You are on page 1of 39

Linguistic Landscape 1

Running Head: Linguistic Landscape

The Linguistic Landscape as a Source of Input in the Second Language

Acquisition

Resurreccion, Eunice Jane H.

Solabo, Evelyn B.

GRES 204 Qualitative Research

De La Salle University-Dasmariñas

June 17, 2017


Linguistic Landscape 2

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Abstract …………………………………………………………………… 3

Introduction …………………………………………………………… 4

Background …………………………………………………………… 4

Research Questions …………………………………………………… 7

Theoretical Support …………………………………………………… 8

Methodology ………………………………………………………….... 10

Data Collection Technique …………………………………………… 10

Qualitative Data Analysis …………………………………………… 12

Inter-Coder Reliability …………………………………………………… 12

Results and Discussion …………………………………………………… 13

Commercials with Songs and Dances …………………………… 15

Commercials with Children as Endorsers …………………… 15

Commercials with Clear Pronunciation …………………………… 16

Other Media as Source of Input …………………………………… 17

REFERENCES …………………………………………………………… 19

APPENDICES …………………………………………………………… 25

A. Interview Protocol …………………………………………………… 26

B. Transcript …………………………………………………………… 27

C. Significant Statements …………………………………………… 33

D. Masterlist of Significant Statements …………………………… 34


Linguistic Landscape 3

ABSTRACT

Language acquisition is one of the challenges in Philippine education.

That’s why a lot of inputs are necessary to achieve this. Inputs are important

ingredients of acquisition and they can be in a form of visuals. This makes

linguistic language as a reasonable choice because it is a study of visuals and

texts. Since Input Hypothesis attempts to explain how a second language is

acquired through comprehensive inputs, the linguistic landscape’s language of

signs will be presented as the input and use materials that are a little beyond the

learners. Data were collected through interviews and later on were transcribed.
As what this hypothesis suggests, if materials seen or heard by the child

are interesting enough, the child tries to imitate and speak the language. Until

such time that it makes sense to the child and thus, becoming a comprehensible

input. Therefore, this study will move away from the traditional belief that only

classrooms and schools provide meaningful interaction and communication; and

that it is not solely the academic institution that provides inputs that make sense

for children but the positive impact of TV commercials in language acquisition. It

is recommended that further study exploring other media such as the internet

should be taken to consideration.

Keywords: Linguistic Landscape, Second Language Acquisition, Qualitative

Research
Linguistic Landscape 4

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

A. Background

Linguistic Landscape (LL) is defined by authors as the study of signage,

images, texts and other language items displayed in a specific public space or

region (Landry & Bourhis, 1997 in Akindele, 2011; Gorter & Cenoz, 2008; Ben-

Rafael et al., 2006, p. 14). It is called landscape because, it is everything that you

see in a vast public area. According to Landry & Bourhis (1997) and Cenoz &

Gorter (2009, p.56), LL has informative functions. That is, it shows that a

common language is used to market good within a language group. Furthermore,

it also functions as symbolic. It refers to the value and status of the languages as

perceived by the members of a language group in comparison to other

languages. Landry and Bourhis were more successful to lead linguistic language

in the open when they started exploring the field (Chesnut & Schulte, 2013). This

new study of language exploration is used to explore how language is used and

how this affect groups of people in a public domain. Most of these studies were

conducted in an urban context because cities are more likely abundant with

billboards and road signage. Linguistic landscape, as explored by many suggests

different contexts. Gorter & Cenoz (2008) points out that these signs are

representations of power and status. Other contexts relates LL in multilingualism

and explicates that it serves as emblem of societies (Shohamy, 2006 & Hult,

2009 in Akindele, 2011; Backhaus, 2007). While other involves it to social and
Linguistic Landscape 5

cultural placement (Scollon & Scollon-Wong, 2003 in Gorter 2013) and

relationship with people (Malinowski, 2009). But most of all, the most important

context is related to language teaching which focused on the LL’s uses in

pedagogy (Cenoz & Gorter, 2008; Rowland, 2012; Sayer, 2010; Thornbury, 2012

in Chesnut & Schulte, 2013). Through continuous exploration, LL has been

stretched to the academic field. One of which was Thornbury (2012 in Chesnut &

Schulte, 2013) who highly believes that this approach can be integrated in the

curriculum of language learning. This was rooted from Sayers’ perspective as an

EFL instructor. In the context of EFL, linguistic landscape could play a crucial role

because it provides real-world opportunities which the EFL classes are lacking.

