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What is Grammar?

The word “ Grammar” has been derived from French word “gramaire” or Latin word “grammatical” or Greek word “grammatika” which means “relating to letter” or according to F.R Palmer the word grammar means “to write” “Grammar is the system of rules by which words are formed and put together to make sentence” or grammar is the branch of linguistic which deal with the relationship between words and the structure of sentence” Ten Types of Grammar Linguists are quick to remind us that there are different varieties of grammar--that is, different ways of describing and analyzing the structures and functions of language.
1.Comparative Grammar

The analysis and comparison of the grammatical structures of related languages. Contemporary work in comparative grammar is concerned with "a faculty of language that provides an explanatory basis for how a human being can acquire a first language . . .. In this way, the theory of grammar is a theory of human language and hence establishes the relationship among all languages."
2.Generative Grammar

The rules determining the structure and interpretation of sentences that speakers accept as belonging to the language. "Simply put, a generative grammar is a theory of competence: a model of the psychological system of unconscious knowledge that underlies a speaker's ability to produce and interpret utterances in a language."
3.Mental Grammar

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The generative grammar stored in the brain that allows a speaker to produce language that other speakers can understand. "All humans are born with the capacity for constructing a Mental Grammar, given linguistic experience; this capacity for language is called the Language Faculty (Chomsky, 1965). A grammar formulated by a linguist is an idealized description of this Mental Grammar."
4.Pedagogical Grammar

Grammatical analysis and instruction designed for second-language students. "Pedagogical grammar is a slippery concept. The term is commonly used to denote (1) pedagogical process--the explicit treatment of elements of the target language systems as (part of) language teaching methodology; (2) pedagogical content--reference sources of one kind or another that present information about the target language system; and (3) combinations of process and content." (D. Little, "Words and Their Properties: Arguments for a Lexical Approach to Pedagogical Grammar."
5.Performance Grammar

A description of the syntax of English as it is actually used by speakers in dialogues. "[P]performance grammar . . . centers attention on language production; it is my belief that the problem of production must be dealt with before problems of reception and comprehension can properly be investigated."
6.Reference Grammar

A description of the grammar of a language, with explanations of the principles governing the construction of words, phrases, clauses, and sentences. Examples of contemporary reference grammars in English include A Comprehensive

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Grammar of the English Language, by Randolph Quirk et al. (1985), the Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English (1999), and The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language (2002).
7.Theoretical Grammar

The study of the essential components of any human language. "Theoretical grammar or syntax is concerned with making completely explicit the formalisms of grammar, and in providing scientific arguments or explanations in favor of one account of grammar rather than another, in terms of a general theory of human language."
8.Traditional Grammar

The collection of prescriptive rules and concepts about the structure of the language. "We say that traditional grammar is prescriptive because it focuses on the distinction between what some people do with language and what they ought to do with it, according to a pre-established standard. . . . The chief goal of traditional grammar, therefore, is perpetuating a historical model of what supposedly constitutes proper language
9.Transformational Grammar

A theory of grammar that accounts for the constructions of a language by linguistic transformations and phrase structures. "In transformational grammar, the term 'rule' is used not for a precept set down by an external authority but for a principle that is unconsciously yet regularly followed in the production and interpretation of sentences. A rule is a direction for forming a sentence or a part of a sentence, which has been internalized by the native speaker."
10.Universal Grammar

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The system of categories, operations, and principles shared by all human languages and considered to be innate. "Taken together, the linguistic principles of Universal Grammar constitute a theory of the organization
of the initial state of the mind/brain of the language learner-that is, a theory of the human faculty for language." Using correct punctuation is vital to making your essay effective. Misusing commas, semicolons, and other punctuation marks can give the admissions officers a bad impression, and it can even make parts of your essay unintelligible. Although a few minor errors may not make a huge difference to your reader, a perfect error-free manuscript will make your application essay outstanding. You should know the basics, as listed here:

Punctuation

Commas
When you join two complete sentences with conjunctions such as and, but, or for, place a comma before the conjunction. I want to go, but it is snowing. If you’re unsure whether you need a comma, check to see if the subject changes over the course of the sentence. If it does, you need a comma: The parrot squawks obscenities, and the dog eats nothing but steak. If there is no subject following the conjunction, you don’t need a comma: The parrot squawks obscenities and eats nothing but crackers. Do not join independent clauses with a comma. Instead, use a period or a semicolon: Incorrect: It is about to snow, we’d better not go. Correct: It is about to snow; we’d better not go. Correct: It is about to snow. We’d better not go. Be sure to enclose parenthetical statements in commas: My father, an avid skier, wants to move to Colorado. Also use a comma to separate parts of a date or an address My niece was born in Morristown, New Jersey, on May 24, 2002.Finally, be sure to separate items in a list with commas:

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Correct: Chocolate pizza pasta and ice cream are my favorite foods. Correct: Chocolate, pizza, pasta, and ice cream are my favorite foods. Colons and Semicolons Don’t use colons or semicolons if you are unsure of how they function in a sentence. The semicolon indicates a pause. It is stronger than a comma but weaker than a period: My father has a wonderful sense of humor; nevertheless, he is a strict man. The colon means “as follows”: We learned five stages of grief: denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance. It should not be used to introduce a short list: Incorrect: I went to the store and picked up: corn on the cob, hamburger meat, and beefsteak tomatoes. Correct: I went to the store and picked up corn on the cob, hamburger meat, and beefsteak tomatoes. A colon can also be used to introduce a single word or phrase, to show a close connection between the two parts, or to add dramatic effect. There was only one problem with her theory: She had no proof.

Quotation Marks
Commas and periods always go inside the closing quotation mark: “I ate too much,” said my little brother. My little brother said, “I ate too much.” The first word of a quotation is capitalized, but if you interrupt the quote don’t capitalize the first word of the continuation: “Because of your rude behavior,” said Mr. Lit tell, “you can’t come on the class field trip.”

Exclamation Marks

Do not use exclamation marks to strengthen weak words. The exclamation mark should only be used for true exclamations or for commands (and never use more than one): What a day! Stop!

