Introduction and brief history of satellites A satellite is any object that orbits another object (whose primary objective

is known). All masses that part of the solar system, including the ground or satel lites are the Sun, or satellites of those objects, as the moon. And 'not always easy to decide which is the "satellite" in a few places. Because all objects exe rt gravity, the movement of the primary object is influenced also by satellite. When twoUfficiently objects are similar in mass, they are generally regarded as a binary system, rather than designate a primary object and satellites. The gene ral criterion for an object to a satellite is that the center is the mass of the two objects within the primary object. General use, the term "satellite" usuall y refers to a satellite (an artificial object that orbits the earth or another b ody). In May 1946 the experimental design was a World Circling Spaceshipsaid: "A satel lite vehicle with appropriate tools may provide one of the great scientific inst ruments of the twentieth century. The creation of a satellite craft would produc e effects similar to the explosion of the atomic bomb " The space age began in 1946 when German scientists began the V-2 rockets capture d by measures to make the upper atmosphere. Before then, the scientists used bal loons that went up to 30 km and radio waves to study theIonosphere. From 1946 to 1952 the atmosphere was carried out research with the V-2 and Aerobee rockets. This allows measurements of atmospheric pressure, density and temperature up to 200 km. The United States had considered orbital satellites since 1945 under the chairmanship of U.S. Air Force Navy. The Air Force's Project RAND eventually re leased the report mentioned above, but I do not think that the satellite had pot ential military weapon, but considered a toolScience, politics and propaganda. U nder pressure from the Rocket Society, raised the National Science Foundation an d the International Geophysical Year, and military interests in the spring of 19 55, the Air Force and Navy were Orbiter project, called a Jupiter C rocket of a small satellite Explorer 1 launch of group 31 January 1958. July 29, 1955 announced that the White House that the U.S. should launch the fir st satellite in 1958 Thisbecame known as Project Vanguard. On 31 July, the Sovie ts announced the launch of a satellite by the fall of 1957 and October 4, 1957 S putnik I into orbit, the space race between the two nations was called in to be activated given. The largest artificial satellite orbiting the earth, and is currently the Intern ational Space Station, which can sometimes be seen with the naked eye. Types of satellite Astronomically · satellites: these are for the use of satelliteObservation of dist ant planets, galaxies and other objects in space. ° communications satellites: it's artificial satellites in space, for the purposes of telecommunications using radio at microwave frequencies of the room. Most co mmunications satellites use geostationary or near-geostationary orbits, although some newer systems use satellites in low earth orbit. · Earth observation satellites are designed to observe the EarthOrbit, similar to reconnaissance satellites but intended for non-military uses such as environment al monitoring, meteorology, cartography, etc. (See especially Earth Observing Sy stem). · Satellites for navigation are using the radio time signals transmitted to the gr ound to enable mobile receivers on the site to be determined accurately. The rel atively clear line of sight between the satellites and receivers on the ground,

· Hohmann Transfer Orbit: For this particular type of orbit is more common to iden tify the satellite as a spaceship. SpaceThe stations are alive for the me dium term in orbit designed for a period of weeks. spy sat ellites and remote sensing). ° The lights satellite Earth observation satellites or communication satellites us ed for military or intelligence.combined with better and better electronics allowssatellite navigation systems m easure the position accuracies of the order of a few meters in real time. · Polar Orbit: ASatellite in polar orbit passes above or just above both poles of the planet (or any other celestial body) on each revolution. · Miniature satellites are unusually low weights and small sizes. New classificati ons are used to classify these satellites: Mini Satellite (500-200 kg). the satellites are often classified by their height: · Low Earth Orbit (LEO: 200 to 1200 km above the surface) Media · Earth Orbit (MEO and ICO: mila 1200 to 35.786 km) The following orbits are special orbits that are also used to categorize satelli tes: Molniya orbits ·: a class is a highly elliptical orbit.786 km above the surface) and the geostationar y orbit (zero inclination geostationary orbit). other vehicles are used a s transportation to and from the station. Molniya orbits are named after a series of Russian communications satellite Molniyawas the use of this class of orbits sinc e the mid 1960s. Orbit types ManyTimes of satellites in orbit. · Weather satellites are satellites used primarily for climate and to monitor and / or the earth's climate. · The solar power satellites are proposedBuilt satellite in orbit that the use of high power microwave transmission to beam solar power to very large antenna on E arth where it can be used in place of conventional energy sources. Aerospace and space engineering. Of stations living space are artificial structures that are designed for people in space. the Hohmann . Or sun-synchronous orbit synchronous · Helio: Helio-synchronous orbit is one. months or even years. A space station is distinguished from other manned spacecraft by the l ack of major propulsion or landing facilities instead. This is a useful feature for satellite im ages of Earth's surface in visible and infrared wavelengths (eg weather. nano-satellites (under 10 kg). a phenomenon tha t is known to live as the highlight. A satellite in orbit that brought most of the time spent on a specific area of the earth.286 km) Geostationary orbit · (GEO: mila 35. Soon all the power of the satellite is known as the governments which they operate is generally keeps classified information re lating to their reconnaissance satellites. microsat ellite (below 200 kg). These pathways are of particular interest to communicationSatellite and will be discussed in detail later. · High Earth Orbit (HEO: mila about 35. While a satellite can orbit in nearly the whol e height. or m ore often orbit the Sun in an orbit where an object always passes a given point on Earth at the same time local solar.

