Authors: Georgios Varelas (Helenic Navy), Ozkan Ozcan (Turkish Air Force) and Claudio Coreixas (Brazilian Navy)

Contents 1. INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................... 1 1.1. 1.2. 1.3. 2. Purpose ...................................................................................................... 1 Background ................................................................................................. 1 Problem Definition ....................................................................................... 2

MISSION TASK ANALYSIS .................................................................................. 4 2.1. 2.2. 2.3. Mission Scenario ......................................................................................... 4 Training Environment .................................................................................. 6 Top-Level Tasks.......................................................................................... 7

Step............................................................................................................................ 8 2.4. 3. Learning Objectives .................................................................................. 24

TRAINING SYSTEM DEFINITION ...................................................................... 25 3.1. 3.2. 3.3. Instructional Strategies .............................................................................. 25 Media Options and Selection .................................................................... 25 Functional Description of Training System ................................................ 28

4. 5.

DISCUSSION AND RECOMENDATIONS........................................................... 30 REFERENCES .................................................................................................... 31

1. 1.1.


This paper addresses an issue in the Brazilian Naval Academy’s (BNA) Ship Handling Training System (SHTS), proposing a feasible solution at the end. The SHTS is responsible to provide knowledge and skills in ship maneuvers (basics and tactical) and navigation to the cadets in order to make them reach the learning objectives purposed in the BNA curriculum. The Brazilian Navy, using institutional feedback reviews, has noticed that the existing system is no longer capable to support the current training demand and requires modifications that will be studied and purposed here. 1.2. Background

The Brazilian Naval Academy (BNA) provide ship handling instruction (basic maneuvers, tactical maneuvers and navigation) to its cadets (midshipman) using both classroom and “hands on” methods. Course First Year Second Year Yes No Yes Third Year No Yes Yes Fourth Year No Yes Yes

Navigation Yes (Classroom) Tactical Maneuver No (Classroom) On the Job No Training (aboard)

For the classroom part, the cadets, during the first and second year, have three navigation courses and later, during the third and fourth years, have two tactical maneuvers courses. The On the Job Training (OJT) part of their training is conducted aboard three 97-ft Training Ships (similar to the US Naval Academy Yard Patrol Crafts), at the second, third and fourth years of the curriculum. These small ships have a very important role at the cadet’s formation, not only providing source of practical knowledge to the classroom instruction, but also motivating the young generation with leadership and experiences at sea. Both classroom and ships create a loop of knowledge. First, the cadet gather theoretical skills in the classroom , later on, aboard, he can apply them in the real world providing a better understanding of that topic. Thus, going back to the classroom, they are motivated to learn more, being sure that it’s something really important to their careers. The most relevant problem to make this system work perfectly is only one: time. For an efficient instruction aboard, at least 3 hours are required for a group of 15 cadets per ship, and this is a major problem when many parallel activities going on ashore are existed. It is very hard to have availability greater Page 1

as a laboratory to apply the knowledge acquired in the classroom. The classes aboard are scheduled according to the classroom curriculum. the Fleet Commanding Officers (CO’s) were concerned about Junior Officer’s (JO) lack of proficiency in those skills.3. accommodating tasks for cadets of second. and fourth year: after two years of experience at the Training Ships. assume the OOD and JOOD (Junior Officer of the Deck) function and CIC (Combat Information Center) team leader. An average cadet will accomplish the learning objectives related to the basic and intermediate tasks (more behavioural and less cognitive) after between four and five afloat classes. it is not sufficient for the fourth year cadets (who require 20 hours on average). The more advanced learning objectives. directly subordinated to the BNA Admiral. third and fourth year cadets. Problem Definition The actual BNA’s Ship Handling Training System (SHTS) is designed to provide “hands on” training to the second. Page 2 . The primary concept is to use three small Training Ships (97-ft LOA). navigation chart plotter and maneuvering board are the regular tasks to a third year cadet. The cadet’s mean availability time to SHTS is 15 hours per year. when in fact 20 hours should be ideal. - - The OJT aboard is a curriculum requirement for all second year cadets and line officers cadets of the third and fourth years. as follows: second year cadet: execute more basic functions aboard as watchman. third and fourth year. required for the fourth year cadets. helmsman and lee-helmsman and communicator. start to be involved in the decision making matrix of the Ship Handling problem. when the JOs were exposed to regular OOD (Officer of the Deck) duty situations. since more time to construct higher-level skills are required. They are now at the top of the training decision making matrix and will explore this opportunity to try classroom’s knowledge and develop their own skills. these tasks are more behaviour intended since it’s their first experience aboard. pelorus. During the past years. An average student will achieve proficiency between six and seven aboard instructions (20 hours). the more exposure to the SHTS is needed. third year: execute tasks mixing behaviour and cognitive processes. the cadets are now executing more complex tasks with a more cognitive and sometimes constructive approach. 1. per year (approximately five aboard classes). Although this is enough time for the second and third year learning objectives. They will lead the navigation team.than 15 hours of instruction per cadet. Radar operator.

