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LIFE PROCESSES

Characteristics of Living Things


Characteristic Activity
Nutrition Getting food
Respiration Releasing of energy from food
Movement Ability to change place or position
Excretion Removal of poisonous waste products
Growth Increase in mass and/or number
Sensitivity Responding to stimuli
Reproduction Making new individuals

 Simple, one celled organisms perform these functions in one cell.


 Complex, multicellular organisms have cells that are specialized so that they can perform
particular task.

CELL BIOLOGY

Parts of the Cell

1. The nucleus is in the center of most cells. It is responsible for storing and transmitting genetic
information.
2. Ribosomes are the sites where protein molecules are synthesized from amino acids.
3. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is collectively a network of membranes enclosing a singular
continuous space.
a. Granular endoplasmic reticulum or rough ER. The granular ER is involved in packaging
proteins for the golgi apparatus.
b. The agranular, or smooth, ER lacks ribosomes and is the site of lipid synthesis. It also stores
and releases calcium ions (Ca 2+ ).
4. The golgi apparatus is a membranous sac that serves to modify and sort proteins into
secretory/transport vesicles bound to other cell organelles and the plasma membrane
5. Endosomes are membrane-bound tubular and vesicular structures that serve to sort and direct
vesicular traffic by pinching off vesicles or fusing with them.
6. Mitochondria are site of various chemical processes involved in the synthesis of energy packets
called ATP (adenosine triphosphate).
7. Lysosomes are bound by a single membrane and contain highly acidic fluid. The fluid acts as
digesting enzymes for breaking down bacteria and cell debris.
8. Peroxisomes consume oxygen and work to drive reactions that remove hydrogen from various
molecules in the form of hydrogen peroxide.
9. The cytoskeleton is a filamentous network of proteins that are associated with the processes that
maintain and change cell shape and produce cell movements in animal and bacteria cells. Three
types of filaments make up the cytoskeleton.
a. Microfilaments are the thinnest and most abundant of the cytoskeleton proteins. They are
composed of actin, a contractile protein, and can be assembled and disassembled quickly
according to the needs of the cell or organelle structure.
b. Intermediate filaments are slightly larger in diameter and are found most extensively in
regions of cells that are going to be subjected to stress.
c. Microtubules are hollow tubes composed of a protein called tubulin. They are the thickest
and most rigid of the filaments.
10. Chloroplasts like mitochondria contain their own DNA. They serve as a site of photosynthesis.
11. Vacuoles is bound by a special membrane, called the tonoplast, and contains cell sap—which is
composed of dissolved substances and may include

Plant cell vs Animal cell

Plant Cell Animal Cell


A plant cell is usually larger in size. An animal cell is comparatively smaller in size.
It is enclosed by a rigid cellulose cell wall in It is enclosed by a thin, flexible plasma
addition to plasma membrane. membrane only.
Plastids are present. Plant cells exposed to
Plastids are usually absent.
sunlight contain chloroplast.
A mature plant cell contains a large central An animal cell often possesses many small
vacuole. vacuoles.
Nucleus lies on one side in the peripheral
Nucleus usually lies in the centre.
cytoplasm.
Centrioles are usually absent except in motile
Centrioles are practically present in animal cells
cells of lower plants.
Lysosomes are rare. Lysosomes are always present in animal cells.
Glyoxysomes may be present. They are absent.
Tight junctions and desmosomes are present
Tight junctions and desmosomes are lacking.
between cells. Plasmodesmata are usually
Plasmodesmata is present.
absent.
Reserve food is generally in the form of
Reserve food is usually glycogen.
starch.
Animal cell cannot synthesise all the amino
Plant cell synthesise all amino acids ,
acids, co enzymes and vitamins required by
coenzymes and vitamins required by them.
them.
Spindles formed during cell divisions in Spindle formed during cell division is
anastral i.e. without asters at opposite poles. amphiastral i.e. has an ester at each pole.
Cytokinesis during cell division occurs by Cytokinesis during cell division occurs by
formation of cell plate. forming cleavage furrow
Plant cell does not burst if placed in hypotonic Animal cell lacking contractile vacuoles usually
solution due to the presence of the cell wall. burst, if placed in hypertonic solution.
Reproduction and the life cycle
1. Reproduction - production of a new generation of cell(s) that may or may not be identical to
those of the parents
2. The life cycle: cell division - growth - DNA duplication - prepare for division - cell division
3. What structures and substances are necessary for inheritance?
a. DNA - RNA - protein
4. How are substances divided?
a. Prokaryotic fission - bacteria (binary fission - two parts)
b. Mitosis & cytokinesis - eukaryotes (asexual reproduction, bodily growth, and repair - can
differentiate for specialization; i.e., photosynthesis, support, etc.)
c. Meiosis & cytokinesis - eukaryotes (sexual reproduction)
5. General trend of division
a. Sexual reproduction begins with meiosis
i. Formation of sex cells [gametes - sperm (anther) & egg (ovary)]
b. Union of gametes results in a zygote (fertilization)
c. Zygote grows through mitosis - result is an organism
6. Important terms
a. Chromosome - a thread-like structure carrying the genetic material (DNA) and
associated proteins
b. Homologous chromosomes - chromosomes from male and female which have the same
length, shape, and genes
c. Chromatid - one of the thread-like structures of a replicated chromosome
d. Sister chromatids - replicates of the chromatid
e. Centromere - unduplicated area between chromatids where kinetochore is found
f. Gene - a section of DNA encoding a particular trait
g. Allele - an alternative form of a gene
7. General differences between meiosis & mitosis