Spelling
Relying heavily on word-processing programs like SpellCheck or Grammar Check can get you into trouble by lulling you into a false sense of security. For example, Spell-Check

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doesn’t detect if you use the wrong word; it only notices if a word is spelled incorrectly (and occasionally spell-checkers are wrong). So if you’re not careful, it’s easy to miss that you wrote the word compete when you meant to write complete. Incorrect: I completed in twenty three gymnastics meats last year. Correct: I competed in twenty-three gymnastics meets last year. If you’re lucky, the admissions officers will be able to guess from the context what you are trying to say. But there is no reason to look careless.

Principle Division Of Grammar:
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Orthography:. It treats of letters. It relate to correct

spelling. Spelling with reference to correctness. 2. Etymology:. The study of the origins and historical development of the words 3. Syntax: It treats to arrange the sentence or the grammatical rules.

Speech

The Parts of

Traditional grammar classifies words based on eight parts of speech: the verb, the noun, the pronoun, the adjective, the adverb, the preposition, the conjunction, and the interjection. Each part of speech explains not what the word is, but how the word is used. In fact, the same word can be a noun in one sentence and a verb or adjective in the next. The next few examples show how a word's part of speech can change from one sentence to the next, and following them is a series of sections on the individual parts of speech, followed by an exercise What is a Noun? A noun is a word used to name a person, animal, place, thing, and abstract idea. Example .Aslam, Pen, Peshawar etc.

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A noun can function in a sentence as a subject, a direct object, an indirect object, a subject complement, an object complement, an appositive, an adjective or an adverb.

Function of Noun: Nouns functions as a head of nouns phrase, in subject, object, sub_compliment, Object compliment and compliment of preposition for example 1. the chairman reached the department (subject) 2. he praised the chairman (direct object) 3. they elected him the chairman (object compliment) 4. he is the chairman (subject compliment) 5. she gave the chairman a dairy(object indirect) 6. he was with the chairman (prepositional phrase) Dependents: Nouns take determiners, adjective and also restricted relative clause as their dependents for example 1. The girl (determiner acting as dependent) 2. Tall girls (adjective acting as dependent) 3. The girl, who had reddened her lips was Nasima (relative clause)

Lexical morphology: The most productive noun forming suffixes are, Ness, Ty, Er, Ee, Ation, Ment. Examples are 1) Cleanness.2) sensibility.3) sleeper, Eater .4) Employee. 5) Education.6) Development.
Inflection of Noun: Inflection of nouns are contrasted on the basis of number i.e. Singular and Plural But there are number of nouns which are either available only in singular form, for example,Information,Equipment etc or

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either plural form example,arm,brains,spirits,News etc . 1. Noun Gender

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Many common nouns, like "engineer" or "teacher," can refer to men or women. Once, many English nouns would change form depending on their gender -- for example, a man was called an "author" while a woman was called an "authoress" -- but this use of gender-specific nouns is very rare today. Those that are still used occasionally tend to refer to occupational categories, as in the following sentences. Saeed was a very prominent eighteenth-century actor. Nadeem was at the height of her career as an actress in the 1780s. The manager was trying to write a want ad, but he couldn't decide whether he was advertising for a "waiter" or a "waitress" 2. Noun Plurals Most nouns change their form to indicate number by adding "-s" or "-es", as illustrated in the following pairs of sentences: When Aslam was small he rarely told the truth if he thought he was going to be punished. Many people do not believe that truths are self-evident. There are other nouns which form the plural by changing the last letter before adding "s". Some words ending in "f" form the plural by deleting "f" and adding "ves," and words ending in "y" form the plural by deleting the "y" and adding "ies," as in the following.

Possessive Nouns

In the possessive case, a noun or pronoun changes its form to show that it owns or is closely related to something else. Usually, nouns become possessive by adding a combination of an apostrophe and the letter "s." You can form the possessive case of a singular noun that does not end in "s" by adding an apostrophe and "s," as in the following sentences: 1) The red suitcase is Cassandra's.

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2) The only luggage that was lost was the prime minister's. 3) The exhausted recruits were woken before dawn by the drill sergeant's screams. 4) The miner's face was covered in coal dust. • You can form the possessive case of a singular noun that ends in "s" by adding an apostrophe alone or by adding an apostrophe and "s," as in the following examples: 1) The bus's seats are very uncomfortable. 2) The bus' seats are very uncomfortable. 3) The film crew accidentally crushed the platypus's eggs. 4) The film crew accidentally crushed the platypus' eggs. 5) Felicia Hemans's poetry was once more popular than Lord Byron's. 6) Felicia Hemans' poetry was once more popular than Lord Byron's.

Using Possessive Nouns
When you read the following sentences, you will notice that a noun in the possessive case frequently functions as an adjective modifying another noun: The miner's face was covered in coal dust. Here the possessive noun "miner's" is used to modify the noun "face" and together with the article "the," they make up the noun phrase that is the sentence's subject. The concert was interrupted by the dogs' barking, the ducks' quacking, and the babies' squalling. In this sentence, each possessive noun modifies a gerund. The possessive noun "dogs"' modifies "barking," "ducks"' modifies "quacking," and "babies"' modifies "squalling." The film crew accidentally crushed the platypus's eggs. In this example the possessive noun "platypus's" modifies the noun "eggs" and the noun phrase "the platypus's eggs" is the direct object of the verb "crushed." My uncle spent many hours trying to locate the squirrels' nest.

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In this sentence the possessive noun "squirrels"' is used to modify the noun "nest" and the noun phrase "the squirrels' nest" is the object of the infinitive phrase "to locate."

