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Volume 4, Issue 7, July – 2019 International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology

ISSN No:-2456-2165

Meta-Analysis on TVET Curriculum Implementation

Challenges in Nigeria
John Nehemiah Marwa1,2, Muhammad Sukri Saud1, Yusri Kamai1 and Nur Hazirah Binti Noh@Seth1
Department of Technical and Engineering Education, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities,
University Tecknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor, Malaysia.
Department of Technical Education, Kaduna State College of Education,
Gidan Waya, Kafanchan Kaduna State Nigeria.

Abstract:- The sole aim of TVET (technical vocational styles are provided throughout this document and are
education training) in Nigeria is to train and produce identified in italic type, within parentheses, following the
competent craftsmen and technician capable of example. Some components, such as multi-leveled
handling different kind of jobs in industries and other equations, graphics, and tables are not prescribed, although
sectors of the economy. However, the expected results of the various table text styles are provided. The formatter will
becoming enterprising and self-reliance is jeopardise in need to create these components, incorporating the
such a way that individuals and personnel have not been applicable criteria that follow. Vocational education general
adequately provided by the TVET institutions due to refers to every form of education that focuses and aims at
numerous implementation challenges. The purpose of the acquiring of the basic qualifications related to a certain
this review therefore, is to analyse the available profession, art or employment that provides the basic
affirmation in literatures about curriculum training and the appropriate skills and attitude as well as
implementation challenges responsible in jeopardising technical knowledge, so that students are able to exercise a
the sole aim of TVET in Nigeria. The study adopted a profession, art or activity, independently of their age and
systematic review approach of search for relevant their training stage, this also implies that even if the
articles on TVET, curriculum implementation, TVET training program contains also elements of general
curriculum challenges, TVET implementation education Kotsikis,[1] Vocational training is generally
challenges, such were the key words used in the defined as the part of vocational education that provides the
selection of related literatures from a data web-based specialized professional knowledge skills and attitudes,
provider of Scopus, google scholar, science direct and which attribute professional adequacy to the trainee and are
online library. The obtainable results from the searched the focus of every vocational training program. Vocational
revealed that the numerous TVET curriculum education in another word, is seen as a structured
implementation challenges in Nigeria is ranging from programme of activities which designed in order to transmit
inadequate funding, brain drain, faulty curriculum, theoretical knowledge and also professional skills that are
government factor, poor perception of TVET education, required for certain types of jobs Kotsikis, [1] therefore, As
inadequate facilities, staff training and retention and an educational policy, technical and vocational education
politics Among others. It is however recommended that training refers to the initial vocational training, whose aims
adequate majors be taken by the concern body of are connected to the given offer and demand of specialties,
government to ensure effectiveness in the training and as they are formed by the structural characteristics of each
producing of qualified TVET graduates for workforce county’s economy. in many nations of the world, TVET is
in Nigeria. an essential human resource of development initiative for
economy and technological growth. This implies that the
Keyword:- Technical Education, TVET Curriculum, economic and technological advancement of any nation is
Vocational Education, And Implementation Challenges. directly geared to her quality and availability of its human
resources, as such promote productivity of human resources
I. INTRODUCTION and advances technical knowledge and skill acquisition.
Arowolo, et al [2] stated that a curriculum is an educational
This template, modified in MS Word 2007 and saved plan that spells out which goals and objectives should be
as a “Word 97-2003 Document” for the PC, provides achieved, which topics should be covered and which
authors with most of the formatting specifications needed methodology and approaches are to be used for learning,
for preparing electronic versions of their papers. All teaching and evaluation. Coles [3] in his submission argues
standard paper components have been specified for three that, a curriculum is more than a list of topics to be covered
reasons: (1) ease of use when formatting individual papers, by an educational programme, for which the most
(2) automatic compliance to electronic requirements that commonly accepted word is a ‘syllabus’. A curriculum
facilitate the concurrent or later production of electronic however, is a policy statement about a piece of education,
products, and (3) conformity of style throughout a and secondly an indication as to the ways in which that
conference proceedings. Margins, column widths, line policy is to be realised through a programme of action.
spacing, and type styles are built-in; examples of the type