from the second to fourth years of instruction. rapidly reaches the objective and the plateau.Because of this.The blue line is the observed mean performance based on Training Ship’s CO evaluation (as an instructor) and classroom exams. under training process is a normal proficiency curve with a mean slightly less than the expected for a Junior Officer who will embark at the Fleet in few months more. Figure 1 . During the second year the cadet has some initial knowledge but no practical experience. starting to learn more advanced skills from observation (example) of the most advanced cadets (3rd and 4th years). A system feedback coming from the Commanding Officers of the Fleet. . As a result. confirm this resulted lack of performance in JO at OOD functions.The red straight line is the ideal expected performance across the system effective time. The yellow area represents the 95% percentile of the cadets performance. explaining the initial level different than zero.There is a noticeable difference in the curvature shape between years. something that should have been learned at the fourth year’s SHTS. The learning is fast at the beginning and since he is dealing with basic skills. he is motivated and anxious to practice.BNA's SHTS idealized performance curve The above graph (Figure 1) describes how the BNA’s SHTS interacts with the cadets skills/performance versus time. . his tasks are low level and directly applied from the theory. . BNA’s main clients. They usually complain that the young officers lack confidence in maneuvers decisionmaking processes. Page 3 . Some important points about the graph interpretation: . too much time is required to decide the correct procedure.The entry point in the system is at the second year and the cadet had already gather some basics knowledge from the first year classroom instruction.

a cognitive and more complex task than before starts taking a little longer to reach the learning objectives. 2. It’s a completely cognitive and constructive world of tasks that will require experience and decision-making process in order to achieve the objective. affecting the cadet’s ship handling skills/performance. since the skills now gather all the previous basic learning applied in a mid level role. providing more afloat classes to them? We’ve already seen that time is a major constrain to the (at least) 3 hours onboard sessions. but still greater. At the end we notice a faster learning curve due to cadet’s familiarization with the tasks increasing the ability to perform better and learn the advanced topics. the cadets will learn how to manage the team. In order to have a specific viewpoint of the problem.1. in order to increase the fourth year cadet skills. 2. But the lack of more practice at this year doesn’t allow the mean to reach the objective. we are going to depict the task analysis to the fourth year cadets “hands on” training that are currently covered by the SHTS. Maybe a redesign of the way the SHTS is implemented. We will now check the tasks required to this mission and later discuss the possible ways to solve the problem providing an appropriate solution. only a few percentage of the class will reach it. but instead. The great question is how to provide more practice to the fourth year cadets. a search for a better way to implement the fourth year tasks seems to be the solution. Understanding how the SHTS works. develop leadership and be in charge of the ship. plus the displacement time to the ships (on average 30 minutes) so this is very unlikely to happen.- - - During the third year. So. MISSION TASK ANALYSIS Mission Scenario Apparently. and The yellow area surrounding the mean performance curve represent the 2σ interval (95%) and the spread increase along the time axis. we can notice that a master problem is ongoing: the final learning objective is not achieved due to the lack of time exposure to the practical instruction (OJT). The trainee now needs more experience to master. which skills/knowledge should be transferred to his first job at the Fleet (as a JO): Page 4 . and how it is implemented. At the end of the third year the mean is more closer to the expected. The fourth year is a completely new experience. There are six ship handling main tasks that are expected to be proficiently executed by an Ensign at the Fleet (end of fourth year of Academy). the training system problem explored by this paper does not require changes in the main original BNA’s SHTS tasks.

and o As OOD. leadership and other personal skills. Underway Replenishment: o As OOD. execute the appropriate maneuvers during a precision anchoring. execute the appropriate maneuvers during a complete exercise. execute the appropriate maneuvers during a “leapfrog” positioning exercise. But at that time. Man Overboard (MOB): o As OOD. the Ensign will spend one year of academic and practical training outside the BNA’s classroom. Carrier. After graduation. and Anchoring: o As OOD. execute the appropriate maneuvers during a MOB maneuver. Page 5 .similar to Frigate). execute the appropriate maneuvers during a mooring/unmooring maneuvers. no opportunity to train this tasks will be offered. radar navigation.- - - - - - Tactical Maneuvers o Calculate. etc. during his final training trip (embarked on the U27. demonstrate proficiency in navigation. once the JO will be required to execute those tasks in real situations and at ships with different characteristics (Destroyers. Navigation: o As OOD. The SHTS training transfer needs to be very high during the transition from Academy to the Fleet. Supply Ships. interpret and disseminate the maneuvering solution in a “Maneuvering Board”. under any condition (stress or environmental). Training Ship “Brasil” .). Patrol Crafts. including piloting. Auxiliary Ships. Mooring/Unmooring: o As OOD. the goal will be regular navigation. Frigates.

