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SECTION 03200 - CONCRETE REINFORCEMENT

1.0 SCOPE OF WORK - Reinforcing steel for cast-in-place concrete.

1.1 SUBMITTALS - Submit manufacturer's product data for Mechanical


connectors for reinforcing steel. Submit shop drawings for fabrication
and placement of the reinforcement, in compliance with ACI 301. Include
bar schedules, diagrams of bent bars, arrangement of concrete
reinforcement, and splices. Show construction joints, and include
details of reinforcement at openings through concrete structures. Also
include a detail of stirrup spacing, and elevations of reinforcement in
walls.
1.1.1 CERTIFICATIONS - Provide certification from an independent testing
laboratory that mechanical connectors for reinforcing steel comply with
specified requirements. Submit mill test certificates showing physical
and chemical analysis for all reinforcing steel furnished under this
section. All jacks used to stress tendons shall be accompanied by
calibration sheets correlating hydraulic pressure to prestressing forces
in tendons.
1.1.2 CALCULATIONS - Submit complete engineering calculations where
required for all post-tensioned concrete. Prepare calculations in
accord with ACI 318. Calculations shall show forces delivered and
prestress losses. Calculations shall accurately account for friction,
seating, elastic shortening, shrinkage, creep and steel relaxation
losses. If stressing is to occur before 72 hours of cure time,
calculations shall account for the age of the concrete at the time of
stressing. Calculations shall bear the seal and registration number of
a professional engineer registered in the State of Georgia. Submit
calculations concurrently with the post-tensioned concrete shop
drawings. Also submit typical load-elongation curve for pretressing
steel as well as an actual curve representing the production lot from
which the project material was taken.
Submit 1000-hour stress-relaxation tests for prestressing steel
performed in accord with ASTM E 328 certifying that material conforms to
ASTM A 416, Supplement I. Submit stressing records of strand elongation,
gauge pressure and effective prestress force for each post-tensioned
tendon. Submit test data showing that post-tensioning anchorages
develop the specified ultimate strength as well as substantiating slip
coefficients used in calculations.

1.2 QUALITY ASSURANCE - Comply with the current ACI standards and
current CRSI Code of Standard Practice, except where requirements of the
contract documents or of governing codes and authorities having
jurisdiction are more stringent. Obtain materials from same source for
the entire project.
1.2.1 POST TENSIONING - The implementation of the design requirements
for the post-tensioning is the responsibility of the Contractor. All
post-tensioning activities shall be performed by a firm regularly
engaged in post-tensioning work similar to that used in this project.
Provide all post-tensioning by a single firm to assure uniformity of
details and product quality.
1.2.2 WELDING QUALIFICATIONS - Qualify welding procedures and welders in
accord with ANSI/AWS D1.4 "Structural Welding Code - Reinforcing Steel".

1.3 DELIVERY, STORAGE, AND HANDLING - Deliver reinforcement to project


site bundled and tagged with metal tags indicating bar size, lengths,
and other data corresponding to information shown on placement drawings.
It is the contractor's responsibility to store concrete reinforcement
materials at the site in such a way to prevent all damage and
accumulation of dirt or rust. Corroded or damaged material must be
replaced by the contractor at no cost to Emory University.

2.0 PRODUCTS

2.1 REINFORCING MATERIALS - Provide deformed bars complying with ASTM A


615, Grade 60. Where indicated, provide reinforcing complying with ASTM
A 615, Grade 75. Plain Steel Wire shall be plain cold-drawn steel in
compliance with ASTM A 82. Welded Wire Fabric shall be plain cold-drawn
steel in compliance with ASTM A 185, and provided in flat sheets.
Dowels shall be smooth, saw cut to the lengths indicated on drawing,
free from burrs, and in compliance with ASTM A36.
Full mechanical connections for reinforcement splices shall be of the
type indicated and shall develop at least 125 percent of the specified
yield strength of the bar when tested in tension and compression.

2.2 POST-TENSIONING TENDONS - Unbonded, with prestressing steel,


anchorages, coating and sheathing as specified herein. Fabricate
tendons cut to length, coiled for transport and tagged with identifying
mark corresponding to shop drawings. Allow sufficient length for
attachment of stressing equipment. Fabricated tendons shall be coiled
and tied sufficiently to prevent premature uncoiling. Furnish tendons
in continuous lengths, without splices. Apply strand coating at ambient
plant temperature without additional heat. Strands shall be sheathed
around the longitudinal axis after coating. Tendons in individual pours
shall be distinctively color-coded. Manufacture tendons in such
sequence and quantity as to avoid lengthy storage at job site.
2.2.1 PRESTRESSING STEEL - ASTM A 416 including Supplement I (low-
relaxation strand), 1/2 inch diameter, seven-wire strand, Grade 270,
fabricated from wire conforming to ASTM A 421 including Supplement I
(low-relaxation wire), Type WA (wedge anchorage).
2.2.2 ANCHORS - Anchors for post tensioning tendons shall be made from
steel castings conforming to ASTM A 536, Grade 80-55-06. Anchorages
shall develop 100 percent of the minimum specified ultimate strength of
the prestressing steel. Anchorage-tendon assembly shall withstand
without failure 500,000 cycles of loading from 60 percent to 66 percent
of the minimum specified ultimate strength, and also 50 cycles of
loading from 40 percent to 80 percent of the minimum specified ultimate
strength. All anchorages shall be free of rust and dirt.
2.2.3 STRAND COATING - Rust preventative, lubricant compound made from
highly refined petroleum oils and long-chain metallic hydrocarbons that
are designed to provide a film that is flexible and stable from 0°F to
300°F.
2.2.4 STRAND SHEATHING - Black polymer, impervious to cement paste, and
of suitable strength and ductility to prevent rupture due to temperature
change and normal handling.