It has been used to send a Christmas greetingthe world by President Eisenhower. Syncom 2 around th e Earth once a day at a constant speed changes. Used for sate llites that have changed the station to the east. G iven below the details of the milestones in the history of satellite communicati ons must be: · Herman Potocnik describes a space station in geostationary orbit 1928 · Arthur C. This 100-foot aluminized Mylar balloon ser ved as a passive reflector for radio communications. such as satellite communications to ships and planes only effective means of communicat ion such as the use of other technologies such as cable communicationis are impr actical or impossible. modern communications satell ites use geostationary orbits. The first satellite to relay communicatio ns was Project SCORE in 1958 used to save the record and send voice messages. (built by Philc o) was launched in 1960. Courier 1B. · Supersynchronous orbit or drift orbit Orbit: GEO over. the world's first artificial (non-communications) satelli te. Telstar was placed in an elliptical orbit (once completedevery 2 hours and 37 minutes). Sputnik 1. He suggested that a radio relay satellite in aequatorial orbit with a period of 24 hours would remain in terms of surface and can be used for long-range radio link. rotating with an angle of 45 degrees ab ove the equator. Satellite Communications A communications satellite (sometimes abbreviated to comsat) is an artificial sa tellite into space for the telecommunications room. 1963 · Academy III · Molniya 1965 the first amateur radio satellite communications March 1965 first Soviet communication satellite. but it is still moving from nort h to south of special equipment was needed to pursue it. Clarke suggests television 1945 · Project SCORE · Echo I Courier 1B aStation in geostationary communications and broadcast 1958 first communications satellite first passive reflector satellites August 1960 October 1960 the first active repeater satellite · Telstar the first active satellite relays is directed to transmit television and high-speed data communications. For mobile applications. For fixed communicationThe satellites provide a technology complementary to that of fiber optic submarine communication cables. · Subsynchronous orbit or drift-Bahn: orbits close to but below GEO. NA SA launched a satellite Echo in 1960. as are the limits of the curvature of the earth. was launched on 4 in October 1957. Molniya orbits or low Earth orbits. Clarke wrote in 1945. Satellites will driftwest .transfer orbit is an orbital maneuver that moves a spacecraft from one orbit to another. was the first active repeater satellite in the world. July 1962 · Syncom first communications satellite in geostationary orbit. a highly elliptical orbit -October . First missions: The origin of satellite communications can be traced to an artic le by Arthur C.

