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MCWILL Broadband Wireless Access System

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Technical Manual

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Optical Fiber Remote BS System
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Proprietary
Copyright Beijing Xinwei Telecom Technology, Inc.
All Rights Reserved. Reproduction, adaptation, or translation without prior written permission is
prohibited, except as allowed under the copyright laws.

Beijing Xinwei Telecom Technology, Inc.


Add: No.7 Building Zhongguancun Software Park, No.8 Dongbeiwang West Road, Haidian District,
Beijing P.R.CHINA
Telephone: 86-10-62802266
Fax: 86-10-62802299
Web Site: www.xinwei.com.cn
McWill Optical Fiber Remote BS System Technical Manual----Contents I

Contents

Chapter 1 Overview ....................................................................................................................................1


1.1 Brief Introduction............................................................................................................................1
1.2 System Feathers...............................................................................................................................2
1.2.1 Advanced Technology ...........................................................................................................2

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1.2.2 Wide Coverage .....................................................................................................................3
1.3 Major Applications and Scopes of Application ...............................................................................3
Chapter 2 Technical Index..........................................................................................................................5
2.1 Whole Set Index for 1800M............................................................................................................5
2.2 Whole Set Index for 400M..............................................................................................................6

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2.3 WBBU Index...................................................................................................................................6
2.4 WRRU Index...................................................................................................................................6
2.5 Service Processing Capacity ...........................................................................................................7
2.6 Synchronization Performance .........................................................................................................7
2.7 Overvoltage/ Overcurrent Protection ..............................................................................................7
2.8 Earthing and Lightning Protection Requirements ...........................................................................7
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2.8.1 Protection Requirements for Stage 1 ....................................................................................8
2.8.2 Protection Requirements for Stage 2 ....................................................................................8
2.9 Environment requirements ..............................................................................................................9
2.10 Coverage Radius ...........................................................................................................................9
2.11 Dimension Specifications..............................................................................................................9
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Chapter 3 System Functions.....................................................................................................................10


3.1 Overview .......................................................................................................................................10
3.2 Wireless Air Interface Function.....................................................................................................10
3.3 Networking Function..................................................................................................................... 11
3.4 Service function.............................................................................................................................12
3.5 Terminal Mobility Support ............................................................................................................12
3.6 Network Management Function....................................................................................................13
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Chapter 4 System Structure and Principle .............................................................................................14


4.1 Hardware Structure........................................................................................................................14
4.1.1 System Structure Overview .................................................................................................14
4.1.2 System Configuration .........................................................................................................15
4.2 Hardware Instruction.....................................................................................................................16
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4.2.1 RFB ....................................................................................................................................16


4.2.2 SYN.....................................................................................................................................17
4.2.3 DSB ....................................................................................................................................18
4.2.4 BPB ....................................................................................................................................20
4.2.5 Antenna...............................................................................................................................22
4.3 Software Instruction ......................................................................................................................22
4.3.1 Overview.............................................................................................................................22
4.3.2 WBBU BPB Software..........................................................................................................22
4.3.3 WRRU MCU Software ........................................................................................................26

Figure 2-1 Protection Requirements for Stage 1 ...........................................................................................8


Figure 3-1 BS System Networking Function .............................................................................................. 11

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McWill Optical Fiber Remote BS System Technical Manual----Contents II

Figure 4-1 Connection between Components of the BS .............................................................................14


Figure 4-2 WBBU Appearance Structure....................................................................................................14
Figure 4-3 WRRU Appearance Structure....................................................................................................15
Figure 4-4 Signals Connection Relation between RFBs, SYN and DSB....................................................16
Figure 4-5 Block Diagram of RF Channel in RFB .....................................................................................17
Figure 4-6 Functional Module Structure of SYN........................................................................................18
Figure 4-7 Functional Block Diagram of DSB ...........................................................................................19
Figure 4-8 Hardware Structure Block Diagram of BPB..............................................................................21
Figure 4-9 Antenna Array Connection ........................................................................................................22
Figure 4-10 Overall block diagram of all DSP............................................................................................23

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Figure 4-11 L2 DSP Software Architecture.................................................................................................25
Figure 4-12 System Functional Module Structure ......................................................................................26
Figure 4-13 MCU Software Flow ...............................................................................................................27

Table 2-1 RF Template ..................................................................................................................................5

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Table 3-1 Supplement Services List Provided by McWiLL........................................................................12
Table 4-1 WBBU Unit Configurations........................................................................................................15
Table 4-2 WRRU Unit Configuration .........................................................................................................15
Table 4-3 Antenna Feeder System Configuration .......................................................................................15
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Chapter 1 Overview 1

Chapter 1 Overview
1.1 Brief Introduction
MCWILL broadband wireless access system is the integrated broadband wireless access system
developed by Beijing Xinwei Telecom Technology Co., Ltd. by introducing a series of key

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technologies and designing concepts (e.g. CS-OFDMA, frequency-space joint detection, channel
tracking/ prediction, adaptive modulating, etc.) on the basis of the existing MCWILL integrated
wireless access technology.
The technology features time division duplex (TDD) mode, the use of smart antenna and
software radio to implement code spread spectrum orthogonal frequency division multiple access

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(CS-OFDMA).
As the key equipment in wireless network access, the optical fiber remote BS connects the
terminal equipment to IP network or system core transmission and switching network with MCWILL
broadband wireless access technology, whose advantages are mainly manifested in: wide coverage of
BS unit; low transmitting power for the same communication distance, high cost efficiency, etc., so
together with its corresponding equipments, it has now become the key choice for many
telecommunication carriers and business users both at home and abroad.
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In McWiLL wireless access system, the center of each cell will be furnished with a wireless BS
system, which may be made up of a single or multiple baseband unit(s) and a single or multiple
remote RF unit(s). Each remote RF unit can at most take up 5M RF bandwidth, provide 15Mbps
uplink/downlink net data throughput and support mobility, roaming and handover of user in
data/voice service.
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The multiple access of this system is CS-OFDMA (code spread spectrum OFDMA) and the
duplex mode is TDD, with a cycle of 10ms. In the base transceiver station system, 5M bandwidth
resource is divided into five 1MHz sub carrier groups in the frequency domain and a 10ms frame is
divided into 8 1.1ms time slots in time domain. On the basis of this division, the resources are further
divided into a set of sub channels, which are used as the basic unit for physical layer resource
scheduling.
In data service application, the broadband BS is linked through 10/100 BaseT to IP backbone
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network (core network), whose peripheral parts are usually high-end routers, providing available
Ethernet interface for the system. In voice service application, the microcell BS is connected to
service aggregation gateway via Sabis1 interface over Ethernet and further connected software
switcher via SIP protocol. The communication between terminal and BS is implemented through
MCWILL broadband wireless access technology from Xinwei Telecom.
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The BS is generally made up of the following major parts:


1 Antenna and Feeder system, including antenna array and low-loss feeder cables.
2 Wideband remote RF unit (WRRU), consisting of digital signal board (DSB), Synthesizer
board (SYN), RF board and structural parts.
3 Wideband baseband unit (WBBU), consisting of baseband process board (BPB) and cabinet,
etc.
4 Global positioning system (GPS) is made up of GPS antenna and GPS module mounted at the
BPB.
Omni-directional circular antenna array can be adopted for a WRRU is installed in the center of
a cell, while for multiple WRRUs installed in the same station site, sector antenna should be applied,

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Chapter 1 Overview 2

e.g. 120-degree sector antenna array for three WRRUs installed in the same site, each covering
120-degree sectors.