EFL students are bound to learn their target language explicitly through

information exchange that happens only in the classroom where they are

“knowers” or “seekers” of information (Nassaji & Fotos, 2011). As the pace of

technology swifts up, literacy is not limited in the four corners of the classrooms

anymore. Cenoz and Gorter (2008, p. 277) considers that semiotic symbols,

sounds, and visuals are also important sources that supplement language input

hence, pragmatic competence in written text. Linguistic landscape is not limited

to pictures and symbols, other signs include electronic flat-panels, LED neon

lights and interactive touch screens (Gorter, 2013). Because of English being a

language globally known as lingua franca (Liu, 2011), proponents and people

involved in this field, needed to expand their wings and revisit what was written in

books, what was elucidated by theories that there were more into it that needed

to be explored.
Linguistic Landscape 6

Linguistic landscape is a new perspective almost paralleled as to how technology

emerged. From billboards, it also embraces internet, music, films, newspapers,

magazines and television. Everything that is publicly shown is included. Public

signs can be monolingual, in this case, in Filipino and can also be bilingual,

English and Filipino. In most cities like Makati and Manila, most signs found are

bilingual. That is because these places are center and subjects for businesses

and foreign visits. Therefore, it is important that signage can be understood by

natives and non-natives because it serves as public communication. On the other

hand, commercial ads can also be monolingual and bilingual. But since the target

audience of most local channels are native Filipinos, most commercial ads are

monolingual or sometimes use code-switching. But through development and

innovation, television has gone from local to global (Tuazon, 2015). Some

programs and commercials used the English language, especially the ones

shown internationally, but are still limited to some viewers. Different programs

and commercials for almost all kinds of viewers. From service programs, women

empowering, and educational programs, television has widely changed its

perspective of entertainment. But, of all the viewers, television has mostly a high

impact to children. It revealed that the TV programs, music, pop idols, and books

teenagers subscribe to are their sources of authority on right and wrong and what

is important. The study concluded that “media has truly become surrogate

parent.” (McCann-Erickson, 1993 in Tuazon, 2015).


Linguistic Landscape 7

Despite the many emerging studies about linguistic language, insufficient studies

of pedagogical literature has been published (Liu, 2011). In addition, most studies

found are only involved in visual analysis of public road signs, billboards and

signage. That is, scrutinizing digital photographed signs (Cenoz & Gorter, 2008,

p. 269; Akindele, 2011; Chesnut & Schulte, 2013 ). Cenoz and Gorter (2008)

suggests that apart from picture analysis, ethnographic research and interview

should also be explored. This way analysis is not solely from the author, but

important insights will be gained from the narratives of the interviewees.

Malinowski (in press), also suggests that interview will be more informative. Aside

from this, there is a growing study conducted in different countries such as Tokyo,

Japan (Backhaus, 2006), Thailand, (Huebner, 2006) and Taiwan (Curtin, 2009).

But the study on linguistic landscape in the Philippine context has not yet been

explored to a pedagogical extent. Shohamy and Gorter (2009 as cited in Dixson

2015, p. 9) also seek to broaden the scope of linguistic landscaping beyond

simply signs, suggesting sounds, images and graffiti are also important to the

linguistic landscape. This study will try to explore what has not yet been

unearthed in the area of commercial ads and how these ads become a source of

input for language acquisition.

B. Statement of the Problem


This paper focuses on the use of Linguistic Landscape through

commercial signs and symbols. Specifically, this study seeks to answer the

following research questions:


1. How does Linguistic Landscape promote literacy development in the

target language?
2. How do television ads contribute to language acquisition?
Linguistic Landscape 8

C. Theoretical Support
This paper is anchored on the Input Hypothesis by Stephen Krashen, a

considered prominent in the field of Second Language Acquisition. In order to

answer the specific questions, the researchers have drawn from Krashen’s Input

Hypothesis which suggests that a language acquisition happens when a child is

exposed to comprehensible inputs available in the environment (Krashen, 1985).

Krashen’s Input Hypothesis is a comparatively comprehensive theory in the field

of Second Language Acquisition research, which derives from its earlier version,

the Monitor Model (Wu, 2010). In addition, this hypothesis which explicitly

support’s Chomsky’s Language Acquisition Device (LAD), believes firmly that

input plays a crucial role in language acquisition (Krashen, 1985, p. 3-4). This

theory will ground the study that there is an internal processor that activates in a

child’s cognitive and not all inputs will make sense. Hence only comprehensible

inputs will be of use in the acquisition of the target language. It will also support

that if there is sufficient amount of comprehensible input, the necessary grammar

is automatically provided (Krashen, 1985). As what this hypothesis suggests,

inputs are necessary ingredients of acquisition and it can be in a form of visuals.

