which had established a Working Group on Transnational Crime in 1997. See the CSCAP web site at:
http://www.cscap.org. The Working Group Iocuses on cyber crime and on the need Ior law enIorcement
cooperation in the Asia PaciIic region. For the links to CSCAP`s six working groups, see:
http://www.cscap.org/groups.htm#.
104
See the latest on the U.S. Congress at the UN OIIice on Drugs and Crime web site at:
http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/crimecicpcongresses.html.
105
See, Susan W. Brenner and Joseph J. Schwerha IV, Transnational Evidence Gathering and Local
Prosecution of International Cvbercrime, 20 J. Marshall J. Computer & InIo. L. 347, 359 (2002). This was
done at the thirteenth plenary meeting oI the Eighth United Nations Congress on the Prevention oI Crime
and the Treatment oI OIIenders where a series oI recommendations concerning the adoption oI cyber crime
legislation, investigative procedures, rules oI evidence, IorIeiture and mutual legal assistance in
investigations were issued. Member states were called upon to consider the Iollowing measures: (i)
Modernization oI national criminal laws and procedures; (ii) improvement oI computer security and crime
prevention measures; (iii) adoption oI measures to sensitize the public, the iudiciary, and law enIorcement
agencies to the problem and importance oI preventing computer-related crimes; (iv) adoption oI adequate
training measures Ior iudges, oIIicials, and agencies responsible Ior the prevention, investigation,
prosecution, and adiudication oI economic and computer-related crimes; (v) elaboration oI rules oI ethics in
the use oI computers and the teaching oI these rules as part oI the curriculum and training oI inIormatics;
and (vi) adoption oI policies Ior the victims oI computer-related crimes. Ibid. at 360.
106
The resolution also pointed out the need to eliminate saIe havens Ior oIIenders, increase the
eIIectiveness oI cooperation among law enIorcement agencies, and improve the training and equipping oI
law enIorcement agencies. But balance has to be struck with the need to protect individual Ireedom and
privacy.
107
See the INTERPOL web site at: http://www.interpol.int. The INTERPOL is iust one oI many
intelligence agencies worldwide that are Iorming alliances to Iight the threat oI technological crimes.
Another more speciIic example is the U.K.`s National Hi-Tech Crime Unit`s cooperation with the U.S.
Federal Investigation Bureau and Secret Service to investigate phishing attacks in the United Kingdom.
33
INTERPOL will naturally be concerned with the issue oI cooperation in the Iield oI
computer-related crime (or according to INTERPOL, 'InIormation Technology
Crime¨ (ITC)).
108
Among its many eIIorts, INTERPOL uses a network oI regional
working party group oI experts consisting oI representatives Irom national computer
crime units.
109
INTERPOL has also held conIerences with its Sixth International
ConIerence on Computer Crime held in April 2005 in Cairo, Egypt, and its First
International Cyber Crime Investigation Training ConIerence in September 2005 at
the General Secretariat. INTERPOL also promotes cross-disciplinary support
between the academia, private industry and the authorities.
110


These are iust some oI the more prominent eIIorts that are being taken at the regional and
international level in an attempt to improve the global crime-Iighting regime against the
advent oI technological abuse. Even though they remain largely political and inIormal
cooperative vehicles,
111
they are no less instrumental and important as they reIlect
political commitment, international policy and consensus.
112


Specific Appr4ach

What are the alternatives, or additional recourses, to a broad-based multilateral
instrument such as the Cybercrime Convention? There are two possible approaches: The
use oI crime-speciIic treaties and oI uniIorm model laws.

SpeciIic treaties can separate the prescriptive regime Ior substantive oIIences depending
on the commonality or diIIerences in treatment in diIIerent countries. They can also

