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# Introduction to Derivatives

𝑪𝒉𝒂𝒏𝒈𝒆 𝒊𝒏 𝒚
It is all about slope! 𝑺𝒍𝒐𝒑𝒆 =
𝑪𝒉𝒂𝒏𝒈𝒆 𝒊𝒏 𝒙

## But how do we find the slope at But with derivatives we use a

We can find an average slope
a point? There is nothing to small difference ... then have
between two points.
measure! it shrink towards zero.
Let us Find a Derivative!

𝑪𝒉𝒂𝒏𝒈𝒆 𝒊𝒏 𝒚
𝑺𝒍𝒐𝒑𝒆 =
𝑪𝒉𝒂𝒏𝒈𝒆 𝒊𝒏 𝒙

## y changes from f(x) to f(x+Δx)

∆𝑦 𝑓 𝑥 + ∆𝑥 − 𝑓(𝑥)
1 - Fill in this slope formula =
∆𝑥 ∆𝑥
2 - Simplify it as best we can

## 3 - Then make Δx shrink towards zero, i.e find its L I M I T .

Example: the function 𝑓 𝑥 = 𝑥 2

## Expand (𝑥 + ∆𝑥)2 : 𝑓 𝑥 + ∆𝑥 = 𝑥 2 + 2𝑥∆𝑥 + ∆𝑥 2

𝑓 𝑥+∆𝑥 −𝑓(𝑥)
The slope formula is:
∆𝑥

𝑥 2 +2𝑥∆𝑥+∆𝑥 2 −𝑥 2
Put in f(x+Δx) and f(x):
∆𝑥
Result: the derivative of 𝑓 𝑥 = 𝑥 2 is 2𝑥
2𝑥∆𝑥+∆𝑥 2
Simplify (x2 and −x2 cancel):
∆𝑥 In other words, the slope at x is 𝟐𝒙
Simplify more (divide through by Δx): 2𝑥 + ∆𝑥
Then as Δx heads towards 0 we get: 2𝑥
Notation

𝑑
And "the derivative of" is commonly written as
𝑑𝑥

## It means that, for the function x2, the slope or

"rate of change" at any point is 2x.

𝑑𝑥 2 𝑦 − 𝑦1 = 𝑚 𝑥 − 𝑥1
= 2𝑥
𝑑𝑥 𝑦 − 4 = 4(𝑥 − 2)
𝑦 = 4𝑥 − 4
• when x=2 the slope is 2x = 4

## • when x=5 the slope is 2x = 10, and so on.

"Shrink towards zero" is actually written as a limit like this:

## The process of finding a derivative is called "differentiation".

Notation:
Leibniz Notation
𝑑(𝑓)
This notation was invented by the German 𝑓 𝑥 ; 𝑓ሶ 𝑥 ;

; ሶ 𝑦′
𝑦;
𝑑𝑥
mathematician Leibniz

## Let y be a function of x. A common way to express When we wish to evaluate a derivative at a

“the derivative of y with respect to x” is the notation number, we write:

𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑦
= 𝑓′(𝑥) ቤ = 𝑓 ′ (2)
𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥 𝑥=2
Power Rule f f’(xn) = nx(n-1) f’

as a coefficient

## 𝑑(𝑥 𝑛 ) x2 2x(2-1) = 2x1 2x

= 𝑛𝑥 𝑛−1
𝑑𝑥 Subtract 1 from the
x3 3x(3-1) = 3x2 3x2

## exponent x4 4x(4-1) = 4x3 4x3

etc...
The Power Rule also allows us to differentiate expressions
with rational exponents
And for negative exponents:
Ex1)
x-1 -1x(-1-1) = -x-2 -x-2

## x-3 -3x(-3-1) = -3x-4 -3x-4

Ex2)
etc...
The Derivative of a Constant Function

𝐹(𝑥) = 𝑐
Note that the slope at each point on its graph is 0.
The derivative of a constant function is 0.
𝑑
𝑐=0
𝑑𝑥

## The derivative of a constant times a function is the constant

times the derivative of the function. Using derivative
notation, we can write this as

