UDC 621.873.3 : 629.119.4 : 624.96.014.2.001.

24

DEUTSCHE NORM

'_ ;::;n ~ November 1984

iii

c. o z

Page

1 Field of application 1

2 Details to be given for design purposes ~. 1

3 Design loads :......... 1

3.1 Main loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 2

3.1.1 Self weights ; . . . . .. 2

3.1.2 Lifted loads 2

3.1.3 Dynamic effects arising from

lifting and lowering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 2

3.1.3.1 Nomirial load spectrum factor 1/1 .

and lifting classes 2

3.1.3.2 Transverse acceleration e 2

3.1.3.3 Sudden dropping or sudden setting down

of useful loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 2

3.1.4 Inertia forces arising from drives 2

3.1.5 Centrifugal forces ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 2 3.1.6 Forces arising from crane operation or from driv-

ing of the crane on the road or across country .. 2

3.2 Additional loads 2

3.3 Special load 3

4 Load cases 3

DIN 15018

Part 3

Cranes

Principles relating to steel structures Design of cranes on vehicles

Krane; Grundsatze fur Stahltragwerke; Berechnung von Fahrzeugkranen

Supersedes January 1983 edition

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1 Field of application

This standard is applicable to steel structures of railless cranes on vehicles with stress collectives equal to or lighter than S 1, a limiting stress ratio" not less than

0,25 and notch cases equal to or better than K3 in accordance with DASt-Richtlinie (DASt Guideline) 011, on condition that the stress cycles do not exceed the following values:

for StE 460: NG = 2.105; for StE 690: NG = 5.104;

. for StE 885: N G = 2,5 . 104•

This standard incorporates deviations from, and additions to, DIN 15018 Part 1 which are motivated by the specific system characteristics, requirements and by the special mode of operation of these cranes.

Cranes on vehicles are equipped with jib systems, basic jibs which may also be fitted with a fixed jib extension or with a level luffing jib extension, which are capable of

being lowered rapidly, and the basic jibs of which are luffable about a horizontal axis.

The following crane types form part of this category, as classified in DIN 15001 Part 1:

- crawler cranes;

- mobile cranes;

- truck cranes;

Page 5 Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 3 5.1 Position of slewing plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 4 5.2 Live loads (imposed loads) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 4

5.3 Steel grades 4

5.4 Determination of stresses 4

6 Verification 4

6.1 General indications 4

6.2 Verification in accordance with

the geometric linear theory 4

6.2.1 General stress analysis 4

6.2.2 Verification of stability 4

6.3 Verification in accordance with the geometric

linear or non-linear theory (method of partial

safety factors and limiting stresses) 6

6.3.1 General stress analysis 6

6.3.2 Verification of stability 6

6.4 Verification of steadiness 7

7 Holding ropes and guy ropes , 7

8 Rope drives and lifting hooks . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 7

- trailer cranes;

- semitrailer cranes .

2 Details to be given for design purposes

(In accordance with DIN 15018 Part 1, November 1984 edition, clause 3.).

3 Design loads

The loads acting on the structure are subdivided into main loads, additional loads and special loads.

Main loads are:

- self weights;

lifted loads;

- dynamic effects arising from lifting and lowering;

- inertia forces arising from drives;

- centrifugal forces;

- forces arising from crane operation or from driving

the crane on the road or across country.

Additional loads are: - wind loads.

.'

Tb'" test loads.

'~ .. ~r: 1 \ e above loads are grouped into load cases in clause 4.

?;.:...~~~ .. ~

Continued on pages 2 to 12

Beuth Verlag GmbH;Berlin 30, has exclusive sale rights for German Standards (DIN-Normen)

02.85 - ..

DIN 15018 Part 3' Engl. Price group 8 .

Sales No. 0108

Page 2 DIN 15018 Part 3

3.1 Main loads 3.1, i Self weights

Self weights are the weights of all the fixed and moving crane components which act permanently during operation, plus the weights of the mechanical, electrical and hydraulic equipment in operating condition and the weight of the ropes, with the exception of the self weights described in subclause 3.1.2.

The magnitude of the weights and the position of the centre of gravity of the crane components shall be determined by calculation and/or weighing within a permissible error of ± 1,5 % in each case.

3.1.2 Lifted loads

The lifted loads (hook loads) comprise the useful load .and the self weights of the components designed to carry the useful load (e. g. bottom block, load suspension means and slinging means).

3.1.3 Dynamic effects arising from I ifting and lowering The dynamic effects arising from the movement of the lifted loads are taken into account by means of the nominal load spectrum factor If; and by means of the transverse acceleration e to be applied to the jib system, Which, is dependent on the former.

3.1.3.1 Nominal load spectrum factor If; and lifting classes (See DIN 15018 Part 1, November 1984 edition, subclause 4.1.4.2.).

Because of the high elasticity of the structure and of the continuous accelerations and decelerations generated by the diesel mechanical, diesel hydraulic or electrohydraulic drives during changes in the lifting motion, cranes on vehicles are to be classified into lifting classes H 1 (cranes on vehicles for erection duties) or H 2 (cranes on vehicles for erection duties and occasional cargo handling duties). If different load spectrum factors If; have been determined on the basis of tests, they mayor indeed they must be adopted as the basis for the calculation.

DIN 15018 Part 1 shall be applicable to cranes on vehi--' cles which operate outside the field of application of this standard, in cargo handling, grabbing or magnet work.