See, Lauren L. Sullins, 'Phishing` for a Solution. Domestic and International Approaches to Decreasing
Online Identitv Theft, 20 Emory Int`l L. Rev. 397 (2006).
108
INTERPOL Iacilitates cooperation between national law enIorcement agencies as they investigate
multinational online crime. As part oI its eIIorts, Ior instance, it produces a handbook that agencies use to
train investigators in the best practices and techniques Ior dealing with inIormation technology crime in
order to improve technical knowledge among law enIorcement oIIicials. It also helps to increase the Ilow oI
communication between countries by developing web sites and contact directories Ior investigators.
109
See the INTERPOL ITC web site at: http://www.interpol.int/Public/TechnologyCrime/deIault.asp.
INTERPOL has also established a Steering Committee Ior InIormation Technology Crime, which
coordinates and harmonizes the initiatives oI the various working parties.
110
These appear in the recommendations emerging Irom the First International Cyber Crime Investigation
Training ConIerence, where the ConIerence recognized: '|T|he lack oI globally harmonised training
initiatives; the global need Ior training institutions; the need Ior the global exchange oI training materials,
trainers and Iree training sites; the diIIiculty in Iinding qualiIied trainers; |and| the willingness oI academia
and private industry to support law enIorcement`s development and delivery oI training modules.¨ See the
ConIerence web site at:
http://www.interpol.int/Public/TechnologyCrime/ConIerences/1stCybConI/ConIerence.asp.
111
The legal approach is still acknowledged as the most important approach due to its multiIarious
obiectives (in particular, preventative and punitative) and its weapons oI coercion. Hence, Ior example, the
Association Internationale de Droit Penal (AIDP) passed a resolution in 1992 containing a number oI
recommendations on advancing current criminal laws. The AIDP recommendations stressed in particular
the precision and clarity required in Iuture reIinements or enactments oI criminal laws on the subiect that
are aimed at addressing computer-related crime. See the AIDP web site at:
http://www.penal.org/new/index.php?langage÷gb.
112
See, Susan W. Brenner and Joseph J. Schwerha IV, Transnational Evidence Gathering and Local
Prosecution of International Cvbercrime, 20 J. Marshall J. Computer & InIo. L. 347 (2002).
34
contain the same or a diIIerent set oI procedural, enIorcement and cooperative
arrangements tailored to the best possible compromise between countries. Model laws
provide the impetus Ior consistent enactment as they serve as a template, obviating the
need Ior each country to do most oI its own research and study; and to encourage
transposition into law, particularly Ior countries without the capacity or resources to
produce such laws.

The advantages oI the use oI speciIic treaties are that it allows Ior more acceptability and
greater membership (e.g. signatory states) with lesser exceptions and exclusions (i.e.
reservations and declarations) and Ior the greatest harmonization and optimization oI
laws, particularly Ior universal oIIences`. It may be more useIul to produce model laws
rather than legally binding instruments Ior those crimes that are diIIerentially treated in
many countries, since the latter will either be too broad and ineIIectual or too detailed but
little subscribed.

Also, the problems Irom rapid technological advances and its abuses emerge much Iaster
than the law can develop to counter its eIIects. For example, we have seen the string oI
amendments to Iraud and identity theIt in the United States, the United Kingdom and
Singapore. In the United States, the proposed Anti-Phishing Act oI 2005 may already be
outdated due to new methods oI perpetrating Iraud such as 'vishing¨ and other newer`
oIIences. Similarly, the United Kingdom Iirst amended the TheIt Act, but is now
considering a new Fraud Bill to Iurther update its cyber crime laws as well as
amendments to its CMA, the Iirst since its inception. Meanwhile, Singapore`s electronic
Iraud and identity theIt laws are still lacking while its CMA has undergone several
substantive amendments. Allowing Ior more Iocused and speciIic treatment will ensure
that there will be Iaster reaction time to developments, shorter gaps between the problem
and solution and assist states to enact amendments or new provisions more speedily.
113

The same argument applies to the use oI model laws as well as in support oI keeping laws
as technologically neutral as Iar as possible without compromising too much on its clarity
and Iocus.

The disadvantage is that there will be a proliIeration oI treaties with diIIerent substantive
and procedural provisions as well as diIIerent standards oI international cooperation.
114

This and varying approaches to the transposition oI model laws can also cause
diIIerences in domestic law while purporting to solve the same problem and promoting
the adoption such law in as many iurisdictions as possible.

There will also be some extent oI overlap in coverage between speciIic cyber crime laws
and traditional criminal provisions. However, duplicitous criminal provisions are not
uncommon and they provide the prosecuting authorities the leeway to select the most
appropriate charges to make and allow Ior other procedures that are common under
criminal procedure laws (e.g. plea bargains).

