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𝑪𝒉𝒂𝒏𝒈𝒆 𝒊𝒏 𝒚

It is all about slope! 𝑺𝒍𝒐𝒑𝒆 =

𝑪𝒉𝒂𝒏𝒈𝒆 𝒊𝒏 𝒙

We can find an average slope

a point? There is nothing to small difference ... then have

between two points.

measure! it shrink towards zero.

Let us Find a Derivative!

𝑪𝒉𝒂𝒏𝒈𝒆 𝒊𝒏 𝒚

𝑺𝒍𝒐𝒑𝒆 =

𝑪𝒉𝒂𝒏𝒈𝒆 𝒊𝒏 𝒙

∆𝑦 𝑓 𝑥 + ∆𝑥 − 𝑓(𝑥)

1 - Fill in this slope formula =

∆𝑥 ∆𝑥

2 - Simplify it as best we can

Example: the function 𝑓 𝑥 = 𝑥 2

𝑓 𝑥+∆𝑥 −𝑓(𝑥)

The slope formula is:

∆𝑥

𝑥 2 +2𝑥∆𝑥+∆𝑥 2 −𝑥 2

Put in f(x+Δx) and f(x):

∆𝑥

Result: the derivative of 𝑓 𝑥 = 𝑥 2 is 2𝑥

2𝑥∆𝑥+∆𝑥 2

Simplify (x2 and −x2 cancel):

∆𝑥 In other words, the slope at x is 𝟐𝒙

Simplify more (divide through by Δx): 2𝑥 + ∆𝑥

Then as Δx heads towards 0 we get: 2𝑥

Notation

𝑑

And "the derivative of" is commonly written as

𝑑𝑥

"rate of change" at any point is 2x.

𝑑𝑥 2 𝑦 − 𝑦1 = 𝑚 𝑥 − 𝑥1

= 2𝑥

𝑑𝑥 𝑦 − 4 = 4(𝑥 − 2)

𝑦 = 4𝑥 − 4

• when x=2 the slope is 2x = 4

"Shrink towards zero" is actually written as a limit like this:

Notation:

Leibniz Notation

𝑑(𝑓)

This notation was invented by the German 𝑓 𝑥 ; 𝑓ሶ 𝑥 ;

′

; ሶ 𝑦′

𝑦;

𝑑𝑥

mathematician Leibniz

“the derivative of y with respect to x” is the notation number, we write:

𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑦

= 𝑓′(𝑥) ቤ = 𝑓 ′ (2)

𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥 𝑥=2

Power Rule f f’(xn) = nx(n-1) f’

as a coefficient

= 𝑛𝑥 𝑛−1

𝑑𝑥 Subtract 1 from the

x3 3x(3-1) = 3x2 3x2

etc...

The Power Rule also allows us to differentiate expressions

with rational exponents

And for negative exponents:

Ex1)

x-1 -1x(-1-1) = -x-2 -x-2

Ex2)

etc...

The Derivative of a Constant Function

𝐹(𝑥) = 𝑐

Note that the slope at each point on its graph is 0.

The derivative of a constant function is 0.

𝑑

𝑐=0

𝑑𝑥

times the derivative of the function. Using derivative

notation, we can write this as

𝑑 𝑑

𝑐𝑓(𝑥) = 𝑐 𝑓(𝑥)

𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥

Function Derivative

Common Functions

Constant c 0

Line x 1

ax a

Square x2 2x

Square Root √x (½)x-½

Exponential ex ex

ax ln(a) ax

Logarithms ln(x) 1/x

loga(x) 1 / (x ln(a))

cos(x) −sin(x)

tan(x) sec2(x)

Inverse Trigonometry sin-1(x) 1/√(1−x2)

cos-1(x) −1/√(1−x2)

tan-1(x) 1/(1+x2)

Function Derivative

Rules

Power Rule xn nxn−1

Sum Rule f+g f’ + g’

Difference Rule f-g f’ − g’

Product Rule fg f g’ + f’ g

Quotient Rule f/g (f’ g − g’ f )/g2

Reciprocal Rule 1/f −f’/f2

Chain Rule

𝑑 𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑢

(using ) =

𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑢 𝑑𝑥

Second Derivative

of the derivative of a function.

• Then take the derivative of that

Example: Distance, Speed and Acceleration

position 𝑢(𝑥) = 𝑥 2

ሶ = 2𝑥

𝑑(𝑓)

Derivative of a function: 𝑓 ′ 𝑥 ; 𝑓ሶ 𝑥 ;

𝑑𝑥

𝑑 2 (𝑓) acceleration 𝑢(𝑥)

ሷ =2

Second derivative of a function: 𝑓 ′′ 𝑥 ; 𝑓ሷ 𝑥 ;

𝑑𝑥 2

Finding Maxima and Minima using Derivatives

The function has as a

We can think of a critical value as a candidate for critical value, but has no

relative maximum or

a value where a relative extremum might occur.

minimum at that value.

How Do We Know it is a Maximum or Minimum?

We saw it on the graph! But otherwise ... derivatives come to the rescue again.

First derivative test

relative minimum, the function is

decreasing to the left of the critical

value and increasing to the right. At

a critical value where there is a

relative maximum, the function is

increasing to the left of the critical

value and decreasing to the right.

In both cases, the derivative

changes signs on either side of the

critical value

Second Derivative Test

Partial Derivatives

several variables. To differentiate those function in respect

one of its variables we consider other variables as constants.

𝑧 = 𝑓 𝑥, 𝑦 = 𝑥 2 𝑦 3 + 𝑥𝑦 + 4𝑦 2

Notation

To find its partial derivative with respect to x we treat y Partial derivative with respect to x

as a constant • 𝑓𝑥′

𝝏𝒇

𝑓𝑥′ = 2𝑦 3 𝑥 + 𝑦 •

𝝏𝒙

Example1: find the partial derivatives of f(x,y,z) = x4 − 3xyz

∂f/∂y = −3xz

∂f/∂z = −3xy

∂f/∂x = 2cos(x)

∂f/∂y = -sin(y)

Applications of Differentiation

• Maximizing areas

• Minimizing material

Growth models

Compound interests

A Strategy for Solving Maximum–Minimum Problems

2. Make a list of appropriate variables and constants, noting what varies, what stays fixed, and

what units are used. Label the measurements on your drawing, if one exists.

5. Try to express Q as a function of one variable. Determine the maximum or minimum values

Example: Find the dimensions of a rectangle with perimeter 1000 metres so that the area of the rectangle is

a maximum.

Exponential and logarithmic functions

Natural logarithm: log 𝑒 𝑥 = ln 𝑥

Basic Properties of logarithms

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