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Volume 4, Issue 7, July – 2019 International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology
ISSN No:-2456-2165
This implies that a Curriculum is the sum of all the concept papers, research papers, and conference papers, at
activities, experiences and learning opportunities for which the second stage a reviewed of resent study on
a society, an institution assume a responsibility deliberately implementation and challenges of TVET curriculum in
or by default. A curriculum is determined by the activity or Nigeria were used, a search of literatures conducted in
what is not offered, and what has been rejected. ERIC database and google scholar, with related terms such
as curriculum, implementation, challenges where used for
Arowolo, et al [2] published that a curriculum is a the search, thus resulted to reduction of the 26 sourced
structured series of intended learning experiences, it is the articles to 9 which guided to fulfilling the criteria. The
means by which educational institutions endeavour to papers were qualitatively analysed and discussed according
realize the goals of the society, the curriculum it is adopted to the research question as presented in table 1. However,
to pursue set objectives or goals of the society in which the the present study aims at analysing the challenges of TVET
schools are and serve. Good Implementation is the major curriculum implementation in Nigeria.
key that leads to actualization of a curriculum, through
implementation the aims and objectives of the National III. RESULTS
policy on education can be realise and achieve. TVET
education as stated on the national conference in 1965 is Before you begin to format your paper, first write and
saddle with the responsibility of transforming the Nigerian save the content as a separate text file. Keep your text and
society from shame to fame. graphic files separate until after the text has been formatted
and styled. Do not use hard tabs, and limit use of hard
Therefore, a good implementation of the TVET returns to only one return at the end of a paragraph. Do not
curriculum is a determinants element which intel’s the add any kind of pagination anywhere in the paper. Do not
growth and development of the Nigerian society, this also number text heads-the template will do that for you.
will be a determines of the quality of graduate produced
into the industries and the labour workforce. Finally, complete content and organizational editing
before formatting. Please take note of the following items
This study therefore, is a review of educational journal when proofreading spelling and grammar: The table (1)
articles to synthesize the available evidences in the make a summary of the research conducted on TVET
literature review about Implementation and challenges of curriculum implementation and challenges in Nigeria. The
TVET curriculum in Nigeria. Hence the study is aimed to analysis shown that, “Inadequate funding was indicated by
answer the research question. “What are the Ifeyinwa et,al, Okoye et,al., [4], Udoka et al. [5],
implementation challenges of TVET curriculum in Ayonmike. [6], Kennedy et al, [7], and Ojimba, et,al. [8], as
Nigeria”? Okoye, et, al [4] conducted a research on one of the TVET curriculum implementation challenges in
technical and vocational education and training in Nigeria Nigeria, in the same regard, Okoye et, al, [13], Udoka et,al.
and energy development and National transformation, and [5], Kennedy et,al. [7], Egesi, et al. [9], Ojimba, [8],
Udoka et, al [5] researched on the global economic crisis: a Serumu[10], and Bathe et al [2], identified “Inadequate
challenge implementation technical vocational technology facility” as one of the TVET curriculum implementation
in Nigeria. However, there is a need to analyse and identify challenges in Nigeria, Ayonmike.[6], Ojimba, [8], Udoka
the real issues of the TVET curriculum implementation et al,[5], and Okoye et al [13], signified “Brain drain” to
challenges in Nigeria and proffer recommendations to be a TVET curriculum implementation challenges in
serves as a road map for improvement which the present Nigeria.
study aims at.


An On-line data base of educational research

information centre (ERIC) was used to access relevant
published articles through web-based service providers, and
other articles source were obtained from science direct,
online library, google scholar, web of science, Scopus.
Abstracts, results, and conclusions were also screened,
other related studies to curriculum implementation
challenges were selected for the study. At the beginning of
the study, the search was broaden which included all

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Volume 4, Issue 7, July – 2019 International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology
ISSN No:-2456-2165

Table 1:- Analysis of TVET Curriculum Implementation Challenges in Nigeria.

