Dielectric
Iwan Cony S.
Department of Engineering Physics, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember
5.1 Current and Current Density
5.2 Continuity of Current
5.3 Energy Band Structure for Three Material Type
5.4 Conductor Properties and Boundary Conditions
5.5 The Method of Images
5.6 The Nature of Dielectric Materials
5.7 Boundary Conditions for Perfect Dielectric Materials
Consider a charge DQ, occupying volume Dv, moving in the positive x direction at velocity vx
In terms of the volume charge density, we may write:
or
Definition of Current Density
We now have
So that in general:
5.2 Continuity of Current
The principle of conservation of charge states simply that charges can be neither
created nor destroyed
Qi(t)
Qi(t)
so that
a) Conductors exhibit no energy gap between valence and conduction band, so electrons move freely
b) Insulators show large energy gaps, requiring large amounts of energy to lift electrons into the
conduction band
c) Semiconductors have a relatively small energy gap, so modest amounts of energy (applied through
heat, light, or an electric field) may lift electrons from valence to conduction bands.
Electron Flow in Conductor
Free electrons move under the influence of an electric field. The applied force on an electron
of charge Q = e will be
When forced, the electron accelerates to an equilibrium velocity, known as the drift velocity:
where µe is the electron mobility, expressed in units of m2/Vs. The drift velocity is used to find the
current density through:
The expression:
p E
P E
 P + E
E
Relative Permittivity and Susceptibility
EMac = E – P/ eo = (splates – P)/ eo in magnitude
eo E = eo EMac + P P = eo cE EMac
Dielectric susceptibilty cE
Nonuniform polarisation
Uniform polarisation surface charges only
P
E 
P +
+  + 
D = e oE + P = e oE + c Ee oE = e o (1+ c E )E = e oe rE
+ + + + ++
E + Electric field at the surface
+ +
+ solid conductor + rs points in the normal direction
E = 0 inside +
+ +
+
+ + + + ++
1. Charge can exist only on the surface as a surface charge density, rs  not in the interior.
2. Electric field cannot exist in the interior, nor can it possess a tangential component at the surface
(as will be shown next slide).
3. It follows from condition 2 that the surface of a conductor is an equipotential.
Tangential Electric Field Boundary Condition
To find:
dielectric
n Therefore
More formally:
conductor
Boundary Condition for Normal Component of D (Electric Flux Density (C/m2))
Gauss’ Law is applied to the cylindrical surface shown below:
Dh approaches zero.
No charge inside
conductor
This reduces to: as Dh approaches zero
dielectric
Therefore
n
More formally:
rs
conductor
Conductor Characteristic
Tangential E is zero
At the surface:
Normal D is equal to the surface charge density
Insulators vs metals
No E field
Insulator
E field on
Localised wave functions
Metal
Delocalised wave functions
5.5 Methods of Images
In the electric dipole, the surface along the plane of symmetry is an equipotential with V = 0.
In effect, the positive point charge images across the conducting plane, allowing the conductor to be
replaced by the image. The field and potential distribution in the upper half space is now found much
more easily!
Each charge in a given configuration will have its own image
5.6 The Nature of Dielectric Material
In dielectric, charges are held in position (bound), and ideally there are no free charges that can move
and form a current. Atoms and molecules may be polar (having separated positive and negative charges),
or may be polarized by the application of an electric field.
Consider such a polarized atom or molecule, which possesses a dipole moment, p, defined as the charge
magnitude present, Q, times the positive and negative charge separation, d. Dipole moment is a vector
that points from the negative to the positive charge.
Q
d p = Qd ax
Model of Dielectric
A dielectric can be modeled as an ensemble of bound charges in free space, associated with
the atoms and molecules that make up the material. Some of these may have intrinsic dipole moments,
others not. In some materials (such as liquids), dipole moments are in random directions.
Polarization Field
The number of dipoles is
expressed as a density, n
dipoles per unit volume.
Dv
[dipole moment/vol]
or
[C/m2]
Polarization Field (with Electric Field Applied)
Introducing an electric field may increase the charge separation in each dipole, and possibly re
orient dipoles so that there is some aggregate alignment, as shown here. The effect is small, and is
greatly exaggerated here!
E
The effect is to increase P.
= np
if all dipoles are identical
Migration of Bound Charge
Consider an electric field applied at an angle q to a surface normal as shown. The resulting
separation of bound charges (or reorientation) leads to positive bound charge crossing upward
through surface of area DS, while negative bound charge crosses downward through the surface.
Dipole centers (red dots) that lie within the range (1/2) d cosq above or below
the surface will transfer charge across the surface.
E
Migration of Bound Charge
+
Edip
Eappl _ + Eappl
_
Bound Charge Motion as a Polarization Flux
The total bound charge that crosses the surface is given by:
DS
volume
E P
Polarization Flux Through a Closed Surface
The accumulation of positive bound charge within a closed surface means that the polarization
vector must be pointing inward. Therefore:
S +
 + P 
+
+ qb

Bound and Free Charge
Now consider the charge within the closed surface consisting of bound charges, qb , and free charges,
q. The total charge will be the sum of all bound and free charges. We write Gauss’ Law in terms of
the total charge, QT as:
E
QT
S
q+ + + P
+ +
+ ++
qb
where free charge
QT = Qb + Q
bound charge
Gauss Law for Free Charge
We now have:
and
where QT = Qb + Q
Taking the previous results and using the divergence theorem, we find the point form expressions:
Bound Charge:
Total Charge:
Free Charge:
Electric Susceptibility and the Dielectric Constant
A stronger electric field results in a larger polarization in the medium. In a linear medium, the relation
between P and E is linear, and is given by:
In an isotropic medium, the dielectric constant is invariant with direction of the applied electric field.
This is not the case in an anisotropic medium (usually a crystal) in which the dielectric constant will vary
as the electric field is rotated in certain directions. In this case, the electric flux density vector components
must be evaluated separately through the dielectric tensor. The relation can be expressed in the form:
5.7 Boundary Condition for Perfect Dielectric
Simplest example – charged capacitor with dielectric
 +
E Emac=E/er E
 +
So therefore:
Region 1
e1 Leading to:
Region 2
e2 More formally:
Boundary Condition for Normal Electric Flux Density
We apply Gauss’ Law to the cylindrical volume shown here,
n
in which cylinder height is allowed to approach zero, and Region 1
there e1
is charge density rs on the surface:
rs
Region 2
e2
The electric flux enters and exits only through the bottom and top surfaces, respectively.
More formally:
From which: