Windows and its Components
The main components of Windows when you start your computer are the Desktop, My Computer, Recycle Bin, Start Button, Taskbar, and Shortcuts to applications. After opening an application, you will also have a window with an active application which will appear in your desktop and taskbar.
The Desktop is the very first screen you see after Windows starts. There you find the folders: My Documents, My Computer, the Recycle Bin and any Shortcuts for applications and files that you have created.
The Taskbar is the row at the bottom of the Windows screen where all currently open applications or files are listed. The taskbar is used to select a file or application that is already opened or to put an application in the foreground. To put an application in the foreground, just click on the icon of the application in the taskbar. Another way to put an application in the foreground when more than one is in use is to hold the ALT button and then click TAB on your keyboard to see all the open applications; you will need to hold the ALT button and continue pressing TAB to go through each application until you come to the one you want to use.
By clicking the Start button, in the very bottom-left corner of the screen, a vertical window will come up with the Start Menu. The list of submenus in the pop-up window let you navigate and select the application you want to run.
. It is best practice to work with your document window maximized.The last button is used to close your document. The second one maximize your screen. filling all desktop with the document you are working with. sending it to the taskbar. The first one when clicked minimize your screen. top
When you double-click on the My Computer icon on the desktop.top
In the top-right corner of your document are the Minimize/Maximize/Close buttons. it will open a window similar to the one shown below. where you can navigate between the computer's drives and Control Panel tools.
Rename or delete a file or folder. This menu can vary depending on which application you are using. file. usually you click the left button. you can operate different functions such as:
Copy/cut or paste a text.top
Right and Left Click
To use the mouse. However you can also right-click to display a hidden menu related to the object you are in when clicking. With right-clicking. or folder.
The term multitasking means to be running or working in two or more applications at the same time. You can be more productive by multitasking. In order to switch between the applications you can use the Taskbar. you can download files from the Internet while managing your files or word processing. clicking on the icon of the application you want to have in the foreground.
then click and drag your mouse to the end of the selection.top
Put your cursor at the beginning of a word or sentence you want to highlight.
Copy/Cut and Paste Text
You first select the area of the text by highlighting it and then press CTRL+C. or go to Edit menu and select Cut. or go to Edit menu and select Copy. You first select the area of the text by highlighting it and then press CTRL+X. cut or paste commands is using the right-click button of your mouse. To paste you just insert your cursor where you want.
Paste is used to insert an area of text or image in a document by hitting CTRL+V or in the Edit menu selecting Paste. right-click and select Paste.
Another way of using the copy. After highlighting the text you right-click and a menu will appear where you can select Copy or Cut.
Cut is used to delete an area of text from a document.
. 1. 2.Copy is used when you want to have an area of text from a document twice at the same document or in another document.
print. Toolbars normally appear at the top of an application's window. Highlight the text you want to copy or cut. font size. font type.
3. bold. The text will appear. The Standard Toolbar shown in the image below is from Windows Explorer. save.
Standard and Formatting Toolbars
Toolbars are rows of buttons and boxes. the standard toolbars in other applications may have buttons that allow youto open a new document.Copying or cutting and pasting a text in Microsoft Word:
1. Paste your text by pressing CTRL+V. and spell check. When you click on a button or box.
The Formatting Toolbar is used to format a text using alignments.
2. an application opens or a task is performed. press CTRL+C (for copy) or CTRL+X (for paste). Insert your cursor where you want to paste the text.
To print a page go to the File menu and select Print. It is the end of a working period. you can have different versions of the same document and can return to a previous stage. Go to File menu and select Save or use the combination keys CTRL+S. In that way. A window will pop up with options for how many copies and which pages you want to print. Go to File menu and select Save As or use the combination keys CTRL+SHIFT+S. It is provided in most applications. The image below shows the Formatting Toolbar from Netscape Composer.italic. Save As is used when you want to save a file with a different name to create backups of a file in the creation process. Other options are also available depending on the printer.
Note that clicking Save will replace whatever file you were working on.
Save and/or Save As
Save is used when:
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It is the first time you are saving a file. You want to keep saving a existing file in different moments that you are working on it.
which means a new directory (a place where documents from the same subject are stored).
. To open Windows Explorer.top
To create a New Folder. then New and select Folder from the pop-up menu. either in My Computer or in Windows Explorer.