Meiosis Mitosis
1. Two parts - Meiosis I & Meiosis II 1. One part
2. Result is half the chromosome (DNA and 2. Result is full chromosome number (diploid)
associated protein) number (haploid)
3. Four stages can be described for each nuclear Stages of Mitosis
division.
Interphase (the longest phase)
Stages of Meiosis  "G1" or gap - accumulation of enzymes
Interphase- before meiosis begins, genetic needed for DNA synthesis
material is duplicated.  "S" or synthesis - DNA duplicates
 "G2" or gap - premitosis phase (mitosis
First division of meiosis (Equational Division) proteins produced)
Prophase 1 Prophase
 Duplicated chromatin condenses.  Chromosomes visible & "thick"
 Each chromosome consists of two, closely  Nucleolus disappears
associated sister chromatids.  Spindle apparatus (microtubules) develops
 Crossing-over can occur during the latter Metaphase
part of this stage.  Chromosomes move to equilateral plane
Metaphase 1 of the cell
 Homologous chromosomes align at the  Kinetochores [protein near "middle"
equatorial plate. (centromere)] attach to spindle fibers from
Anaphase 1 sister (duplicate DNA's) chromatids to pole
 Homologous pairs separate with sister of spindle
chromatids remaining together.  Nuclear membrane is gone
Telophase 1 Anaphase
 Two daughter cells are formed with each  Sister chromatids of each chromosome
daughter containing only one migrate to opposite poles
chromosome of the homologous pair. Telophase
 Chromosomes group at opposite poles
 New nuclear membrane forms
Second division of meiosis: Reductional Division)  Each nucleus has same number of
Prophase 2 chromosomes as the original one
 DNA does not replicate.  Spindle dissolves
Metaphase 2 Cytokinesis
 Chromosomes align at the equatorial plate.  Division of cytoplasm
Anaphase 2  Cell plate (plants) or cleavage furrow (animals)
 Centromeres divide and sister chromatids forms
migrate separately to each pole.  Coincides with late anaphase through
Telophase 2 telophase
 Cell division is complete. Four haploid
daughter cells are obtained.
Genetics

Terms associated with genetics


1. Gene: (a section of DNA which) provides instructions for producing or influencing a specific trait
in offspring
2. Allele: a various molecular form of a gene
3. Homozygous dominant: has two dominant alleles
4. Homozygous recessive: has two recessive alleles
5. Heterozygous: has one of each allele
6. Genotype: the sum total of an individual's genes
7. Phenotype: observable aspects (genotype and
environment interaction)

Law of Segregation
Diploid organisms inherit a pair of genes for each trait - one gene from each parent
The two genes segregate during meiosis so that each gamete formed will end up with one or the
other gene, but not both

Law of independent assortment


During gamete formation the segregation of the alleles of one allelic pair is independent of the
segregation of the alleles of another allelic pair

Sample Problems:

1. The ability to taste the chemical PTC is determined by a single gene in humans with the
ability to taste given by the dominant allele T and inability to taste by the recessive allele t.
Suppose two heterozygous tasters (Tt) have a large family. Predict the proportion of their
children who will be tasters and nontasters. Use a Punnett square to illustrate how you
make these predictions.

Answer:
T t
T TT Tt
t Tt tt

¼ TT + ½ Tt = ¾ tasters
¼ tt = ¼ nontasters

2. In pepper plants, green (G) fruit color is dominant to red (g) and round (R) fruit shape is
dominant to square (r) fruit shape. These two genes are located on different chromosomes.
a. What gamete types will be produced by a heterozygous green, round plant?
b. If two such heterozygous plants are crossed, what genotypes and phenotypes will be
seen in the offspring and in what proportions?

Answer:
a. the green round plant will produce GR, Gr, gR, and gr gametes in equal proportion
since the genes are unlinked
b. this will give 9/16 green round, 3/16 green square, 3/16 red round, and 1/16 red
square phenotypes; the genotypes are given in the
Punnett square below

Variations of patterns of inheritance


1. Incomplete dominance - dominant allele partially masks the recessive
Example: red x white flowers  pink flowers
2. Codominance - expression of one allele does not mask the other
Example: blood type Genotype Phenotype
3. Epistasis - one gene pair masks expression of another and some IAIA or IAi "A" blood
phenotypes do not appear IBIB or IBi "B" blood
Example: albinoism (gene disables coloration) IAIB "AB" blood
4. Pleiotropy - single gene exerts effects on some unrelated phenotypic ii "O " blood
trait - Example: sickle-cell anemia (modified oxygen transport by hemoglobin but with
problems)

Population genetics
The study of inherited variation and its modulation in time and space.
Main concept: individuals do NOT evolve; populations do
Factors bringing about a change:
 Mutation - heritable change in kind, structure, sequence, or number of component parts of DNA
 Genetic drift - random fluctuation in allele frequencies as a result of random chance
 Gene flow - change in allele frequencies: immigration (come) and emigration (go)
 Natural selection - differential survival and reproduction within a population

Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis

Cellular Respiration Photosynthesis

Production of ATP Yes; theoretical yield is 38 ATP Yes


molecules per glucose but actual yield
is only about 30-32.
Reactants C6H12O6 and 6O2 6CO2 and 12H2O and light energy
Requirement of sunlight Sunlight not required; cellular Can occur only in presence of
respiration occurs at all times. sunlight
Equation 6O2 + C6H12O6 --> 6CO2 +6H2O + ATP 6CO2 + 12H2O + light --> C6H12O6 +
(energy) 6O2 + 6H20
Process Production of ATP via oxidation of The production of organic carbon
organic sugar compounds. (glucose and starch) from inorganic
[1] glycolysis: breaking down of carbon (carbon dioxide) with the
sugars; occurs in cytoplasm use of ATP and NADPH produced in
[2] Krebs Cycle: occurs in the light dependent reaction
mitochondria; requires energy
[3] Electron Transport Chain-- in
mitochondria; converts O2 to water.
Fate of oxygen and Oxygen is absorbed and carbon Carbon dioxide is absorbed and
carbon dioxide dioxide is released. oxygen is released.
Energy required or Releases energy in a step wise manner Requires energy
released? as ATP molecules
Main function Breakdown of food. Energy release. Production of food. Energy
Capture.
Chemical reaction Glucose is broken down into water Carbon dioxide and water combine
and carbon dioxide (and energy). in presence of sunlight to produce
glucose and oxygen.
Stages 4 stages: Glycolysis, Linking Reaction 2 stages: The light dependent
(pyruvate oxidation), Krebs cycle, reaction, light independent
Electron Transport Chain (oxidative reaction. (AKA light cycle & calvin
phosphorylation). cycle)
What powers ATP H+ proton gradient across the inner H+ gradient across thylakoid
synthase mitochondria membrane into matrix. membrane into stroma. High H+
High H+ concentration in the concentration in the thylakoid
intermembrane space. lumen
Products 6CO2 and 6H2O and energy(ATP) C6 H12 O6 (or G3P) and 6O2 and 6H20
What pumps protons Electron transport chain. Electron transport chain
across the membrane Electrochemical gradient creates
energy that the protons use to flow
passively synthesizing ATP.
Occurs in which Mitochondria Glycolysis (cytoplasm) Chloroplasts
organelle?
Final electron receptor O2 (Oxygen gas) NADP+ (forms NADPH )
Occurs in which Occurs in all living organisms (plants Occurs in plants, protista (algae),
organisms? and animals). and some bacteria.
Electron source Glucose, NADH + , FADH2 Oxidation H2O at PSII
Catalyst - A substance No catalyst is required for respiration Reaction takes places in presence
that increases the rate reaction. of chlorophyll.
of a chemical reaction
High electron potential From breaking bonds From light photons.
energy

DNA Structure and Function


Watson-Crick model of DNA; double helix
The "double" in the double helix means that DNA is found in
a double-stranded form - 2 single-stranded chains of DNA
stuck to each other via hydrogen bonding of the base pairs.

DNA composition: purine and pyrimidine bases, sugars,


phosphate

Nucleotide = base (Adenine, Guanine, Thymine, Cytosine) +


sugar + phosphate.
Nucleoside = base +
sugar = Adenosine,
Guanosine,
Thymidine, Cytidine.
Diversity of Life

Archaebacteria are found mainly in extreme habitats where little else can survive. All known
archaebacteria live without oxygen (anerobic) and obtain their energy from inorganic molecules or from
light.
1. Methanogens: This type of bacteria produces methane. They help breakdown food in the
intestines of animals and also provide essential nutrients
2. Halophiles: This type of bacteria can only live in bodies of concentrated salt water.
3. Thermoacidophiles: A third phylum includes bacteria that are found in the hot, acidic waters of
sulfur springs. These species can handle temperatures near 80 degrees Celcius and pH levels as
low as 2.

Eubacteria is the second group of Monerans, make up their own Kingdom. They live in a wide variety
of habitats and obtain their energy needs in a variety of ways.
1. Heterotrophs: These bacteria need organic molecules as an energy source but are not adapted
for trapping the food that contains these molecules. Others live as saprobes, organisms that
feed on dead organisms or organic wastes
2. Autotrophs: These bacteria are photosynthetic autotrophs. An autotroph is an organism that can
make its own food. They are composed of chains of bacteria cells, an exception to the rule that
Monerans are unicellular. These chains and the existence of chlorophyll (photosynthetic
pigment) help provide evidence for bacteria being the ancestors of plants.
3. Chemotrophs: These bacteria obtain their energy from chemosynthetic breakdown of inorganic
(nonliving matter - no carbon) substances such as sulfur and nitorgen compounds

Protists are single and multicellular organisms that are plant-like, animal-like and fungi-like.
I. Plant-like Protists (Algae) II. Animal-like Protists III. Fungus-like Protists
Euglenophyta (Euglenas) (Protozoa) Myxomycota (Slime molds)
Chrysophyta (Diatoms) Sarcodina (Sarcodines) Oomycota (Water Molds &
Pyrrophyta (Dinoflagellates) Mastigophora(Flagellates) Mildews)
Chlorophyta (Green Algae) Ciliophora (Ciliates)
Rhodophyta (Red Algae) Sporozoa (Sporozoans)
Phaeophyta (Brown Algae)
Fungi are many-celled organisms that decompose dead matter in our environment. Fungi and bacteria
are responsible for doing the major cleaning role in our environment.
1. Ascomycota “Sac Fungi”.
2. Basidiomycota “Club Fungi”
3. Zygomycota “Conjugating Fungi”
4. Deuteromycota “Imperfect Fungi”.