Types Of Nouns
There are many different types of nouns. As you know, you capitalize some nouns, such as "Canada" or "Louise," and do not capitalize others, such as "badger" or "tree" (unless they appear at the beginning of a sentence). In fact, grammarians have developed a whole series of noun types, including the proper noun, the common noun, the concrete noun, the abstract noun, the countable noun. the non-countable noun and the collective noun. You should note that a noun will belong to more than one type: it will be proper or common, abstract or concrete, and countable or non-countable or collective. But the major classification of noun are concrete noun and Abstract noun.
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A concrete noun is a noun which names anything (or anyone) that you can perceive through your physical senses: touch, sight, taste, hearing, or smell. A concrete noun is the opposite of a abstract noun. The highlighted words in the following sentences are all concrete nouns: 1) The judge handed the files to the clerk.. 2) The book binder replaced the flimsy paper cover with a sturdy, cloth-covered board Its further classified into the following nouns. 1) Proper Nouns Proper noun is the name of a specific person, place, or thing. The names of days of the week, months, historical documents, institutions, organizations, religions, their holy texts and their adherents are proper nouns. A proper noun is the opposite of a common nounIn each of the following sentences, the proper nouns are highlighted: A llama Iqbal, Quaid-e-Azam.Pakistan.America..
2) .Common

Concrete Nouns

A common noun is a noun referring to a person, place, or thing in a general sense -- usually, you should write it with a

Nouns

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capital letter only when it begins a sentence. A common noun is the opposite of a proper noun. Aslam.Jawad.Asima,pen.house.bazzar etc. .3) Collective Noun. A collective noun is the name of a number of persons or things, taken together and spoken of as one whole: For example crowd, army, team, family, nation, committee, parlimament.class. 1. The police arrested the thief. 2. A herd of cattle is passing. 4) Material noun. A material noun is the name of a matter or substance of which anything is made, For example, Silver, Iron, Gold, Cotton, Milk, Rice etc 1. This table is made of steel. 2. Milk is a complete diet.

Abstract Nouns

An abstract noun is a noun which names anything which you can not perceive through your five physical senses, and is the opposite of a concrete noun. The highlighted words in the following sentences are all abstract nouns: Examples, 1) Buying the fire extinguisher was an afterthought. 2) Asima is amused by people who are nostalgic about childhood.

Countable Nouns
A countable noun (or count noun) is a noun with both a singular and a plural form, and it names anything (or anyone) that you can count. You can make a countable noun plural and attach it to a plural verb in a sentence. Countable nouns are the opposite of non-countable nouns and collective nouns. In each of the following sentences; the highlighted words are countable nouns: 1) We painted the table red and the chairs blue... 2) Miriam found six silver dollars in the toe of a sock.

Non-Countable Nouns

A non-countable noun (or mass noun) is a noun which does not have a plural form, and which refers to something that you could (or would) not usually count. A non-countable

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noun always takes a singular verb in a sentence. Noncountable nouns are similar to collective nouns, and are the opposite of countable nouns. The highlighted words in the following sentences are non-countable nouns: 1) Dawood discovered oxygen. The word "oxygen" cannot normally be made plural. Oxygen is essential to human life. Since "oxygen" is a non-countable noun, it takes the singular verb "is" rather than the plural verb "are." We decided to sell the furniture rather than take it with us when we moved. You cannot make the noun "furniture" plural. The furniture is heaped in the middle of the room. Since "furniture" is a non-countable noun, it takes a singular verb, "is heaped." The crew spread the gravel over the roadbed. You cannot make the non-countable noun "gravel" plural.

What is a Verb?
A verb is used to show an action or a state of being and give us information about subject is called verb. Such as: jump, run, cook and drive. Rashid bites his victims on the neck. • The verb "bites" describes the action Rashid takes.. • There are three types of verbs: • action verbs, • linking verbs, and • helping verbs ACTION VERBS:. Action verbs are words that express action (ex: give, eat, walk, etc.) or possession (have, own, etc.). Action verbs • can be either • transitive or • intransitive.
TRANSITIVE VERBS

A transitive verb always has a noun that receives the action of the verb. This noun is called the direct object. EXAMPLE: Asima raises her hand. (The verb is raises. Her hand is an object receiving the verb’s action. Therefore, raises are atransitive verb.)

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Transitive verbs sometimes have indirect objects, which name the object to whom or for whom the action was done. EXAMPLE: Nadeem gave Bushra the pencil. (The verb is given. The direct object is the pencil. [What did he give? the pencil]. The indirect object is Bushra..

INTRANSITIVE VERBS
An intransitive verb never has a direct or indirect object. Although an intransitive verb may be followed by an adverb or adverbial phrase, there is no object to receive its action. EXAMPLE: Asima rises slowly from her seat. (The verb is the word, rises. The words, slowly from her seat, modify the verb. But there is no object that receives the action.) TRANSITIVE OR INTRANSITIVE? To determine whether a verb is transitive or intransitive, follow these two steps: 1) Find the verb in the sentence. EXAMPLE 1: Abrahim will lay down his book. What is the action? will lay EXAMPLE 2: His book will lie there all day. What is the action? Will lie Determine whether the verb has a direct object. Ask yourself, “What is receiving the action of the verb?” If there is a noun receiving the action of the verb, then the verb is transitive. If there is no direct object to receive the action, and if the verb does not make sense with a direct object, then it is intransitive. EXAMPLE 1: Abrahim will lay down his book. Abrahim will lay down what? His book. Since the verb can take a direct object, it is transitive. EXAMPLE 2: His book will lie there all day.His book will lie what? Nothing. It does not make sense to “lie something.” Since the verb does not make sense with a Direct object, it is intransitive. A linking verb connects the subject of a sentence to a noun or adjective that

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Renames or describes it.This noun or adjective is called the subject complement. EXAMPLES: Rashid became a business major. (The verb, became, links the subject, Rashid, to its complement, a business major.) Hina is in love with Rashid. (The verb, is, links the subject, Hina, to the subject complement, in love with Rashid , which describes Hina .) The most common linking verb is the verb to be in all of its forms (am, are, is, was, were, etc.). This verb may also be used as a helping verb. Two other common linking verbs, to become and to seem, are taken as linking verbs HELPING VERBS Helping verbs are used before action or linking verbs to convey additional information regarding aspects of possibility (can, could, etc.) or time (was, did, has, etc.).They are also called auxiliary verbs. The main verb with its accompanying helping verb is called a verb phrase. EXAMPLES: Reema is (helping verb) going (main verb) to America. The trip might (helping verb) be (main verb) dangerous. The following words, called modals, always function as helping verbs:(Can,may,must,shall,will,could, might ,ought to, should, would) EXAMPLES: Rubina could learn to fly helicopters. (Could help the main verb, learn.) Raheela will drive to Car tomorrow. (Will helps the main verb, drive.) EXAMPLES: Rubina could learn to fly helicopters. (Could help the main verb, learn.) Raheela will drive to Idaho tomorrow. (Will helps the main verb, drive.) In addition, the following forms of the verbs to be, to do, and to have sometimes served as helping verbs. (Note: In other cases, they may serve as action or linking verbs.)Am, be, being, do, had, have, was, are, been, did, does, has, is, were

Inflection Of Verb:
The great majority of Verb contains six inflection forms. For example the verb ( go)

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1. He goes. 2. He went. 3. They go. 4. He, She.They (shall, will, should, would) go. 5. He, She (is) they are going. 6. He, She (has) they have gone. In 3 and 4 we have used “Go” twice called Syncretism.