3.1.3.2 Transverse acceleration e

Forces shall be applied to the jibs, transversely to the respective longitudinal axis in the plane of the jib system, and these forces shall be calculated from the dead masses of the jibs in accordance with subclause 3.1.1, with a transverse acceleration

e=:;!:3(¢,-1)inm' 5-2

3.1.3.3 Sudden dropping or sudden setting down of

useful loads

(See DIN 15 018 Part 1, November 1984 edition, subclause 4.1.4.3.).

3.1.4 I nertia forces arising from drives

The inertia forces acting on the structure during acceleration and deceleration of crane motions, such as travel along a horizontal (± 0,5 %) flat and straight path, slewing, luffing, shall be determined on the basis of the maximum forces arising during the type of operation of the drive concerned.

In lieu of a more accurate calculation of vibration or tests, the rigid-body kinetic forces acting on the struc-

ture and resulting from the assessment of the movement of the centre of gravity of the system under the influence of the forces of the drive, of the resistances to motion and of the inertia forces, may be increased by a coefficient of 1,5 in order to take the dynamic effect into account. In this connection, loads which are not guided shall be deemed to be rigidly attached to the crane; any swinging of the loads shall be ignored.

3.1.5 Centrifugal forces

Centrifugal forces on slewing cranes shall be calculated solely on the basis of the self weight of the jib components, and, if applicable, also on the basis of the counterweights and of the lifted load without spectrum factor

in accordance with subclause 3.1.3, the lifted load being deemed to be attached to the tip of the jib.

The centrifugal forces need not be taken into consideration if the permissible stresses or limiting values are not exceeded by more than 2 % as a result of their influence, or if the required safety margins are not reduced by more than 2 %.

3.1.6 Forces arising from crane operation or from

driving of the crane on the road or across country In so far as greater deviations of the slewing plane in relation to the horizontal plane than those specified in subclause 5.1 are permitted during the operation ofthe crane with or without load, or if operation on an uneven plane and/or curvilinear travel is permitted, the static and dynamic stresses which result therefrom shall be taken into account.

3.2 Additional loads (wind loads)

Wind loads shall be taken into account in accordance with DIN 1055 Part 4 in the case of cranes exposed to the wind.

For cranes in service

the wind load shall be entered in the calculation at a dynamic pressure q = 125 N . m-2• If it is more suitable or necessary from the operational standpoint, either higher or lower dynamic pressures may be entered in the calculation, but the value entered should not be less than 50 N . m-2•

The wind load acting on the useful load shall be calculated on the basis of a wind area of 1,20 m2/t useful load (including an air resistance coefficient c = 1,20), with a minimum wind area of 2,00 m2, in cases where the size and shape of the useful load are not known.

For cranes out of service

the wind load shall be entered in the calculation at the dynamic pressures specified in DIN 1055 Part 4.

The operating instruction manual shall specify the necessary measures applying to the specific wind conditions and to the transition from a given wind condition to another condition with higher dynamic pressures '(these measures include the permissible lifted load and outreach, the position of the crane components, the securing arrangements, etc.).

Securing arrangements shall be made before the wind condition including the higher dynamic pressures q arises. In function of time interval t required for the performance of the securing arrangements, these arrangements shall be initiated when the critical dynamic pressure qo = q - 30 Vt is observed. In this equation

qo is the critical dynamic pressure, in N . m-2, at which the. securing arrangements shall be initiated;

q is the dynamic pressure obtained by computation, in N . m-2, of the next higher wind condition, or the dynamic pressure specified in DIN 1055 Part 4 (crane out of service) ;

t is the time, in minutes, from the instant when the critical dynamic pressure is exceeded until the instant when the securing arrangements have been completed.

The local weather conditions, and in particular the wind conditions (dynamic pressure) shall be kept under observation by suitable means (wind velocity indicator and wind direction indicator, meteorological office, etc.).

3.3 Special loads (test loads)

The test load to be adopted shall be the large test load (Pg = 1,25P+ 0,1 A) specified in DIN 15019 Part 2.

• Table 1. Load cases

DIN 15018 Part 3 Page 3

4 Load cases

The main, additional and special loads described in clause 3 are collated in table 1 in the form of load cases H, HZ and HS.

All the loads in one oolumn of the zone framed in thick black lines in table 1 within the normal load cases combine to form load case H. All the loads in one column within the normal load cases combine to form load case HZ, and those within the special load cases, load case HS. The special load cases include the load case "large test load" and the "out of service" and "erection and dismantling" conditions.

5 Calculation

(See also DIN 15018 Part 1.)