can the savings in ground equipment more than justify the added cost an d complexity of the hub on board a satellite in geostationary orbit are relative ly high . In 2000. The concept of geostationary satellite communications for the first time describ ed by Arthur C. like ABC. CBS. In October 1945 Clarke published an article title d "Extra-Terrestrial Relays" in the British magazine Wireless World. The United States launched its own satellites and geo stationary communication with Western Union launches its Westar 1 satellite in 1 974. The article describes the basics behind the use of artificial satellites in geostationary o rbit for the purpose of transmitting radio signals. The first geostationary communications satellite Anik 1 was a Canadian satellite launched in 1972 to life. 2005 Depending on the need for communicationSatellites can be positioned in different orbits. According to Arthur C. NBC. because these channels for programming distributed to all loc al exchanges cable TV satellite. theresulted in lower cost transponders. The geostation ary orbit is useful for communications applications because ground antennas to b e aligned to the satellite must be able to work effectivelywithout the need for expensive satellite equipment to track the movement. The reason Satcom 1 was so common th at it had twice the capacity of communication Westar 1 (24 transponders to Westa r 1's 12 against). 1976 Ap · Palapa A1 · TDRSS first satellite to transmit communications services offered to other space craft. Hughes Space and Communications (now Boeing Satellite Systems) for near . the longest season yet. Especially for applications that require a large number of antennas on the ground (such as direct TV distri bution). it was the first satellite network s broadcasting in the United States. and planning used to di stribute all of its local partner stations. CBN (now ABC Family) and TheWeather Channel to be successful. January 14. the first geostationary communication satellites ril 1974 · Ekran the first series Direct-To-Home TV communication satellite in 1976 firstIndonesian communications satellite July 8. HBO. A geostationary sate llite in orbit at a constant speed once per day over the equator. based on work by Konstantin Tsiolkovsky and on proposals 1929 by Herman Potocnik (writing as Herman Noordung) The problem of crossing of outer space the rocket engine. It 'been Satcom 1 that a significant role in the channels of cable TV was first as WTBS (now TBS Superstation). Furthermore. Clarke. 1983 · Mars Global Surveyor planet (Mars) 1997 the first communications satellite in orbit around another · Relay Cassini image of Earth from the Huygens probe as it lands on Saturn's moon Titan. the United States. and RCA Americom (later GE Americom. now SES Americom) First Satcom 1 in 19 75. We discuss some common ways: (A) in the orbit of geostationary satellites: a satellite in geostationary orbit appears to be in a fixed position to an observer on earth.· Early Bird · Orbit · Anik 1 first Intelsat satellites for commercial service April 1965 November 1967 the first national network TV-based satellite television the first national satellite TV. Clark e is often quoted as the inventor of the communicationSatellite. Canada 1973 · Westar 1.

Because of their low altitude. connectivity and cause multipath interference (caused by signalsReflection on land to the antenna ). A group of satellites. In November 1967 the Soviet engineers a single national television network of satellite television. called Orbita. Thus. It 'can al so provide uninterrupted coverage with satellites in low Earth orbit can store t he data received during the transition to a part of the earth and later during t ransmissionRun somewhere else. guaranteeing good elevation over selected positions in th e northern part of the orbit. As a result. A lcatel Space and EADS Astrium. (B) satellites to low earth orbit: a low Earth orbit is typically a circular orb it of about 150Kilometers above the earth's surface and so a period (now in orbi t around the earth) of about 90 minutes. (Elevation is the measure of the position of the s atellite above the horizon. This is the case with the cascade of Cassiope Can adian satellite communications. In addition. are forced to operate satellites in geostationary orbit above the 40 percent of the satellite were built all over the world in service. because the cars passing through 'urban areas need access to satel lites at high altitude to ensure a good connection. Northrop Grumman. Molniya orbits can be an interestingAlternatives in these cases. (C) Molniya satellites: As mentioned above. designed so that the satellite is the vast majority of his time spent on the very northern latitudes. The Molniya orb it is highly inclined. there are important differences in the board and ground equi pment necessary to support two types of missions. Furthermore. The first satellite of Molniya series was April 23. Moreover. based Molniya satellites. So a satellite on the horizon has zero elevation and a satellite is directly above the sea level 90 degrees). was well were 720 satellites. 1965 and was launched for the experimental transmission of TV signals from uplink to downlink stations in Moscow will be used in the Russian Far East. for example. It lasts half a day so that the satellite is to manage the target area for eight hours e very second revolution. Another LEO satellite constellation. Khabarovsk. a large number of satelli tes are needed if the mission requires uninterruptedConnectivity. The Irid ium system has 66 satellites. the Molni ya orbit. especially in remote areas. satellites in low earth orbit to change their position on the groun d position quickly. where itsEarth moves very little space. were the Iridium and Globalstar. a constellation of three Molniya satellites (plus in-orbit spares) can provide continuous coverage. in the presence of tall buildings. Other m ajor satellite manufacturer Space Systems / includes / Loral. So there is a trade-off between the number of satellites and their cost. which in concert are therefore known as a satellite const ellation. even for local applications. Another application is the use for mobile telephone systems (even at lowe r latitudes). Lockheed Martin (B usiness owns former RCA Astro Electronics / GE Astro Space). Vladivostok and Magada n. Low Earth Orbit satellites are cheaper places in the area as a geo-stationary sa tellites and because of their greater proximity to the ground. these sa tellites are only visible from a distance of 1000 km from the sub-satellite poin t. Molniya satellites are typically used for telephony and television services on R ussia. with backing from Microsoft entrepreneur Paul Allen. require lower sig nal strength. Applications of Satellites (A) Telephony: One of the most important applications of the satellite is a long . are not always suitable for the provision of services at high latitudes: low to high latitudes a geostationa ry satellite to appear (or are likely even below) the horizon. Thus. which held the provision was designed to hand the phone. Twosuch constellations.