Syncretism. Means when two forms have same spelling and same pronunciation is called Syncretism. Function Of Verb:
Verb as head,restrict,the range of others elements in the clause. The base form head verb phrase,function in various kind of clauses’ 1. Open the door. (Imperative/ commond) 2. clauses may also function as compliment to the Modle Auxillary, can,may etc. e.g He may be here soon. 3. Clauses may also take infinitives ( ) e.g It is important to read both the copies.

Dependents:

Verb takes a wider range of dependents. For example a transitive verb takes a direct object as dependent. 1. She is eating a Pumpkin.(direct object) 2. He Gave her a diamond ring.(Direct object/Indirect. Object) 3. She considered him a fool.( object/ object compliment).Because “Foll” can not take place of subject in Passive voice so it can not be an object.

Lexical Morphology:

Verb can be derived from other parts of speech in a number of ways.For example, by adding,”ISe,Ify “to an adjective. 1. National (Noun) __________Nationalise. (Verb) 2. Private (N) _____________Privatise. (V) 3. Synthesis (N) ____________Synthesise (V) 4. Beauty (N) _____________Beautify. (V) 5. Object (N) ______________Objectify. (V)

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Subject and Predicate
Every complete sentence contains two parts: a subject and a predicate. The subject is what (or whom) the sentence is about, while the predicate tells something about the subject. In the following sentences, the predicate is enclosed in braces , while the subject is highlighted. Aziz{runs}. JAziz and her dog {run on the beach every morning}. To determine the subject of a sentence, first isolate the verb and then make a question by placing "who?" or "what?" before it -- the answer is the subject. The audience littered the theatre floor with torn wrappings and spilled popcorn. The verb in the above sentence is "littered." Who or what littered? The audience did. "The audience" is the subject of the sentence. The predicate (which always includes the verb) goes on to relate something about the subject: what about the audience? It "littered the theatre floor with torn wrappings and spilled popcorn." Unusual Sentences Imperative sentences (sentences that give a command or an order) differ from conventional sentences in that their subject, which is always "you," is understood rather than expressed. Stand on your head. ("You" is understood before "stand.") Be careful with sentences that begin with "there" plus a form of the verb "to be." In such sentences, "there" is not the subject; it merely signals that the true subject will soon follow. There were three stray kittens cowering under our porch steps this morning. If you ask who? or what? Before the verb ("were cowering"), the answer is "three stray kittens," the correct subject.

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Simple Subject and Simple Predicate Every subject is built around one noun or pronoun (or more) that, when stripped of all the words that modify it, is known as the simple subject. Consider the following example: A piece of pepperoni pizza would satisfy his hunger. The subject is built around the noun "piece," with the other words of the subject -- "a" and "of pepperoni pizza" -modifying the noun. "Piece" is the simple subject.

Likewise, a predicate has at its centre a simple predicate, which is always the verb or verbs that link up with the subject. In the example we just considered, the simple predicate is "would satisfy" -- in other words, the verb of the sentence. A sentence may have a compound subject -- a simple subject consisting of more than one noun or pronoun -- as in these examples: Team pennants, rock posters and family photographs covered the boy's bedroom walls. Her uncle and she walked slowly through the Inuit art gallery and admired the powerful sculptures exhibited there. The second sentence above features a compound predicate, a predicate that includes more than one verb pertaining to the same subject (in this case, "walked" and "admired").

What is a Pronoun?
A proper noun is used to name a specific person, place or thing. Such as Bill Gates, New York and the Hudson River. A proper noun is always capitalized. . You use pronouns like "he," "which," "none," and "you" to make your sentences less cumbersome and less repetitive. Grammarians classify pronouns into several types, including the personal pronoun,

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the demonstrative pronoun, the interrogative pronoun, the indefinite pronoun, the relative pronoun, the reflexive pronoun, and the intensive pronoun. 1) Personal Pronouns:. A personal pronoun refers to a specific person or thing and changes its form to indicate person, number, gender, and case. Subjective Personal Pronouns A subjective personal pronoun indicates that the pronoun is acting as the subject of the sentence. The subjective personal pronouns are "I," "you," "she," "he," "it," "we," "you," "they." In the following sentences, each of the highlighted words is a subjective personal pronoun and acts as the subject of the sentence: I was glad to find the bus pass in the bottom of the green knapsack. You are surely the strangest child I have ever met. When she was a young woman, she earned her living as a coal miner. After many years, they returned to their homeland. We will meet at the Calcutta at 3:30 p.m. Objective Personal Pronouns An objective personal pronoun indicates that the pronoun is acting as an object of a verb, compound verb, preposition, or infinitive phrase. The objective personal pronouns are: "me," "you," "her," "him," "it," "us," "you," and "them." Here the objective personal pronoun "me" is the object of the preposition "to." I'm not sure that my contact will talk to you. Similarly in this example, the objective personal pronoun "you" is the object of the preposition "to."Rehan was surprised to see her at the race.. Here the objective personal pronoun "her" is the object of the infinitive phrase "to see." 2) Possessive Personal Pronouns A possessive pronoun indicates that the pronoun is acting as a marker of possession and defines who owns a particular object or person. The possessive personal pronouns are "mine," "yours," "hers," "his," "its," "ours," and "theirs." Note that possessive