113
In contrast, the package` approach will be Iraught with delays because oI developments in one area or
another as well as diIIerences in state-to-state treatment oI certain oIIences.
114
I.e. more disioined, unless arrangements are kept as consistent as possible.
35

a Using Multilateral Instruments
115


Multilateral instruments such as treaties and conventions have the status oI law under the
international law regime.
116
They also have the advantage oI being written in concrete
Iorm,
117
having undergone negotiations and hence reIlecting greater consensus. At the
same time, iI in relation to a speciIic subiect matter area, particular one that is susceptible
to consistent worldwide treatment, it can be a once-and-Ior-all comprehensive solution. It
can also include both substantive and procedural laws and procedures as state obligations
to IulIill.

b Using Unif4rm M4del aws

The beneIit oI model laws is that it provides a ready instrument Ior use, especially by
countries that lack the capacity and capability Ior legislative draIting. The problem
inherent in such instruments is that while it provides the impetus Ior enactment oI laws
relating to a subiect matter, there is no control as to the nature and extent oI its adoption
which gives rise to adaptations that can diverge in substance and eIIect.
118
In contrast,
although reservations and declarations can and do exist in some treaties and conventions
as well, the general rule under international law is that they cannot go to the extent oI

115
In 2003, the American Bar Association`s (ABA) International Cybercrime Proiect (by the ABA Privacy
and Computer Crime Committee, Computer Law Division oI the Science and Technology Law Section)
published the International Guide to Combating Cybercrime. The proiect brought together representatives
Irom the ABA, government, industry, non-governmental organizations, and academia to address the issue
oI cyber crime. The proiect recommended a multiIaceted solution that attempts to improve the investigation
and prosecution oI cyber crime. First, the proiect urged uniIormity oI cyber crime laws, suggesting that
developing countries model their domestic laws aIter those set Iorth by multinational organizations and
developed countries; second, the proiect recommended the establishment oI an international scheme to
solve potential iurisdictional diIIiculties, Ior example, by harmonizing extradition laws regarding cyber
crime oIIenses; third, the proiect urged governments to increase resources to train personnel in high-tech
investigative and Iorensic techniques, establish internal organizations, and actively participate on the
international plane; and Iourth, the proiect pushed Ior inIormation sharing between public and private
sectors both within countries and internationally. See, INTERNATIONAL GUIDE TO COMBATING
CYBERCRIME (Jody R. Westby ed., 2003). See also the ABA web site at: http://www.abanet.org and the
proiect web site at: http://www.abanet.org/scitech/computercrime/cybercrimeproiect.html. See Iurther,
Editorial. Were Just Phish to Them (Journal Sentinel, 12 March 2006), available at:
http://www.isonline.com/story/index.aspx?id÷407391. There should be an international treaty that involves
more countries, perhaps under the auspices oI the UN.
116
See Article 38 oI the Statute oI the International Court oI Justice oI 1945. International law has three
primary sources oI law: (i) International treaties and conventions ('international conventions, whether
general or particular, establishing rules expressly recognized by the contesting states¨); (ii) international
custom ('as evidence oI a general practice accepted as law¨); and (iii) general principles oI law
('recognized by civilized nations¨). International treaty law is comprised oI obligations states expressly and
voluntarily accept between themselves.
117
CI. customary international law, which has to be deciphered Irom state practice and opinio iuris.
118
This ironically may have the inadvertent eIIect oI propagating diIIerent approaches, which makes it even
more diIIicult Ior harmonization in the Iuture. However, this problem may be overstated as it is based on
the presumption that countries will deliberately Iind their own approach when in Iact it is more likely than
not that they will try to be as consistent as possible to international and other domestic standards and not to
overly amend the model law provisions unless necessary.
36
going against the obiectives and purposes oI the instrument. Also, unlike treaties and
conventions that have stronger legal authority as a source oI law, and hence that may
have some coercive political or legal Iorce Ior non-compliance, the adoption oI model
laws are entirely voluntary.
119


Model laws are perhaps most useIul Ior subiect matter areas that do not have consistent
international treatment and hence are impossible Ior international consensus in any
credible Iorm.

c Suggesti4n: A Mixed M4del

In the end, the best approach is not any single one but a mixture oI both depending on
which is the most appropriate Ior the category oI oIIence, such as the universality` or
otherwise oI the category in question. For instance, Iraud and identity theIt is more
susceptible to internationally consistent treatment (and hence speciIic treaty) rather than
intellectual property oIIences and content-related oIIences such as pornography and
deIamation (which perhaps beneIit more Irom model laws).