1.2 System Feathers


1.2.1 Advanced Technology
In the broadband BS many advanced technologies are used, such as CS-OFDMA, smart antenna,

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software radio and air interface protocol with unique design, to implement code spread spectrum
orthogonal frequency division multiple address (CS-OFDMA) wireless access.

1.2.1.1 Smart antenna


Smart antenna (SA) is the core technology for the high performance of this system. The basic

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concept is to conduct corresponding baseband digital signal processing of the responses of terminal
signal in each antenna element and connected receiver during coherent reception in order to obtain
the space signature and matrix of this signal. Based on this processing, the uplink is beam-formed to
achieve optimal receiving effect. Meanwhile, as TDD mode is adopted for duplex in the system, the
uplink beam-forming data, after processing, can be applied to downlink transmission signal, thus
implementing beam-forming of downlink beam.
Smart antenna boosts wireless BS system performance mainly in the following aspects:
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1 The result of beam-forming is equivalent to increased antenna gains.
2 The combination of beam-forming algorithm and OFDMA technology overcomes deterioration
of digital wireless communication system performance caused by multipaths propagation and
improves the receiving performance in movement.
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3 Beam forming enables the directionality of BS antenna transmission and receiving, thus greatly
reducing multiple access interference(MAI), Which means the requirements for transmission
power can be lowered and hence the RF transceiver cost. Furthermore smart antenna can
implement adaptive interference suppression, thus enhancing intra-frequency network capacity.
4 In an antenna array system multiple transmitters are required. Now with smart antenna,
multiple low-power amplifiers can be used instead of high-power linear power amplifier for
low wireless BS cost and improved equipment reliability.
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1.2.1.2 CS-OFDMA Technology


CS-OFDMA, whose full name is “code spread spectrum orthogonal frequency division multiple
address/access”, is the core technology in the system that gives the system comprehensive
performance advantages such as high spectral efficiency, anti-fading, anti-multipaths, etc.
In CS-OFDMA, a wider frequency range is divided into many narrow band frequencies and then
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OFDM modulated, modulating the code-spread signal evenly to all narrowband frequencies. The
process is as follows: before OFDM modulating, each symbol is spread n times(e.g. 8) with
orthogonal code, then the spread chip is evenly modulated to n sub carrier waves, so that the spread
of each symbol in frequency domain is actualized to offset narrowband interference in the frequency
domain and frequency selective fading.
Meanwhile, through code spreading, the energy of each symbol is spread to the frequency of all
signal channels so that frequency diversity reception can be conducted at the receiving end.

1.2.1.3 TDD Mode with Adjustable Timeslots


In McWiLL broadband wireless access system, TDD mode is adopted with 10 ms synchronous
slot, 8 time slots altogether in uplink and downlink. The uplink/downlink time slot ratio can be

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Chapter 1 Overview 3

adjusted, e.g. 2:6, 3:5, 4:4, 5:3, 6:2 so that the uplink/downlink data rate can be dynamically adjusted.

1.2.1.4 Adaptive modulation


With adaptive modulation, the modulation mode of uplink/downlink channel can be changed in
accordance with channel conditions, available power, interference and noise level to find the optimal
solution between correct data signal transmission and maximized total system throughput. The
modulation mode in McWiLL broadband wireless access system includes 4 types: QPSK, 8PSK,
QAM16 and QAM64.

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1.2.1.5 Software Radio
The extensive application of software technology for implementing wireless baseband signal
processing is another feature of this system, with almost all baseband signal processing implemented
with software in Digital Signal Processor (DSP). In broadband BS system, the software radio is

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mainly used to implement the following functions:
1 Smart antenna, extraction of Space Signature and beam shaping for uplink/downlink antenna;
2 Adaptive interference suppression and joint detection;
3 Detecting, establishing and maintaining of synchronization;
4 Power measurement of each sub-channel and implementation of power control;
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5 Modulation and demodulation of CS-OFDMA;
6 Channel coding;
7 Error detection of received signaling;
8 Calibration of BS.
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1.2.2 Wide Coverage


The smart antenna technology in McWiLL broadband wireless access system can effectively
improve link budget through air beam forming, thus ensuring wider coverage.
MCWILL broadband wireless access BSs working at 1800 MHz and 400 MHz can have a link
budget of 160dB, a maximum coverage radius of over 20 km and typical urban single station
coverage of 0.5km~3km. It's now easier to form municipal area network (MAN) with MCWILL
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broadband wireless access technology due to its greater coverage scope, so that the user can have
broadband access in a larger scope without being confined by hot spot coverage.

1.3 Major Applications and Scopes of Application


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MCWILL broadband wireless access system can provide broadband data service to both
fixed-line and mobile users in NLOS environments as well as telecommunication services such as
voice service, supplement service, SMS and various value-added services.
It can also be adopted to meet requirements for different levels of capacity and coverage for
building separate public network or dedicated network for telecommunication carrier and trade users.
In the system a 10/100 BaseT Ethernet interface is provided to implement networking and network
interlink.
Geographically speaking, MCWILL broadband access system is suitable for urban, suburb, rural
areas or within an enterprise:
1 Regions where wired broadband network is difficult to implement;
2 Areas covered by dedicate network;

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3 Downtown areas and living quarters(development zones);


4 Sparse-populated areas;
5 Areas with insufficient line access;
6 High-reliability demands for data communication;
7 Emergency communication;
8 Temporary communication requirements.

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The working frequency of McWiLL broadband wireless access system strictly complies with the
stipulations in Notice on 2000 MHz Terrestrial Radio Service Planning and Relevant Matters
Promulgated by the State Radio Regulatory Commission: Working frequency of McWiLL wireless
access is within the range 1785 MHz~ 1805 MHz and 400 MHz~ 430 MHz according to relevant
stipulations from Ministry of Information Industry.

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Chapter 2 Technical Index


2.1 Whole Set Index for 1800M
1 Working frequency: 1785MHz~1805MHz;
2 Carrier wave nominal frequency: 1787+(N+1)x0.25MHz, in which N=1,2,...,61

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3 Duplex mode: TDD, TDD cycle is 10ms
4 RF modulation mode: Adaptive modulation QPSK,8PSK, QAM16, QAM64
5 Data transmission/receiving rate: 7.5Mbit/s
6 Nominal transmission power: WRRU single channel: 31dBm
7 Scope of transmission power control: +2/-6dB

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8 Transmission power control step: 0.5dB
9 Receiving sensitivity: -108dBm/sub channel
10 Nominal intermediate frequency: 426MHz
11 Signal bandwidth: 1MHz×N (N=1 to 5), i.e., the base-band signal bandwidth is configurable
between 5MHz max. and 1MHz min.
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12 RF input/output resistance: 50Ω, VSWR<1.5
13 Feeder cable: 50 Ω coaxial cable; with insertion loss: 0.5 dB~ 1 dB
14 Receiving anti-jam performance:
♦ Block level for extra-band(carrier wave+/-5 MHz) tone CW interference: ≥ -35dBm
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♦ Block level for extra-band(carrier wave+/-5 MHz) dual-tone CW interference: ≥ -45dBm