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personal pronouns are very similar to possessive adjectives like "my," "her," and "their." In each of the following sentences, the highlighted word is a possessive personal pronoun: The smallest gift is mine. Here the possessive pronoun "mine" functions as a subject complement. This is yours. Here too the possessive pronoun "yours" functions as a subject complement. His is on the kitchen counter. In this example, the possessive pronoun "his" acts as the subject of the sentence. Theirs will be delivered tomorrow. In this sentence, the possessive pronoun "theirs" is the subject of the sentence. Ours is the green one on the corner. Here too the possessive pronoun "ours" function as the subject of the sentence. 3) A demonstrative pronoun points to and identifies a noun or a pronoun. "This" and "these" refer to things that are nearby either in space or in time, while "that" and "those" refer to things that are farther away in space or time. The demonstrative pronouns are "this," "that," "these," and "those." "This" and "that" are used to refer to singular nouns or noun phrases and "these" and "those" are used to refer to plural nouns and noun phrases. Note that the demonstrative pronouns are identical to demonstrative adjectives, though, obviously, you use them differently. It is also important to note that "that" can also be used as a relative pronoun. In the following sentences, each of the highlighted words is a demonstrative pronoun: This must not continue. Here "this" is used as the subject of the compound verb "must not continue." This is puny; that is the tree I want. In this example "this" is used as subject and refers to something close to the speaker. The demonstrative pronoun "that" is also a subject but refers to something farther away from the speaker. Three customers wanted these. Here "these" is the direct object of the verb "wanted."

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4) Interrogative Pronouns An interrogative pronoun is used to ask questions. The interrogative pronouns are "who," "whom," "which," "what" and the compounds formed with the suffix "ever" ("whoever," "whomever," "whichever," and "whatever"). Note that either "which" or "what" can also be used as an interrogative adjective, and that "who," "whom," or "which" can also be used as a relative pronoun.You will find "who," "whom," and occasionally "which" used to refer to people,"which" and "what" used to refer to things and to animals."Who" acts as the subject of a verb, while "whom" acts as the object of a verb, preposition, or a verbal. The highlighted word in each of the following sentences is an interrogative pronoun: Which wants to see the dentist first? "Which" is the subject of the sentence. Who wrote the novel Rockbound? Similarly "who" is the subject of the sentence? Whom do you think we should invite? In this sentence, "who" is the object of the verb "invite." To whom do you wish to speak? Here the interrogative pronoun "whom” is the object of the preposition "to." Who will meet the delegates at the train station? In this sentence, the interrogative pronoun "who" is the subject of the compound verb "will meet." To whom did you give the paper? In this example the interrogative pronoun "whom" is the object of the preposition "to." What did she say? Here the interrogative pronoun "what" is the direct object of the verb "say."
5) Relative Pronouns

You can use a relative pronoun is used to link one phrase or clause to another phrase or clause. The relative pronouns are "who," "whom," "that," and "which." The compounds "whoever," "whomever," and "whichever" are also relative pronouns. You can use the relative pronouns "who" and "whoever" to refer to the subject of a clause or sentence, and "whom" and "whomever" to refer to the objects of a verb, a verbal or a

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preposition. In each of the following sentences, the highlighted word is a relative pronoun. You may invite whomever you like to the party. The relative pronoun "whoever" is the direct object of the compound verb "may invite.” The candidate who wins the greatest popular vote is not always elected. In this sentence, the relative pronoun is the subject of the verb "wins" and introduces the subordinate clause "who wins the greatest popular vote." This subordinate clause acts as an adjective modifying "candidate”. 6) Indefinite Pronouns an indefinite pronoun is a pronoun referring to an identifiable but not specified person or thing. An indefinite pronoun conveys the idea of all, any, none, or some. The most common indefinite pronouns are "all," "another," "any," "anybody," "anyone," "anything," "each," "everybody," "everyone," "everything," "few," "many," "nobody," "none," "one," "several," "some," "somebody," and "someone." Note that some indefinite pronouns can also be used as indefinite adjectives. The highlighted words in the following sentences are indefinite pronouns: Many were invited to the lunch but only twelve showed up. Here "many" acts as the subject of the compound verb "were invited.” The office had been searched and everything was thrown onto the floor. In this example, "everything" acts as a subject of the compound verb "was thrown." We donated everything we found in the attic to the woman's shelter garage sale. In this sentence, "everything" is the direct object of the verb "donated." Although they looked everywhere for extra copies of the magazine, they found none. Here too the indefinite pronoun functions as a direct object: "none" is the direct object of "found.” Make sure you give everyone a copy of the amended bylaws. In this example, "everyone" is the indirect object of the verb "give" -- the direct object is the noun phrase "a copy of the amended bylaws."

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Give a registration package to each. Here "each" is the object of the preposition "to." 7) Reflexive Pronouns You can use a reflexive pronoun to refer back to the subject of the clause or sentence. The reflexive pronouns are "myself," "yourself," "herself," "himself," "itself," "ourselves," "yourselves," and "themselves." Note each of these can also act as an intensive pronoun. Each of the highlighted words in the following sentences is a reflexive pronoun: Aslam give themselves insulin shots several times a day. The Javed often does the photocopying herself so that the secretaries can do more important work. After the party, I asked myself why I had faxed invitations to everyone in my office building.Gul usually remembered to send a copy of his e-mail to himself. Although the landlord promised to paint the apartment, we ended up doing it ourselves. 8) Intensive Pronouns An intensive pronoun is a pronoun used to emphasize its antecedent. Intensive pronouns are identical in form to reflexive pronouns. The highlighted words in the following sentences are intensive pronouns: I myself believe that aliens should abduct my sister. The Prime Minister himself said that he would lower taxes. They themselves promised to come to the party even though they had a final exam at the same time. What Is An Adjective? An adjective modifies a noun or a pronoun by describing, identifying, or quantifying words. An adjective usually precedes the noun or the pronoun which it modifies. In the following examples, the highlighted words are adjectives: The truck-shaped balloon floated over the treetops. Mrs. Naheela papered her kitchen walls with hideous wall paper. The small boat foundered on the wine dark sea. The coal mines are dark and dank. The back room was filled with large, yellow rain boots.