This makes linguistic language as a reasonable choice because it is a study of

visuals and texts. Since Input Hypothesis attempts to explain how a second

language is acquired through comprehensive inputs, the linguistic landscape’s

language of signs will be presented as the input and use materials that are a little

beyond the learners or participants. Inputs must neither be too difficult nor too

easy (Wu, 2010). These materials should be interesting enough to get the child’s
Linguistic Landscape 9

attention. If materials seen or heard by the child is interesting enough, the child

tries to imitate and speak the language. Until such time that it makes sense to the

child and thus, becoming a comprehensible input. Some researchers consider

this kind of learning as an “Incidental Learning” wherein the learners learn

without the intension to do so. Though retention rate is low with this type of

learning, factors like frequency of occurrence of the stimulus is considered

(Hulstijin 2003 in Cenoz, J., & Gorter, D. (2008)).


This theory will move away from the traditional belief that only classrooms

and schools provide meaningful interaction and communication; and that it not

solely the academic institution that provides inputs that make sense for children.

Cenoz, J., & Gorter, D. (2008) emphasize that, “It is important to consider the

exposure to L2 can take place in different ways outside the classroom”.

Furthermore, they discussed that Linguistic Landscape centralized mostly on

commercial advertisements. With the high exposure of children nowadays to

television and media, there is a frequent exposure to different stimulus.

Therefore, this study assumes that linguistic landscape can contribute to

children’s language acquisition with the help of audio-visual provided by

commercial ads and can increase the availability of comprehensive input to the

learners.
CHAPTER II

METHODOLOGY

A. Research Design
The study centers on linguistic landscape focusing on commercial ads. It

explores and aims to describe how commercials contribute to the second


Linguistic Landscape 10

language acquisition of children. In order to elucidate the concepts described in

this study, qualitative techniques were used through interviews in order to gather

relevant data.
B. Participants and Sampling

Participants of the study were purposively chosen under a set of criteria. Since it

is a purposive convenience sampling, only seven participants who were available

in the area were chosen to be interviewed. All were female parents.

Table 1.

Participants Population

Parent with 2-year old child 3


Parent with 3-year old child 3
Parent with 5-year old child 1

C. Data Collection Techniques

An interview protocol was initially prepared before data were collected. The

participants were selected through a set of criteria that would meet the needs of

the study. The participants who were to be interviewed are parents of children

between 2 – 5 years old who watch television.

D. Procedure

The permission of the participants were obtained before the actual interview.

Confidentiality of information and anonymity of identity of participants were also

ensured. Moreover, the time and date of the interview were set according to the

availability of the respondents. A set of interview questions was prepared and

checked. The interview questions used were sub questions that would lead to the
Linguistic Landscape 11

specific research questions. After the questions were approved, interviews were

conducted. During the interview, several commercial ads were shown to the child

and determined which among the ads were interesting and familiar to him/her.

The interviews were audio-recorded. The responses of all the participants were

transcribed to filter the important concepts and significant statements from the

participants. During interviews through chat and personal interview parents

narrate their everyday observations. Since commercials were not shown when

these were conducted, only the information that were recalled were stated. The

interview was conducted once for each interviewee since no series of

observations are needed.

E. Transcription
The audio-recorded interviews were transcribed as exactly as it was heard from

the participants. Hence, no codes were used. Fillers and unintelligible sounds

such as laughter and pauses were omitted in the transcription and parenthetical

details that described these fillers were used instead.

F. Data Analysis
The transcription of the interview was thoroughly analyzed to extract significant

statements and was later on compiled in a master list of significant statements.

These significant statements brought about the theme of the study. The

transcription was individually done by the researchers after which was presented

back to the interviewees to confirm all the information given. The commercial ads

used in the interview were considered as private signs. According to Landry and

Bourhis (1997), “Private signs often display more linguistic diversity than
Linguistic Landscape 12

government signs”. That’s because they are less regulated compared with road

and building signage.

G. Inter-Coder Reliability
Transcript was checked by another individual with expertise in research for

validation. After which the themes were derived and were compared with those of

the researchers. By the way themes were explained and presented by the other

party, they therefore agree with the ones derived by the researchers. No further

changes were made.