15 Power supply: Nominal 48V (40V~ 56V) DC
16 Frequency tolerance: ≤0.5 ppm
17 Stray radiation and anti-jam performance: The transmitter output must meet the following RF
signal template as shown in Table 2-1 in the condition of BS with 5MHz McWiLL broadband
wireless access signal and 30dBm output.
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Table 2-1 RF Template

30dBm/5MHz
25dBc
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-12dBm/100kHz
2.5MHz
45dBc

4MHz
-32dBm/100kHz

5MHz

-40dbm/100kHz 7.5MHz

-50dbm/100kHz 12.5MHz

28MHz
-60dbm/100kHz
70MHz
to 9kHz
Channel Center

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2.2 Whole Set Index for 400M


1 Working frequency: 400 MHz~ 430 MHz;
2 Carrier wave nominal frequency: 402+(N+1)* 0.25 MHz, in which N=1,2,...,101
3 Duplex mode: TDD, TDD cycle is 10ms
4 RF modulation mode: Adaptive modulation QPSK,8PSK, QAM16, QAM64
5 Data transmission/receiving rate: 7.5Mbit/s

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6 Nominal transmission power: WRRU single channel: 31dBm
7 Scope of transmission power control: +2/-6dB
8 Transmission power control step: 0.5dB
9 Receiving sensitivity: -108dBm/sub channel

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10 Nominal intermediate frequency: 104 MHz
11 Signal bandwidth: 1MHz×N (N=1 to 5), i.e., the base-band signal bandwidth is configurable
between 5MHz max. and 1MHz min.
12 RF input/output resistance: 50Ω, VSWR<1.5
13 Feeder cable: 50 Ω coaxial cable; with insertion loss: 0.5 dB~ 1 dB
14 Receiving anti-jam performance:
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♦ Block level for extra-band(carrier wave+/-5 MHz) tone CW interference: ≥ -35dBm
♦ Block level for extra-band(carrier wave+/-5 MHz) dual-tone CW interference: ≥ -45dBm
15 Power supply: Nominal 48V (40V~ 56V) DC
16 Frequency tolerance: ≤0.5 ppm
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17 Stray radiation and anti-jam performance: The transmitter output must meet the following RF
signal template as shown in Table 2-1 in the condition of BS with 5MHz McWiLL broadband
wireless access signal and 30dBm output.

2.3 WBBU Index


1 Working power supply: 40V-56V DC.
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2 Peak current for whole set: 1.3A (48V)


3 Working current for whole set: 1.1A.
4 Power supply mode: twisted-pair feed
5 Ethernet interface rate: 10/100/1000 Mbps adaptive
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6 Optical fiber signal transmission mode: CPRI protocol in physical layer, the rate is 2.4576G;
the maximum transmission distance is 10 Km with G652.D single-mode optical fiber.

2.4 WRRU Index


1 Working power supply: 40V-56V DC.
2 Peak current for whole set: 5A (48V)
3 Working current for whole set: 3.3A.
4 Power supply mode: twisted-pair with screen layer feed
5 RF port resistance: 50Ω
6 Transceiver in-band fluctuation for whole set: <2dB;

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7 Transmission gain: 33dB±2dB;


8 Receiving noise (whole set): <4dB
9 Receiving gain(whole set): (60±2)dB;
10 Port consumption: <-10;
11 Optical fiber signal transmission mode: CPRI protocol in physical layer, the rate is 2.4576G;
the maximum transmission distance is 10 Km with G652.D single-mode optical fiber.
12 RF connector: N-K;

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13 Working temperature: -35℃~ 55℃

2.5 Service Processing Capacity


The broadband BS with 5M bandwidth can provide 608 sub-channels for user service out of the

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total 640 sub-channels (system overhead not included). But due to the limitations of processing
capability in both hardware and software, the actual service processing capacity is as follows:
♦ Max. concurrent users: 100;
♦ Max. registered terminals: 4500;
♦ Max. service throughput: 15Mbps.
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2.6 Synchronization Performance
TDD synchronization: the BS equipments receives TDD synchronization through GPS or
master-slave synchronization. TDD synchronization precision for GPS-based synchronization in the
whole BS should be better than 3µs and 20 µs for master-slave synchronization.
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2.7 Overvoltage/ Overcurrent Protection


The following are overvoltage and overcurrent protection performance for WBBU external ports,
including 1 power port and 2 signal ports:
♦ 48V DC power port surge immunity: >5kV (1.2/50µs surge-voltage)
♦ 48V DC power port overcurrent protection: 2A
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♦ GPS antenna port lightning protection (with lightning protector): 20kA (8/20µs surge-current);
♦ Ethernet signal port surge immunity: > 2kV(1.2/50µs surge-voltage).

The following are overvoltage and overcurrent protection performance for WRRU external ports,
including 1 power port and 9/8 RF signal ports:
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♦ 48V DC power port lightning protection (built-in lightning protector): 20kA (8/20µs
surge-current)
♦ 48V DC power port overcurrent protection: 8A
♦ RF ports lightning protection (built-in lightning protector): 20kA (8/20µs surge-current)

2.8 Earthing and Lightning Protection Requirements


Three-stage protection should be adopted in WBBU lightning protection design, i.e. the first
stage is from outdoor to indoor and indoor wiring to cabinet; the second stage is at the cabinet wire
inlets; the third stage is on individual boards of the equipments. The three-stage protection is the
measure for ensuring final joint earthing (one-point earthing).

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2.8.1 Protection Requirements for Stage 1


Protection requirements for stage 1 are as follows:
1 It’s advisable for the WBBU to have dedicated transformer. For power lines, the cable with
metal jacket or insulation should be used and introduced to mobile communication BS
enclosed in steel pipes buried underground, with both ends of metal jacket securely earthed;
before entering the equipment room, the power line should be equipped with zinc oxide
lightning arrester.

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2 If power transformer is located outside of the BS in places where there are more than 20 days
with lightning every year and ground receptivity exceeds 100 Ω.m, the power line should be
within 25 degrees of shielding wire protection angle, and the shielding wires(except terminal
poles) should be earthed at every pole. To ensure security, zinc oxide lightning arrestor
should be added to the pole just before the terminal pole. If there is difficulty in adopting
shielding wires for overhead high-voltage power lines, a set of high-voltage fuse should be

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added to the first and third poles or second and fourth poles immediately before terminal pole ,
as in Figure 2-1:

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Figure 2-1 Protection Requirements for Stage 1


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3 The earth resistance of protective earthing at power cable inlets and power transformer
(<100kVA) should be less than 10Ω.
4 The steel tower for WRRU should have perfect lightning protection against lightning strike and
induced lightning strikes.
5 If AC-powered aircraft obstruction lighting is used in WRRU tower, its power cable should
have metal jacket, which should be earthed at tower top or inlet to equipment room. Each phase
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line of the tower-top light control line and power line should be equipped with additional
lightning arrester at inlet to equipment room, while the neutral line should be directly earthed.
6 The buildings for WBBU should have perfect lightning protection against lightning strike and
induced lightning strike (lightning arresting mesh/band, or flash grounding device, etc.).
7 All metal facilities on the roof of equipment room should be connected to the nearest lightning
arresting bands, while color lights at the roof should be set below the bands.
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2.8.2 Protection Requirements for Stage 2


The following are requirements for the second stage lightning protection at the BS:
1 The housing of AC/DC distribution facilities should have protective earthing lines from main
earthing conductor, while the facilities should have corresponding lightning surge protection
devices (SPD). In AC distribution, the neutral aggregation should be insulated from housing.
The distribution frame should have protecting earthing lines linked from main earthing
conductor. Meanwhile distribution frame and equipment room communication racks should not
be electrically linked by wiring frames. When protective earthing conductors of the distribution
frames are insulated from racks, two earthing wires should be used separately for connecting to
protective earthing and racks.