𝑑 𝑑
𝑐𝑓(𝑥) = 𝑐 𝑓(𝑥)
𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥
Function Derivative
Common Functions
Constant c 0
Line x 1
ax a
Square x2 2x
Square Root √x (½)x-½
Exponential ex ex
ax ln(a) ax
Logarithms ln(x) 1/x
loga(x) 1 / (x ln(a))

## Trigonometry (x is in radians) sin(x) cos(x)

cos(x) −sin(x)
tan(x) sec2(x)
Inverse Trigonometry sin-1(x) 1/√(1−x2)
cos-1(x) −1/√(1−x2)
tan-1(x) 1/(1+x2)
Function Derivative
Rules

## Multiplication by constant cf cf’

Power Rule xn nxn−1
Sum Rule f+g f’ + g’
Difference Rule f-g f’ − g’
Product Rule fg f g’ + f’ g
Quotient Rule f/g (f’ g − g’ f )/g2
Reciprocal Rule 1/f −f’/f2
Chain Rule

## (using ’ ) f(g(x)) f’(g(x))g’(x)

𝑑 𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑢
(using ) =
𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑢 𝑑𝑥
Second Derivative

## The "Second Derivative" is the derivative

of the derivative of a function.

## • Find the derivative of a function

• Then take the derivative of that
Example: Distance, Speed and Acceleration

position 𝑢(𝑥) = 𝑥 2

## Notation: velocity 𝑢(𝑥)

ሶ = 2𝑥
𝑑(𝑓)
Derivative of a function: 𝑓 ′ 𝑥 ; 𝑓ሶ 𝑥 ;
𝑑𝑥
𝑑 2 (𝑓) acceleration 𝑢(𝑥)
ሷ =2
Second derivative of a function: 𝑓 ′′ 𝑥 ; 𝑓ሷ 𝑥 ;
𝑑𝑥 2
Finding Maxima and Minima using Derivatives

## 0 or 𝑓 ′ (𝑐) does not exist

The function has as a

We can think of a critical value as a candidate for critical value, but has no
relative maximum or
a value where a relative extremum might occur.
minimum at that value.
How Do We Know it is a Maximum or Minimum?

We saw it on the graph! But otherwise ... derivatives come to the rescue again.

## It is possible to analyze the First derivative or the Second derivative

First derivative test

## At a critical value where there is a

relative minimum, the function is
decreasing to the left of the critical
value and increasing to the right. At
a critical value where there is a
relative maximum, the function is
increasing to the left of the critical
value and decreasing to the right.
In both cases, the derivative
changes signs on either side of the
critical value
Second Derivative Test

## be other ways of finding out though)

Partial Derivatives

## Function that have more than 1 input are called functions of

several variables. To differentiate those function in respect
one of its variables we consider other variables as constants.

## Consider the function:

𝑧 = 𝑓 𝑥, 𝑦 = 𝑥 2 𝑦 3 + 𝑥𝑦 + 4𝑦 2

Notation
To find its partial derivative with respect to x we treat y Partial derivative with respect to x
as a constant • 𝑓𝑥′
𝝏𝒇
𝑓𝑥′ = 2𝑦 3 𝑥 + 𝑦 •
𝝏𝒙
Example1: find the partial derivatives of f(x,y,z) = x4 − 3xyz

∂f/∂y = −3xz

∂f/∂z = −3xy

## Example2: find the partial derivatives of f(x,y) = sin(2x) + cos(y)

∂f/∂x = 2cos(x)

∂f/∂y = -sin(y)
Applications of Differentiation

## Maximum and minimum problems

• Maximizing areas

• Minimizing material

## • Minimising inventory costs

Growth models

Compound interests
A Strategy for Solving Maximum–Minimum Problems

## 1. Read the problem carefully. If relevant, make a drawing.

2. Make a list of appropriate variables and constants, noting what varies, what stays fixed, and

what units are used. Label the measurements on your drawing, if one exists.

## 4. Try to represent Q in terms of the variables of step 2.

5. Try to express Q as a function of one variable. Determine the maximum or minimum values

## and the points at which they occur.

Example: Find the dimensions of a rectangle with perimeter 1000 metres so that the area of the rectangle is
a maximum.
Exponential and logarithmic functions

## Common logarithm: log10 𝑥 = log 𝑥

Natural logarithm: log 𝑒 𝑥 = ln 𝑥
Basic Properties of logarithms