CHAPTER III

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

D. Results
This section of the paper presents the theme derived from the transcript.

Specifically, it highlights
1. How Linguistic Landscape promote literacy development in the target

language.
2. How television ads contribute to language acquisition.

This is the important theme derived from the transcript:

1. Promoting literacy development through commercial ads or Vocabulary

building through television ads

1.1 Linguistic Landscape in promoting literacy development in the target

language
Linguistic Landscape 13

Akindele (2011) stated that, "The omnipresence of English in LLs is one of

the most obvious markets of the process of globalization". This process makes

children more exposed to English that allow them to easily understand and

become attracted to TV commercials. These ads promote literacy development

since linguistic landscapes in the form of television commercials use vernacular

and English as a second language and visual mechanism to convey messages.

With this, bilingualism becomes very common to Filipinos. The acquisition of

language happens because of the audiovisual presentations of information which

has a strong retention of knowledge. Advertisers also make use of various

strategies to create commercial ads more appealing to the target audience. They

incorporate aesthetic features that have strong visual effects and logos that get

the target audience’ attention and establish rapport with them in a successful

way. Another thing about commercial ads is the visual presentation as well as the

audio can be repeated many times on television. If the materials seen or heard

by the child is interesting enough, the child tries to imitate and speak the

language until such time that it makes sense to the child and thus, becoming a

comprehensible input for learning. One of the instances on TV commercial used

by the researchers was the children on a milk commercial used the word

“delicious” in different way according to the many languages in the Philippines.

The participant observed the facial expressions of children drinking milk and

somehow was able to integrate his own experience (as prior knowledge) drinking

a glass of milk. This word was reiterated twice in the commercial that made the

child repeated the word. As he mentioned the word he approached his mom that
Linguistic Landscape 14

milk is delicious and the affirmation was given by the mother that milk is really

delicious. When the confirmation was received he mentioned it for the second

time and that word makes sense to him. The child maybe in his mind has the

meaning of how he feels when he drinks milk but he does not exactly know what

word can express that feeling so when he heard the word that could explicitly

define his meaning he got satisfied and learned new word. The repetitive words

and actions of the children in the commercial ads also increased the

effectiveness of linguistic landscape in literacy development.

Another proof that commercial ads promote literacy development is when

one of the researchers interviewed three adults. It was very obvious that they

didn’t know the word amputation. But when they saw the informative commercial

ad, they were able to decipher what exactly the meaning of the word. In the

commercial, the girl showed her amputated fingers as an aftermath of using

cigarette for many years. Nonetheless, this information was not included in the

research because of the sudden change of subjects or participants. The

researchers just wanted to mention this to amplify the learning they could get

from commercial ads.

Since children are the participants of this research study, the researchers

used commercial ads that were appropriate for them. Another example of this is

the commercial about a particular vitamin for children. The ad used special

effects to protect the child from sickness together with the message it conveyed.

The child lifted his arms and became fully armored after drinking vitamins. The

audio-visual effects also add to the interest of subject that let him enjoy the TV
Linguistic Landscape 15

ad. He was not able to show a clear manifestation of acquiring new words but he

just imitated the child in the commercial. The reason is that the child was just

mumbling and only the mother could understand his way of communicating.

From the given scenarios the researchers believe that TV commercial ads

promote literacy development to the target audience since these can create

image and build relationship with them.

2.1 Language acquisition through television ads

With the use of commercial ads as one of the forms of linguistic landscape, it

revealed that it can also be used in cultivating children’s awareness in second

language acquisition. Something can be registered in their mind since it uses

visual and uses several languages that are symbolic and have informative

functions. This can be considered as incidental learning, but as what Hulstijin

(2003:365) says, there are several factors that an input can be retained. One of

which is the frequency of occurrence of the stimulus. In the interview, the

average hours that children spend in watching television is about 2-3 hours a

day. These children watch television almost every day exposing them to the

stimulus repeatedly.

This result highlights the supposition of Chomsky that children have the

ability to learn any language which is called the “language acquisition device” or

LAD. All children, regardless of their intellectual ability, become fluent in their
Linguistic Landscape 16

native language within five or six years. Moreover, Krashen (1985 in Kavanagh

2006) suggests that when the language learner is in a rich language environment

"the language 'mental organ' will function just as automatically as any other

organ". In this respect acquisition will happen whether you like it or not, while

talking to your friends or even watching TV.