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2 Protective earthing should be conducted for wiring frames, hanging frames, racks or housings,
metal ventilation ducts, doors and windows, etc. For protective earthing lead, multiple copper
wires with sector area of no less than 35mm2 should be used. AC BS working earthing should
be connected from indoor main earthing conductor, using multiple streaks of cooper wire with
35mm2~95mm2 sector area as earthing to meet maximum load requirements.
3 In addition to connection to working earthing, the casing of WBBU should be connected to
protective earth facilities. Metal equipments, such as air conditioners, should have protective
earthing lines from main earthing conductor, while the arrangement of earthing wires in the
communication equipment room can be in radial or planar, which requires that all

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communication equipments within the room must have no electrical link with reinforcing steel
bars in the building through strengthening bolts, except for those earthing wires.
4 Zinc oxide lightning arrester should be added to the wire inlet of the cabinet, and all the
protective earthing and working earthing within the cabinet should be connected together in the
whole earthing system.

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5 During wireless transfer, lightning protection should be added to transmission wire of Ethernet.

2.9 Environment requirements


1 Room temperature
♦ For long periods: 15℃~30℃.
♦ For short periods: 0℃~45℃.
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2 Humidity
♦ For long periods: 40%~65%.
♦ For short periods: 20%~90%
3 Dust prevention
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♦ The density of dust particles with diameters >5µm should be less than 30000/m3.
♦ The dust particles should be non-conductive, non-magnetoconductive, and non-corrosive;
♦ The load of floor should be ≥450kg/m2,with a stud ≥3.5m;
♦ Anti-static floor is advisable, especially in dry environment as in Beijing.

2.10 Coverage Radius


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♦ Urban: 0.5 km ~3 km
♦ Suburb: 3 km ~13 km
♦ Rural: 8 km ~30 km
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2.11 Dimension Specifications


♦ WBBU cabinet vol. (Length*Width*Height): 446mm×357mm×43.6mm
♦ WBBU package box vol. (Length*Width*Height): 500mm×405mm×60mm
♦ WBBU Net Weight (WBBU only): 4kg
♦ WBBU Gross Weight (with package): 6kg
♦ WRRU cabinet vol. (Length*Width*Height): 450mm×410mm×200mm
♦ WRRU package box vol. (Length*Width*Height): 500mm×450mm×300mm
♦ WRRU Net Weight (WRRU only): 21Kg
♦ WRRU Gross Weight (with package): 26Kg

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Chapter 3 System Functions


3.1 Overview
The functions of broadband BS system are as follows:
1 Air wireless interface: provide access to wireless terminal users;

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2 Networking: provide capability of system interlink and network;
3 Business function: provides capability for carrying communication business;
4 Support of terminal mobility: supporting terminals moving and implementing mobility
management;
5 Network management: Providing means of system operation and maintenance;

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6 Testing functions: providing means for maintenance and tests.

3.2 Wireless Air Interface Function


Working frequency band of McWiLL optical fiber remote BS system includes 30M bandwidth
range from 400MHz to 430MHz and 20M bandwidth from 1785MHz to 1805MHz. a sub-carrier
group is 1M bandwidth. Every BS can use 1~5 sub-carrier groups, which are set through network
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management.
The followings will introduce major functions of MCWILL broadband wireless access air
interface protocol.
1 Flexible TDD: The TDD cycle of the system is 10ms, with 8 timeslots in total. The ratio
between uplink/downlink timeslots is adjustable.
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2 Terminal user wireless access signaling:


♦ Functions of network layer mainly include: User login, authentication and air interface
encryption; Call set-up and release; Transmission and processing of handover instruction and
message; Transmission of caller number and called number; and Message broadcasting such
as carrier ID.
♦ Functions of date link layer mainly include: Establishment and release of air link; the BS
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supports scheduling function based QoS demand; Link re-setup, i.e. re-establishment
processing after link interruption.
♦ Functions of physical layer mainly include: Establishing and maintaining of synchronization;
Power control.
3 Adaptive modulation: The BS supports automatic adjustment of modulation mode of wireless
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channel according to parameters such as wireless channel signal/noise ratio, powers, etc.,
without packet loss during adjustment.
4 Dynamic bandwidth allocation: Dynamic bandwidth allocation is supported in the BS:
♦ Dynamic bandwidth allocation between different terminals is supported in the BS;
♦ Dynamic bandwidth allocation between different services of the same terminal is supported in
the BS.
5 Power control: Open-loop and close-loop power control are adopted in both uplink and
downlink.
6 Design of guard slot
In TDD system, the switching of transmitting/receiving is implemented with analog switches.

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Factors such as time delay of analog switches and circuit (e.g. power amplifier) starting time make it
necessary to have a certain guard periods between switching. Besides in MCWILL wireless access
system, the terminal away from the BS must transmit in advance to ensure synchronization upon
wave’s arrival at BS; this initial lead are determined by the distance between terminal and BS.
Therefore the farther the communication distance, the wider the guard slots to be designed.
7 Conflict avoidance strategy
In any wireless communication system with multiple address access, the possibility exists that

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conflicts are caused in common access channel when multiple user terminals request access
simultaneously. Thus conflict avoidance and solving are of crucial important matters in wireless
signaling designing. The important things are:
♦ The period of access code channel occupancy should be as short as possible. When user
terminal requests access or receives calls, only a few frames are occupied, i.e. the period of

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tens of milliseconds. Thus the access code channel is always idle and the possibility of
conflict is quite low.
♦ When more than two terminals request access simultaneously, the BS can’t determine the
content of request so that no correct response can be given. At this time, no terminal can get
downlink access instructions in the next downlink frame. Each terminal with access request
must apply again after a random period. By now the possibility of conflict is rather rare.
资料
3.3 Networking Function
In the system a 10/100/1000 BaseT Ethernet interface is provided to implement networking and
network interlink.
内部
公司
信威

Figure 3-1 BS System Networking Function

The broadband BS supports both data service networking and integrated service (data and voice,
etc.) networking.
1 In data service networking, the broadband BS are linked through 10/100/1000 Base-T to SAC
and the SAC connects to IP backbone network, whose peripheral parts are usually high-end
routers, providing available Ethernet interface for the system.
2 In integrated service networking, telecommunication service function should be added. To
support telecommunication service, the BS is connected to service aggregation gateway (SAG)
via Sabis1 interface over Ethernet and further connected soft-switcher via standard SIP
protocol. In this way local network or cross-area public wires access network is formed to

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Chapter 3 System Functions 12

support call handover and roaming functions. In this networking, the voice packet between
broadband BS and SAG are transmitted via customized data multiplex protocol.