Loads Normal load cases 1) 14, HZ Special load case HS
Described Symbol I I I I
in sub-
clause
---
3.1.1 Self weight G G G G G G
,-
3.1.2 Lifted loads P, Po 2) P - Po Po -
3.1.3,1 N'ominalload spectrum 1/1 1/1 1/1 1 1 -
factor
--
3.1.3.2 Transverse acceleration e e e - - -
Main 3.1.3.3 Sudden dropping or
sudden setting down of -O,251/1P - - O,251/1P - - -
loads useful loads
.. *--- ,-- -,
3.1.4 Crane travel Kr Kr - - Kr - - - - -
c
Slewing Dr - Dr - - Dr - - - -
Luffing Wp - - Wp - - Wp - Wp -
,-
3.1.5 Centrifugal forces Z - Z - - Z - - - -
3.2 Wind load Wj3) Wi4) Wi Wi - Wi Wi
Addi- with crane in service
tiona I
loads Wind load with w, - - w, - -
crane out of service
Special 3.3 Large test load Pg - - - - Pg
load
1) If forces such as those described in subclause 3.1.6 act on the crane whilst it is in service or travelling, then the
design loads, load cases and evaluation of the stresses varying with time shall be substantiated specifically.
2) Po are the self weights of the components designed to carry the useful load as described in subclause 3.1.2, and
they will vary from one load case to another according to the requirement concerned.
3) The wind loads when the crane is in service are always to be entered in the calculation at the permitted in-service magnitude or at
the permitted magnitude applicable to erection and dismantling; the direction of these wind loads shall always be assumed to be
unfavourable, i. e. when forces arising from drives act simultaneously, the direction of the wind loads shall also be assumed at right
angles to the crane movements described in subclause 3.1.4. .
4) Wi is the wind load for the crane in service calculated from the minimum dynamic pressure q = 50 N . m-2• , j

Page 4 DIN 15018 Part 3

Table 2. Characteristic data of steel grades for the calculation

For wall Yield stress Shear modulus Modulus of
Steel grade thicknesses 5) elasticity
up to mm Us G E
Symbol Specified in max. N· mm-2 N. mm-2 N. mm-2
St 37 6) DIN 17100 See6) 240
St 52-3 DIN 17100 50 360
StE 460 DASt-Richtlinie 011 50 460 81000 210000
StE 690 DASt-Richtlinie 011 50 690
StE 8857) 35 885
5) In the case of greater wall thicknesses: the yield stresses specified by the manufacturer are to be observed.
6) RSt 37-2 and St 37-3 for wall thicknesses up to 100 mm max.
7) Refe~ to VdTOV-Werkstoffblatt (V dTOV Material sheet) 417, May 1978 edition. 5.1 Position of slewing plane

In so far as the slewing plane is not inclined by more than ± 0,5 % (approx. ± 0,3°) in relation to the horizontal plane, with the load applied approximately centrically on the slewing connection, the position of the slewing plane may be assumed as horizontal for the purposes of the calculation.

5.2 Live loads (imposed loads)

Live loads shall be entered in the calculation for the component concerned assuming the most unfavourable positions, values and directions permitted operationally.

The distortions of the structure (jib system, revolving superstructure, undercarriage and supports) resulting from the self weight and from the operationally permitted lifted load, may be taken into consideration for the determination of the most unfavourable position of the jib system, e.g. of the outreach. Unavoidable inaccuracies in the positioning of jib system components in relation to the prescribed positions for operation shall be taken into consideration for the determination of the most unfavourable position of the jib system, if they are

likely to affect the safety of the components to any appreciable extent; this applies for example to cranes equipped with counterjibs and additional counterweights.

5.3 Steel grades

The steel grades used for the crane shall be specified. The steel grades listed in table 2, viz. St 37, St 52-3 specified in DIN 17 100, also StE 460, StE 690 specified in DAStRichtlinie 011, and StE 885 may be used for the calculation with the characteristic data specified in the table.

DIN 15 018 Part 1, November 1984 edition, subclause 6.4 is applicable to materials other than those listed in table 2.

5.4 Determination of stresses

Depending on the nature and resilience of the structure, the stresses shall be determined in accordance with the geometric linear or the geometric non-linear theory (stress theory of the second order) for the individual load cases specified in table 1 (see clause 4), and also in accordance

with subclause 5.2 and clause 6, with the cross-sectional values specified in DIN 15018 Part 1, November 1984 edition, subclause 6.5. If the geometric non-linear' theory is used, the procedure to be followed is that outlined in subclause 6.3.

I n the case of fillet welds subject to compressive stress at right angles to the direction of the weld, contact between the components to be joined shall not be taken into consideration.

6 Verification 6.1 General

The general stress analyses and the verification of stability of components subject to compressive stress described in subclause 6.2 or 6.3 shall be carried out in respect of the loadbearing components and of the principal joint assemblies.

The determining total stresses, which are a function of the type of crane, of the load case and of the type of analysis, shall not exceed the permissible stresses specified in subclause 6.2 in each case, or the limiting stresses specified in subclause 6.3; in addition, the required safety margins shall not be fallen short of.

6.2 Verification in accordance with the geometric

linear theory (method of permissible stresses) 6.2.1 General stress analysis

The general stress analysis of safety against attaining the yield strength shall be carried out separately for load cases H, HZ and HS, using the permissible stresses specified in table 3 and table 4. For load case HS, the 1,1 times stresses of load case HZ may be used.

6.2.2 Verification of stability

The verification of stability of safety against buckling, overturning or bulging of the web plates and bUlging of the rectangular plates which form part of a compression member shall be carried outIn accordance with

DIN 4114 Part 1 and Part 2 for load cases H, HZ and HS. Load case H corresponds to load case 1 of DIN 4114 Part 1 and Part 2, and load case HZ corresponds to load case 2.