Plants are many-celled organisms that are characterized by their tough cell walls and photosynthetic
abilities. That is, they use a pigment called chlorophyll that can take sun light energy and convert it into
food energy or sugar. Because plants can make their own food, they are known as Producers

Seedless Plants: Seed Plants:

1. Bryophyta (Mosses and Liverworts) 1. Angiosperms (flowering Plants)


2. Sphenophyta (Horsetails) 2. Anthophyta (monocots and dicots)
3. Lycophyta (Club mosses) 3. Gymnosperms (Naked Seed)
4. Pterophyta (Ferns) 4. Coniferophyta
5. Ginkophyta
6. Cycadophyta
7. Gnetophyta

Animals are very diverse and very large, numbering over one million identified species. All animals
share the following characteristics; cannot make own food, digest their food, move from place to place,
and have many Eukaryotic cells. Animals are classified into nine major phyla.

1. Sponges : Porifera
2. Cnidarians : Cnidaria
3. Flatworms : Platyhelminthes
4. Roundworms : Nematoda
5. Mollusks : Molluska
6. Annelids : Annelida
7. Arthropods : Arthropoda
8. Echinoderms : Echinoderm
9. Chordates : Chordata
Human Body Systems Summary Table

Name: Components Role


Strength, Support, Shape, Protection,
Skeletal System Bones, Associated cartilages, Joints
Leverage, Cell Production
Muscles (Skeletal Muscles, Smooth Motor power for movements of body
Muscular System
mucles, Cardiac Muscles) parts.
Control and Coordination of all body
Nervous System Brain, Spinal Cord, Nerves, Nerve Endings
functions (Nervous coordination)
Respiratory Lungs, Nose, Trachea, Bronchi,
Gaseous exchange
System Bronchioles, Alveolar sacs, Alveoli
Cardiovascular Heart, Blood vessels (Arteries, Veins and Flow of blood (and nutrients) throughout
System Capillaries), Blood body
Lymph vessels, Central lymphoid tissue,
Lymphatic
Peripheral Lymphoid Organs, Drainage and Protection
System
Lymphocytes
Endocrine glands (Pituitary gland, Thyroid
gland, Parathyroid glands, Adrenal glands,
Endocrine Regulation of body functions (Chemical
Pancreas (endocrine part), Testes
System coordination)
(endocrine part), Ovary (endocrine part),
Liver (endocrine part))
Alimentary Canal (Oral Cavity, Esophagus,
Stomach, Small Intestine, Large Intestine,
Digestive System Digestion and absorption of food
Anus), Liver, Pancreas, Salivary glands,
Teeth, Tongue
Regulation of body’s internal
Urinary System Kidneys, Ureters, Urinary bladder, Urethra environment, and production and
excretion of urine
Male
Formation of sperms and semen, and
Reproductive Penis, Testes
fertilizing the female egg
System
Female
Formation of eggs and bearing the fetus
Reproductive Uterus, Ovaries, Vulva, Labia, Clitoris
during development
System

EVOLUTION

Theory of Spontaneous generation or Abiogenesis


According to this theory life originated on earth from non-living objects spontaneously by a
process called Abiogenesis (origin of life from non-living matter). It was believed that fishes and frogs
originated from mud, maggots arouse from decaying meat and insects from plant juices and
microorganisms from air & water.

Evidences for evolution

1. Morphological Evidences
Comparative anatomy is the comparison of the structures of different living things. The best
explanation for similarities like the ones among these skeletons is that the various species on
Earth evolved from common ancestors.
a. Homologous organs (Divergent Evolution): Organs having similar embryonic origin and
basic plan, but differing in their functions are known as homologous organs. E.g., The arm
of man, the leg of a horse, the wing of a bat, the wing of a bird and the flippers of a seal
have the same basic plan of development but they are used for different works.
b. Analogous organs (Convergent Evolution): Organs having similar functions but different in
their basic plan of development are known as analogous organs. For example, the wing of
insects and that of birds or bats are analogous structure. Their basic plan of development is
different but has a similar function of flying
2. Biochemistry. The biochemistry of all living things on Earth is incredibly similar, showing that all
of Earth’s organisms share a common ancestry.
3. Biogeography. It is found that the distribution of organisms living today or those that lived in
the past (from fossils) are distributed around Earth in a pattern that reflects their genetic
relationships to one another.
4. Comparative embryology compares the embryos of different organisms. The embryos of many
animals, from fish to humans, show similarities that suggest a common ancestor.
5. Molecular biology focuses on the structure and function of the molecules that make up cells.
Molecular biologists have compared gene sequences among species, revealing similarities
among even very different organisms.
6. The fossil record (all the fossils ever found and the information gained from them) shows
detailed evidence of the changes in living things through time.

Lamarck’s concept of evolution/Inheritance of acquired characters


This theory states that characters are acquired by animals in two ways, the effects of environment
and use and disuse of body parts.

Darwin’s Theory of Natural Selection


Wrote the “Origin of Species by Natural Selection”. The main features of this theory are as follows:

1. Reproduction: All organisms reproduce and multiply enormously.


2. Variations: No two individuals are alike.
3. Struggle for existence: All the offspring are not able to reach adulthood
4. Survival of fittest/ Natural selection: Only those individuals which have favourable variations
survive and reproduce while others not suited by the environment perish away.
5. Origin of Species/Speciation: This continuous process of variation and natural selection will
ultimately result in elimination of certain individuals; while others will gradually establish

Hardy-Weinberg Principle
According to this law, if all the factors / conditions remain constant, the frequency of particular genes
and their alleles will remain constant in a population of sexually reproducing organisms from generation
to generation. Evolution occurs when the genetic equilibrium is disturbed.