3.4 Service function


The major services provided by broadband BS include broadband data service,
telecommunication services, supplement service and carrier services.
1 Broadband data service: Providing service transmission capacity based on IPv4 and supporting

外传
high-speed broadband data services, such as VOD, file transfer and video monitoring.
2 Telecommunication service: Providing telecommunication services such as voice service and
short message service, etc.
3 Supplement services
Table 3-1 Supplement Services List Provided by McWiLL

请勿
Service Type
Caller Number ID required
Call forward unconditional required
Call forward on subscriber busy required
资料
Call forward no reply required
Call waiting required
Don’t Disturb Service optional
3-way calling optional
内部

Conference call optional


Registered call on subscriber busy optional
Call back on subscriber busy optional
Speed dial optional
Restriction from outgoing calls optional
公司

Alarm service optional


Voice mail optional

4 Trunk service
信威

5 Fax service.

3.5 Terminal Mobility Support


The terminal mobility support of the BS system includes:
1 Support of mobile communication within the coverage of BS, with moving speed of over
120km/h in suburban open areas and 40km/h~60km/h in complicated urban surroundings
supported.
2 Support of cell switching at the margin of the BS coverage, including determination of user
service support;
3 Supporting switching management between BS and different-frequency repeater for signal

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Chapter 3 System Functions 13

blind area within the coverage of the BS

3.6 Network Management Function


The network management system has excellent manageability and its system operation &
maintenance support manifests in: system warning, statistics, remote software loading and operating
status monitoring.
1 System warning: The WBBU can submit all kinds of warning messages to network

外传
management system, including: System Reset, GPS failure, GPS recovery, synchronization
clock failure, synchronization clock recovery and SYN board local oscillator fault.
2 Statistics functions: The WBBU provides many entries of statistics as data basis for goals such
as system operation and network optimization, etc.
3 Remote software loading: The system support remote loading of module software in the BS,

请勿
providing an easier and convenient system operation and maintenance.
4 Version management: The network management system provides means of querying BS
software version information.
5 System calibration: The calibration data can be loaded to BS via network management system
for complete calibration and phase calibration.
6 System reset: The BS reset can be controlled via network management system.
资料
7 Upload of debugging information at data link layer and network layer: With the switch
commands sent by the network management system, the BS can be controlled to upload
debugging information at data link layer and network layer to network management operating
terminals.
8 Operating status monitoring

内部

The working status of each BS can be monitored via network management system.
♦ The BS can acquire terminal information such as, uplink/downlink power and signal noise
ratio, and display them at the network management client.
公司
信威

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Chapter 4 System Structure and Principle 14

Chapter 4 System Structure and Principle


4.1 Hardware Structure
4.1.1 System Structure Overview
McWiLL optical fiber remote BS includes the following major components:

外传
1 Antenna array
2 Feeder cable (9 pieces for 1800M; 8 pieces for 400M)
3 WRRU
4 GPS antenna

请勿
5 Optical fiber and power line
6 WBBU (with GPS module)
They are connected as in Figure 4-1.
资料
内部

Figure 4-1 Connection between Components of the BS


公司
信威

Figure 4-2 WBBU Appearance Structure

The WBBU consists of BPB and cabinet as shown in Figure 4-2. The WRRU consists of DSB,
RFB, SYN and related structural parts and box as shown in Figure 4-3.

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Chapter 4 System Structure and Principle 15

外传
Figure 4-3 WRRU Appearance Structure

请勿
4.1.2 System Configuration
McWiLL broadband wireless access BS system contains: WBBU, WRRU and antenna feeder
system mounting accessories. The unit configurations are shown in Table 4-1, Table 4-2 and Table
4-3.
Table 4-1 WBBU Unit Configurations
资料
Name Unit Quantity Remarks
BPB Piece 1
19” unit cabinet Piece 1
inner frame unit Piece 1
Earthing cable Piece 1
内部

Power cable Piece 1


GPS device (GPS) Piece 1
220V-24V power adaptor Set 1

Table 4-2 WRRU Unit Configuration


公司

Name Unit Quantity Remarks


DSB Piece 1
SYN Piece 1
RFB Piece 8
信威

WRRU structural parts Set 1


Mounting accessories Set 1

Table 4-3 Antenna Feeder System Configuration

Name Unit Quantity Remarks


Two unit antenna array set 4
Feeder cable system set 1
Accessory case set set 1

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Chapter 4 System Structure and Principle 16

4.2 Hardware Instruction


The WBBU only includes one BPB; the WRRU includes 1 DSB, 1 SYN and 8 RFBs. The
signals between single boards are shown in Figure 4-4.

外传
请勿
Figure 4-4 Signals Connection Relation between RFBs, SYN and DSB

During uplink communication, RF signal is transformed at the RFB into low IF signal and
forwarded to DSB to proceed to digital down frequency conversion and packing into baseband signal
for optical fiber transmission, and then the signals is transmitted to BPB. After the signal is processed
资料
at BPB in accordance with McWiLL broadband wireless access protocol, it access in SAC in IP data
form.
During downlink communication, the signaling and data from SAC are processed at the BPB,
which generates baseband signal for optical fiber transmission, and then is transmitted to DSB
through optical fiber; at DSB, it is converted into low IF signal through unpacking and up frequency
内部

conversion processing and transmitted to RFB; at RFB, the low IF signal is converted into RF signal
and then is sent to antenna feeder system.
GPS is used in McWiLL broadband wireless access system to receive 10ms transmitting/
receiving timed synchronization of each BS. It is mounted to BPB of BS unit and connected with
GPS antenna via feeder cable.
In the following part, the basic functions, hardware logical structure, working principles as well
as functions and usage of indicators, buttons, pins, etc. of hardware units in WRRU and WBBU are
公司

described respectively.

4.2.1 RFB
4.2.1.1 Basic Functions
信威

RFB is the interface part between WRRU and antenna feeder system, which implements
conversion function from low IF signals to RF signals. Every WRRU includes 8 same RFBs and a
RF transceiver is designed in every RFB. RFBs are the key parts of WRRU and their performance
decides communication quality of the whole communication system.
The basic functions of RFB include:
1 Providing RF receiving channels, including low noise amplification, down-conversion, IF
processing, low-pass filter and receiving gain control, etc.;
2 Providing RF transmitting channels, including low-pass filter, IF processing, up-conversion,
RF amplification and transmitting gain control, etc.;
3 Providing calibration channel

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Chapter 4 System Structure and Principle 17

4 Implementing TDD duplex receiving/transmitting control.

4.2.1.2 Working Principle


Figure 4-5 gives block diagram on working principle of RFB, the processing of RF signal, high IF
signal and low IF signal included.