DIN 15018 Part 3 Page 5

Table 3. Permissible stresses in components for the general stress analysis and the verification of stability

Permissible Permissible tensile Permissible compres-
sive stress for verifica-
Steel grade of components comparison value and compressive tion of stability in Permissible
Load accordance with shear stress
stress DIN 4114
case Part 1 and Part 2
zul. o zul. 0d zul. ,
Symbol Specified in N· mm-2 N· mm-2 N· mm-2
H 160 142 92
St 37 6) . DIN 17100
HZ 180 160 104
H 240 210 139
St52-3 DIN 17100
HZ 270 240 156
H 306 272 176
StE 460 DASt-Richtlinie 011
HZ 345 307 199
H 460 409 265
StE 690 DASt-Richtlinie 011
HZ 518 460 299
H 590 524 340
StE 8857)
HZ 665 591 384
For 6), 7), see table 2. Table 4. Permissible stresses in welds for the general stress analysis

Permissible Permissible 'tensile stress Permissible cornpres- Permissible
com pari- for transverse loading sive stress for
son value transverse loading shear stress
Steel grade zul. Ow zul, 0wd zul. 'w
of welded components Load N· mm-2 N· mm-2 N· mm-2
case Butt weld,
Double- Butt weld,
All types double-bevel bevel Fillet double- Fillet All types
butt weld; butt weld;
of weld special standard weld bevel butt weld of weld
Symbol Specified In quality quality weld
H 160 142 113 160 130 113
St 37 6) DIN17100
HZ 1'80 160 127 180 145 127
H 240 213 170 240 195 170
St 52-3 DIN 17100
HZ 270 240 191 270 220 191
DASt- H 306 271 216 306 248 216
StE 460
Richtlinie 011 HZ '345 306 244 345 280 244
DASt- H 460 408 325 460 373 265
StE 1?90 Richtlinie 011
HZ 518 459 366 518 421 299
H 590 523 417 590 479 340
StE 885 7)
HZ 665 590 470 665 540 384
For 6), 7), see table 2. , The verification of safety against bulging of plates shall also be carried out in accordance with DIN 4114 Part 1 and Part 2, but instead of adopting the safety factors vB specified in the aforementioned standards, the safety factors in accordance with DIN 15018 Part 1, November 1984 edition, table 13 shall apply. In the verification in accordance with DIN 4114 Part 1 and Part 2, the val ues "zul, ad" of tables 3 and 4 shall be entered in the calculation in every case for "zul. a".

The buckling coefficients w and the buckling stresses aK for components made from StE 460 and StE 690 which shall be adopted shall be those specified in DASt-Richt-

Table 5. Partial safety factor 'YF

Specified in Load cases
Loads
subclause H HZ HS
Self weights 3.1.1 1.20 1.09 1.09
Lifted loads 3.1.2/3.1.3 1.35 1.20 -
Test loads 3.3 - 1.09
Inertia forces 3.1.4/3.1.5/3.1.6 1.50 1.35 1.20
Wind loads 3.2 - 1.20 1.09 Page 6 DIN 15018 Part 3

Table 6. Computational limiting stresses in components for the general stress analysis and the verification of stability

Limiting values for
Steel grade of components comparison I tensile and . compressive stress for shear stress
stress compressive stress verification of stabil ity
as in DIN 4114 Part 1
lim.a lim. ad lim.,
Symbol Specified in N. ~m-2 N'mm-2 N· mm-2
St 37 6) DIN 17100 216 192 125
'St52-3 DIN 17100 324 288 187
StE 460 DASt-Richtlinie 011 414 368 239
StE 690 DASt-Richtlinie 011 621 552 358
StE 8857) 796 708 460
For 6), 7), see table 2. ,~ I ~

Table 7. Computational limiting stresses in welds for the general stress analysis

Cornparl- Limiting values for
son limit- tension in the case of transverse compression in the case Shear
Steel grade of ing value loading of transverse loading
lim.aw lim. awd lim·,w
welded components N· mm-2 N'mm-2 N'mm-2
Butt weld, Double-bevel Butt weld,
All types double- butt weld; Fillet Fillet
bevel butt standard double- All types
of weld weld;spe- quality weld bevel butt weld of weld
Symbol Specified in cial quality weld
St 37 6) DIN 17100 216 192 153 216 173 153
St 52-3 DIN 17100 324 288 229 324 259 229
StE 460 DASt-Richtlinie 011 414 368 293 414 331 293
StE 690 DASt-Richtlinie 011 621 552 439 621 497 358
StE 8857) 796 708 563 796 639 460
For 6), 7), see table 2. linie 011. Buckling coefficients w for other cross sections and/or materials, and buckling stresses aK for other materials shall be determined in agreement with

DIN 4114 Part 2, February 1953x edition, guideline 7.2 and guideline 7.4, in function of the material characteristic data guaranteed by the manufacturer and of the cross-sectional shapes.

6.3 Verification in accordance with the geometric linear or non-linear theory (method of partial safety factors and of limiting stresses)

6.3.1 General stress analysis

The general stress analysis against attaining the yield strength shall be carried out separately for load cases H, HZ and HS.

It shall be demonstrated that the limiting stresses lim. a and lim. 7: in accordance with tables 6 and 7 will not be exceeded under the action of the loads listed in table 1 multiplied by the partial safety factors 'YF in accordance with table 5.

When using the geometric non-linear theory, DIN 4114 Part 1 and Part 2 shall be taken into consideration in so far as applicable, and prestrains (imperfections) shall be .

taken into account in particular in the calculation, if they are likely to cause appreciable stresses.

6.3.2 Verification of stability

The verification of stability shall be carried out as . described in subclause 6.2.2, but using the stresses or stress resultants arising from the loads multiplied by the partial safety factors. These stresses or stress resultants shall not exceed the 0,9 times limiting values specified in DIN 4114 Part 1 and Part 2 (buckling, collapsing or bulging stresses).