Factors affecting Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium:


1. Gene migration / Gene flow
2. Genetic drift
3. Mutation
4. Genetic recombination
5. Natural Selection

ECOSYSTEM
The functional unit of nature, where living organisms interact among themselves and with the
surrounding physical environment.

Component of Ecosystem


Aspects Affecting the Functioning of an Ecosystem are:

PRODUCTIVITY
The rate of synthesis of organic matter (biomass) during a given period of time.
 Primary productivity:
It is the amount of biomass produced per unit area in a given time period by Plants during
Photosynthesis.
 Secondary productivity
It is the amount of biomass produced at any of the Consumer levels in a given period of time.

DECOMPOSITION
It is the process of breaking down of dead organic matter into smaller organic molecules and inorganic
molecules by Decomposers (bacteria, fungi)
 DETRITUS: Dead remains of plants and animals is called detritus.
 DETRITIVORES: Animals that feed on decaying organic matter (detritus).

ENERGY FLOW
As energy is transferred as food, most part is lost as heat at each stage (10% LAW)

Unidirectional flow of Energy:


Sun -> Producers -> Consumers

Transfer of energy / food from the producer through a series of organisms is known as FOOD CHAINS.

food chains
 Food chains represent energy flow through ecosystems.
 Different steps in a food chain are TROPHIC LEVELS
 Basic terms: Producers, Herbivores, Carnivores, Omnivores.

food webs
• The Natural Interconnection of Several Food Chains forms a FOOD WEB.
• Provides alternate pathways for food availability.
• Unlike food chains, food webs are never straight.
• Help in ecosystem development and stability.

ten percent law


during transfer of energy from one trophic level to another, only about 10% is stored at higher
levels; remaining 90% is lost in respiration (heat)

ECOLOGICAL PYRAMIDS
Pyramids are an expression of the relationship between organisms at different trophic levels in terms of
their number, biomass or energy.
1. Pyramid of Number: The relationship between producers and consumers in an ecosystem can
be represented in the form of a pyramid in terms of number called pyramid of number.
2. Pyramid of Biomass: The relationship between producers and consumers in an ecosystem can
be represented in the form of a pyramid in terms of biomass called pyramid of biomass
3. Pyramid of energy: The relationship between producers and consumers in an ecosystem can
be represented in the form of a pyramid in terms of flow of energy called pyramid of energy. It
is always upright.

Climax Community:
 Changes that lead finally to a community that is in near equilibrium with the environment.
 It remains stable as long as the environment remains unchanged.
The Rainforest is an example of climax community ecosystem.

Ecological Succession:
 Refers to predictable and orderly change in the composition or structure of a community.
 May be initiated either by formation of new, unoccupied habitat or by some form of disturbance
of an existing community.

Primary Succession
 If the development begins on an area that has not been previously occupied by a community.
 Pioneer species – lichens, phytoplankton, etc.
 Examples:
- newly exposed rock or sand surface
- a lava flow
- glacial tills
- newly formed lake,
Secondary Succession
 If the community development is proceeding in an area from which a community was removed.
 Pioneer species – grasses, wildflowers, algae.
 Examples:
- an abandoned crop field
- cut-over forest
- natural forces such as wind storms and floods
Choose the letter of the BEST answer.

1. Which describes a Lactobacillus sp.bacterium?


a. They contain chloroplast
b. They have a nuclear membrane
c. Their genetic material is diffused in cytoplasm
d. They are spherical in shape
2. Which of the following differentiate plant and animal cells?
a. Plant cells have cytoskeleton, while animal cells do not.
b. Plant cells are diploid, while animal cells are haploid.
c. Plants contain chloroplasts, while animal cells do not.
d. Plant and animal cells have the same features.
3. Which organelle can split water represented by the equation, H2O  ½ O2 + 2H+ + 2e- ?
a. Mitochondria
b. Chloroplast
c. Ribosome
d. Lysosome
4. Which of the following cell structure is incorrectly paired with its function?
a. Ribosome: Protein synthesis
b. Lysosome: Extracellular digestion
c. Microtubules: muscle contraction
d. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum: Lipid synthesis
5. Which cell DOES NOT belong the group?
a. Nerve cell
b. Sperm cell
c. Skin cell
d. Liver cell
6. Which of the following is correct about cells?
a. They are only found in complex life forms.
b. All living things have more than one.
c. They contain genetic material.
d. They contain only proteins.
7. Which is the most likely pathway for movement of proteins in a cell?
a. ER  Golgi  Vesicle
b. ER  lysosomes  nucleus
c. Golgi  ER  lysosomes
d. Nucleus  ER  Golgi