外传
请勿
Figure 4-5 Block Diagram of RF Channel in RFB

In RFB, each RF transceiver uses the same transmitting and receiving channel circuits including
circuits of RF, high IF and low IF, which implements the conversion processing between low IF
资料
signal and effective RF signal in the space. The basic working principles for receiving channel and
transmitting channel are separately described below:
1 Receiving channel
In receiving channel, the weak RF signal (400MHz-430MHz; 1785MHz-1805MHz) acquired by
the antenna is first amplified at low noise amplifier and down-converted to IF signal (104MHz or
内部

426MHz), and this IF signal is converted to low IF signal (8MHz) after amplification, SAW filtering
and down-conversion. The low IF signal is output to ADC on the DSB.
2 Transmission channel
In transmission channel, the low IF signal (8MHz) from DSB is converted to high IF signal
(104MHz or 426MHz) after filtering, attenuation and up-conversion. This high IF signal is further
converted to RF signal (400MHz-430MHz; 1785MHz-1805MHz) after amplification, SAW filtering,
公司

digital controlled attenuator and up conversion. Finally the RF signal in each channel is sent to
antenna feeder system after power amplification.
3 RF transmission/receiving control
As in MCWILL broadband wireless access system TDD duplex mode is adopted, the switch
between RFB signal transmission and receiving is conducted through RF switch.
信威

4.2.2 SYN
4.2.2.1 Basic functions
The function of SYN is to provide RF local oscillation signals and IF local oscillation signals to
8 RFBs and implement automatic calibration of RF transmitting channel and RF receiving channel.

4.2.2.2 Hardware Module Structure and Principle


This module is made up of local oscillation generation circuit and calibration RF circuit. The
local oscillation generation circuit consists of frequency synthesizer with integrated PLL and VCO;
the calibration RF circuit consists of transmission, receiving and power demodulation circuits. The

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Chapter 4 System Structure and Principle 18

functional module structure of SYN is shown in Figure 4-6.


HPF

RFLO2:1645-1665M

2
Σ
PLL_con(3)
LPF

1
PLL_det PLL+VCO
IFLO:132MHz LO

2
Σ

外传
1
AFC_con(3)
D/A vcxo

Atten Atten
18Ω
No.9

L
8MHz
L

R
I
R
I

18Ω

MIXER
DATT
MIXER

LPF
18Ω

请勿
SW_EN(2)
Gainblock

TR_EN(2)
Gainblock

Atten
SAW
RMS DET
I2C(2) EEPROM
(5)
A/D

Figure 4-6 Functional Module Structure of SYN


资料
1 Frequency synthesizer
The frequency synthesizer is a device integrated RF/ IF PLL+VCO, generating RF/ IF local
oscillation signals.
2 Power calibration demodulation and transmitting/receiving circuit
内部

RF calibration and transmitting/receiving circuits provide automatic calibration (including


transmitting calibration and receiving calibration) to WRRU RFBs and SYN. The main function of
RF calibration demodulation circuit is to calibrate antenna transmission power and receiving
sensitivity. The transmitting/ receiving channel function is to provide signal channel for calibration.

4.2.3 DSB
公司

4.2.3.1 Basic Functions


DSB implements the optical fiber interface between WRRU and WBBU, completes up/down
frequency conversion of baseband signals and low IF signals, monitors WRRU temperature and
electric current, provides local oscillation clock for SYN and provides RF controlling scheduling.
Its basic functions are as follows:
信威

1 Packing/ unpacking baseband I, Q and control data, implementing optical fiber data
transmission between WRRU and WBBU.
2 Implementing digital IF function in FPGA, completing up/ down frequency conversion of
baseband signals and low IF signals.
3 Monitoring WRRU temperature, electric current and function fault of RFBs and SYN, and
report to WBBU.
4 Providing local oscillation clock source for SYN, providing RF controlling scheduling, IF local
oscillation, RF local oscillation and low IF signals for RFBs

4.2.3.2 Hardware Structure and Principle


DSB structure block diagram is shown in Figure 4-7.

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Chapter 4 System Structure and Principle 19

RF Local Oscillation
VCXO
GPS
FLASH Module
AFC

Interface
chip
Power Monitor SYN configuration signals
SSC
Interface
Temperature 10ms
chip

外传
Sensor MCU
SPI
FPGA RFB Timeslot signals
Electric current ADC
detector Boot

9 road IF signals

请勿
Optical
fiber optical/ ADC
electric SERDES
conversion 9 road IF signals
Jitter 32M
Cleaner

Figure 4-7 Functional Block Diagram of DSB


资料
MCU as major component part of DSB completes remote code loading, electrifying boot and
signalling processing. When MCU is electrified, it first completes loading its program and then
download FPGA program. MCU may detect WRRU temperature, electric current, transmitting power
and so on, and send these data and hardware/ software version information to FPGA. The FPGA
transmits them to WBBU through optical fiber. Meanwhile, it can detect optical fiber link status and
内部

give related warnings.


Optical module SerDes + 2.5G is used between WBBU and WRRU, and the optical fibers are
needed to transmit/ receive uplink/ downlink data, calibration data and controlling information. The
total transmission rate is 2.4576 Gbps. Because SerDes uses 8-bit to 10-bit code in parallel-serial
conversion, actual data rate is 2.4576*0.8=1.96608 Gbps; uplink/ downlink data rate is about 8M*
14bit* 2I/Q* 8ant= 1.792Gbps.
Uplink adopts low IF solution. Central frequency of ADC receiving signals is 8M, and
公司

bandwidth of it is 5M (5.5M-10.5M); ADC sampling rate is 32 MHz, and sampling precision is 12 bit.
IF signals of uplink 8 road antenna are sent to FPGA after AD sampling, and then are demodulated
and descend rate in FPGA. Sampling rate of I/Q signals is 8M after DDC processing.
Downlink adopts low IF solution. Central frequency of DAC transmitting signals is 8M, and
bandwidth of it is 5M (5.5M-10.5M); DA rate is 32 MHz, and precision is 12 bit. The signals are
信威

modulated and ascend rate in FPGA. Sampling rate of I/Q signals is 32M after DUC processing. The
8M IF signals are transmitted to RF part after DAC.
The analog part of uplink and downlink mainly is low-pass filter of ADC/DAC, and its main
function is filtering local oscillation and mirror frequency and matching resistance. The maximum of
signal frequency is 10.5MHz. The low-pass filter may be implemented by LC circuit.
FPGA completes read/write configuration and data receving/ sending of SerDes inner register.
PPL generates program clocks. The register read/write configuration is used for optical interface
function. Data receiving/ sending module functions include uplink data sending, downlink data
receiving as well as 10ms signal sending and recovering. FPGA completes uplink/downlink signals
pretreatment including I/Q demodulation and 4 times sampling for uplink signals, 4 times inserting
and I/Q modulation for downlink data and so on, RF interface control, AD/DA control and data

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Chapter 4 System Structure and Principle 20

transmission with MCU.


High precision 30.72M crystal oscillator is used in WBBU for optical fiber transmission clock.
The clock of WRRU should be synchronized with that of WBBU. This clock is used for clock
reference source of this board. Because clock jitter recovered by SerDes is about 140ps, the clock
jitter of ADC sampling should be less than 150ps. It should be locked at 32 M after jitter cleaner, and
then it is used for clock reference source for ADC and FPGA.
Local oscillation signals from SYN to DSB include IF local oscillation signal and RF local
oscillation signals. The local oscillation signals are divided into 8 roads signals, and they with 8-road

外传
low IF receiving/sending signals connect to 8 RFBs. The local oscillation signals division from
1-road to 8-road adopts resistance distribution. In order to implement low IF receiving/ sending
signals and local oscillation separation, high-pass filters are used in output part of 1-road to 8-road
circuit, and low IF receiving/ sending signals connect to low-pass filters.