I f the w method described in DIN 4114 Part 1, July 1952xx edition, clause 7 is used for one-piece compression members of constant cross section, we must have:

In the aforementioned relationship, S ('YF Fi) represents the compressive force resulting from the loads multiplied by the partial safety factors and lim. ad represents the limiting stress specified in table 7.

For the verification of the required safety against bulging of plates described in DIN 4114 Part 1, July 1952xx

----~-------

edition, clauses 16 and 17, the following relationship shall be satisfied:

In the above relationship, a ('YF Fi) and T ('YF Fi) represent the stresses arising from the loads multiplied by the partial safety factors, aVK represents the reduced comparison stress specified in DIN 4114 Part 1 and 0: (1/1) represents a factor which is dependent as follows on the stress quotients -1::S; 1/18) ::s; 1 at the corners of the edges concerned, as listed in DIN 15 018 Part 1, November 1984 edition, table 13:

total zone: al {rfJ} = 0,85 - 0,05 rfJ partial zone: a2 (rfJ) = 0,875 - 0,025 rfJ

The following relationship applies to the stress quotient 1/1<-1:

al (rfJ) = a2 (rfJ) = 0,9

0: = 0,8 shall be entered in the calculation for the verification of safety against bulqinq in the case of circular cylindrical shells described in DIN 15018 Part 1, November 1984 edition, subclause 7.3.2.

The reduction of ideal comparison stresses aVKi which are situated above the limit of proportionality shall be effected in accordance with DIN 4114 Part 1, July 1952xx edition, subclause 17.3 in the case of St 37 and St 52-3 structural steels, and in accordance with their stress/strain behaviour in the case of fine grained structural steels StE 460, StE 690 and StE 885.

6.4 Verification of steadiness

The verification of steadiness shall be carried out in accordance with DIN 15019 Part 2, and taking subclause 5.2 into consideration, in accordance with the geometric non-linear theory if required.

7 Holding ropes and guy ropes

Holding ropes and guy ropes shall be reckoned as loadbearing components in respect of which the general stress analysis shall be carried out in accordance with clause 6. Depending on the computational ultimate tensile strength (aB) of a rope or on its ultimate tensile strength (aB) determined by tests, the following permissible stresses and limiting values shall apply:

DIN 15018Part3 Page7

Permissible rope tensile stresses

aB aB

zul. aH = 3,938 or 3,375

aB aB

zul. aHZ = 3,500 or 3,000

Limiting values of rope tensile stresses

aB UB

= 2,917 or 2,500

These limiting values may be used for ropes made from wires with ultimate tensile strengths 1200::S; aB::S;

2200 N . mm-2• They are only valid for ropes which are not locally stressed transversely, and which consequently are not bent; in addition, they may be exploited up to the following limits in the case of the following rope fastening methods:

sweating or fastening to bollards up to 100 %; compression clamps 9) up to 90 %;

lim.u

rope joints or splices

up to 80%.

8 Rope drives and lifting hooks

The rope drives shall be sized as specified in DIN 15020 Part 1 and the lifting hooks as specified in DIN 15400. The classification of cranes on vehicles into mechanism groups according to service life and load collectives as specified in DIN 15020 Part 1, February 1974 edition, table 1 shall be the following:

Table 8.

Cranes on vehicles for Driving mechanism
group
Erection duties 18m
Erection duties and occasional 1 Am
cargo handling duties 8) Stress quotient, not to be confused with the nominal load spectrum factor.

9) The permissible stresses may only be entered in the calculation at the above values on condition that the compression clamps and the type of their attachment permit it.

If tests have demonstrated that the compression clamps permit a more important exploitation of the rope attachment, the calculation may be made on the basis of the lowest test values.

Page 8 DIN 15018 Part 3

Standards and other documents referred to

01 N 1055 Part 4 Design loads for buildings; imposed loads, wind loads of structures unsusceptible to vibration .)

DIN 4114 Part 1 Steel structures; stability cases (buckling, collapsing, bulging); principles of calculation, regulations

DIN 4114 Part 2 Steel structures; stability cases (buckling, collapsing, bulging); principles of calculation, guidelines

DIN 15001 Part 1 Cranes; terminology, classification according to type

DIN 15 018 Part 1 Cranes; principles for steel structures, stress analysis

DIN 15019 Part 2 Cranes; stability for non-rail mounted cranes on vehicles, test loading and calculation

Lifting appliances; principles relating to rope drives, design and construction

Lifting hooks for lifting appliances; mechanical properties, lifting capacities, existing stresses and materials

Steels for general structural purposes; quality standard

DASt-Richtlinie 011 Hochfeste schweissgeeignete Feinkornbaustiihle StE 460 und StE 690; Anwendung fiir Stahlbauten 10) (High strength fine grained structural steels StE 460 and StE 690 suitable for welding; application in steel structures)

VdTOV-Werkstoffblatt 417 Schweissgeeigneter Feinkornsonderbaustahl XABO 90 Werkst.-Nr. 1.8925 (Fine grained special structural steel XABO 90 suitable for welding; material No. 1.8925)

DIN 15 020 Part 1 DIN 15400

DIN 17100

Other relevant standards and other documents

ISO 4302 Cranes; wind load assessment

ISO 4305 Mobile cranes; deterrnlnatlon of stability

Bulletin d'lnformation (Information bulletin) No. 116-0 of the Comite Euro-International du Beton (Euro-international Committee on Concrete):

Regles unitiees communes sux ditierent« types d'ouvrage et de meterleu« (Standardized rules applying to different types of construction and different building materials), November 1976; Institut tiir Bautechnik (Institute for Building Techno-

logy), Berlin .