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• An adjective can be modified by an adverb, or by a phrase or clause functioning as an adverb. In the sentence My husband knits intricately patterned cotton. for example, the adverb "intricately" modifies the adjective "patterned." • Some nouns, many pronouns, and many participle phrases can also act as adjectives. In the sentence Aslam listened to the muffled sounds of the radio hidden under her pillow. For example, both highlighted adjectives are past participles.

Inflection:
Most of the adjective take inflection for grad ability with a three term paradigm. For example. Positive__________Comparative_______________Superlative. Tall Taller Tallest Young Younger Youngest. The comparative and Superlative degree may be expressed either inflectionally or analytically i.e. more/most.

Function:

Adjective function as head of adjective phrase. Broadly they have three main functions. 1) Attributive (2) Predicative (3) Post posed

Attributive: Predicative: Post posed:
Post posed comes immediately after the noun and before Verb.e.g.(Some one intelligent published the book). Where it comes before a noun or verb. intelligent girl). e.g. ( An (The girl is

Where it comes after the Verb. e.g. intelligent).

Dependents:

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Most adjective are gradable. Syntactically they take degree expression as dependents i.e. “Too, Er, Est, More, Most, a bit”etc All adjective are not gradable, and such adjectives represent categorical rather then scale properties. For example, (1) Atomic Scientist (2) Medical Student. Lexical Morphology: A number of suffixes derive adjective from nouns e.g. Suffixes. Nouns._____Adjectives. 1. Full__________________Beauty____________Beautiful. 2. Less__________________Motion____________Motionless. 3. Ly___________________Friend____________Friendly. 4. Like__________________Child_____________Child like. 5. Al___________________Politics____________Political. What is an Adverb? An adverb can modify a verb, an adjective, another adverb, a phrase, or a clause. An adverb indicates manner, time, place, cause, or degree and answers questions such as "how," "when," "where," "how much". While some adverbs can be identified by their characteristic "ly" suffix, most of them must be identified by untangling the grammatical relationships within the sentence or clause as a whole. Unlike an adjective, an adverb can be found in various places within the sentence.In the following examples, each of the highlighted words is an adverb: The seamstress quickly made the mourning clothes. In this sentence, the adverb "quickly" modifies the verb "made" and indicates in what manner (or how fast) the clothing was constructed. The midwives waited patiently through a long labour. Similarly in this sentence, the adverb "patiently" modifies the verb "waited" and describes the manner in which the midwives waited.. • Here the adverb "more" modifies the adverb "expeditiously." • Unfortunately, the bank closed at three today.

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In this example, the adverb "unfortunately" modifies the entire sentence.
The Six Types of Adverbs

Adverbs of manner provide information on how someone does something. For example: “Jack drives very carefully”. Adverbs of Manner: Adverbs of manner are placed after the verb or entire expression (at the end of the sentence). For example: Their teacher speaks quickly. 2.Adverbs of Time” Adverbs of time provide information on when something happens. For example:” We'll let you know our decision next week”. Adverbs of Time: Adverbs of time are placed after the verb or entire expression (at the end of the sentence).For example: She visited her friends last year. 3.Adverbs of Frequency: Adverbs of frequency provide information on how often something happens. For example: “They usually get to work at eight o'clock”. Adverbs of Frequency: Adverbs of frequency are placed before the main verb (not the auxiliary verb). For example: He often goes to bed late. Do you sometimes get up early? 4.Adverbs of Degree:” Adverbs of degree provide information concerning how much of something is done. For example: “They like playing golf a lot”. Adverbs of Degree: Adverbs of degree are placed after the verb or entire expression (at the end of the sentence). For example: She'll attend the meeting as well. 5.Adverbs of Comment: Adverbs of comment provide a comment, or opinion about a situation. For example: “Fortunately, there were enough seats left for the concert”. Adverbs of Comment: Adverbs of comment are placed at the beginning of a sentence. For example: Luckily, I was able to come to the presentation 6.Adverb Formation”Adverbs are usually formed by adding '-ly' to an adjective.For example:” quiet - quietly, careful - carefully, careless – carelessly”

1.Adverbs of Manner:”

Adjectives ending in '-le' change to '-ly'.

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For example: possible - possibly, probable - probably, incredible - incredibly

Adjectives ending in '-y' change to '-ily'.
For example: lucky - luckily, happy - happily, angry - angrily

Adjectives ending in '-ic' change to '-ically'.

For example: basic - basically, ironic - ironically, scientific scientifically some adjectives are irregular. The most common irregular adverbs are: good - well, hard - hard, fast -fast

Conjunctive Adverbs:
You can use a conjunctive adverb to join two clauses together. Some of the most common conjunctive adverbs are "also," "consequently," "finally," "furthermore," "hence," "however," "incidentally," "indeed," "instead," "likewise," "meanwhile," "nevertheless," "next," "nonetheless," "otherwise," "still," "then," "therefore," and "thus." A conjunctive adverb is not strong enough to join two independent clauses without the aid of a semicolon.

Inllection:

Most adverb are gradable, but majority of them take periphrastic forms (More/ Most) e.g. Slowly________more slowly_____________most slowly. Similarly most of them take inflection like adjective e.g. soon___sooner____soonest. Fast_______Faster________Fastest.

Function:
Many adverbs are gradable, like adjectives e.g. Very slowlly, more slowly. Most slowly, but they are different from each other between of their function in phrases. Lexical Morphology: A large number of adverbs derived from adjective by suffixation of “ly”.e.g

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Ly (suffix) (adverb)

_________Slow

(adjective)______________Slowly.