To copy and move a file or folder. go to the File menu. use Windows Explorer. select Programs/Accessories/Windows Explorer. click the Start button.
Select the disk drive that contains the file by clicking twice on it. Click on the folder where the file is located Select the file by clicking on it. 5. Copy or move a file using Menu command: 1. 4. Navigate to the new location where you want to paste the file. 3. click the Start button and select Programs and Windows Explorer (some computer have Explorer under Programs/Accessories). select Paste. Go to Edit menu. select Copy (if you want to retain a copy of the file in the original place) or Cut (if you want to move the file).
. 6. The same procedure can be used if you want to copy or move an entire folder.To open the Explorer application. 2. Go to Edit menu.
Select the file. Here is an example of dragging and dropping a file from the hard drive to the floppy drive in Windows Explorer: 1.
2.Drag and Drop
Drag is when the mouse button is held down while the mouse is moved. the file will be dropped and copied there.
. Drop is the release of the button. After the floppy drive highlights you can release the mouse button. hold down the left mouse button and drag it in the direction of the floppy drive on the left side. It is mostly used to move files around in Windows Explorer or in some other applications. after finishing dragging the mouse.
but they are there.gif.txt.tif.jpg Word document: .jpg.gif.wav. . However. sometimes you will want to save a file with different extensions. . . Examples are: . . .bmp. It is the way operation systems identify which application to use to open a file. . Choose from the drop-down menu next to Save As Type the type you want to save.top
A file extension is the three letters of a file name after the dot.exe
.html. select Save As in the File menu.exe. . . The Save As box will open.doc. The extension of the type will be created for you by the application. In order to do that. Here is an example from Microsoft Word:
Some file extensions:
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Graphic files: . Windows often doesn't list them when you are searching for a file. It is created by the application when you save a file.doc Program file: . .
wav Acrobat Reader file: . quickly allows you to start a program or open a file without having to go to its permanent location on your computer. then right-click and select Create Shortcut from the menu that pops up.y y y y y y y
Webpages files: .xls Compressed file: . it will open the application or document related to the shortcut.rtf Sound file: . After that. place the cursor on the icon for the file.zip Rich Formatted Text: . select the file or program you want to create a shortcut for. open the Windows Explorer or go to the Start menu.txt Excel spreadsheet file: . . To create a shortcut. The shortcut file will be created.pdf top
A shortcut creates a button or icon which typically stays on the desktop and when clicked.html Unformatted text: .htm.
Hard Drive and Floppy Drive
. you drag the shortcut file to the desktop and whenever you click on it.
To select the hard drive or floppy drive for file management you can go to either Windows Explorer in programs or to My Computer on the desktop. is used when you insert a floppy disk to store files that you want to transport or create a back up. the floppy drive and the compact disk drive. or A: drive. The floppy drive. In Windows Explorer select the hard or floppy drive. Hard Drive C:
Floppy Drive A:
. is used for storing all your applications and files. also called the C: drive. The hard drive.In your computer there are different drives: the hard drive.
The file name will be highlighted and blinking in the right corner waiting for you to type the new file name.
. Hard Drive C:
Floppy Drive A:
Rename/Delete a Folder or File
Using Windows Explorer you can rename or delete a file or folder. a:). To Rename a file or folder: 1. 3. Go to the File menu and select Rename. select the Hard or Floppy Drive. 2.or in My Computer. Navigate and select the file or folder you want to rename from the proper drive (c:.
.To Delete a file or folder: 1. Navigate and select the file or folder you want to delete. Go to the File menu and select Delete. 2.
If you delete a file from a floppy disk. top
. unless you empty your Recycle Bin. you right-click and a menu will appear where you can select Rename or Delete. open the Recycle Bin folder by double-clicking the icon on your desktop. it is permanently deleted. select the file and then select Restore. To clear the Recycle Bin. top
When you delete a file from your computer's hard drive.
To restore the files. After highlighting the file or folder. select Empty Recycle Bin and the files will be permanently removed from your computer. it is removed to the folder called Recycle Bin. and you cannot restore it.
Note that the recycle bin does not apply to the contents of a floppy disk.Another way of renaming or deleting a file or folder is using the right-click button of your mouse. Files deleted from your hard drive are still available for restoring if needed.