Previous editions

DIN 15018Part3:01.83

Amendments

The following amendments have been made in comparison with the January 1983 edition:

A misprint in table 7 has been corrected. The references with regard to DIN 15018 Part 1 and Part 2 have been updated.

Explanatory notes

I n consequence of the progress in development of the modes of construction and of the design methods of cranes on vehicles, specifications additional to

DIN 15018 Part 1 have been laid down in this standard. It shall be applied directly to cranes on vehicles with the specified material-dependent stress cycles, viz. to structures in respect of which no verification of service strength is required. The following aspects of these cranes have been taken into consideration: special system characteristics of the drives (continuous and progressive deployment of the driving power) and of the structures (exceptional yielding characteristics of the slender jibs which are capable of being lowered) unusual mode of operation (low degree of isochronism of the motions) and worldwide experience in the utilization of these cranes.

The specified stress cycles represent limiting values which the components are capable of withstanding without vibration failure at the permissible stresses zul. a, They are a function of the stress collective S, of the limiting stress ratio x, of the notch case K, of the probability of survival Pli and of the steel grade.

The number of limiting stress cycles N G has been determined on the assumption of a stress collective S 1, of a stress ratlo'x = - 0,25, of a notch case K3 specified in DASt-Richtlinie 011 and of a probability of survival

Pii = 90 %, on the basis of the following formula:

~ (4zulao)k

NG= 10 2 No 3zula

where

. s is the index of the stress collective 0, 1,2,3;

Nn = 2.106;

k is the exponent of the service life charac-

teristics.

The assumption of the individual parameters is based on practical empirical values. The effect of changes, e. g. in the notch case or in the stress collective, can be determined with the aid of the above formula.

This standard can also be used in an analogous way for cranes with comparable utilization and system characteristics; consequently it represents the first stage of a further development of DIN 15018 Part 1 for crane structures with predominantly static loading. It is applicable in conjunction with DIN 15018 Part 1 and with DASt-Richtlinie 011, the latter because of the consideration to be given to the high strength fine grained structural steels StE 460 and StE 690.

10) Obtainable from: Stahlbau-Verlags GmbH, Ebertplatz, 0-5000 K61n 1.

The most important specifications of the standard are discussed in detail in the following paragraphs:

The self weights and lifted loads have been redefined in agreement with ISO 4305. Accordingly, the weights of the carrying means (hoist ropes) have been assigned to the self weights, whilst the lifted load consists of the useful load and of the self weights of the components directly involved in the supporting of the useful load.

The magnitude and the position of the centre of gravity of the self weights represent system characteristics which are to be determined with great accuracy in every case, with the object of limiting the axle loads during road transport; thanks to their close tolerancing, the adoption of lower partial safety factors for the verification described in subclause 6.3 is justified.

The structure is excited and dynamically stressed when the lifted load is raised and lowered. These dynamic effects are taken into consideration in the first instance in the same way as in DIN 15018 Part 1 by approximation, viz. by rnultlplvinq the lifted load by the load spectrum factor 1/1. Because of the system characteristics of cranes on vehicles in the field of application of this standard, a classification into lifting classes H 1 and H 2 respectively has been decided, in function of the mode of operation.

I n addition, a "transverse acceleration" e (rn . s-2), acting at right angles to the longitudinal axis of the jib in question, in the plane of the jib system, is determined in function of the load spectrum factor 1/1, which is a measure of the magnitude of the excitation of the structure vibrations. On the basis of the inertia forces which arise therefrom, the bending stresses in the jib which arise during the raising and lowering of the lifted load (fundamental oscillations) shall be determined by approximation (see figure 1).

The maximum inertia forces arising from drives shall be taken into consideration when the crane on a vehicle is operated "according to its normal intended purpose". These forces can be determined by calculation or as the result of tests; in either case, the values used for the calculation shall be the most unfavourable ones, corresponding to a mode of operation which is only just on the borderline of the "normally intended purpose". If the consequences of switching errors or emergency shutdowns are more unfavourable, then they shall be taken into consideration additionally as special loadings. An adequately horizontal position of the slewing plane

(± 0,5 "%) as described in subclause 5.1 may be assumed for the calculation of the inertia forces from drives. Should the above assumption not be realized, i. e. should the crane have to travel or be operated on the road or on rough ground with the slewing plane not horizontal, then the loads and load effects resulting therefrom shall be taken into account separately. In particular, the action of road travel (crane operating as a vehicle) on the load bearing components (e. g. on the counterweight carrier) shall be verified.

In agreement with ISO 4302, the wind loads for a crane in service shall normally be calculated on the basis of a dynamic pressure q = 125 N . m-2. The calculation of the wind load on a lifted load of unknown size and shape has been decided in an analogous way and in accordance with DIN 15018 Part 1.

Specifications of useful load or of outreach may also be made for dynamic pressures other than q:;:::: 50 N . m-2.