After analyzing the data, significant statements were derived that resulted

to the theme. This section will further explain how children, based on the results

of interview acquire inputs from television ads. Sub-themes were determined as

follow:
1. Commercials with songs and dances
Since television ads are rich in spoken discourse and are shown repetitively,

children who are regularly watching tend to learn at least a word or two. In the

interview conducted, all participants were accompanied by their mother, some

interview were done with just the mother alone. Since the study deals with kids

as young as 3 years old, the parents were asked to answer through their

observation and how kids reacted to commercials shown to them by the

researchers. The results of the study showed that all participants who are

between 2 to 5 years and are regularly watching television at home are able to

acquire new words both in first and second language. An interviewee admitted, “It

is easier to acquire in commercials spoken in Filipino.” (Appendix, Line 133-134).

When asked about the type of commercial most appealing to the kids, all

participants have the same answer. According to them, words are easier to

remember and be acquired from commercials that use songs and dances,

“catchy music and repetitive words”, (Appendix B, Line 53, 102, 132, 148). One

participant mimicked the moves of the child in a vitamins commercial who


Linguistic Landscape 17

seemed to have full armor after drinking his vitamins. His mom mentioned that he

really likes to dance. Another one even throbbed the table just to meet the

beating of the music used in the commercial ads. That inclination really made

him listened attentively to the commercial ads.

2. Commercials with children as endorsers


According to the interviewees, another reason that their kids are attracted to

commercials is that when they see other children endorsing them (Appendix B,

Line 52 & 134). A combination of kids in the commercial plus music playing

partnered with dance movements get their attention.


3. Commercials with Clear Pronunciation

The researcher showed three commercial ads about a fast food chain, milk

product, and vitamins for kids. When the researcher played the commercial ads,

the child displayed a remarkable interest because of the music used in the

commercial ads. The sound is upbeat that caught his interest. The parent just

tried to stop him from manipulating the device used for showing the commercial

ads, maybe because of his excitement. One of the commercial ads demonstrated

its product through getting the impressions of children from drinking milk. The

children in the commercial ad spoke in different languages in the Philippines. As

the commercial was played, the subject repeated the word “delicious”, and said

to his mommy, “Mommy, milk, delicious”. This revealed that he could imitate

some words he could hear with clear and correct pronunciation. With this, his

mom sometimes spoke to him in English or in Filipino.

4. Other Media as a Source of Input


Linguistic Landscape 18

Another important point from two interviewees was that their kids are more into

watching YouTube videos (Appendix B, Lines 45, 189-192 & 226). With YouTube

videos, they can play and replay as many times as they wish to. Those who

watch longer in YouTube learn more than watching television (Appendix B, Line

224-227).

E. Discussion
This study shows that the graphics and texts provided by commercial ads

are identified as Linguistic Landscape; likewise it is how it was defined by the

pioneer researchers of the study. It is comprise not only with displayed graphics

and print, but also heard and spoken text like audio-visual representation

(Shohamy & Gorter, 2009 in Hewitt-Bradshaw, 2014). Since English texts in

Linguistic Landscape are diverse and interesting for children (Li, 2015), learning

a word or two is not impossible. With the help of technological advances, LL has

been upgraded as well. Various techniques are being used to highlight images

and texts in commercials. One of which is the use of animation in the commercial

of a vitamin product, which easily attracts young audience. Unlike public ads on

billboards or still pictures of ad, commercial ads greatly vary in the presentation

of their products; it gives them advantage in terms of animation and added

aesthetics.
Huebner (in press) in Cenoz & Gorter (2008) states that, “Television

commercials and other forms of advertising can also be good sources of input”.

The results have shown that television ads give comprehensible input to children.

These inputs became comprehensible because of how it is presented to the

target audience. In the case of the television ads used in this study, they used
Linguistic Landscape 19

songs, dances and children in the ad to capture the attention of children. Cenoz

& Gorter (2008) emphasize that visuals and sounds serve as important sources

in language input. In a study conducted in Japan, a young and popular

commercial producer says that, “Simplified repetition is much better than

beautiful scenery in commercials.” (Akiyama, 1993). With songs and dances

used in various commercials like the ones used in the study, it is very easy to

make repetition of words which children can easily follow or imitate. The

repetition of songs and sometimes with actions seen on television ads was found

to be an avenue for language acquisition.