8. Which organelle releases oxygen?


a. Mitochondria
b. Nucleus
c. Ribosome
d. Chloroplast
9. Chromatin fibers are made up of ____.
a. Proteins and DNA
b. Proteins and lipids
c. Carbohydrates and lipids
d. Lipids and DNA
10. The following processes take place inside mitochondria EXCEPT _____.
a. ATP synthesis
b. Electron Transport Chain
c. Glycolysis
d. Formation of H2O
11. Vesicles from endoplasmic reticulum are most likely on their way to what organelle?
a. Rough ER
b. Golgi apparatus
c. Cell membrane
d. Nucleus
12. You notice that a cell under the microscope contains plasma membrane, cell wall, and ribosomes but
none of the other organelles. Which of the following statements could you conclude?
a. It is an animal cell.
b. It is a plant cell.
c. The cell is a prokaryotic cell.
d. The cell could either a plant or an animal cell.
13. Which organelle contains DNA?
a. Lysosomes
b. Centrioles
c. Chloroplasts
d. Ribosomes
14. Which structure is not a part of the endomembrane system?
a. Chloroplast
b. Golgi apparatus
c. Plasma membrane
d. Endoplasmic reticulum
15. Which cell would be best for studying mitochondria?
a. Nerve cell
b. Muscle cell
c. Bacterial cell
d. Plant cell
16. Which correctly describes the disaccharide?
a. A water molecule is need to synthesize it
b. Two monomers are joined by phosphodiester bond
c. Water molecule is released during its synthesis
d. It contains no functional group
17. Which biomolecule is not a polymer?
a. Haemoglobin
b. Lactose
c. Amino acid
d. Glycogen
18. In DNA, the designation 3’ and 5’ refer to what?
a. Bonds formed between phosphate groups and carbon atoms of deoxyribose.
b. Carbon or nitrogen atoms on the rings of nitrogenous bases.
c. Cross-linking of the third and fifth carbon atoms of deoxyribose.
d. Bonding between the bases and deoxyribose
19. When the cell does not require energy expenditure to transport substances from outside the cell across
the cell membrane into the cytoplasm, the process is called ________.
a. Facilitated diffusion
b. Active transport
c. Osmosis
d. Passive transport
20. In glycolysis, how many molecules of glucose are needed in order to produce 6 molecules of pyruvate?
a. 1
b. 2
c. 3
d. 4
21. Which of the following are products of ATP hydrolysis?
a. ADP
b. ADP and phosphate
c. ADP, phosphate and energy
d. ADP and energy
22. Which of the following pairs of substances is incorrectly paired?
a. Amylose: carbohydrate
b. DNA: nucleic acid
c. chitin: protein
d. Cholesterol: lipid
23. Which statement is TRUE about Calvin Cycle?
a. Occurs in the stroma of chloroplast.
b. It involves series of reactions that breakdown glucose.
c. ADP and Pi are joined to become ATP
d. Glucose is broken down into 2 molecules of pyruvate
24. A 0.9% NaCl solution is isotonic to red blood cells. Which of these describes the results if red blood
cells are placed into a 0.7% solution of NaCl?
a. They will burst.
b. They will shrink.
c. Nothing will happen.
d. They will expand but not burst.
25. Which biomolecule stores an organism’s genetic information?
a. DNA
b. Carbohydrate
c. Lipid
d. Protein
26. Which is TRUE about nucleotides?
i. They contain sugar, a nitrogen-containing base, and a phosphate group
ii. They include saturated and unsaturated fatty acids
iii. They are building blocks of DNA and RNA
iv. They are monomers of proteins
a. i and iii only
b. i, ii, and iii only
c. i, iii, and iv only
d. i, ii, iii, and iv
27. Which is the correct nitrogen base pairing?
a. adenine-guanine
b. guanine-uracil
c. thymine-adenine
d. cytosine-thymine
28. Which statement correctly describes a prokaryotic DNA?
a. It is packaged into chromosomes.
b. It is stored in a membrane bound nucleus.
c. It appears as a loop rather than in package.
d. It contains uracil as one of the nitrogen bases.
29. Which of the following terms includes all the others in the list?
a. polysaccharide
b. carbohydrate
c. monosaccharide
d. disaccharide
30. Which statement/s describe/s the process when ADP becomes an ATP molecule?
i. Energy is absorbed.
ii. ADP is joined with an inorganic phosphate.
iii. The reaction produces a more complex molecule.
iv. The reaction is exergonic.
a. i, ii, and iii only
b. i, iii, and iv only
c. i and ii only
d. i, ii, iii, and iv
31. A mutation that leads to a defect in the enzyme DNA ligase was found. Which could be a probable
effect of such mutation in the replication process?
a. Synthesis of new daughter DNA strands will not be initiated.
b. Such mutation will result to a lot of Okazaki fragments in the leading strand.
c. Okazaki fragments will not be joined together to produce the new DNA strands.
d. It will make the process faster and make more
32. How is meiosis II similar to mitosis?
a. DNA replicates before division.
b. The daughter cells are diploid.
c. Sister chromatids separate at anaphase.
d. The chromosome number is retained.
33. Which event happens after the tetrads crossed-over?
a. Homologous chromosomes will separate and move towards the opposite poles of the cell.
b. Each tetrad move towards the metaphase plate.
c. They will duplicate.
d. Sister chromatids will separate.
