The Communication Transaction Communication is the process of sharing our ideas, thoughts, and feelings with other people

and having those ideas, thoughts, and feelings understood by the people we are talking with. When we communicate, we speak, listen, and observe.

or agreement with others in the group. Groupthink may occur, in which a group reaches consensus so quickly that its members mistakenly ignore other good ideas. Small-group members may experience disagreement or even conflict. Some members may be more persuasive than others and form sides, or cliques, within the group. Interpersonal communication occurs with larger groups as well, such as when a speaker gives a talk to a large crowd (a political candidate giving a speech at a campaign rally, or a teacher lecturing to a large class). However, the audience can respond in only limited ways (such as with applause, nodding, whistles, boos, or silence). The speaker usually wants to be persuasive or informative, so the words chosen and the style of delivery or performance are very important. A speaker who wants to reach an even larger audience than the people who can physically hear the speech in one place must use communication technology or media to get the message across distance and even time. Verbal and Non-verbal Signals of Communication Verbal communication is organized by language; non-verbal communication is not. Non-verbal communication includes facial expressions, eye contact, tone of voice, body posture and motions, and positioning within groups. It may also include the way we wear our clothes or the silence we keep. NVC can be communicated through object communication such as clothing, hairstyles or even architecture, symbols and infographics. Dance is also considered as a non-verbal communication. Ways in which verbal and non-verbal signals may interact *Repeating, as in when directions to some locations are accompanied by pointing. *Contradicting *Substituting, instead of words, non-verbal cues were used. *Complimenting *Accenting, a grip on the shoulder, tone of voice, etc. Categories and Features. G. W. Porter divides non-verbal communication into four broad categories:

The Communication Process The communication process is a simple model that demonstrates all the factors that can affect communication. Communication is effective if the message that is received is the same one that is sent. A. Sender – The communicator or sender is the person who is sending the message. B. Message – A communication in writing, in speech, or by signals. C. Receiver – The receiver is simply the person receiving the message, making sense of it, or understanding and translating it into meaning. D. Feedback – Feedback is the response of the receiver. Communication is only successful when the reaction of the receiver is that which the communicator intended. The 3 Components Of Communication It was concluded that a person’s message is perceived in 3 main ways. 55% Visually. This includes body language, and how you look. 38% Vocally. How you sound, and how you speak. 7% Verbally. The actual words you speak. Communication as Part of Group Structure Communication may also occur in small groups, such as families, clubs, religious groups, friendship groups, or work groups. Most small-group interaction involves fewer than ten people, and the communicators need the same communication skills as in a dyadic conversation. However, additional factors called group dynamics come into play in a small group. A group may try to work toward a consensus, a general sense of understanding