2. Figure 3 . Training Environment The main clients of the SHTS are the Fleet CO’s and they need a JO capable to perform the above listed tasks in a specific ship after a quick period of familiarization.Figure 2 . the more quick the familiarization period will be. The familiarization period is required since each ship has particular maneuvering characteristics and it is practically impossible to provide such specific skills during the Academy. meaning a more efficient process.A picture of the three BNA's Training Ships moored at a brazilian port during a summer trip with the cadets. Page 6 . just after the four years at the Academy (on right). the next step in Naval Officer's formation.On left. 2. The more training is transferred from SHTS. the Training Ship "Brazil". OJT activities are conducted using these small ships as a laboratory. and less other officers will be required to instruct the JO at the new job.

between 1400 and 1700. as many times he needs. During the weekends additional training trips to ports closer than 100 nautical miles are conducted. The fourth year cadets are required to attend six training sections aboard. Navigation. The training is conducted during the week days in three hours sections. and this is undesirable for such complex cognitive and constructive tasks! The trainee needs to redo the tasks. in order to build a solid skill and construct his own decision-making process to accomplish the mission. the “Repetition” learning principle is sacrificed. operable in sea state less or equal than four. providing additional training. and Anchoring) is listed in a comprehensive Task Analysis Worksheet. A versatile and robust two shafts small boats of 97-ft was chosen to be the training platform. The combination of: classroom previous knowledge. There is no more availability in the cadet curricular schedule to program more training sections. organized by chronological sequential tasks/subtasks: Page 7 . since parallel activities (sports and Physical Education. only good weather. 2.The SHTS is designed to provide a didactical ship handling knowledge/skills based on a ship such that the basic concepts will be clear to the cadet. in any weather conditions) and 10 nautical miles outside the bay (open sea. were they will execute different functions. one for each task. In the current framework. Mooring. no rough sea).will lead to the additional cognitive and constructive processes required in the Fleet familiarization period. duty and administrative) and regular studies also demand the cadets afternoons. Top-Level Tasks The hierarchical task analysis proposed to the six tasks explored by this paper (Tactical Maneuvers. more related to the seamanship and ship-life adaptation. and the basic training .3. shifting duties with other colleagues. with the three ships operating inside the Guanabara Bay (interior waters. Underway Replenishment. Man Overboard (MOB). The OOD role is the most desired duty aboard but unfortunately there is only one such place in each one of the three ships. but they still can learn just from observing or serving as a support role to the OOD.

Using the pelorus.2 Assume new position Give appropriate orders to in a formation of Helmsman and Lee ships. Helmsman and Lee Helmsman acknowledge the order.1 Situational Awareness Quick check if the maneuver solution fits in the current situation and is safe. Ship’s rudder and speed indicator will change. User Action/task Interpret a radio Tactical Sign coming from the ODE (Officer Director of the Exercise). Some visual cues from the relative position of the external objects will indicate ship’s turning. 1. The cadet will make a quick time situational awareness for safety evaluation of his solution. will execute vector calculations using the Maneuvering Board and provide a solution (course. System Action/ User Feedback Communications skills are not required anymore (second year cadet task). If any dangerous situation is notice. Helmsman in order to reach a new position in the formation. Check other ships new positions and interpret if their maneuver will offer risk. Using the standard phraseology. speed and course. a new calculation should be done. make a visual check in the suggested new course to see any other ship offering risk. Page 8 .Step 1 1. will be able to convert the suggested maneuver in course and speed and disseminate them to helmsman and lee-helmsman.2. and time of execution) to reach the new position. the fourth year cadet will interpret the ODE tactical signal using the appropriate code (Allied Tactical Procedures). Given the actual ships position. calculate the course and time of maneuver to the next position in the ships formation. 1.1 OOD Mission Tactical Maneuvers Provide a solution to a Tactical Maneuver.

System Action/ User Feedback Check guide ship radar position frequently and pelorus relative bearing in order to provide self-feedback and correct the course and speed. Ensure completion of the Replenishment at Sea check-off list. execute standard procedures and place the ship at the correct position.2. display ROMEO flag at the dip on the yardarm on the side it has rigged to signal that it is preparing to receive a ship alongside. Disseminate orders to Helmsman and Lee Helmsman if appropriate.1. Ship’s rudder and speed indicator will change. The delivery ship will close up ROMEO when ready to receive the ship alongside.1 Pre Static Procedures Interpret the radio signal from ODE. Using the standard phraseology. 2. Determine signal station to handle ROMEO flag and restricted maneuver visual sign (ball-diamond-ball). 2 2. When on replenishment course and speed. Be able to operate the proper code and interpret the tactical signal. giving orders to be the delivery ship at given course and speed.2 OOD Mission On course corrections User Action/task Apply the sensors feedback during the maneuver and provide small corrections in course and speed. will be able to convert the suggested maneuver in course and speed and disseminate them to helmsman and lee-helmsman. Page 9 . course and speed to a delivery ship in a underway replenishment maneuver.Step 1. Helmsman and Lee Helmsman acknowledge the order. Helmsman and Lee-Helmsman acknowledge the order.1 Underway Replenishment Conduct a Underway Replenishment maneuver as delivery ship Interpret the tactical signals. Signal station acknowledges the order. Flag ROMEO is hauled down on both ships when the first line is secure. Some visual cues from the relative position of the external objects will indicate ship’s turning.