What is a Preposition? A preposition links nouns, pronouns and phrases to other words in a sentence. The word or phrase that the preposition introduces is called the object of the preposition. A preposition usually indicates the temporal, spatial or logical relationship of its object to the rest of the sentence as in the following examples: The book is on the table. The book is beneath the table. The book is leaning against the table. The book is beside the table. She held the book over the table. She read the book during class. In each of the preceding sentences, a preposition locates the noun "book" in space or in time. A prepositional phrase is made up of the preposition, its object and any associated adjectives or adverbs. A prepositional phrase can function as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. The most common prepositions are "about," "above," "across," "after," "against," "along," "among," "around," "at," "before," "behind," "below," "beneath," "beside," "between," "beyond," "but," "by," "despite," "down," "during," "except," "for," "from," "in," "inside," "into," "like," "near," "of," "off," "on," "onto," "out," "outside," "over," "past," "since," "through," "throughout," "till," "to," "toward," "under," "underneath," "until," "up," "upon," "with," "within," and "without." What is a Conjunction? You can use a conjunction to link words, phrases, and clauses, as in the following example: I ate the pizza and the pasta. Call the movers when you are ready.

Co-coordinating Conjunctions

You use a co-coordinating conjunction ("and," "but," "or," "nor," "for," "so," or "yet") to join individual words,

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phrases, and independent clauses. Note that you can also use the conjunctions "but" and "for" as prepositions. In this example, the co-coordinating conjunction "for" is used to link two independent clauses.

Subordinating Conjunctions
• A subordinating conjunction introduces a dependent clause and indicates the nature of the relationship among the independent clause(s) and the dependent clause(s). The most common subordinating conjunctions are "after," "although," "as," "because," "before," "how," "if," "once," "since," "than," "that," "though," "till," "until," "when," "where," "whether," and "while." Each of the highlighted words in the following sentences is a subordinating conjunction: After she had learned to drive, Alice felt more independent. The subordinating conjunction "after" introduces the dependent clause "After she had learned to drive." “If the paperwork arrives on time, your cheque will be mailed on Tuesday”. Similarly, the subordinating conjunction "if" introduces the dependent clause "If the paperwork arrives on time." “Gerald had to begin his thesis over again when his computer crashed.” The subordinating conjunction "when" introduces the dependent clause "when his computer crashed." What is an Interjection? An interjection is a word added to a sentence to convey emotion. It is not grammatically related to any other part of the sentence. You usually follow an interjection with an exclamation mark. Interjections are uncommon in formal academic prose, except in direct quotations. The highlighted words in the following sentences are interjections: Ouch, that hurt! Oh no, I forgot that the exam was today. Hey! Put that down!

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I heard one guy say to another guy, "He has a new car, eh?" I don't know about you but, good lord, I think taxes are too high! Subject: The subject is the agent of the sentence in the active voice; it is The person or thing that does the action of the sentence, and it normally Precedes the verbThe subject may be a single noun.Example: “Coffee is delicious.” “Milk contains calcium.” The subject may be a noun phrase. A noun phrase is a group of words Ending with a noun. (It cannot begin with a preposition.) Example: That new, red car is John’s. Mini-test: 1. George likes boats. 2. Mary, John, George, and I went to a restaurant last night. 3. The weather was very bad yesterday. 4. The chemistry professor cancelled class today. 5. The bank closed at two o’clock. In some sentences there is not a true subject. However, it and there can often Act as pseudo-subjects and should be considered as subject when rules call for Moving the subject of a sentence. It is a nice day today. There was a fire in that building last month. There were many students in the room. It is raining right now. Complement: Complement completes the verb. It is similar to the subject Because it is usually a noun or noun phrase; however, it generally follows the Verb when the sentence is in the active voice. Examples of complements: John bought a cake yesterday. (What did John buy?) Jill was driving a new car. (What was Jill driving?) He wants to drink some water. (What does he want to drink?

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She saw Asif the movies last night. (Whom did she see at the Movies?) They called Mary yesterday. (Whom did they call?) He was smoking a cigarette. (What was he smoking?) Modifier: A modifier tells the time, place, or manner of the action. Very Often it is a prepositional phrase. A prepositional phrase is a group of words That begins with a preposition and ends with a noun. Example of prepositional phrases: In the morning, at the university, on the table A modifier can also be an adverb or an adverbial phrase. Last night, hurriedly, next year, outdoors, yesterday Example of modifiers: Aslam bought a book at the bookstore. (Where did Aslam buy a book?) Arif was swimming in the pool yesterday. (Where was Arif swimming?) And (When was Jill swimming?) She drove the car on Main Street. (Where did she drive?) We ate dinner at seven o’clock. (When did we eat dinner?) Note: The modifier normally follows the complement, but not always. However, the modifier, especially when it is a prepositional phrase, usually Cannot separate the verb and the complement. The Noun Phrase The noun phrase is a group of words that ends with a noun. It can contain Determiners (the, a, this, etc.), adjectives, adverbs, and nouns. It cannot begin With a preposition. Remember that both subjects and complements are generally noun phrases. Count and noncount nouns: It is possible, however, to count some no count Nouns if the substance is placed in a countable container. Glass of milk-one glass of milk, two glasses of milk … What is Tense? Tense (noun): a form of a verb used to indicate the time, and sometimes the continuation or completeness, of an

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action in relation to the time of speaking. Time).Tense is a method that we use in English to refer to time—past, present and future. Many Languages use tenses to talk about time. Other languages have no tenses, but of course they can still talk about time, using different methods. So, we talk about time in English with tenses. But, and this is a very big but: We can also talk about time without using tenses (for example, going to is aSpecial construction to talk about the future, it is not a tense) One tense does not always talk about one time.Here are some of the terms used in discussing verbs and tenses.

Mood
1) Indicative mood expresses a simple statement of fact,

which can be positive (affirmative) or negative I like coffee. I do not like coffee. 2) Interrogative mood expresses a question.Why do you like coffee? 3) Imperative mood expresses a command .Sit down! 4) subjunctive mood expresses what is imagined or wished or possible The President ordered that he attend the meeting.  Voice Voice shows the relationship of the subject to the action. In the active voice, the subject does the action (cats eat mice). In the passive voice, the subject receives the action (mice Are eaten by cats). Among other things, we can use voice to help us change the focus of Attention. Aspect The action or state referred to by the verb is completed (and often still relevant), For example: I have emailed the report to Jane. (so now she has the report) (This is called perfective aspect, using perfect tenses.) The action or state referred to by the verb is in progress or continuing (that is,

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Uncompleted), for example: We are eating. (This is called progressive aspect, using progressive [continuous] tenses.)