signal when to talk or finish. or even back-to-back. One of the most frequently observed. The frequency of contact may suggest either interest or boredom.good for an organization requiring an infusion of energy or dramatic change of course. cooperating people are likely to sit side-by-side while competitors frequently face one another. holding. or aversion. A major feature of social communication is eye contact. *Facial Expressions. In some cultures it is a sign of attraction. You can easily invade someone's space through this type of . Features." You are a master at selling yourself or the organization in which you are employed. pushing. *Side-to-Side Movements. the harmony disappears.Physical. *Vertical Movements.. and sneer all convey information. used improperly it can build barriers and cause mistrust. there is a tendency to separate the posture and the movements. embracing. Communication through touch is obviously non-verbal. and body motions. *Physical Contact. dancing. This is the type of communication that takes place through creative expressions: playing instrumental music. but least understood. Are we slouched or erect? Are our legs crossed or our arms folded? Such postures convey a degree of formality and the degree of relaxation in the communication exchange. or standing. painting and sculpturing. The expressions tell the attitudes of the communicator. Signs. *Looking. touching. which includes the use of signal flags. People may present themselves in various ways: face-to-face. if certain gestures are rehearsed. On the other hand. *Orientation. such as those made to impress others. For example. Argyle (1988) concluded there are five primary functions of nonverbal bodily behavior in human communication: • Express emotions • Express interpersonal attitudes • To accompany speech in managing the cues of interaction between speakers and listeners • Self-presentation of one’s personality • Rituals (greetings) Features of nonverbal communication that provide information Static Features *Distance. This is the type of communication that makes use of religious. It can convey emotion. Eye contact is a direct and powerful form of nonverbal communication. These are not the elements of posture that convey messages. *Forward and Backward Movements. Facial expressions continually change during interaction and are monitored constantly by the recipient. side-to-side. raised eyebrow. a clenched fist) have universal meanings. or ego-building symbols. It includes facial expressions. *Gestures. sense of touch. sense of smell. frown. Symbolic. A smile. horns. yawn. Then. Lamb has analysed some of these movements and gestures. The distance one stands from another frequently conveys a non-verbal message. Lamb considers you to be a "presenter. If you extend a hand straight forward during an interview or tend to lean forward. They reflect an element of intimacy or a feeling of (or lack of) attraction. Lamb considers you to be an "operator". While some gestures (e. Used properly it can create a more direct message than dozens of words. This is the mechanical type of communication. He has observed harmony between the two. status. and sirens. Shaking hands. Aesthetic. Most people use hand movements regularly when talking. cues is a hand movement. This is the personal type of communication. Lamb believes there is a relationship between positioning of the body and movements of the limbs and facial expressions. tone of voice. or patting on the back all convey messages. Dynamic Features *Facial Expressions. Facial expressions usually communicate emotions. seated. *Eye Contact. the 21-gun salute. If you tend to draw yourself up to your tallest during the handshake. while in others it may reflect status or the intensity of the exchange. Non-linguistic Ways Kinesics is the study of the ways in which people use body movements such as shrugging to communicate without speaking.g. most of the others are individually learned and idiosyncratic. *Posture. Obviously one can be lying down. *Tactile Communication.

Gender. *Paralanguage.agreement or disagreement. space is divided into standardized segments with sides and position. spitting on another person is a sign of utmost contempt in Europe and North America but can be an affectionate blessing if done in a certain way among the Masai of Kenya. express excitement. the importance of defined spatial boundaries grows. *Personal Space. It can create tension and uneasiness or create a peaceful situation. In addition to specifying comfortable interaction distances. This invisible boundary becomes apparent only when someone bumps or tries to enter your bubble. if not used reciprocally. *Environment. This tends to minimize his or her personal contact with ordinary workers. culture generally discourages touching by adults except in moments of intimacy or formal greeting (hand shaking or hugging). the meaning of others may be completely different. they commonly use their arms and hands to say good-bye. While the meaning of some gestures. In fact. much more physical contact usually is expected and desired.the space you place between yourself and others. Most people do not have the same feeling about physical closeness if they do not have eye contact. for instance. they run the risk of being labeled homosexual and subsequently marginalized socially. frown. If it is used reciprocally. and Latin America. Touch not only facilitates the sending of the message. where people own ranches of hundreds and even . Comfort in interaction distance mostly has to do with the distance between faces that are looking directly at each other. for instance. Cultural Use of Space Culture also tells us how to organize space in such a way as to control the nature of interaction. may be the same throughout the world. count. and rate of speaking convey emotions that can be accurately judged regardless of the content of the message.communication. Silence can be a positive or negative influence in the communications process. This informal rule is most rigidly applied to men. Researchers have found that the tone. This maximizes his interaction with them. Our property boundaries are referenced to such segments of space. the comfortable (ideal) interaction distance for talking about personal topics is often significantly closer than among non-Hispanics in the U. As the density of population increases. it indicates solidarity. Land owners in densely occupied neighborhoods have been known to get angry enough to kill each other over disputed fence lines between their properties. beckon. For example. pitch. to smile. can greatly affect the communications within it. insult etc. Silence can also be judgmental by indicating favor or disfavor . Their head and shoulder in combination may shrug to indicate that they do not know something. Typical North American Office Typical Japanese Office Culture also guides our perception of space by defining units of it. Personal space is your "bubble" .S. Japanese offices commonly are set up with the boss's desk at the end of a row of pushed together desks used by subordinate employees. it tends to indicate differences in status. In Southern Europe. people usually choose not to look at anyone in order to avoid feeling uncomfortably close. quality of voice. In less dense rural areas of the American West. culture tells us when and how it is acceptable to touch other individuals. Similar culturally defined patterns of physical contact avoidance are found in most of the cultures of Asia and Northern Europe. In the industrial world. according to researchers. In contrast. and Communication In North America. In North American corporate offices. the boss is usually physically isolated in a very separate private room. the Middle East. In North America. but the emotional impact of the message as well. In Latin America. and wink acknowledgement or flirtation. warn away. such as a smile. Culture. point. The design of your office. In a crowd or an elevator. It can provide a link between messages or sever relationships. If they hold hands or kiss in public. *Silence and Time. They use our head to say yes or no. threaten. Acres and city lots with uniform dimensions are examples of this in the United States. and Canada. they learn many subtle variations of each of these gestures and use them situationally.