. Content (Substance)

The substantive provisions oI the computer-related criminal legislation will depend on
the subiect matter in question. In particular, there are some common Ieatures to
electronically perpetrated oIIences that should be noted:

1. OIIenders may rely on automatic agents. Primary victims may not be humans but can
be organizations or systems.
120


2. The subiect matter oI an oIIence may be in digital Iorm. The changing notions oI
property to include digital inIormation and other virtual products, and electronically
carried out services require changes in deIinitions and paradigms.

3. Technology and techniques Irequently change and may cause existing legislation to
be inadequate or obsolete. Hence, as Iar as possible, computer-related oIIences should
be draIted in as technologically (and technique) neutral a manner as possible.
Otherwise the only alternative is to be alert to the requirement Ior constant
amendments.
121



119
Moreover, the constitutional and administrative law in a country may only be required to consider and to
adopt an international law instrument into the domestic regime and not a non-legal instrument` like model
laws, guidelines, etc.
120
Hence, Ior example, the signiIicance oI clause 2 oI the United Kingdom Fraud Bill, which would apply
equally to representations made to machines as to representations made to people.
121
As noted previously, Ior example, the United States` proposed Anti-Phishing Act oI 2005 that would
enter two new crimes into its criminal code (i.e. the prohibiting the creation or purchase oI web sites Ior the
purpose oI scamming and emails that Iraudulently purport to represent legitimate businesses) do not take
into account other potentially new technologies or techniques used to perpetrate such scams such as
vishing.
37
4. The method oI committing a traditional` oIIence itselI should also be sanctioned in
order to deter and prevent these oIIences Irom occurring. Hence, Ior example, the
abuse oI technology such as the use oI surreptitious electronic means with the
intention oI obtaining inIormation without the knowledge or consent oI the originator
should constitute an oIIence irrespective oI the ultimate goal or motive such as
Iinancial gain.
122


5. The problem oI extra-territoriality.
123
As we have seen, computer crime and cyber
crime do not respect national boundaries and oIten crosses multiple iurisdictions.
124
In
Iact, due to the nature oI electronic transactions, they oIten transcend real space and
involve the laws and people oI diIIerent countries. The obvious diIIiculty in the
enactment oI any international treaty or domestic legislation to regulate conduct in
cyberspace is the extent oI iurisdictional reach. For computer-related criminal laws to
be truly eIIectiveness, potential oIIenders must Iace the threat oI legal sanction
anywhere in the world Ior oIIences perpetrated by him in or through another
iurisdiction or that has its eIIects in another country.
125


C. Multifaceted and Multipronged Approach

Although the main Iocus oI this paper is on the legal approach to the problem oI
computer-related crimes, on a more holistic level, a multiIaceted approach is certainly
required in order to comprehensively deal with the problem most eIIectively. For that to
happen, not only is the approach relevant, that is, the legal and non-legal methods to deal
with the problem, the diIIerent stakeholders in inIormation technology should also be
involved, including representatives Irom the public and private sectors, businesses,
organizations and technology companies, and individuals.
126


122
This is the approach taken in computer crime legislation. See, e.g., the United Kingdom and Singapore
CMAs.
123
Note Ior instance the extra-territorial scope oI the Singapore CMA under section 11. Section 11(1)
provides that: '|T|he provisions oI |the CMA| shall have eIIect, in relation to any person, whatever his
nationality or citizenship, outside as well as within Singapore.¨ Where an oIIence under this Act is
committed by any person in any place outside Singapore, he may be dealt with as iI the oIIence had been
committed within Singapore.¨ (subsection (2)). However, Ior the CMA to apply, either the accused must
have be in Singapore at the material time; or the computer, program or data was in Singapore at the
material time, Ior the oIIence in question (subsection (3)). See also Chapter II, Section 3 on iurisdiction
under the Cybercrime Convention.
124
Cyber crime is also challenging existing legal concepts, particular since it transcends sovereign borders.
Cyber-criminals are oIten in places other than where their crime hits victims.
125
E.g. it is due to such iurisdictional issues that section 11 oI the Singapore CMA expressly provides that
the accused person may be treated as iI he had committed the oIIence in Singapore even iI the oIIence
under the CMA was committed outside Singapore. Furthermore, section 11(1) oI the CMA applies to any
person irrespective oI his nationality or citizenship. In other words, the combined eIIect oI these provisions
is to extend the territorial reach oI the courts to acts beyond the shores oI Singapore. Extraterritorial laws
are not easily enacted due to sovereignty considerations and to uphold comity oI nations. However, in
exceptional cases, the extraterritorial extension oI legislation and iudicial iurisdiction as well as
extraterritorial enIorcement arrangements is necessary. In this case, it is necessary in order Ior any country
to eIIectively deal with the menace oI computer-related crime.
126
In the context oI phishing, see Lauren L. Sullins, 'Phishing` For a Solution. Domestic and
International Approaches to Decreasing Online Identitv Theft, 20 Emory Int`l L. Rev. 397, 405-433 (2006).
38