请勿
4.2.4 BPB
4.2.4.1 Basic Functions
BPB, as the system control and data processing unit, is baseband processing part of WBBU and
WRRU, implementing all signalling protocol processing of L1, L2 and L3 layer in air interfaces,
generating BS time sequence, controlling RFB work through DSB, controlling SYN board to
资料
implement local oscillation output and calibration.
The functions of BPB are as follows:
1 Base-band signal receiving
The FPGA of BPM unpacks baseband I/Q data and control data from DSB through optical fiber,
sends them to DSP and CPU to proceed to FFT, beam forming and signal protocol processing and
内部

then sends to SAC through Ethernet interface to process.


2 Base-band signal transmission
Process the data from SAC via Ethernet interface through CPU, DSP and FPGA, and send them
to DSB via optical fibers.
3 System preset functions
System preset functions include the transmitting/ receiving gain and power control for RFB,
公司

frequency selection , adjustment of calibration signal level and TTD mode configuration of SYN, etc.
4 Environment monitoring
5 24-hour 10ms maintenance
6 External interfaces: two 10/100/1000 M Ethernet interfaces are provided, with one for internet
信威

access and debugging and another mainly for debugging.


7 Baseband data gathering: BPB provides a special data gathering interface. BPB can connect to
special data gather card via this interface and gather digital baseband signal so that the system
engineer can implement all-round analysis of the gathered data with various utilities on PC.
8 Function extension interface, used to extend DSP processing capability.

4.2.4.2 Hardware Structure and Principle


The hardware circuit of BPB mainly includes CPU part, signaling protocol processing part,
baseband signal processing (DSP) part, FPGA processing part and external processing circuit, with
the structure as in Figure 4-8.

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Chapter 4 System Structure and Principle 21

外传
请勿
资料
Figure 4-8 Hardware Structure Block Diagram of BPB

MPC8548 small system is major control part of BPB, implementing layer 3 task processing and
single board management. There are 2 GE interfaces and 1 UART serial interface in panel. The GE
interface connected with MPC8548 RGMII is used to access core network, and that connected with
内部

Ethernet SW is used for DSP debugging. RGMII interfaces of MPC8548 connect to SGMII of
DSP1~ DSP5 via Ethernet SW, and may be used as Boot channel and service channel. MPC8548
connects to SRIO of DSP1~DSP5 via SRIO SW, and may be used as spare high-speed service/ data
channels. MPC8548 uses DDR2 SDRAM as external extension RAM, connects NvRAM, BootRom
and CF_CARD via Local-Bus, and connect with EEPROM via I2C to store system and production
information.
公司

5 DSPs are used for L1 an L2 processing. DSP1 connects to FPGA through 2-road AIF
interfaces and uses OBSAI protocol, and its rate is 3.075GHz; DSP2 connects to FPGA through
1-road AIF interfaces and uses OBSAI protocol, and its rate is 3.072GHz; 5 DSPs form a netted
interconnected structure via AIF interface. Every DSP connects with DDR2 SDRAM as extension
RAM, connects to MPC8548 used for boot and communication; 2 1x SRIO of every DSP connects
with SRIO SW to be used as spare communication interface instead of AIF. T240 is used as power
信威

supply for DSP core.


GPS module provides TDD 10ms synchronization signals. FPGA generates related TDD time
sequence including INT, receiving/ transmitting switch as well as FSYNC and Timer of DSPs
according this synchronization signals. FPGA communicates with RRU via optical module, converts
data format into OBSAI protocol format and interacts with DSP1 via AIF. FPGA provides
SuperBuffer interface used to export antenna data.
Moreover, DC interface is used for future function extension including -48V power signal, earth
signal, 48-bit lvds signal, TDD 10ms signal and SGMII, etc.

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Chapter 4 System Structure and Principle 22

4.2.5 Antenna
4.2.5.1 Basic functions
Provide RF platform for smart antenna baseband DSP optimization.

4.2.5.2 Hardware structure

外传
请勿
资料
Figure 4-9 Antenna Array Connection

4.3 Software Instruction


4.3.1 Overview
内部

The whole BS system is an embedded platform based on distribution processing, including


multiple embedded software systems located on different hardware modules. The softwares running
on different processors are functionally independent from each other but furnished with multiple
communication mechanism and synchronization systems to ensure coordinated work.
The BS software systems can be classified into two kinds:
The first one is the software specialized in digital signal processing algorithm based on DSP
公司

processor platform, used for baseband signal processing (including all modulation/demodulation and
smart antenna, etc.), antenna calibration, L2 signaling processing and resource management, etc. DSP
processor platform includes: FEP (front-end processing), MCP (back-end multiple carrier processing),
AUX (auxiliary processing) and L2 processing.
The second software system is based on CPU processor platform and processes signaling and
信威

logical jobs. This type of embedded software is based on Real Time Operating System (RTOS), with
complicated task scheduling and logic processing functions.

4.3.2 WBBU BPB Software


The software system in BPB is the core of the whole BS software system, implementing
functions such as uplink signal processing, downlink signal generation, signaling processing,
resource allocation and task scheduling, etc.
The CPU L3 software in BPB is based on a real time multitasks operating system, with tasks
range from system management, call processing, communication with console, communication with
L2 DSP, message forwarding, timer and monitoring all modules operation status, etc. It adopts real
time multitasks embedded system with real time work system as its core to implement the operation

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Chapter 4 System Structure and Principle 23

of above-mentioned multitasks.
Overall block diagram of all DSP is shown in Figure 4-10.

GPIO Symbol sync

AIF
MAC
GPIO
GPIO

外传
Fsync
GPIO
GPIO

AIF

AIF AIF0
core9 AIF1
MCP3 AUX&FEP FE.0 FEP FPGA
GPIO

请勿
FE.1
GPIO
McBSP
GPIO
GPIO

AIF

GPIO
GPIO
GPIO
GPIO
AIF

MCP2
资料
AIF
GPIO

AIF
GPIO

GPIO
GPIO
内部

MCP1
AIF

Figure 4-10 Overall block diagram of all DSP

The DSP software in BPB includes the following three types:


♦ FEP (front-end processing): implementing functions such as incoming signal filtering,
公司

sub-carrier wave extraction, FFT and IFFT, etc. ;


♦ MCP(back-end multiple carriers processing): implementing physical layer protocol processing,
including functions such as smart antenna algorithm, frequency spread spectrum and
de-spreading, modulation and demodulation and gain control, etc. ;
♦ AUX (Auxiliary processing): implementing physical layer signal processing with antenna
信威

array calibration as its main function.


L2 DSP implements L2 relevant functions such as radio link setup, maintaining, releasing, radio
resource assignment, scheduling and reliable data transmission.