Determiner:

A determiner is a word that determines noun use. it is a word such is “a, the, this, each, some, either, my, and, your,” that appears before any descriptive and decides the kind of reference that a man has. There are three classes of determiners: 1. Pre-determiner: Pre-determiner comes before a determiner. or in more technical Word Pre-determiner a word which proceeds and qualifies another determiner, as “both, dose in, both my hand” Examples: (all, both, half, double, twice, three, one-third etc) 1. All this money 2. Both my hand. 3. Half this milk. 2. Central determiner: Central determiner comes in the center of a pre-determiner, such as “an, the, those” Examples: 1. All those work. 2. Both these sisters.

3. Post-determiner:
These are items which follow determiner but proceed adjectives, such as “other, two, first,” There are three types of post-determiner (1) Cardinal Numerals (2) Ordinal Numerals (3) Quantifiers. Examples: 1. Cardinal Numerals 2. Ordinal Numerals 3. Quantifiers. (One, two three……..) (first, second, third…..) (Many, few, several, much, little,)

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The Verb Phrases:
A verb phrase consists of a main verb preceded by one or more helping verbs. These helping verbs work together with main verb as a unit. For example 1. Is leaving. 2. Had seemed. 3. May become. .4. Could jump.5.Should move? Etc

Direct Object:

A direct object is the word or phrase in the sentence that indicates somebody or something directly affected by the action of the verb, such as “Cat” in “She fed the cat”

Indirect Object:

Indirect is the person or thing action is done to. If function as the recipient of the action shown by a verb and its direct object, for example “the cat” in “she gave the cat a meal”

Object Complement:.

An object complement is the complement that refers to object. It is a noun, Pronun,or adjective that is a complement of a verb and qualifies its direct object, For example, “Angry” in “He make me angry” 1. He made them happy. 2. They elected him their leader.

Past tense
past

A. Refring to B.without reference to past time 1. Simple. Past. Attitudinal Past. 2. Past Progressive. Hyphothitical Past. 3. Past perfect. 4. Past perfect progressive.

time 1. 2.

Attitudinal Past. (Do, Did)

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Attitudinal past show us the attitude or sense of the time. For example. Do you want to see me? Did you want to see me? OR I wonder if you heed my help now. I wondered if you heed my help now.

Hypothetical Past.
We use this unrealistically situation. For example, If I was/were American President. If I were a bird.

Sipmle Past. (Did +Base form)
Activity completed in past time. I read the book yesterday. Did you see her? You did not see her.

Past Progressive. (Was /were +base form +ing
Activity completed in the past time in progressive. Example I was walking when it started rain. (Progressive past) (Simple past) She was reading a book.

Past perfect. (Had + 3rd form)
Completion of activity before another past activity. Example, He had worked in the Engineering field. She had washed the clothes. Past Perfect progressive. ( H ad been + Base form +ing) A. Duration of activity, B.Action is in progressive Meaning:. 1) Point of Time. (Since) 2. Period of time. (For) E.g. We had been studding for last two years.

Verb:.Verb is classified into two types i.e.
Auxiliary verb and Lexical Verb Lexical Verb: Lexical verb means meaning as, read, play, run, Example I would read a book.

have

dictionary

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(Aux. v) (Main .v)

Auxiliary Verb:.
A. Primary Verb (Do, Have, Be) Central verb B. Model Verb. 1. Marginal verb. 2.

Marginal verb. (Most, need, not, used to, does not, ought
to).

Central verb. (Will, shall, would, should, can, could, may,
might)

Be: (Is, am, are/Was, were/been/being)
Have: (Had, has, and having).

Can,Could: (Expression, Ability)
Examples. 1. She can run. (Present time) 2. She could run.(past time) 3. She can come tomorrow.(future time)

Can, May: (Permission)

Example, 1. may I leave the class early.(Formal) 2. Can I use your phone, (Informal)

Expression Advisability

Should, ought to (same meanings) You should study. You ought to( stronger) study( The Past form of Should is ( should have)

Had better: It is used as a threat or giving warning of
bad condition. E.g. The gas Tank is empty; I had better stop at next Service Station.

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Expressing Necessity:

Must:

It some thing personal feelings. Example, I must read this book. You must read this book. Must (Present/Future) You must eat it tomorrow. (Future) You must eat it now.(Present)

Have To. It something impersonal Necessity.
Example, You don’t have to reach there on Monday. I have to bring a pencil for the test.

Should: (Expression Expectation)

Example, He is the bright student of the class; he should get the gold Meddle. He has severed his people well; he should be elected the next time.

Would. (Preference).

Example, I would rather attend the class than going to topic. I would rather select Biology than history.

Conditions.
1. If clause. Action) 2. Main clause (Reward of

1st

Condition: (If +Simple present- will +base form).

If it rains, the official will call off the game. If you work hard you will pass the exam. I fit rain we will stay inside the class.

2nd

Condition: (If +simple past – would +base form)

When we imagining a situation unrealistic.

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Example, If I won 50 lace rupees, I would go to Spain over vocation. If they had more money, he would buy a new house.

3rd

Condition:

(If + Past perfect tens – would have

+past participial)

Impossible situations.
Examples, If he had got a Camera he would have taken photograph. If I had time, I would have read more. If he had won the match, his life would have changed.

Gerund

Definition: Traditionally, "gerund" is the term used to refer to a certain Latin verb form that could function as a noun Gerund function is always noun... Examples, Playing tennis is a fun.

1.

Use of Gerund. As a subject,

Something is harmful Singing beards him.

Flying makes me nervous.

2. After certain Verb: enjoy)
Would you mind opening a window? They kept talking. I enjoy fishing.

(mind, kept,

3. after Prepositio:
She is good at drawing thing. (To forward to, to be accustomed to, and to be used to). Example, I am looking forward to seeing them. I am a accustomed to walking for hour. They used to living in cold climate.

4.After Certain Expression:

look

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Mr. Syed Alam
M.A English from NUML (Literature and Applied to Linguistic) Language Diploma from NUML. Email: Syedalam.khan@gmail.com Contact No:

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