“Staff training and retention” was denoted by Serumu, funding of TVET institutions has caused the turning out of
Comfort, et al, [12], Udoka et al.[5], Okoye et al,[4], and half backed graduates because there are no funds to build
Ojimba, to be a TVET curriculum implementation and maintains workshops, laboratories or even purchase
challenge in Nigeria. In the same vein, “Faulty curriculum” modern equipment. TVET in no doubt has contributed to
was verified by Egesi et al. [9], Ojimba.[8], Kennedy et the growth of Nigerian society, in regards to the training
al.[7], Serumu, [10], and Okoye et al.[4], as an programmes across the country by developing individual
implementation challenges of TVET curriculum in Nigeria. who are contributing their own quarter to the economic
“Politics” was also signified by Okoye eta al, [4], and growth and development of the nation through various
Ojimba, to be a TVET curriculum implementation industrial establishment.
challenge in Nigeria.
Table 1 also underline seven (7) articles which
Based on the analysis on the table, “Value System” signified “Inadequate facilities” to be a TVET curriculum
was confirm by Udoka, Okoye et al, [4], and Ayonmike, implementation challenge in Nigeria. Okoye. [13] &
[2], to be a TVET curriculum implementation challenge in Maxwell [3], researched and published that most technical
Nigeria. Okoye et al, .[4], Ayonmike,[2]. and George et education department in Nigerian universities do not have
al.[7], signified that “Policies, strategies and poor planning” good laboratories or workshop space, let alone useable
are TVET curriculum implementation challenges in equipment and where they exist they are grossly
Nigeria. Comfort, identified “Evaluation” to be a inadequate. For any educational system to function
curriculum implementation challenging in Nigeria, effectively gearing towards meeting her sets objectives and
“Government factor” was cited by Egesi et al. [2], Kennedy goals, it must have the needed facilities in order to meet up
et al. [7], and Serumu, [10], to also be one of the TVET with the required practical classes schedule for the
curriculum implementation challenge in Nigeria. Likewise, programme. Practical skill acquisition is more pronounce in
Ojimba, [8], and Serumu, [10], verified that “Staff/lecturer TVET, as such a well provided learning environment with
factor” is a TVET curriculum implementation challenge in the required facilities is mandatory. In the same regards,
Nigeria. Serumu, [10], Kennedy et al. [7] sported “Poor Table 1 highlighted four (4) articles which indicated
perception and lack of guidance service” to a curriculum “Brain drain” to be one of the TVET curriculum
challenge of TVET implementation in Nigeria. implementation challenge in Nigeria. Brain drain in most of
the Nigerian technical institutions affect teaching and
IV. DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS learning of TVET this is because, technical teachers in most
of the institutions move from one organisation to the other,
The findings of the research work where discussed from college of education to polytechnic, from polytechnic
based on the guided research question. to university or to other professions where they feel will
offer them better and convenient service. According to
 What are the Curriculum Implementation Challenges of Okoye et,al [4], 45% of Nigerian professionals including
TVET in Nigeria? technical educators have left the Nigerian shores over the
Table 1 underline six (6) articles which signified inadequate years. In 1999 and 2007 alone, the country Nigeria lost
funding as TVET curriculum implementation challenge in about 10,000 middle class and high level managers to the
Nigeria, funding plays a very significant role in TVET western economics, and about 500 lecturers from Nigeria
education, to build and maintain a good workshop, tertiary institutions have continued to move each year,
laboratories and to acquire modern and efficient equipment, particularly to Europe, America and other African
a lot of funds is needed. According to Odu [16], inadequate countries.

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Table 1 also feature five (5) articles which verified do not seem to understand the need of the programme. One
“Staff training and retention” to be a TVET curriculum of the most confronting challenge of TVET curriculum
implementation challenge in Nigeria. Academic staff need implementation is the involvement of professional’s
to be aware of current innovations, invention and teachers in handling and addressing TVET issues. For
familiarise with latest happenings in their respected fields TVET education system to be successful and meeting the
of specialisation, this suggested a continue professional societal challenges for economic growth and development,
training in order to improve in the quality of their professionals most be involve in decision and policy
deliveries. Staff training and retention could be acquiring making of TVET programme in terms of deploying human
locally or overseas irrespective of the capital involved, and material resources to the programme effectiveness
academic staff should be giving the privilege to study which will also promotes supervision, good monitoring and
overseas especially where there is a need for a staff to get evaluation this is because the professional of TVET have
knowledge that has to do with current changes and acquired the necessary abilities, skills and capabilities to carry out
training with new digital equipment for productivity. the programme.