execute standard procedures and place the ship at the correct position. Ship’s rudder and speed indicator will change. course and speed to a receiving ship in a underway replenishment maneuver. Using the standard phraseology. Visual cues to feel the ships motion to new course and speed.2 Conduct a Underway Replenishment maneuver as receiving ship Interpret the tactical signals. situational awareness updated to a safe maneuver.1. Underway Replenishment at sea is one of the most intense maneuvers and requires a lot of attention and quick reaction to too close distance between ships or rudder failures. keep track of the delivery ships bearing movements to check if your course if effective. assuming correct speed and course. Helmsman and Lee Helmsman acknowledge the order. Keep correct course and speed during the replenishment. Orders to Helmsman and Lee Helmsman. System Action/ User Feedback Helmsman and Lee Helmsman acknowledge the orders. feedback the Lee Helmsman to increase/decrease engines when appropriate. wind and sea current can change the ship speed.Step 2. Using the wing pelorus. Visual and radar check. 2. The cadet should be able to quickly react to these emergencies and has an updated solution in mind! Frequently check the speed and course during the maneuver. Page 10 . will be able to convert the suggested maneuver in course and speed and disseminate them to helmsman and lee-helmsman.2 OOD Mission Action Procedures User Action/task Maneuver the ship to the proper position.

Visual and radar check. Ensure completion of the Replenishment at Sea check-off list. Position the ship 100 to 200 yards astern of the delivery ship upon commencing its approach. Also see safety recommendations in 2. Keep correct course and speed during the replenishment.2 Action Procedures Maneuver the ship to the proper position. Signal station acknowledges the order. Determine signal station to handle ROMEO flag and restricted maneuver visual sign (ball-diamond-ball).2. 2. Orders to Helmsman and Lee Helmsman.1. The receiving ship should increase speed to 5 knots greater than replenishment speed and maneuver to take station alongside the delivery ship at an optimum distance of 20 to 60 feet. Both ships should hoist the ball diamond ball dayshape indicating that they will be restricted in their ability to maneuver.2.2.1 OOD Mission Pre Static Procedures User Action/task Interpret the radio signal from ODE. Visual cues to feel the ships motion to new course and speed. ROMEO is hauled down on both ships when the first line is secure.Step 2. Page 11 . giving orders to be the receiving ship at given course and speed. Order flag ROMEO at the dip on the yardarm on the side that it is rigged when it is ready to come alongside the delivery ship. situational awareness updated to a safe maneuver. System Action/ User Feedback Be able to operate the proper code and interpret the tactical signal. Helmsman and Lee Helmsman acknowledge the orders. assuming correct speed and course. Order close up flag ROMEO when commencing the approach to delivery ship.

3 3. the increase speed and change course in small increments until clear of the delivery ship. All stations acknowledge the orders.3 OOD Mission Post Procedures User Action/task Static Determine signal station to handle PREP pennant.1 Mooring/Unmooring Mooring the ship Solve the decision making alongside a pier process to move to the mooring position. rudder and handling lines) to perfectly set the ship tied to the pier.Step 2. the receiving ship will hoist PREP at the dip on the outboard halyard 2 minutes prior to commencing breakaway (the procedure in the fleet is 15 minutes prior). Lee Helmsman and deck (aft and stern) stations. For an emergency breakaway the normal procedure for disconnecting the rig is followed except that the steps are carried out in an accelerated manner. PREP is hauled down when all lines are clear. System Action/ User Feedback When ready to breakaway.4 Disengagement Action Interpret the ODE tactical signal giving the new position in the formation.2. Signal Station acknowledge all orders given.000 yards away. Be able to operate the proper code and interpret the tactical signal. Correctly apply the available forces (engines. Page 12 . Orders to Helmsman and Lee Helmsman.2. starting at 1. PREP is closed up when commencing breakaway. proceed to new station. When clear. Maneuver the ship to assigned station. 2. When disengaging. Orders to Helmsman.