34. Following meiosis II, there are a total of ____ haploid cells, and each chromosome consists of ___
chromatid/s.
a. Four, two
b. Two, two
c. four, one
d. Four, four
35. A cell with 2n=6 will have how many chromosomes at metaphase II of meiosis?
a. 12
b. 6
c. 3
d. 2
36. Which of the following incorrectly describes meiosis?
a. DNA replication occurs during interphase before meiosis I begins.
b. Meiosis brings in genetic variability among the gametes.
c. Includes two rounds from prophase to anaphase.
d. Synapsis occurs during prophase II.
37. How many autosomes are there in human (2n=46) secondary spermatocyte?
a. 46
b. 23
c. 22
d. 45
38. Reduction of chromosome number in meiosis occurs during _______.
a. Anaphase I
b. Anaphase II
c. Metaphase I
d. Metaphase II
39. How many mature eggs are formed during oogenesis?
a. 4
b. 3
c. 2
d. 1
40. Complete the following statement: Catabolism is to anabolism as ___ is to ___.
a. Exergonic; spontaneous
b. Exergonic; endergonic
c. Work ; energy
d. Entropy ; enthalpy
41. Fermentation and cellular respiration of a glucose molecule has common metabolic pathway, which is
____.
a. TCA Cycle
b. ETC
c. Glycolysis
d. Reduction of pyruvate to lactate
42. Which is the oxidizing agent in the reaction below? Pyruvate + NADH  Lactate + NAD+
a. Lactate
b. Pyruvate
c. NADH
d. Oxygen
43. In cellular respiration, which of the following is the final electron acceptor in the electron transport
chain?
a. Water
b. Oxygen
c. Pyruvate
d. NADH
44. If the cell has half as much DNA as some others in a mitotically active tissue, then the cell is probably
in what phase of the cell cycle?
a. G1
b. G2
c. S phase
d. Prophase
45. Molar teeth are designed for what digestive mechanical function?
a. Tearing and shredding
b. Cutting and shredding
c. Shearing and grinding
d. Lacerating and crushing
46. Which of the following respiratory track events results to choking?
a. Food that is stalled in the pharynx
b. Air that is passing through the bronchioles
c. Bolus of food that is going down the esophagus
d. Air passing through the larynx
47. If a person had an accident and lost his ability to talk thereafter, what part of his nervous system would
have most likely been affected?
a. Spinal cord
b. Cerebrum
c. Medulla oblongata
d. Cerebellum
48. What could be the possible effect of unregulated estrogen levels in females?
a. Enlargement of biceps
b. Enlargement of voice box
c. Enlargement of the abdomen
d. Enlargement of the hips
49. What results in the amount of blood’s hormone levels would you expect after eating carbohydrate-rich
pasta?
a. High insulin, low glucagon
b. High insulin, high glucagon
c. Low insulin, high glucagon
d. Low insulin, low glucagon
50. Stimulation of uterine contractions during childbirth is regulated by what hormone?
a. Thyroxine
b. Oxytocin
c. ACTH
d. Melatonin
51. Which blood vessel contains deoxygenated blood?
a. Aorta
b. Pulmonary vein
c. Superior vena cava
d. Carotid artery
52. The blood returning to the heart in a pulmonary vein drains first into what chamber?
a. Left ventricle
b. Left atrium
c. Right ventricle
d. Right atrium
53. Which organ is used by male mammals for excretion and reproduction?
a. Vas deferens
b. Prostate gland
c. Urethra
d. Seminal vesicle
54. Which part of the female reproductive system provides a site for fertilization?
a. Uterus
b. Ovary
c. Fallopian tube
d. Cervix
55. In an open circulatory system, the body fluid is termed as ___________?
a. ostia
b. hemolymph
c. blood
d. venules
56. Which are products of digestion?
a. large molecules needed by the body
b. enzymes needed to digest food
c. small nutrient molecules that can be absorbed
d. the food we eat
57. Several days after fertilization, the blastocyst implants in what part of the female’s reproductive
structure?
a. Uterus
b. Vagina
c. Fallopian tube
d. Hymen
58. All arteries in the body contain oxygen-rich blood, with the exception of ____________.
a. Aorta
b. Pulmonary arteries
c. Renal arteries
d. Coronary arteries
59. Upon ovulation, the secondary oocyte is arrested in what stage of meiosis?
a. Prophase I
b. Prophase II
c. Metaphase II
d. Anaphase II
60. Which of these is an organ in the lymphatic system?
a. Spleen
b. Hypothalamus
c. Epiglottis
d. Epididymis
61. Which of the following connects the kidney to the urinary bladder?
a. Urethra
b. Ureter
c. Nephron
d. Fallopian tube
62. Which of the body systems is incorrectly paired with the organ associated with it?
a. Integumentary—skin
b. Respiratory—lungs
c. Circulatory—epiglottis
d. Digestive—stomach
63. Hinge joints can be found in what body part?
a. Shoulders
b. Knee
c. Hips
d. Wrists
64. Which bone can be found in the vertebral column?
a. Sternum
b. Clavicle
c. Scapula
d. Coccyx
65. Which part of the body connects the mouth and the stomach?
a. Trachea
b. Uvula
c. Esophagus
d. Ureter
66. The following describes cardiac muscle except ____.
a. it is voluntary
b. it occurs in the wall of the heart
c. it is striated
d. it has branchings
67. Which of the following blood components fight infection?
a. Erythrocytes
b. Leukocytes
c. Hemoglobin
d. Platelets