Some words that they learn from the ads are also products used by the

household such as “milk” and “diaper”; with this, words were easily retained in

the child’s memory. Whenever these products are shown on television, the child

easily recalls the words emphasized. On the other hand, other studies like that of

Akiyama (1993), explicates that “language is subsidiary means of

communication”, which means that non-verbal such as facial expression is

playing a more important role in the context of Japanese commercials;

meanwhile, in the context of Caribbean Creole, a study conducted about printed

ads suggested that in language teaching, meaning can also be conveyed

sometimes even with just a title and a picture (Hewitt-Bradshaw, 2014). In the

context of this study, non-verbal cues were not explored. Since the participants

were children, researchers made sure that the commercial ads were age-

appropriate. Ads shown by the researchers mostly use spoken and written texts

instead. Perhaps some non-verbal such as the facial expression and body

language add meaning as a whole. Another context is in Hong Kong, talked


Linguistic Landscape 20

about signs as factor of linguistic competence and as something to address the

needs of other customers (Finzel, 2012).


It was mentioned in the previous section of this paper that incidental learning can

be considered when children learn unintentionally from inputs, which become

comprehensible through frequent exposure to the stimulus (Hulstijin, 2003 in

Cenoz & Gorter, 2008). Since the participants are always exposed to

commercials when they watch television, there is a higher possibility to encounter

the same commercials every time. The television ads are shown randomly every

day. Thus, making the acquisition of words incidental. There is no assurance that

a new English word will be learned today or tomorrow, since ads use both

English and Filipino as the medium or sometimes mix.


Other studies mostly explored public signs (Dixson, A.E., 2015; Hewitt-

Bradshaw, 2014; Seals, 2010) which talked about the context of LL in the use of

vernacular versus the use of English. Picture analysis was done while the data

collected in this study came from interviews. Just like this study that we have

conducted, LL is also used in a bilingual setting. Unlike commercials, public signs

are still and can’t be controlled; anyone who passes by can see these signs

(Finzel, 2012). During a real time commercial, the media has still the discretion to

choose the appropriate LL for that particular time. Based on the interview, most

children watch television with supervision from late afternoon to early evening.
Other media tools like internet are also considered resources of other

textual production and re-production (Hewitt-Bradshaw, 2014). This has been not

explored much in the study, but came out as a subtheme that can be explored in

the future researches.

F. Conclusion
Linguistic Landscape 21

The possibilities in Linguistic Landscape are endless with more

exploration to different media, age group, gender, race, country, etc. This study

has explored the possibility that commercial ads can be an input in the SL

acquisition of young learners. Thus, this study shows that children are able to

learn and acquire new vocabulary vis-à-vis television ads mostly those of which

that use songs and dances. Catchy music and dance movements get the

attention of young children. In addition, when children see other children in the

commercial, the spoken discourse in such advertisement positively becomes an

input to them as well. And since commercials now use powerful tools to get hold

of children’s attention, it becomes truly influential to them. Similarly, commercials

with clear and audible spoken words, especially when commercials highlight their

branding gives more chance for children to imitate words when heard. As

commercial ads belongs to both written and spoken discourse, it is therefore

considered an input to children’s vocabulary. Many studies of LL were also

conducted for different reasons but boil down to language competency.


This study also showed that some interviewees were also given online

access, specifically the contents in YouTube. The parents assured that while their

kids watch, they maximize supervision and ensure the safety in browsing.

G. Recommendation

In the expanding study of Linguistic Landscape, there are still more areas

that are yet to unravel. It is recommended that future studies explore different

media such as symbols and signage being used over the internet. And as

indicated in the study’s significant statement, participants watching YouTube

videos can be another side of the story. Future study may also deal with only
Linguistic Landscape 22

children as participants during interview while parents will just sit with them and

guide them. Although this could be a challenge because some children are not

always willing to be interviewed. However, it would be really interesting to hear

the responses directly from the children. Perhaps the age group can be higher

like 4-6 year olds.


Linguistic Landscape 23

REFERENCES

Akindele, D. O. (2011). Linguistic Landscapes as Public Communication: A Study

of Public Signage in Gaborone Botswana. International Journal of

Linguistics, 3(1), 1–11. http://doi.org/10.5296/ijl.v3i1.1157

Akiyama, K. (1993). A study of Japanese TV commercials from socio-cultural

perspectives: special attributes of nonverbal features and their effects.

Intercultural Communication Studies. Retrieved from

http://www.uri.edu/iaics/content/1993v3n2/08 Koji Akiyama.pdf

Anuarudin, A. A. S., Chan, S. H., & Abdullah, A. N. (2013). Exploring multilingual

practices in billboard advertisements in a linguistic landscape. Pertanika

Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities, 21(2), 783-796.

Backhaus, P. (Ed.). (2007). Linguistic landscapes: A comparative study of urban

multilingualism in Tokyo (Vol. 136). Multilingual matter

Burdick, C. (2012). Mobility and language in place: A linguistic landscape of

language commodification.