1. Check tide current affecting the Decide which side will be present position. it is always a good idea to mooring facing the forces (wind and current) because the ship responds better to maneuver. between and alongside the pier. such debris moving alongside the pier. at the mooring position. Information coming from navigation team are important but the most precise information will be collect from the visual cues available.1 System Action/ User Feedback Set environmental Set a situational awareness Check anemometer to current scenario picture of all the forces that wind direction and speed. buoys and you ship itself moving laterally. so be ready to practice it many times. other ships handling lines tied in one direction. Some people require more experience to notice this visual cues. With the environmental scenario in your mind. will act during the maneuver. OOD Mission User Action/task Page 13 .Step 3. choose the appropriate mooring side (port/stbd).

consider a good idea to turn around and go to a better position. Set speed to 4 knots until 200 yards. so if you are not in a present position such that angle is easily reached by your course. producing a larger drifting effect. There is no exact speed at the final approximation. Be aware that at low speeds. transversal forces are more evident. Always feedback with new courses and speed.000 inspect the mooring position yards away) to the mooring and select the appropriate pier position. Select two shore objects at your bow and keep track of their alignment.2 OOD Mission Approximation System Action/ User Feedback Give orders to move the ship Visually (using binoculars) from original position (1.1. the visual cues and sensors (radar. If you noticed before that a strong wind or current will affect you. The approximation course should be in (approximately) 45o angle with the pier. GPS) will help you. just need to be a safety speed and enough to keep steering the ship (remember that rudders affect the ship based upon the amount of water passing thru them).Step 3. it’s a very good indicator of drifting. bollard that will be used to pass the first handling line (usually the FWD bow spring). give a correct course to the Helmsman. reducing at the final approximation. User Action/task Page 14 .

The correct retrieving sequence will be the one that produces a better response in the ships rotation and put it in a 45o angle with the pier. Correctly apply the available forces (engines.1. rudder and handling lines) to perfectly remove the ship from the mooring position and steer to the final destination. check the correct lines order to correctly position being retrieved. Decide the retrieving line sequence.1. Remember that now the environmental forces coming from the bow (wind and tide current) will push the ship against the pier. is very important because sometimes the line handlers retrieve the wrong line and the ship could response in an opposite way than you expected. Give appropriate orders to Deck stations acknowledge the line handling deck stations in orders. All stations acknowledge the orders. forces from the stern will open. Lee Helmsman and deck stations in order to position the ship parallel and close to the pier.000 yards away.2.2 Retrieve the lines Check the same conditions in 3. Page 15 . this feedback the ship at 45o with the pier.2 Unmooring the ship 3. Set environmental Set a situational awareness scenario picture of all the forces that will act during the maneuver. The final position should parallel with fenders touching both ship and pier.1 Solve the decision making process to move the ship from mooring position to 1.2. Lee Helmsman and deck (aft and stern) stations.1. rudder and the handling lines as pivots.2 OOD Mission Get ship tied to the pier. System Action/ User Feedback Using conjugated engines.Step 3. 3. User Action/task Give appropriate orders to Helmsman. 3. Orders to Helmsman. reduce the ships distance to the pier.

Cues from the horizon movement trigger the sensation of moving to the right direction.4 4 4.1.000 yards from the mooring position). Rudder indicator go to full rudder angle at the side desired.Step 3. Visually check the bow moving relatively to any fixed object ashore. Apply the correct forces to rotate the ship to the desired course and steer to the destination (1. Navigation Team report the bearing and distance to the destination. Helmsman and Lee Helmsman acknowledge the orders. Remember to boost the conjugated engine effect setting the rudder to the side you want to turn.2. Helmsman and Lee Helmsman acknowledge the orders.3 OOD Mission Using engine User Action/task Give orders to engine and rudder to help the initial rotation 3. System Action/ User Feedback Using conjugated engines (one side ahead and other astern) can help the ship open from the pier. with full rudder. Feel the ship rolling to the correct side. another good indicator. Man Overboard (MOB) Recover a man overboard during the day Move the ship’s stern Order the Helmsman turn to Helmsman acknowledge the away from the man the same side the man felt order.1 Go to a safe place Select a safe place (far from and rotate the ship to other ships and obstacles) the final course. and move backward to there.1 4. Page 16 .2. this is usually done.