68. Which blood vessel carries deoxygenated blood to the lungs?


a. Pulmonary vein
b. Aorta
c. Superior vena cava
d. Pulmonary artery
69. Which muscular tissue is found in blood vessel walls and walls of the digestive tract?
a. Skeletal muscle
b. Smooth muscle
c. Cardiac muscle
d. Voluntary muscle
70. What happens on superficial blood vessels and sweat glands when a human being is cold?
a. Blood vessels dilate, and the sweat glands are inactive
b. Blood vessels constrict, and the sweat glands are active
c. Blood vessels dilate, and the sweat glands are active
d. Blood vessels constrict, and the sweat glands are inactive
71. In blood clotting, what ion is required for the formation of fibrin threads from fibrinogen?
a. Calcium ions
b. Hydroxide ions
c. Sulfate ions
d. Phosphate ions
72. A person with a blood type A contains what type of antigen on erythrocytes?
a. A only
b. B only
c. Both A and B
d. None
73. In blood typing, agglutination indicates that ____.
a. The plasma contains certain antibodies
b. White blood cells fight infection
c. The plasma contains certain antigens
d. The red blood cells carry certain antibodies
74. Absorption of nutrients takes place in humans across the ____.
a. The vessels of a villus
b. The walls of the stomach
c. Smooth wall of the large intestine
d. Linings of esophagus
75. Which of the following is arranged in decreasing specificity?
a. species, family, order, kingdom
b. phylum, species, order, kingdom
c. kingdom, class, genus, species
d. phylum, family, class, genus
76. Which best describes double fertilization?
a. Flowers must be pollinated twice to yield fruits and seeds.
b. Every egg must receive two sperm to produce an embryo.
c. One sperm is needed to fertilize the egg, and a second sperm is needed to fertilize the
polar nuclei.
d. The egg of the embryo sac is diploid.
77. Which plant division (phylum) has a spore that germinates into a prothallus (the gametophyte)?
a. Bryophyta
b. Pterophyta
c. Tracheophyta
d. Archegonia
78. Which hormone helps plants respond to drought?
a. Auxin
b. Abscissic acid
c. Ethylene
d. Gibberellin
79. Which are the essential reproductive parts of a flower?
a. Carpel and Stamen
b. Archegonia and antheridia
c. Corolla and Calyx
d. Sepal and Petal
80. Which of the following flower parts is incorrectly paired with its function?
a. Anther-produces microspores
b. Carpel- produces pollen
c. Ovule- becomes the seed
d. Ovary- becomes the fruit
81. What condition and kind of light flash can the signalling molecule for flowering be released earlier than
usual in a long-day plant?
a. far-red light during the night
b. red light during the night.
c. red light followed by far-red light during the night
d. red light during the day
82. Which cell in the embryo sac becomes the endosperm after double fertilization?
a. Polar nuclei
b. Antipodal
c. Egg nucleus
d. synergids
83. What is the chromosome number of the nuclei in the endosperm of the seed of a flowering plant?
a. N b. 2N c. 3N d.4N
84. Single-celled prokaryotes belong to what kingdom?
A. Monera
B. Protista
C. Animalia
D. Fungi

For items 85-88, refer to the problem: A cross between a blue Chimbudoo bird and a white Chimbudoo bird
produces offsprings that are silver. The color of Chimbudoo birds is determined by just two alleles.
85. What are the genotypes of the parents?
a. Both parents are homozygous dominant
b. Heterozygous and homozygous recessive
c. Homozygous dominant and homozygous recessive
d. Both parents are homozygous recessive
86. What is the possible genotype of the silver offsprings?
a. Homozygous dominant
b. Heterozygous
c. Homozygous recessive
d. Cannot be determined
87. What would be the phenotypic ratios of offsprings produced by two silver Chimbudoo birds?
a. 1:1
b. 1:2:1
c. 9:3:4
d. 9:3:3:1
88. What mode of inheritance is shown in the problem above?
a. Complete dominance
b. Incomplete dominance
c. Codominance
d. Multiple alleles
89. How may genetically different gametes can be derived from AaBBCcDd?
a. 2
b. 4
c. 6
d. 8
90. What is the probability of having AaBbCCDD offspring from crossing AaBbCcDd x AaBbCcDD?
a. 1/8
b. 1/16
c. 1/32
d. 1/64
91. In fruit flies, dark body color (D) is dominant and light body color (d) recessive. Mr. Dark Fruit Fly and
Ms. Light Fruit Fly produce 25 dark offspring and no light ones. The genotypes of Mr. Dark Fruit Fly and
Ms. Light Fruit Fly are ______________, respectively.
a. DD and DD
b. Dd and Dd
c. DD and Dd
d. DD and dd

92. In guinea pigs, smooth coat (S) is dominant over rough coat (s), and black coat (B) is dominant over
white coat (b). In the cross SsBB x SsBb, how many of the offspring will have a smooth black coat on
the average?
a. 25%
b. 50%
c. 75%
d. 100%
93. The nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the ____of the roots of some legumes change ____ from the
____ to forms that could be used by the plants.
a. tips, urea, water
b. nodules, urea, air
c. nodules, nitrogen, air
d. root hairs, nitrogen, soil
94. What is the ecological benefit of putting aquatic plants in aquariums?
a. The plants darken the aquarium.
b. The plants improve the aesthetic value of aquariums.
c. The plants provide oxygen for the fish.
d. The plants provide carbon dioxide for the fish.

95. How does refrigeration retard food spoilage?


i. It slows down the metabolism of the microorganisms in food.
ii. It slows down the chemical reactions that can cause spoilage.
iii. It induces production of salts, which are food preservatives.

a. I only
b. II only
c. III only
d. I and II

96. The amount of energy in living systems ______from the lowest to the highest level in the
energy pyramid.
a. decreases
b. does not change
c. fluctuates
d. increases
97. After a baby is born, __________is the first stage of human growth.
a. Adolescence c. Infancy
b. Puberty d. Childhood

98. ___________ keeps the embryo attached to the wall of the uterus.
a. The umbilical cord c. The vagina
b. The blastula d. The fallopian tube

99. Which of the following will most probably have the most mitochondria?
a. Blood cell c. skin cell
b. Root cell d. sperm cell

100. Which of the following is a demonstration of osmosis?


a. The scent of perfume fills a room.
b. A blue dye solution added to water dissolves.
c. Eggs soaked in salt water solution taste salty after one week
d. Water from a cell goes into blood to remove excess salt in blood.