Cenoz, J., & Gorter, D. (2008). The linguistic landscape as an additional source

of input in second language acquisition. IRAL - International Review of

Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, 46(3), 267–287.

http://doi.org/10.1515/IRAL.2008.012

Chesnut, M., & Schulte, J. (2013). English Interpretation and Translation, Hankuk

University of Foreign Studies, Seoul, Korea. English Teaching: Practice and

Critique, 12(2), 102–120.


Linguistic Landscape 24

Dal Negro, S. (2009). Local policy modeling the linguistic landscape. In E.

Shohamy & D. Gorter (Eds.), Linguistic landscape: Expanding The Scenery

(pp. 206-218). New York, NY: Routledge.

Dixson, A. E. (2015). Analyzing the Multilingual Linguistic Landscape of Buffalo.

State University of New York, Fredonia.

Ellis, N.C., (2008b). Implicit and explicit knowledge about language. In Cenoz, J.,

Hornberger, N.H. (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Language and

Education,Knowledge about Language, second ed., vol. 6. (pp. 119-132).

Springer, New York.

Finzel, A. M. (2012). English in the Linguistic Landscape of Hong Kong: A Case

Study of Shop Signs and Linguistic Competence, 1–92.

Gorter, D. (2013). Linguistic landscapes in a multilingual world. Annual Review of

Applied Linguistics, 33, 190–212.

http://doi.org/10.1017/S0267190513000020

Gorter, D., & Cenoz, J. (2006). Further possibilities for linguistic landscape

research. Linguistic Landscape: A New Approach to Multilingualism, 81–89.

Gorter, D., & Cenoz, J. (2007). Knowledge about language and linguistic

landscape. Encyclopedia of Language and Education, 1–13. Retrieved from

http://link.springer.com/referenceworkentry/10.1007/978-0-387-30424-3_160

Helland, K. I. (2015). Multilingualism, identity, and ideology in popular culture

texts: a multimodal critical discourse analysis.

Hewitt-Bradshaw, I. (2014). Linguistic Landscape As a Language Learning and

Literacy Resource in Caribbean Creole Contexts 1, 22, 157–173.


Linguistic Landscape 25

Kavanagh, B. (2006). The Input Hypothesis (Krashen, 1982, 1985) An Evaluation

of its Contributions to our Understanding of Second language Acquisition

Phenomena, 241–248.

Krashen, S. (2004). No Title, 81–94.

Krashen, S. D. (1985). The Input Hypothesis. The Input Hypothesis: Issues and

Implications. Retrieved from

http://www.uio.no/studier/emner/hf/iln/LING4140/h08/The Input

Hypothesis.pdf

Landry, R., & Bourhis, R. Y. (1997). Linguistic landscape and ethnolinguistic

vitality an empirical study.

Li, S. (2015). English in the linguistic landscape of Suzhou. English Today,

31(01), 27–33. http://doi.org/10.1017/S0266078414000510

Liu, D. (2015). A Critical Review of Krashen ’ s Input Hypothesis : Three Major

Arguments, 4(4), 139–146. http://doi.org/10.15640/jehd.v4n4a16

Maldonado, M. (2015). Implementational spaces for language practice and

education: policy: A case study of linguistic landscape in Puerto Rico.

Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1685036375?

accountid=34302

Norton, B., & Peirce, B. N. (1995). Dagenais et al LLandscape.pdf. TESOL

Quarterly, 29, 9. http://doi.org/10.2307/3587803

Paper, S., & Studies, M. (2012). HG420 Language Contact Singapore ’ s

Linguistic Landscape A Comparison between Food Centres Located in

Central and Heartland Singapore By Neo Wanting Samantha Soon Sze Min.
Linguistic Landscape 26

Raga, A. (2012). Linguistic landscape and language attitude: A case study on

Jimma towns linguistic landscape inscribers attitude for Afan Oromo.

International Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, 4(7), 218–225.

http://doi.org/10.5897/IJSA12.005

Saturday, M., Hall, D., Berkeley, U. C., Costa, D., & Moffat, S. (n.d.). Linguistic

Landscape 7 Workshop - ‐ Abstracts Study of Urban Space, 1–74.

Seals, C. A. (2010). Reinventing the linguistic landscape of a national protest.

Segalowitz, N. (2006). Processing Instruction: Theory, Research, and

Commentary. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 28(01), 1–9.

http://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263106230055

Shohamy, E., & Gorter, D. (eds) (2009). Linguistic Landscape: Expanding the

scenery, New York: Routledge.