During the maneuver be focused in keep the MOB in the leeward side. Acoustical cues from the engines noise changing indicate deceleration. wind recovery method. since the wind effect over the ship is much bigger. Acoustical cues from the engines noise changing indicate acceleration. Lee Helmsman acknowledge the order. conditions and MOB consciousness a decide among the options you have: small boat or diver. Visual cues from the ship’s wake increasing also helps. 4. Conning Officer assistant acknowledge the order and report the information required.1. 4. Visual cues from the ship’s wake changing helps.1. time of MOB and survival time in such conditions.6 Check water temperature. Determine the Check the sea state. Decide which side you will approach the MOB.1. Page 17 . order “All Engines Ahead 2/3” to the Lee Helmsman. again port/stbd-bow position. System Action/ User Feedback Lee Helmsman acknowledge the order.1.2 OOD Mission Increase ship’s speed User Action/task Order “All Engines Ahead Flank” to the Lee Helmsman.4 4.1. Reduce ship’s speed When MOB is at your The same than before.7 The visual cues are very important in this action. Ship’s speed indicator starts to increase. Determine Conning Officer assistant to take note of the water temperature and the MOB time. Determine to the Conning Officer assistant to disseminate “Ship’s MOB” in the Power Amplified (PA) system. order “All Engines Ahead 1/3” to the Lee Helmsman.Step 4.3 Disseminate the MOB situation 4. Conning Officer assistant acknowledge the order and disseminate it.5 4. Make sure you can hear the order being disseminated. Reduce ship’s speed When MOB is at abeam position. it’s very important to be able to check the wind direction and sea state be your “feelings”. Determine to the Conning Officer assistant disseminate your decision (PA system).1. Ship’s speed indicator starts to decrease.

activities. 4.12 4. doing a good maneuver depends upon you reaction time.Step 4. propellers are very dangerous at this time. order “All Engines STOP” to the Lee Helmsman.11 4. Page 18 . Dismiss stations. If the small boat method was your choice. from this point you make small corrections to keep the MOB at your bow or slightly to the recovery side. the deceleration rate needs to be such that to ship is stopped when the MOB is at the recovering position. recover the MOB If diver will be used.10 Break ship’s inertia When MOB is at your bow position. At this time you probably will be at the bridge’s wing and have no more access to the indicators. trust in the information provided by your team! A very good visual cue is the rate that the MOB approximates to the ship’s bow. This is very hard to achieve without reversing the engines to make a good stop.1.1.10. Man recovered. Feel the ship’s speed being reduced to zero. The visual cues will be crucial at this point. course all stations to resume normal and speed. System Action/ User Feedback Helmsman acknowledge the order.8 OOD Mission Reduce turning rate User Action/task Just after 1.1. 4. The same than before. maneuver the ship recovery position with rudder and engines to have the MOB around 15 yards from the recovery station.1. Recover the man Determine the station to Station acknowledge the order.13 Make the final If the diver method was approach to the selected. determine to Resume ships route.1.1. MOB 4. apply the reaction quickly or the situation will be changed and the feedback is obsolete. with you have a feedback from the cues.9 Steady the course Order the Helmsman and approach the “RUDDER AMIDSHIPS”. make sure to do not use the engines. stop at least 150 yards from the MOB. order the Helmsman “EASY YOUR RUDDER”.

2.12: Order to Helmsman Not repeated to the should be to “STEER ON scope of this paper.1. deviating 60o from the At this time you probably will original course.1.6: flag “OSCAR” is not required at night.8 4. balance cues are valuable now. User Action/task System Action/ User Feedback 4.2.1 – 4. COURSE” reciprocal to the original from the beginning of the maneuver.Step 4. Actions are the same Exceptions to: than 4. Not repeated to the scope of this paper. 4.10 4.9 – 4.13. trust in the information provided by your team! No visual cues available at night.1 – 4. be at the bridge’s wing and have no more access to the indicators.2. Invert the rudder Order the Helmsman “SHIFT Helmsman acknowledge the YOUR RUDDER” after order.1.14 5 Exceptions to: 4.2. Navigation Page 19 .5: change smoking marker to a flare or strobe light device.1.2 OOD Mission Recover a MOB during the night or low visibility conditions Actions are the same than 4. you will fill a very hard roll movement. 4.

System Action/ User Feedback Feel visual cues affecting ships movements like tide current and wind crest foam at the sea waves. radar and navigation aids. Apply the course and speed corrections in order to reach the intermediate waypoints in the route and compensate external forces (wind and current). correlating the radar contacts with visual contacts. navigation information (present position. Correctly estimate the CPA (Closest Point of Approach) based upon visual bearing movements. Identify correctly the navigation aids (buoys and light house) correlating them to the expected position at the nautical chart. Safely manage the other ships traffic using the navigation regulation.Step 5. Check depth and evaluate if safe. Interpret a radar screen in a low range scale. Give appropriate orders to Helmsman and Lee Helmsman.1 OOD Mission User Action/task Safely conduct the Go from the present position ship in a restricted to a destination. bearing and range to the next waypoint and current). Navigation information are supplied from the Navigation Team (third year cadets) and create the appropriate feedback to check your position and progress. using a water environment previously defined route. used it! Page 20 .