Educati4n

Educating inIormation technology users including individuals, corporate entities and
organizations is a largely preventative measure. For example, consumer assistance
through the media to better inIorm and alert consumers. It involves more than iust
educating them on security and other deIensive or selI-help measures. For example, they
can provide valuable assistance in reporting, evidence gathering, investigations and
enIorcement. The existence oI counter-scam technology and laws must not be allowed to
engender a Ialse sense oI security and consumers should be inIormed and encouraged to
report scams to a clearly designated government agency Ior Iurther investigations and
other actions. In turn, country agencies should report to an international agency or
coordinator Ior the problem to be concurrently handled at the global plane.
127


Public/Private 14int Eff4rts

We have seen some oI the more prominent international policy-making and inter-
governmental multilateral eIIorts. However, there is concurrently a network oI ioint
eIIorts between government agencies and private sector organizations as well as within
the private sector itselI. There are even non-commercial and non-proIit interest groups,
many oI which operate and have a strong presence online.
128
They can be crime-speciIic
like the Anti-Phishing Working Group (APWG),
129
the Spamhaus Proiect,
130

Hoaxbusters
131
and ScamBusters.org;
132
or they can be non-crime-speciIic such as the
Internet Crime Complaint Centre (ICCC)
133
and the FTC Consumer Alert web sites.
134


The author Iocuses on the need Ior cooperation between law enIorcement agencies, legislators, and the
private sector (the notion oI an 'integrated unit¨). The proposed solution to phishing depends on
cooperation between all three groups and the Iight against phishing is dependent upon cooperation in the
Iollowing three areas: Joint operations among law enIorcement agencies, domestic and international
legislation, and among the private companies and consumers that are the victims oI these attacks.
127
See, e.g., Interpol on InIormation Technology Crime at:
http://www.interpol.int/Public/TechnologyCrime/deIault.asp. Interpol`s role in international policing is an
integral part oI the international cooperation and enIorcement regime. Its mission is to Iacilitates cross-
border police cooperation, and provide support to public and private sectors in preventing and Iighting
international crime.
128
See the 'Site Seeing on the Internet¨ web site at: http://www.pueblo.gsa.gov/cictext/computers/site-
seeing/. The site is interestingly done up like a travel web site.
129
See the APWG web site at: http://www.antiphishing.org. The APWG is '|a| global pan-industrial and
law enIorcement association that Iocuses on eliminating Iraud and identity theIt that results Irom phishing
and email spooIing oI all types.¨
130
See the SPAMHAUS web site at: http://www.spamhaus.org.
131
See the Hoaxbusters web site at: http://hoaxbusters.ciac.org.
132
See the Scambusters web site at: http://www.scambusters.org.
133
See the ICCC web site at: http://www.ic3.gov. A partnership between the U.S. Federal Bureau oI
Investigation and the National White Collar Crime Center (NW3C), it serves as a¨ vehicle to receive,
develop, and reIer criminal complaints regarding the rapidly expanding arena oI cyber crime. The IC3 gives
the victims oI cyber crime a convenient and easy-to-use reporting mechanism that alerts authorities oI
suspected criminal or civil violations. For law enIorcement and regulatory agencies at the Iederal, state,
local and international level, IC3 provides a central reIerral mechanism Ior complaints involving Internet
related crimes.¨ See also, the U.S. DOJ Computer Crime and Intellectual Property Section (CCIPS) on
39