DIN15018Part3 Page9

The use of the crane "according to its normal intended purpose" with in-service wind presupposes that the local weather is being monitored, so that the necessary securing measures can be put in hand "in good time" if the wind conditions should become worse. The limiting dynamic pressure at which the securing measures are to be initiated is determined in accordance with a plausible formula based on practical experience; this formula takes into account the time required to carry out the securing measures (setting down or reducing the lifted load, altering the outreach or the position of the crane components, dismantling etc.) and also the dynamic pressure adopted in the calculation for a given operating condition.

The large test load specified in DIN 15019 Part 2 shall be assumed as special load, and in this connection the specifications contained in subclause 5.2 shall be observed in respect of the loading of geometric non-linear systems; in particular, the test loading shall be applied in progressive stages to the most highly yielding point of the permitted slewing zone, and only the distortions arising from the self weights and from the lifted loads permitted in service may be taken into consideration for the determination

of the jib position permitted in service.

The inclusion of the large test load in the calculation is necessary for safety reasons because of the system change which occurs during test loadings (e. g. the lift-off of outriggers) and because of the resulting superproportional increases in stresses of individualloadbearing components. The verification of safety of the structure under the action of the large test load as defined in table 1 will count simultaneously as verification of the calculated stability in accordance with DIN 15019 Part 2, June 1979 edition, clause 2.

For the specification of the normal load cases due account has been paid to the fact that the isochronism of motion changes during the operation of cranes on vehicles which come within the scope of this standard is normally less than that of cranes which come within the scope of

DIN 15 018 Part 1. Consequently, only the dynamic effects of one single additional drive (e. g. crane travel along a horizontal flat and straight path, slewing or luffing) are to be assumed as acting simultaneously with" the dynamic effects arising from hoisting and lowering.

Apart from the "crane subjected to out-of-service wind" condition, the importance of which is minimal in respect of the design of the loadbearing structure because of the system-inherent possibility of being able to set the jib system down rapidly, the effects arising during "erection and dismantling" and during "large test loading" have been classified as special load cases. In the last-named load case, a wind load calculated on the basis of a minimum dynamic pressure of 50 N . m-2 shall be entered

in the calculation, in agreement with DIN 15019 Part 2. During the "erection and dismantling" of the jib system, the dynamic effects created by the luffing drive shall be taken into account.

I n all the normal and special load cases, the direction of the wind loads is also to be entered unfavourably in accordance with subclause 5.2; depending on the component concerned and on the type of drive (defined drive forces or accelerations) this unfavourable direction may be either parallel to, or at right angles to the motion concerned.

Page 10 DIN 15018 Part 3

Two distinct methods can be adopted for the calculation in accordance with clause 5 and for the verification in accordance with clause 6, the principle of which can be read off the lucid diagrams on page 11 (see also Bulletin d'lnformation No. 116-D of the Comite Euro-International du Beton: Regles unifMes communes aux difterents types d'ouvrage etde metetieux, November 1976; Institut fiir Bautechnik, Berlin).

The transmission behaviour of the structure (F ~ S) is decisive in respect of the choice of method; slender structures with a high degree of yielding, and structures with a variable member arrangement (e. g. due to lift-off and consequently to outriggers becoming inoperative) shall be calculated in accordance with the geometric non-linear theory, taking the distortions into account. The position of the structure system which is permitted operationally may be assumed as starting position for the calculation, taking into account the distortions resulting from the self weight and from the lifted load, on condition that this position has been specifically laid down in the operating instruction manual. The effect of the remaining loads and of the load increases on the distortions, due to the adoption of partial safety factors or to the increase of the lifted load up to the large test load shall not be compensated by the re-adjustment of the jib system.

If the position of the jib system is governed in accordance with a controlled variable either by the crane driver or automatically, then the most unfavourable position, conditioned by the largest control error, shall be adopted for the calculation, and in addition a reasonable safety factor shall be applied to the control error.

On the basis of actual experience, the use of the fine grained structural steel grades StE 460 and StE 690 has been provided for in this standard in addition to the

St 37 and St 52-3 structural steels, by declaring that the DASt-Richtlinie 011 is also valid. The frequently resorted use of StE 885 fine grained structural steel has been left to the responsibility of the manufacturers and users of this steel, and it presupposes that the manufacturer of the steel will comply with its utilization characteristics and weldability aspects, and that the user of the steel possesses a thorough experience of the processing of

this steel grade, and in particular that he is thoroughly conversant with the welding technology concerned.

The permissible stresses for all steel grades and the limiting stresses for components and welds have been specified along the lines of DIN 15018 Part 1, taking into account past experience with fine grained structural steels used in the construction of cranes on vehicles, and also the results of random tests. In relation to the yield stress of the steel grades featured in table 2, the "overall safety factors" for the calculation of zul, a for the components amount to:

YH = 1,500, YHZ = 1,333 and YHS = 1,212

The values for the permissible compressive stresses have been determined from

zul. ad = 0,889· zul, a

and the values for shear have been determined from a

zul. r== zul. /3

The limiting stresses and the partial safety factors for the lifted loads have been specified in such a way that the

same calculated "overall safety factors" shall apply as in the case of the method of permissible stresses. The influence of the closely toleranced self weights has on the contrary been evaluated more favourably as a result of smaller partial safety factors, whilst the influence from the more widely dispersive inertia forces has been evaluated more unfavourably as a result of larger partial safety factors. If the required self weight tolerances are exceeded, the partial safety factors of the self weights for load cases H, HZ and HS are to be increased accordingly. Thanks to the introduction of the method of partial safety factors and limiting stresses, it has been possible on the one hand to achieve a differentiated weighting of the individual load cases, and on the other hand to provide a better formal compatibility between the verification of strength and the verification of steadiness.