Quickly evaluate the data provided. Navigation Team and Deck Officer.Step 5. depth and the expected nature of seabed.2 Check the Anchoring Ask to the navigation team depth and nature of leader to show the estimated the seabed. checking about safety limits and ships draught. Page 21 .1.1. 6. Safety is paramount. Make a quick evaluation if this data will affect you maneuver. Conduct a mental evaluation if all the information provided make perfect sense and everything is safe. Navigation team is not available and this will provide a more constructive environment to check the self-confidence and decision-making at the top of the chain.4 Check tide current.1 Acquire all important information available about maneuver (1 hour prior to the maneuver). watching for contacts. System Action/ User Feedback The OOD will be operating the sensors.2 OOD Mission User Action/task Safely conduct the The same than before.1. if this is the case. Ask the navigation team leader about the expected tide current at the anchoring position. some cadets get confused at initial stressful situations. Navigation team leader provide the information. 6 6.1 Precision Anchoring Pre-Action Procedures 6. Calculate the necessary amount of chain shackles and inform the Deck Officer. the anchoring position in the nautical chart. but ship in a open waters now with less traffic and environment restrictions of depth and narrow channels. speed to safely take the ship to destination. Check Anchoring Ask to the navigation team position in the leader to show and describe nautical chart. The focus now is provide the OOD with less information and let him decide how to gather the cues available to conclude the right course. The navigation team leader should have all these information ready to be shown. The navigation team leader presents the information required. reduce speed and proceed to a safe place! Conduct a “hot-briefing” at the Bridge with the Boatswain. 6. checking for navigational aids and managing the navigation hazards by himself.

anchoring position giving orders to the Helmsman and Lee Helmsman. the team is set waiting for your orders and they know what kind of maneuver will be conducted. Navigation Team and Boatswain) your maneuver intentions.3 OOD Mission User Action/task Check meteorological See the last records of wind conditions. Page 22 . (15 minutes prior the maneuver begins).2 Disseminate “Anchor Determine the Conning Stations” Officer assistant to disseminate “ANCHOR STATIONS” in the PA System.1. The ships position is getting closer to the anchoring position according to the route suggested. based upon the Navigation Team suggestions.4 Disseminate intentions your Tell to the other members of the team (Navigation Officer. Check if these information reflect the current weather and your personal assumptions about how it will affect your maneuver. you are in conditions to anchor the ship.1. 1. 50 yards) . 6. 500 . direction and speed and expected forecast for the next hours. Once all the stations are ready. Remember that is always a good idea to approach the anchoring position against wind and tide current. All the Stations report when “ready”. 200. During the whole maneuver provide the Deck station information about the distance to the anchoring position (2. Conning Officer assistant acknowledge the order and disseminates. Deck Station acknowledge the distance information.3 Navigate to the Conduct the ship to the anchoring position.000 . 100.000 . Navigation Team provide accurate information each 3 minutes so you can correct you course and speed. System Action/ User Feedback Navigation Officer provide the information required. 6. Team members acknowledge your intentions. It’s very important to make it clear so everyone is able to see any lack of safety or intentions. 6.Step 6.

Lee Helmsman acknowledge the order. but know you expect the ship to gradually stop.4 Drop Anchor. Determine Lee Helmsman like 1 knot. Visual cues coming from the water movement close to the hull are fundamental to notice the ship stopping. 6. and speed indicator start to drop to 6 knots. by your visual cues. Break the inertia. Disseminate to the Deck Station “Stand by to drop anchor”.3. Determine to the Lee Helmsman “All Engines Ahead 2/3”. like ship’s wake reducing. you can align two ashore objects at abeam and check their relative motions.3 6. Station to drop anchor. Engine noise also reduces. 6. At 50 yards from the anchoring position. Determine to the Lee Helmsman “All Engines Ahead 1/3”. but now expected the speed indicator drop to 3 knots. Visual cues are a good indicator of speed reduction. The same than before.Step 6. Determine Deck Station to When you feel the ship moving drop anchor.3.3. Page 23 . Third speed reduction At 100 yards from the anchoring position. Deck Station acknowledge the order. User Action/task At 1.4 speed At 300 yards from the anchoring position. Determine to the Lee Helmsman “All Engines STOP”.3. determine Deck “All Engines STOP”. 6. reduce ships speed to 3 knots. reduce ships speed to 6 knots. astern.2 Second reduction. Lee Helmsman acknowledge the order. Determine to the Lee Helmsman “All Engines Astern 1/3”. System Action/ User Feedback Lee Helmsman acknowledge the order. if close to shore. Deck Station acknowledge the order.000 yards from the anchoring position. The same than before. break the inertia by reversed engines. stop engines. Also. Listen the anchor drop on the water.1 OOD Mission First speed reduction.