3 Defence 1echn4l4gv
35


Having the technology to stay saIe on-line is iust as important as knowing how to spot the
signs oI trouble when it arises. For example, even deIensive technology has to keep one
step ahead oI phishers who have managed to Iind ways to get around security and
authentication systems ad constantly Iind new ways and methods to overcome consumer
savvy.
136
Hence, secondary-level strategies like having a good deIensive technology
architecture with the involvement oI manuIacturers and soItware makers is very
important. It must counter the abuse oI good technology` (e.g. surveillance or tracking
technology) and the creation and use oI bad technology` (e.g. malware). It should also
take advantage oI both Iorms oI technology and use them to investigate abuses.
Technology is essential to computer Iorensics, tracing oI oIIenders` identity or location
and source oI operation, investigations and evidence gathering.

Extra-legal Arrangements

Extra-legal arrangements include Iormal and inIormal cooperative arrangements between
governmental administrative agencies with investigative powers and the exchange oI
experience and knowledge. The INTERPOL is a good example oI such an arrangement.
This is important due to the predominantly cross-iurisdictional nature oI computer crime
and more so Ior cyber crime. For instance, most phishing and other scams originate
overseas. Central agencies and strong international network and cooperative
arrangements are essential. Technological know-how, computer Iorensic capabilities, and
suIIicient investigative powers within these agencies are important. As time is oI the
essence and due to the time diIIerence between countries, it is also essential Ior these
agencies to maintain suIIicient round-the-clock resources to meet each other`s needs.
Protocol and operating procedures should be standardized as much as possible and
organizations that have experience in this can and should share their know-how and
assistance in harmonizing international eIIorts and in minimizing duplicitous and
ineIIicient processes.

5 aw and Regulati4n


Reporting Computer-Related Crimes at: http://www.cybercrime.gov/ and
http://www.usdoi.gov/criminal/cybercrime/reporting.htm.
134
FTC, FTC Consumer Alert: How Not to Get Hooked bv a Phishing Scam, available at:
http://www.Itc.gov/bcp/conline/pubs/alerts/phishingalrt.htm
135
These are also Irameworks, whether legal or otherwise, that emphasizes prevention. See, Brian C.
Lewis, Prevention of Computer Crime Amidst International Anarchv, 41 Am. Crim. L. Rev. 1353 (2004).
The author considers reliance solely on an international legal Iramework Ior the prosecution oI computer-
related oIIences to be inadequate and proposed a Iramework Ior prevention as a better alternative. The
author endorses a 'prevention-based¨ legal regime utilizing such novel approaches as 'privately-sponsored
corporate bounties¨, instituting a tort liability regime Ior ISPs, 'hack-in contests¨, and a 'market trading
system¨ to control private sector solutions, etc. (all involving an active role Ior ISPs).
136
See, Gregg Keizer, Phishers Beat Banks Two-Factor Authentication (TechWeb, 14 July 2006),
available at: http://news.yahoo.com/s/cmp/20060715/tccmp/190400329.
40
This has already been dealt with in detail in this paper. Some other suggested models Ior
policing that merit consideration remain, in the Ioreseeable Iuture at least, only oI
uncertain potential and even then they can only be supplementary to the current model oI
sanctioning the oIIender. Meanwhile, other methods oI combating computer-related
crimes that are already in existence remain limited and are also secondary to the criminal
law model. They include some extent oI liability and responsibility on non-oIIenders,
even potential victims;
137
and non-criminal recourse such as the use oI tort law to Iight
computer-related crimes.
138


Conclusion

As we have seen, computer-related crime, in particular cyber crime such as phishing and
its progeny, require a diIIerent solution due to the non-terrestrial and non-territorial
nature oI electronic transactions. In order to Iight such crimes eIIectively, a strong and
robust international regime is needed; and one that is as Iar as possible harmonized.

In order Ior there to be an eIIective global system to deal with the problem oI computer-
related crimes, there must be a multiIaceted and multipronged approach using a
combination oI both legally coercive and non-legal measures. The international legal
Iramework should consist oI a dual carriageway approach to the problem with speciIic
treaties Ior each subiect area that is susceptible to universally consistent treatment and
model laws in areas that do not, so as to promote as similar and consistent a set oI laws as
possible Ior each category oI crime. In that way, the overall eIIect is optimized.