The adoption of this differentiated computational verification of safety of structures of cranes on vehicles presupposes a very large measure of agreement between the substitute systems for the determination of the stresses (F ~ S ~ 13 ~ B) and the real ity. The partial safety factors shall only be applied to loads listed in table 5 which will generate an increase in the stresses of the material component to be calculated.

Local stresses which are not covered by the calculation of the structures (connections, joints etc.), for example in accordance with the technical bending and torsion theory for the three-dimensionally loadable bars (beams), but which must necessarily occur for the purpose of satisfying the local equilibrium conditions (eccentricities, flexure of plates or shells) shall be taken into consideration additionally no less than any appreciable local stresses caused by distortions (secondary stresses) caused by differences between the substitute system and reality (13 + flB = B); it may therefore prove very expedient to design this reality in conformity with the calculable substitute systems which are close to reality. For example,

it may be desirable to replace multicomponent compactly built three-dimensional frameworks made from tubing (lower ends of jibs, tips of jibs) by plate structures (box structures, plate girders), in order to circumvent the complex, problematic verification of safety of multi bar tube junction points.

DIN 15018 Part 1 and consequently DIN 4114 Part 1 and Part 2 are the ruling standards in respect of the verification of stability when the method of permissible stresses is used; as regards the safety against bulging of plates, the values listed in DIN 15 018 Part 1, November 1984 edition, table 13 are specially applicable.

If the method of partial safety factors and lim iting stresses is used, a verification of stability adapted to this method and to DIN 4114 Part 1 and Part 2 shall be carried out with the determining stress resultants S ('YF Fi) and stresses a ('YF Fi) and r ('YF Fi). When the structu re is calculated in accordance with the geometric non-linear theory, only local stability problems (e. g. the buckling of single bars, the collapsing of free flanges, the bulging of plate panels) are likely to arise as a general rule. Suitable formulae are specified for this purpose.

For holding ropes and guy ropes, the permissible rope tensile stresses and the limiting values of rope tensile stresses have been specified for load cases H and HZ in function of the computational ultimate tensile strength aB or of the ultimate tensile strength CJB of the ropes as

determined by tests. They apply to wire ropes made from individual wires with nominal strenqths up to 0B ::;;

2200 N . mm-2, which are widely used in the construetion of cranes on vehicles and have proven themselves in practice.

Thanks to the classification of the rope drives and lifting hooks into driving mechanism groups featured in clause 8 and dependent on the mode of operation peculiar to cranes on vehicles, the necessary foundations for a standardization of the design methods for the principal driving mechanism components have been laid; this ruling in the present standard, undertaken on a temporary basis, is destined to be incorporated in the relevant standards (DIN 15020 Part 1 and DIN 15400) at the next opportunity .

DIN 15018 Part 3 Page 11

The cranes on vehicles calculated in accordance with this standard are subject to restrictions '(see under field of application) of which the operator must be made aware in suitable fashion, for example in the operating instruction manual and in the crane test document:

In order not to exceed the specified stress collective, instructions relating to the permissible mode of operation (e. g. normal erection duties) shall be given.

If the wind area or the shape factor of the load exceeds the values given in subclause 3.2, then the lifted load or the permissible wind velocity shall be reduced accordingly.

Figure 1. Loading of jib components by transverse acceleration e

Page 12 DIN 15018 Part 3

Diagrammatic representation of the methods used for calculation and for the verification

Calculation and verification in accordance with the

method of permissible stresses as described in subclause 62

I1B (Fi)
Structure Cross section
.. .... ~. l6
.. :-.'
Fi S (Fi) B (Fi) B (Fi) E

<zuI.B=-

- Y

Key to symbols:

Fi loads of a load case acting unfavourably in respect of magnitude, position and direction

S (Fi); stress resultants or nominal stresses arising from Fi< under the hypotheses of the technical 13 (Fi) flexure theory

I1B (Fi), additional stresses specified in DIN 15018 Part 1, November 1984 edition, subclause 6.8, and stresses B (Fi) arising from Fi for comparison with the permissible stresses zul. B

Ii, Y limiting condition (e. g. yield point, buckling stress, bulging stress etc.), the attainment of which is to be avoided with an "overall safety factor" 'Y under the action of the loads Fi

Calculation and verification in accordance with the

method of partial safety factors and limiting stresses as described in subclause 6.3

I1B (YF Fi)
Structure Cross section
[J ~
YFFi S (YFFi) B,(YFFi) B (YFFi) Ii

< Iim.B=-

- YB

Key to symbols:

YF

S (YFFi), 13 (YF Fi)

partial safety factors listed in table 5, by which the acting loads are to be multiplied

stress resultants or nominal stresses arising from the 'YF Fi, calculated in accordance with geometric linear, or where necessary in accordance with geometric non-linear bar statics, under the hypotheses of the technical flexure theory

I1B (YFFi), additional stresses specified in DIN 15018 Part 1, November 1984 edition, subclause 6.8, and stresses B (YF Fi) arising from YF Fi for comparison with the limiting stresses lim. B

E, YB limiting condition (e. g. yield point, buckling stress, bulging stress etc.), the attainment of which is to

. be avoided with a "partial safety factor" 'YB under the action of the loads 'YF Fi

International Patent Classification B 66 C 23/36

1111111111111111

050920019743

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