Shohamy, E., Ben-Rafael,. & Bami, M. (eds) (2010) Linguistic Landscape in the

City, Bristol: Multilingual Matters

The, A., Linguistic, M., Of, L., York, N. E. W., Submitted, C. P., Fulfillment, P., …

York, N. (2015). No Title.

Tuazon, R. (2015). Philippine Television: That’s Entertainment. Retrieved from

http://ncca.gov.ph/subcommissions/subcommission-on-cultural-

disseminationscd/communication/philippine-television-thats-entertainment/

Wu, W. (2010). The Application of Input Hypothesis to the Teaching of Listening

and Speaking of College English. Asian Social Science, 6(9), 137–141.

Retrieved from

http://adelaide.summon.serialssolutions.com/link/0/eLvHCXMwY2BQSDMxS
Linguistic Landscape 27

002BlbdlpaJFslmFoZmBinmlsC6z9LCzMzSFHUlIVJp7ibKEOLmGuLsoQu9

B0A3xcLMUDfFIDnR3DLZwizZIBWYepKMEhNNLJJAV5WkpJqmgU4ETwL

WYampZqlppgapFslJicA6MDEZWG8B66pkw1RDMQYWYFc6lU_tJleT6k_P

v0vjftWcffaLDwAW

Vitelli, R. (2013, July 22). Television, Commercials, and Your Child. Retrieved

from Psychology Today: https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/media-

spotlight/201307/television-commercials-and-your-child
Linguistic Landscape 28

Appendices
Linguistic Landscape 29

Appendix A

INTERVIEW PROTOCOL
(INDIVIDUAL AND GROUP INTERVIEW)

SPECIFIC RESEARCH QUESTIONS


1. How does Linguistic Landscape promote literary development in the target language?
2. What type of language is used in television ads? How do this contribute to viewer’s
vocabulary?

INTERVIEW QUESTIONS:

First Question: How long does she usually watch (or allowed to watch) t.v? Which among
these advertisements (researcher will give choices in a form of video and participants will
choose) do you & and your child often see on television (assuming that your child watch
supervised)?

Second Question: In your opinion, which among these ads is the most informative and why?

Third Question: What kind of language was used in the ad? (There will be choices and
description of each type of language such as Jargon, Colloquial, Vernacular, etc.) is it catchy?
In what way?

Fourth Question: Going back to the videos, which advertisement/s give/s you the strongest
impression? Why?

Fifth Question: Do these kinds of advertisement help your child in any way aside from
product information, like in terms of vocabulary? Are there unique words/phrases that these
ads introduce in your child’s vocabulary?

End: Thank you for participating in the interview. I assure you that your responses shall be
dealt with utmost confidentiality.
Linguistic Landscape 30
Linguistic Landscape 31
Linguistic Landscape 32
Linguistic Landscape 33
Linguistic Landscape 34
Linguistic Landscape 35
Linguistic Landscape 36
Linguistic Landscape 37
Linguistic Landscape 38

Appendix C

Significant Statements

Interviewee A

 She mostly remembers if there are kids and songs in the commercial.
 Then she also remembers the things that are used at home.
 She also learns by watching youtube videos for kids.
Interviewee B

 there's a catchy music or repetitive words


Interviewee C

 Most commercials where they acquire words are the ones with kids in it.
 They are attracted to commercials with songs and dance.
 She remembers what she hears like mama, papa, tito and tita.
Interviewee D

 Commercials that show dancing and animation.


 She remembers commercials that are mostly in Filipino.
 She watches longer in Youtube. Thus, she learns more there.
Interviewee E:

- He is attracted to commercial ads with songs and dance.


- He can imitate words he heard from ads with correct pronunciation.
- He listens attentively to commercial ads with music.
Interviewee F:

- He is attracted to commercial ads with songs and dance.


- He danced with the music.
Interviewee G:

- He mimicked the movement of the child.


- He remembers the importance of drinking vitamins.
Linguistic Landscape 39

Appendix D

Master list of Significant Statements

Table 1.

Significant Statement
Frequency

 They are attracted to commercials with songs and dance. 4


 They remember if there are kids and songs in the commercial. 2
 She also learns by watching youtube videos for kids. 2
 She watches longer in Youtube. Thus, she learns more there. 1
 She remembers what she hears like mama, papa, tito and tita. 1
 She remembers commercials that are mostly in Filipino. 1