The Cybercrime Convention and other regional and multilateral initiatives are useIul
insoIar as they serve as strong policy statements, and to some extent as undertakings, by
governments to tackle what is clearly recognized as a collective problem that requires a
collective solution. They also acknowledge and address the requirement Ior eIIective
prescription, adiudication and enIorcement in order Ior the solution to be truly eIIective.
They serve as a necessary stepping-stone to a more eIIective and comprehensive
treatment and they are oIten negotiated and discussed in Iora that encourage
understanding and consensus.

However, more needs to be done in order to eIIectively deal with the growing problem oI
computer-related crime. From the above analysis, there are some Ieatures that are integral

137
See, Susan W. Brenner and Leo L. Clarke, Distributed Securitv. Preventing Cvbercrime, 23 J. Marshall
J. Computer & InIo. L. (2005). Cyber crime prevention strategy use criminal sanctions and administrative
regulations to impose and enIorce responsibility on individuals and entities other than the oIIender to
prevent cyber crime.
138
See, Michael L. Rustad and Thomas H. Koenig, The Tort of Negligent Enablement of Cvbercrime, 20
Berkeley Tech. L.J. 1553 (2005) (Negligence liability); Susan W. Brenner, Toward a Criminal Law for
Cvberspace. A New Model of Law Enforcement?, 30 Rutgers Computer & Tech. L.J. 1 (2004) (An
attenuated assumption oI risk principle); Shannon C. Sprinkel, Global Internet Regulation. The Residual
Effects of The 'Ilovevou` Computer Jirus and the Draft Convention on Cvber-Crime, 25 SuIIolk
Transnat`l L. Rev. 491 (2002) (Negligence liability); and Michael L. Rustad, Private Enforcement of
Cvbercrime on the Electronic Frontier, 11 S. Cal. Interdis. L.J. 63 (2001) (Private policing through tort law
regime).
41
to growing the international order in the cyber realm. Using cyber Iraud and identity theIt
as the case study and in the context oI phishing, pharming and related Iorms oI deception,
the Iollowing requirements are deciphered:

1. Prescriptive iurisdiction This requires consistent worldwide criminalization oI
oIIences through applicable laws that have mutually enIorcing eIIect, whether
through extra-territorially applicable laws or a comprehensive network oI same or
similar laws or both.

2. Adiudicatory iurisdiction Criminal procedure laws must ensure that oIIenders
cannot avoid being brought to the courts in at least one country; provisions in a treaty
requiring either enIorcement or extradition can have that eIIect.
139
This eliminates or
at the very least should drastically reduce the possibility oI saIe havens.

3. EnIorcement iurisdiction Even iI a criminal is tried and convicted, eIIective
enIorcement oI decisions is essential in order Ior the Iull eIIect oI the system to work,
particularly iI the oIIender or his accomplices, instruments oI crime or assets are in
other iurisdictions. Consistent and reinIorcing mutual legal recognition and
enIorcement treaties and provisions are required.

4. Administrative cooperation Mutual legal assistance and cooperation in
investigations, collection oI evidence and other police matters are important. A strong
international system oI cooperation such as through Interpol as well as regional
networks and a robust national inIrastructure are important in this respect in order to
successIully identiIy, capture, try and convict cyber criminals. A network oI domestic
central specialized authorities connected to one another through one centralized
international agency will be ideal.
140


5. Pre-emptive measures As Iar as possible, substantive law should have the eIIect oI
deterring and preventing oIIences Irom occurring rather than merely punish Ior