2.3 REINFORCING ACCESSORIES - Tie wire is to be black annealed type, 16


gage or heavier. Bar supports shall be provided for all reinforcement no
matter the depth of the concrete member. Bar supports shall be as
follows:
-Class 1 (plastic protected) at all formed surfaces which will be
exposed to weather.
-Class 1 (plastic protected) or Class 2 (stainless steel protected) at
all formed surfaces which will be exposed to view but not to weather.
-Precast concrete blocks of strength equal to or greater than specified
strength of concrete or Class 3 supports equipped with sand plates,
where concrete will be cast against earth. Concrete masonry units will
not be accepted.
3.0 EXECUTION - Comply with requirements of ACI 301 and as herein
specified.

3.1 PREPARATION - Clean reinforcement, removing loose rust and mill


scale, earth, ice, and other materials which reduce or destroy bond with
concrete. Rebending or straightening shall not be allowed, except where
field bends are specifically indicated on drawings. Do not use
reinforcement having kinks or bends that are not required. Heating of
reinforcement shall not be allowed.

3.2 PLACEMENT - Accurately position, support, and secure reinforcement


against displacement. All lap splices shall be Class B splices per ACI
318 unless otherwise indicated. Do not field-bend partially embedded
bars unless otherwise indicated or approved. Use approved bar supports
and tie wire, as required. Set wire ties so that ends are directed into
concrete and not toward exposed concrete surfaces. Remove all wire
clippings and debris from bottom of formwork before placement of
concrete. Tack welding of reinforcing is not permitted.
In walls, maintain reinforcement cover by use of bolsters or chairs.
Where changes in cross section of a column occur, offset longitudinal
bars in a region where lateral support is afforded. Where offset is 3
inches or less, slope of inclined portion with axis of column shall not
exceed 1 in 6. Where a column face is offset greater than 3 inches,
longitudinal bars shall not be offset bent. Separate dowels, lap
spliced with the longitudinal bars adjacent to the offset column faces,
shall be provided. Install wire fabric in lengths as long as
practicable. Lap adjoining pieces at least one full mesh and lace
splices with tie wire. Offset end laps in adjacent widths to prevent
continuous laps in either direction. Support off sub-base, metal deck,
or forms as indicated for reinforcing bars. Install mechanical splicing
devices in accord with manufacturer's literature. The Owner's testing
agency shall inspect these devices prior to concrete operations.

3.3 PLACING TENDONS - Anchorages and pocket formers shall be secured to


the formwork. Supports for tendons shall be designed to insure their
remaining in proper position during the placing of concrete. Supports
shall be located at high and low points of the profile and at intervals
not exceeding 4'-0" on center. Placement tolerances shall be per
paragraph 15.4.4 of ACI 301. In no case shall the minimum clear
coverage for tendons be less than 1-1/2 inch to stirrups for beams or
girders and 3/4 inch for slabs, and shall be in accord with ACI 318.
Minimum radius of curvature in order to achieve a vertical or horizontal
transition in the tendon alignment is 60 inches. Initial job site
instructions of the Contractor's personnel in placing the tendons shall
be provided by the post-tensioning supplier. Concrete shall be placed
to ensure that alignment of tendons and reinforcement remains unchanged.
Care shall be exercised to ensure uniform consolidation of concrete,
especially around end anchorages. Initial job site instruction of
Contractor's personnel in the stressing operation and in the operation
of stressing equipment with certified hydraulic gauges shall be provided
by the supplier of the post-tensioning tendons. In order to ensure that
proper calibration is maintained care shall be exercised in the handling
of all stressing equipment. Any breaks in strand sheathing shall be
properly repaired prior to concrete placement to ensure an unbonded
system. Placement of mild steel reinforcement shall be coordinated with
placement of tendons. Tendons shall be given priority in case of
conflict.
3.4 PRESTRESSING
3.4.1 GENERAL - Post-tensioning operation shall not begin until tests of
field-cured concrete cylinders, manufactured and cured under the same
conditions as the members to be prestressed, indicate that the concrete
in the members has attained a compressive strength of not less than 3000
psi. After tests indicate that the concrete has reached specified
strength, the tendons shall be stressed by means of hydraulic jacks
equipped with calibrated pressure gauges. The RMS error of the
equipment at maximum pressure shall not exceed plus or minus 2 percent.
Gauge pressure and elongation attained during stressing shall be
recorded and compared with the theoretical values. Actual elongation
shall correlate with the theoretical value within plus or minus 7
percent.

3.4.2 SAFETY - To ensure that the stressing operation is conducted in a


safe manner, no person shall be allowed to stand at the end of the
hydraulic rams. When placing shims, for retention of elongation, both
shims must be placed equally under the tendon terminals at the same
time. When welding or burning near post-tensioning tendons or
anchorages, care shall be taken to prevent tendon from overheating, and
to prevent molten slag from coming in contact with the tendon. Upon
completion of the stressing operation, the stressing pockets shall be
grouted for corrosion protection.
3.4.3 MAXIMUM STRESS - The prestressing steel shall be anchored at an
initial or "Transfer Stress" that will result in the retention of
working forces or stresses not less than those shown on the drawings as
the final prestress force after all losses. Strands may be temporarily
stressed to a stress level not to exceed 0.80 times the specified
ultimate strength but shall not be anchored at a stress level in excess
of 0.70 times the specified ultimate strength. The stressing extension
on the strand shall be burned off within one inch of the anchorage only
after the Owner's representative has reviewed the stressing records.
Stressing pockets shall be grouted within 7 days of the final stressing
operation to prevent corrosion of the anchor and wedge assembly.

END OF SECTION