Check every downloaded file before opening it. 2.com/nav/nav_9xnt/)
To protect your computer from a virus:
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Run a full system scan each time anti-virus (dat) files are updated. Proceed with caution. usually hidden in executable files posted online. Open the file. who sent it. Purchase Anti-virus software is available for purchase from many vendors. Save the file to disk.
E-mail attachments should never be opened unless one is 100% certain as to the nature of the attachment. Scan everything downloaded from the web with anti-virus software. Browse to select the folder or file you want to scan and click the Scan Now button. 1. it is important to regularly use and update virus scanner software. should be treated as potential virus hazards. written deliberately to damage computers that run the program. To avoid damage to your own computer system as well as to avoid unwittingly passing viruses on to other users.A virus is an invasive piece of computer code.mcafee. and why it was sent. We recommend that you periodically visit the company's Web site for upgrades and virus news. Popular products for purchase include:
McAfee VirusScan (http://www. Unsolicited e-mail attachments.
When running scan software you will get a window similar to the one below. regardless of who the sender is. 3.symantec. Run anti-virus software on the selected file.com) Norton AntiVirus (http://www.
you need to defragment your hard disk using an application. sites run by companies or individuals whose true identities are uncertain). then Programs/Accessories/System Tools. before opening any file you should first save it to disk and then run the virus detection program. if possible. however attachments to messages may indeed contain viruses. Therefore. or in the Action menu. top
Defragment Your Hard Drive
Computers store files in pieces of data that can be spread with little space between the data.y
It is quite difficult for e-mail messages themselves to contain or be a virus.
. Go to the Start button. identify the hard disk you want to defragment and click on the Defragment button. the fragments. and finally Disk Defragmenter. from downloading files from questionable Internet sites (for example. In order to organize the disk space clearing the blank areas. select Defragment. Refrain.
ISP stands for Internet Service Provider. You can have your connection through different technologies:
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Dial up (via telephone) Cable (via cable) DSL (Digital Subscriber Line . It is a company which provides Internet connections.
umuc. the address of files on the World Wide Web. in other words. the service provider gives you a software package. . like:
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. username. . The dial up connection is via telephone modem (short for modulator-demodulator).fr is for France
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The URL for UMUC is: http://www.For a monthly fee.5 Mbps. Cable is another high-bandwidth (also called broadband) technology. .br for Brazil. . The last part of the address identifies the type of organization or the country where it is located.com is for company.org is for organization. . a device that enables a computer to transmit data over telephone lines. however with a continuous connection.com The URL for World Bank is: http://www.edu is for education.org
.thelist. At The List of ISPs website (http://www. password and access phone number. A telephone modem converts between the analog waves from the telephone to the digital information on the computer.uk for England. The ISP provides you with access to the Internet. A cable modem is a device that enables you to connect your computer to a local cable TV line and receive data at about1. the World Wide Web and also the ability to send and receive e-mail. you can browse and find an Internet Service Provider near you.The prevalent data rate available for telephone modems are 28.gov is for government.amazon.worldbank. .8 and 56 Kbps.com). top
The Uniform Resource Locator (URL) is simply a Web address for a Web site or. DSL is a technology for bringing high-bandwidth information to homes and small businesses over ordinary copper telephone lines.edu The URL for Amazon Bookstore is: http://www.
The URL for Internal Revenue Service is: http://www.uk top
A Web site is a series of HTML documents about one subject linked through hyperlinks (words or images that can open a new document when clicked). A Web site is stored in a Web server and published on the Wide World Web to be seen in the Internet. For example.bbc.
.gov The URL for London BBC News is: http://www.
The home page is the very first page of a Web site or the first page when you start a browser. the image below is the home page of the UMUC Web site.
go to the Favorites menu and select Add to Favorites.
If you are in Microsoft Explorer. after opening the Webpage that you want to add to your list.
A search engine is a program that searches documents in the World Wide Web through keywords given by the user. select Bookmarks and in the pop-up menu select add bookmark. If you are in Netscape Navigator.Bookmark
You can add a Web site to your list of Bookmarks (for Netscape) or Favorites (in Explorer) so you can select them later without having to type the URL. also after opening the Web page that you want to add. go to the Communicator menu.
there are many more. and Northern Light. and Yahoo! are the most popular ones. such as WebCrawler. Infoseek. Alta Vista. Excite. Lycos. Google. Hotbot. However.Among the Web sites that have a search engine system.
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