Connectivity is predominantly Frequency Division Multip le Access (FDMA) or Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA). no matter where or how the vehi cle is (the antenna attached) is located. a subsidiary of JetBlue). and are typically amateur radio VHF or UHF anten nas and access provided as Yagis or highly directional antennas. satellite communications tech nology as a tool was used on the Internet via broadband connection data. Some manufacturers also have special antennas for mobile rec eption of DBS television introduced. . FSS satellite technol ogy was originally used for DTH satelliteTV from late 1970 to early 1990. much larger antenna for the reception (3 to 8 feet in diameter and 12 meters from the Ku band C band). satellite uplink traffic on for further processing. or more pejorative known as Big Ugly antenna systems). which wer e designed specifically to bring ham radio traffic. Business Television (BTV). These mobile satellite antennas are po pular with some owners of recreational vehicles. Many other countries ha ve satellites. and Sky Digital in the UK. which were built up with the other set. (D) Amateur Radio: Radio amateurs have access to the OSCAR satellites. They are usually feeds for transmission to and from television networks and local affili ate stations (such as program feeds for network and syndicated programming. Telephone lines can be connected through a network of tradein turn. Some satellites also provide data relay th rough the X. Most such satellites operate as a repeater space dependent.-distance communication. these a ntennas designed automatically to the satellite. DBS technologyis used for DTH-oriented (Direct-To-Home) satellite television services like DirecTV and Dis h Network in the United States. including production of the launch vehicle needed. he rec eived the United States as a TVRO (Television Only) receivers and dishes (aka Bi g-shell. FSS satellites differ from DBS satellites. ExpressVu. Canada. FSS satellites are also distributed to national cable chann els for control cable TV. requiring a power level lower than the second. most amateur satellites are launched into s pace relatively close to Earth and are designed to deal with only a limited numb er of contacts in a short time Given. Countries with a capacity to launch satellites This list includes counties with an autonomous capacity to put satellites into o rbit. The features of French an d British are now subsumed by the EU under the European Space AgencyAgency. live recordings. and can not a ccess a fixed line broadband or dial-up.25 or similar protocols. (Ii) Fixed Satellite Service (FSS) using the C-band and Ku-band bottom. (B) Television and radio: There are two types of satellites used for television and radio programs: (I) Direct Broadcast Satellite (DBS) transmission via satellite is a communicati on satellite that transmits small DBS satellite dishes (usually 18 "to 24" in di ameter). to send to TV receivers firm since 2004. Broadband services via satellite: In recent years. as used for lineLearning from schools and un iversities. Usually sent directly to the top of Ku band. claims popular mobile broadcast directly from their appearance. It 'was also use d in the form in Ku band for the now defunct Primestar satellite TV service. Such mobile DBS antennas are fr om JetBlue Airways for DirecTV(Provided by LiveTV. This ca n be very useful for users to testIf you are in very remote areas. With GPS technology as a reference. that with the a rrival of two satellitesRadio systems in the United States: Sirius and XM Satell ite Radio Holdings. linked via satellite earth station s. and backhaul) is used. (C) mobile satellite technology: first. Because of limi tationsland-based amateur equipment. pas sengers can view on-board on LCD screens mounted on the seats. video conferencing and the brand name for telecommunications.

First launch by country Country Year of first launch of first satellite Russia 1957 "Sputnik 1" United States 1958 "Explorer 1" France 1965 "Asterix" Japan 1970 "Osumi" China 1970 "Dong Fang Hong I" United Kingdom 1971 "Prospero X-3" European Union "Ariane 19791 " India 1980 "Rohini" Israel 1988 "AND 1" Iran 2005 "Sina 1" In 1998 North Korea created a satellite. but this was never confirmed. . and gener ally regarded as a cover for the test launch of the Taepodong-1 missile over Jap an in (see Kwangmyongsong).

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