social situation. Likewise there are styles of clothes that are worn to sexually attract others. it is important to understand that there are likely to be significant gender differences in paralanguage in addition to distinctions in clothes and adornment. In North America. . There can be great subtlety. and hurt feelings. and their relative status. and other messages. their appearance announces their gender. makeup. However. for instance. if you have a business meeting scheduled. Male hand shakes tend to be firmer. women most often speak with an artificially high pitch. and other body decoration such as tattoos. the time you should arrive largely depends on the power relationship between you and the person who you are meeting. In most cultures. we dress differently for business and various recreational activities. On the other hand. This is part of the general deference traditionally shown to men. intentions. Women in the Western World usually are much more knowledgeable of and concerned with subtle nuances in messages communicated by clothes than are men. In North America. and physical appearance of the individual wearing it. frustration. This could occur. At times. men generally prefer face to face conversations and maintain direct eye contact longer. For instance. An invitation to a party is an entirely different matter. When people appear for an appointment varies with the custom. The vocabulary of dress that we learn includes not only items of clothing but also hair styles. time may be relatively "elastic" and the pace-of-life a bit slower. if not early. economic class. It is often expected that most guests will arrive "fashionably late. etc. innocent but alluring. Long before we are physically near enough to talk to people. In contrast. women often converse standing side by side but closer together than is typical of men. the movement of a fence three feet one way or another is rarely of consequence.thousands of acres. and often even intentions. Gender Differences in Paralanguage When travelling to other societies. It has been suggested that this change is connected with the increased economic and political clout of Japanese women. gender. especially in women's clothing. People who are lower in status are expected to arrive on time. Cultural Use of Time Culture tells us how to manipulate time in order to communicate different messages. however." When people come together with very different cultural expectations about time. it may be meant to be seductive. especially when conversing with men in a business or official setting. People in all cultures use clothing and other forms of bodily adornment to communicate status. For the Brazilian. It can communicate that a woman wants to be considered sexually neutral. for instance. clothing styles also are intended to communicate messages to members of the same gender. there is a potential for misunderstanding. In North America. most people who have medical appointments are expected to arrive early and to wait patiently for their doctor to see them rather than the other way around. age. Higher status individuals can expect that others will wait for them if they are late. Of course. jewelry. the same style of dress communicates different messages depending on the age. In Japan. recent research indicates that the pitch of female voices has begun to lower. if a Brazilian businessman does not arrive "on time" for a meeting with a potential North American customer in New York and fails to give an apology when he arrives. this leads to awkward errors of interpretation of female intentions on the part of men. North American women usually are more restrained in their use of bold gestures but use more facial expressions (especially smiles) and are more skilled in interpreting them. We begin to recognize the important cultural clues for this at an early age.