4.3.2.1 L3 Software
CPU L3 software is based on a real time multitasks OS and its tasks include system
management, call processing, data processing, communication with console, communication with L2
DSP, message delivery, timer and monitoring all modules operation status, etc. It adopts real time
multitasks embedded system to implement the operation of above-mentioned multitasks.
The processor is chip PPC8548 and its processing capability changes stronger. Its main function
is as follows:

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Chapter 4 System Structure and Principle 24

1 Data service function


♦ Supporting data service function, detecting DHCP and PPPOE packages, setting up
transferring table, processing uplink/downlink data according to transferring table;
♦ Supporting ARP proxy function
♦ Filtering downlink broadcast packages;
♦ VLAN processing (adding VLAN label to uplink data, deleting VLAN lable from downlink
data)

外传
♦ Supporting bridge connection between UTs function
♦ Supporting UT roaming/ handover function and setting up channels between BSs function.
♦ Data service charging
2 Voice service function
♦ Implementing UT voice service function via Sabis1 interface

请勿
♦ Supporting NAT function
♦ Supporting G.729 Code
3 Supporting trunk service function
4 OAM function
♦ Communicating with EMS, completing BS management, data configuration and query, etc.
资料
via EMS
♦ UT OAM register function
♦ Supporting fault weakening function
♦ Warning management function
♦ Software boot function of every layer
内部

♦ GPS monitor function


♦ BS diagnosis function
♦ RRU management function
5 Other function
♦ RCPE function: UT works in studying mode; it doesn’t filter data packets, but to transparent
公司

transmit all uplink/ downlink data packets.


♦ WCPE function: uplink service data packets of BS and its UTs are transmitted via this CPE.

4.3.2.2 L2 DSP Software


Compared with old platform, the difference lies in that L2 of V5 BTS is implemented in a
PowerPC but that of optical fiber remote BS is implemented in 3 DSP cores in one chip TI6487.
信威

1 Function instruction of TI6487 Core1


♦ MAC RX: processing public logic channels data and TCH channel data of Uplink Data Block
message, and parameters submitted by physical lay.
♦ L2_Send: transmitting messages such as downlink Data Block, Uplink Profile and L1
Configuration generated by Core2 to L1 interface; calculating Downlink Ts Weight of TCH
and generating Downlink Ts weight message and sending to L1 interface.
♦ VAC RX: generating UL Voice Data by frame and sending to L3 interface.
♦ DAC RX: DAC uplink data ARQ Block processing, generating complete DAC SDU message
and sending to L3 interface; peer layer control message of DAC is sent to DAC Fsm of Core2
for processing.

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Chapter 4 System Structure and Principle 25

♦ MAC Fsm module: mac session setup, releasing and resource reassignment processing.
♦ RRM module: air interface resource management and assignment.
♦ OAM module: processing maintenance and management messages from L3 and L1.
♦ TRACE/DEBUG module.
2 Function instruction of TI6487 Core2
♦ MAC TX: updating Profile of Rx and Tx according to updated rrmCpe on resource updating;
generating downlink Data and uplink Profile messages and sending to L2_Send; generating

外传
downlink Ts Weight message of BCH/RARCH/RRCH and sending to L2_Send.
♦ DAC Fsm: dac session setup, maintaining and releasing processing.
♦ VAC Fsm: vac session setup, maintaining and releasing processing.
♦ DAC TX: segmenting DAC SDU from L3 into DAC PDU and putting DAC PDU into ARQ
Block window; ARQ TX mechanism processing.

请勿
♦ VAC TX: peer layer control messages of L3 are processed via DAC SDU, data messages of
L3 are putted into Jutter Buffer queue to process.

资料
内部
公司
信威

Figure 4-11 L2 DSP Software Architecture

4.3.2.3 L1 MCP Software


DSP2, DSP3 and DSP4 in WBBU are used to implement L1 MCP function. Each DSP has 3
cores. Functions of 9 cores are as follows:
core1~core8: implementing functions of 8 MCP in original system. Major function and
arithmetic of MCP don’t change, but communication modes between MCP and FEP and between
MCP and MAC changes because of the changes of new hardware platform and surrounding interface
connection. News interface module AIF of TCI6487 is used to implement data transmission between
FEP and MCP, between MCP and core9 as well as between core9 and MAC.

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Chapter 4 System Structure and Principle 26

core9 is used as an interface module between MAC layer and L1. MAC sends uplink profile
messages and downlink data messages of every user to core9, and core9 splits and updates the profile
messages and downlink data message according to the SCG processed by every MCP and
sub-channel number, and then transmits them to every MCP. Core9 collects the processing results of
every MCP, repacks them and sends to MAC. Moreover, Core9 also updates and assigns received
downlink weight of MCP according to user to make the weight of every sch of every SCG of every
user accordant, and then sends the processing results to FEP and MAC. Core9 statistics Load
decetion and Mobility detection of MCP in multiple frames and judges whether to change load

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number and mobility mode of current user, and reports the detection results to MAC.

4.3.2.4 AUX and FEP Software


FEP (front-end processing) implements functions such as incoming signal filtering, sub-carrier
wave extraction, FFT and IFFT, etc. AUX (Auxiliary processing) implements physical layer signal

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processing with antenna array calibration as its main function. These parts software is running on one
DSP C6487, and the functions of 3 cores are as follows: core 0 processes aux function, and core 1
and core 2 processes FEP function.

4.3.3 WRRU MCU Software


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Figure 4-12 System Functional Module Structure

MCU software structure includes the following modules.


1 BootLoader
This module is stored in inner flash on chip in MCU. System will first run this module after
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power-on and stratup. Its major function is to complete system startup boot including some limited
hardware initialization, storage area assignment, system resource (INT and Timer) initialization,
serial interface initialization and Ethernet interface initialization, etc. And then it will read application
program partition ID stored in external flash, jump into the related flash partition according to this ID
and give the processor control right to application program in this partition.
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2 Driver program module


Driver program is made up of some independent modules. It can provide related control and
management interface for high-layer module. At the beginning of system operation, system will
transfer related driver module to initialize every low-layer chips; after application program starts
running, high-layer software will use interface functions provided by every driver modules to
implement every application of physical layer such as receiving/ transmitting data and so on.
3 Application Program (API)
Strictly, it is not a module with specific application function. Its function is to encapsule every
driver and resource management functions provided by bottom layer and to screen the effect of
bottom layer hardware on high-layer application program.

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Chapter 4 System Structure and Principle 27

4 Network management interface module


It will implement network management command processing and device monitor information
processing including every kind of configuration/query messages and warning messages.
5 Monitor module
Its function mainly includes monitoring for environment parameters and RF parameters. The
environment parameters include temperature and humidity and the RF parameters include electric
voltage, current and power of 8-road RF channels. If finding any parameter over config threshold,

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this module will inform network management interface module to send warning information to
network management.
6 Code load module
RF module in WRRU is an optical fiber remote module and is placed at tower top or away from
equipment room, so it is unpractical to burn code in local and it is very important to implement

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remote code load via network management. In order to ensure code load reliability, the application
flash is parted into two partitions. If partition 1 is used, the code load program will burn code into
partition 2; after code load succeeds, re-write application flash ID; system will starts from partition 2
after restrating.
7 Timer management module
It implements system software/ hardware timer mangements.
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MCU software process flow is shown in Figure 4-13. System resets to enter bootloader program
when power on; bootloader program reads application program partition ID from external flash,
jumps into related flash partition according to this ID and transfers processor control right to
application program in this partition; application program completes hardware interfaces
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initialization.
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Figure 4-13 MCU Software Flow

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