Table 1 accentuate five (5) articles verifying “The Table 1 emphasize one (1) article which verified
curriculum the technical education (faulty)” as a TVET “Evaluation” to be a TVET curriculum implementation
curriculum implementation challenge in Nigeria. According challenge in Nigeria. Evaluation by definition mean an
to Uwaifo, [15], noted that one of the issues confronting the orderly determination of a subjects’ merit, worth and
design of appropriate curriculum for technical education is significance, using criteria governed by a set of standards.
preparing students for the shift from the fordist to This can assist a programme or organisational design,
information communication and technology (ICT) project or any other intervention or initiative to assess any
paradigm in technology practice. The curriculum of every aim realisation or any alternative to help in decision making
programme is the master plan that shows in detail how such or to ascertain the degree of achievement or value in
a programme is to be operating or conducted. TVET regards to the aim and objectives and results of any action
curriculum is generally organised into theoretical classes that has been completed. Lack of evaluation to have an
and practical. The curriculum experts assigned percentages insight into the existing process of TVET in Nigeria has
to theoretical classes and for practical for effectiveness. affected the programme this is because government cannot
ascertain without TVET is meeting it set objectives or not.
Table 1 also accentuate two (2) articles which verified Table 1 underline three (3) articles which signified
“Politics” to be one of the TVET curriculum “Government factor” as a TVET curriculum
implementation challenge in Nigeria. Technical education implementation challenge in Nigeria. Government factor
in Nigeria have suffered a grossly set back and neglect, could be a non-challan attitude or negligent of
Nigeria law makers have not seen anything good or special responsibilities by not giving the needed priority in times of
about TVET and why they should give priority attention to funding, poor infrastructure, poor facilities. When
the programme in resources allocation. Previous budgets government is not paying attention or not meeting the need
for the last 5 years shows a lop side attitude to TVET of TVET institutions, it becomes a very big challenge
system in Nigeria. When this attitude is not reversed which will result to a poor performance from the side of the
gearing toward the set objective of TVET system in Nigeria programme, this is one of the challenges face by TVET
based on the national conference of 1963 recommendation, institution in Nigeria.
Nigeria will technologically remain backward.
Table 1 highlighted two (2) article indicating “Student
Table 1 spotlight two (2) articles verifying “System factor” as a TVET curriculum implementation challenge in
value” as a TVET curriculum implementation challenge in Nigeria. Serumu, [10], published that irregular
Nigeria. According to Nworlu-Elechi [4] for this reason, attendance of lectures by students is a challenge to the
secondary school graduates and parents prefer university implementation of TVET curriculum. This signified that by
education to technical education. in Nigeria, university the time students abscond from class it shows that some of
qualification education is given too much emphases and them have started keeping or involving themselves in
priority not minding whether the graduates possess the activities like cultism, examination malpractice, and other
needed knowledge and the required skills unlike the social academic vices which resulted to challenges of
advance society where the TVET graduates are highly implementing the curriculum.
regarded. R. Okoye et,al [4], research that the value system
of TVET in those countries depend on the persons skills Table 1 weight one (1) article signified “Lecturer
and knowledge, not on the stack of academic degree one factor” to be a TVET curriculum implementation challenge
has. in Nigeria. Aigbepue [11] opined that inadequate and ill-
equipped vocational education teachers are challenges to
Table 1 highlighted four (4) articles verified “Policies the implementation of TVET curriculum. Lecturers factors
strategies and poor planning” as a TVET curriculum result from lack of interest in teaching and skill
implementation challenge in Nigeria. Ibeneme [18], competence, another one is poor working condition and
published that many administrators of TVET programme at poor preparation of lesson could also be among.
policy making level are not TVET trained persons and thus

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Table 1 emphasize two (2) articles which signified
“Poor public perception to TVET” as a TVET curriculum
implementation challenges in Nigeria. TVET in Nigeria has
a very low perception to the general public in terms of
acceptance. By one experience in teaching TVET for 13
years, the elites, the rich and the political class do not
encourage their wards to make TVET a career. Sibling of
the ministers, senators, vice chancellors, governors,
professors are hardly found to be enlisted for TVET
certificates, but rather prefer their siblings into studying
courses like medicine, Law, engineering, accounting,
pharmacy and the likes. A need for boosting and portraying
the many significant of TVET to the general public need to
be emphasize or encourage by the government, this could
be achieved through exhibitions, competition among
technology institution organized by the government Fig 1:- Road Map for Effective TVET Curriculum
through the ministry of science and technology. Implementation.

Table 1 spotlight two (2) articles which underline V. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
“Inadequate qualified vocational and technical teachers”
as a TVET curriculum implementation challenge in The study investigated into the curriculum
Nigeria. Kennedy et al. [7], many tertiary institution across implementation challenges of TVET in Nigeria, a
the country are inadequately staffed, in most department systematic review of relevant journal articles was adopted
especially in TVET programmes the number of qualified for the study which were obtained from different data-base.
TVET teachers for each specialized area is insufficient. The study highlighted some challenges billeting TVET
Fig 1 show a road map which serve as a guide for TVET curriculum implementation in Nigeria technical schools and
curriculum implementation challenges in Nigeria, was technology institutions. The reviewers therefore strongly
developed from the result of the study. Though, there are recommended that government should endeavoured to
other challenges, but still can be manage appropriately make provision for an enabling environment for proper
when the right steps of the implementation policies are implementation of TVET curriculum.
followed as recommended by the philosophy that guided
the TVET educational system. where effectiveness is not For our society to be technologically develop with
achieved, the curriculum resulted to meaningless. meaningful growth and development in our societies, and
by reducing un-employability, our technical institutions
However, effectiveness is a true measure of how a need to be provided with the needed man power to ensure
system perform its expected duties and functions, an effectiveness. Appropriate measures need to be taken by the
effective system (curriculum) is where every member concern bodies who are saddle with the responsibilities of
knows the most important duty he performs in order to monitoring and quality provision.
meet her objectives and goals. To achieve effectiveness, a
body of policy makers needs improvement to understand REFERENCES
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