139
In some Terrorism Conventions, Ior example, there is a provision that requires parties that have custody
oI oIIenders to either extradite the oIIender or submit the case Ior prosecution. Other provisions oI note are
provisions that require 'severe penalties¨ or that require parties to assist each other in connection with
criminal proceedings brought under the Convention. See the list oI Conventions Against Terrorism at the
UN OIIice on Drugs and Crimes web site at: http://www.unodc.org/unodc/terrorismconventions.html. See
in particular article 7 oI the Hague Convention Ior the Suppression oI UnlawIul Seizure oI AircraIt oI 1970
and the Montreal Convention Ior the Suppression oI UnlawIul Acts Against the SaIety oI Civil Aviation oI
1971 ('The Contracting State in the territory oI which the alleged oIIender is Iound shall, iI it does not
extradite him, be obliged, without exception whatsoever and whether or not the oIIence was committed in
its territory, to submit the case to its competent authorities Ior the purpose oI prosecution.¨). See also,
Chapter II, Section 3 on iurisdiction and Chapter III, Section 1, Title 2 oI the Cybercrime Convention on
the principles relating to extradition. It is submitted that cyberspace is no diIIerent Irom its physical
analogue (i.e. the world) when it comes to commonality oI certain subiect matters (e.g. terrorism and cyber-
terrorism) and due to the commonality in nature and eIIect oI human communication and intercourse (i.e.
transnational interaction and extraterritorial eIIects).
140
Consider the 24/7 Network under Chapter III, Section 2, Title 3 oI the Cybercrime Convention. See also
Chapter III, Section 1, Title 1 (on the general principles relating to international co-operation) and Titles 3
to 4 (on the general principles relating to mutual assistance and procedures pertaining to mutual assistance
requests in the absence oI international agreements) as well as Section 2, Titles 1 to 3 oI the Convention.
42
oIIences that have occurred. This can be done through providing legal sanctions Ior
preparation to commit oIIences that prescribes oIIences irrespective oI its successIul
commission.
141


6. Applicable laws (substantive) Substantive laws must be rendered applicable to
electronic transactions and digital assets including money and products; preIerably
through speciIic stand-alone legislation or new provisions, but otherwise through
amendment oI existing laws and deIinitions.

7. Applicable laws (procedural) Procedural laws should be enacted or amended to
Iacilitate the gathering oI evidence and investigation oI computer related crimes (i.e.
computer Iorensics), and investigators and detectives must be equipped and skilled
with the necessary expertise and technological know-how to investigate and deal with
such oIIences and oIIenders.

8. Appropriate remedies The law should create a credible and eIIective deterrent eIIect
and suIIicient punishment to suit the nature and severity oI the oIIence.
142
Also where
relevant, provisions allowing Ior rehabilitation could be useIul, particularly iI
previous oIIenders, with their expertise, knowledge and connections, can be inducted
into the system to aid and assist in Iuture investigations and in the development oI
computer Iorensics.

9. Technological neutrality The law should be draIted in such a way as to ensure its
applicability to changing technology and techniques used to perpetrate criminal
oIIences as Iar as possible. II technologically neutral provisions are not possible Ior a
particular subiect matter, then Iast and reactive amendments or updates to the law are
the only other alternative.

10.One-step Recourse For the sake oI clarity, transparency and ease oI recourse,
legislation directly dealing with computer and cyber crime that are preIerably labeled
as such and that contains provisions, illustrations and explanatory notes on point will
be useIul to potential oIIenders, possible victims and law enIorcement oIIicers. This
is preIerable to a messy and conIusing array oI diIIerent laws that may be applicable
such as theIt, Iraud, identity theIt and other legislation.

International connectivity and ease oI transacting through inIormation technology is
valuable and, iI mismanaged, will be squandered as an asset Ior human progress and
interaction. As it is, computer crimes, cyber crimes and other abuses oI the Internet,

141
Note that this may only be appropriate in some cases such as in the case oI cyber Iraud and identity theIt
through phishing and similar methods. Such legislation must be careIully draIted so that it is not ambiguous
or encounter problems such as an over-incursion into civil liberty rights.
142
See Chapter II, Section 1, Title 5, Article 13 oI the Cybercrime Convention, which states that each party
'.shall adopt such legislative and other measures as may be necessary to ensure that the criminal oIIences
established in accordance with Articles 2 through 11 are punishable by eIIective, proportionate and
dissuasive sanctions, which include deprivation oI liberty.|and| shall ensure that legal persons held liable
in accordance with Article 12 shall be subiect to eIIective, proportionate and dissuasive criminal or non-
criminal sanctions or measures, including monetary sanctions.¨
43
mobile and broadcast networks have damaged the trust and conIidence in their use. This
has adversely aIIected the Iull utility and potential oI the cyber realm as another
dimension, and the use oI electronic media as a means, Ior humans to communicate and
transact. Constant vigilance and eIIorts to manage these resources can and will reverse
this trend and reinstate a lawIul and orderly cyber society Ior the beneIit oI all.

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