Page 24 - - - . System Action/ User Feedback Give some tension to the Providing some astern engine chain in order to grip the power will create a tension in anchor to the seabed. User Action/task 2. evaluate the CPA (Closest Point of Approach) of other contacts and mentally decide if it’s a safe or not situation. Deck station reports chain condition frequently and finally if the anchor is gripped to the seabed. this is a very good indicator if the chain has enough tension or not. If the anchor is not grip at the seabed.5 OOD Mission Grip the anchor. then you still move astern when the engines are pulling the ship. Observe the angle that the chain is entering the sea.Step 6. the cadet who successfully passed the BNA’s SHTS will be able to: safely perform a basic tactical maneuver exercise (as OOD). use the visual perception methods (water movement or ashore objects) to check this. including the calculations of course and time for stationing (procedure – steps and perceptual – interpreting and applying the right course). Learning Objectives At the end of the fourth year. provide useful navigational information to a conning officer based upon data from many different sources available at bridge (procedure – steps of calculation and concept – recognition of relevant information filtering unnecessary data). the chain and this will allow the anchor to grip the seabed.4. if not safe correctly decide the appropriate change of course and speed (purely perceptual – using pattern recognition from other experiences). interpret basic and intermediate tactical signals and critically evaluate the future consequences of these signals (procedure – manipulating tactical code and concept – evaluating the consequences).

Media Options and Selection Adopting the “Two-stage process of media selection” proposed by Sugrue & Clark (2000). safely conduct mooring/unmooring maneuvers under friendly environmental conditions . There is no evidence of a better strategy to achieve proficiency at the end of the training system. 3. the ones who require more experience to develop more cognitive/constructive learning objectives. This new model should be able to provide a training experience in which the cadet can freely reproduce and rehearse the above mentioned OOD tasks. and Page 25 . pelorus and plotting operation).- - - describe and understand the basic procedures involved in a underway replenishment maneuver (procedure – steps). and low/mid current (concept – given a specific situation will recognize the appropriate course and perceptual – connecting with experienced situations). low/mid windy. trainee. The goal is to immerse the trainee in a environment where he can constructively learn with his mistakes. all the ideas converge to a new model of instruction to be additionally applied to the traditional and current system. only more training time in OOD functions (the top of the decision making chain). and safely conduct an precision anchoring maneuver under friendly environmental conditions – the same as before (concept – given a specific situation will recognize the appropriate course and perceptual – connecting with experienced situations). we will present the set of candidate media to match task. safely conduct Man Overboard maneuvers under friendly environmental conditions – the same as before (procedure – steps and and perceptual – connecting with experienced situations). not limited by time constrains.1. helmsman. has a proved efficiency if more practical instruction is given to the fourth year cadets. 3. good visibility. of gathering classroom and “hands on” training. communications.calm sea.2. Since the fourth year cadets don’t have more time to be dedicated to the afloat classes. No basics sub-tasks executed during the second and third year of academy are listed here and were considered pre-requisites as an entry point to the fourth year training (such as radar. using this information as a feedback to achieve proficiency at a level prior to the afloat classes (OJT). 3. TRAINING SYSTEM DEFINITION Instructional Strategies The actual BNA’s SHTS methodology.

1. with previous classroom instruction given. 3. with the same characteristics. and o Replicate the situation and conduct the task again until master. o Underway Replenishment. and o Anchoring. not exceeding 2 hours. age from 20 to 24 years. o Conduct the task.2. offering more training to the fourth year cadets: Page 26 . o Selection of environmental sets to conduct the task. o Provide effectiveness assessment at the end of task. o Man Overboard (MOB). highly anxious. recording the data to instructor assessment. o Provide interactive visualization of the task during the post action period. who can use the training system as a motivational aid.instructional event characteristics than select among them the one that better fits our problem. o Intermediate/high entry point. o Potential trainees are cadets from the other grades. The instructional events are: o Previous visualization of the tasks being correctly executed as a pretraining guidance (interactive lesson). Based upon these characteristics. with or without immediate feedback during the course of action. if needed. multi-tasking generation and computer friendly. male. the following systems were selected as possible candidates to be added to the traditional SHTS. meaning difficult level. o Mooring/Unmooring. and o Training availability described as short time period slots. o Navigation. Set of candidates: The tasks to be explored are the OOD functions aboard the BNA’s Training Ships: o Tactical Manuevers. The trainee could be described as: o Fourth year cadets of BNA.

possibly using 3D virtual environment to enhance the mission situational awareness.2. For the same reasons candidate b is also discharged from the selection process... c. Using this simulator.). navigation team. 3. Some issues about this implementation are high initial cost. and e. meaning no changes on the original system. having or not a Virtual Environment (VE) instruction before and not being worried about his performance. This is a costly implementation and would represent a personal managing problem to the Naval Administration. so candidate a is not very likely to solve the problem. using intelligent tutoring.a. Selection Just adding more ships to the original training fleet. A full mission bridge simulator of the BNA’s Training Ship. to be installed at the Academy. b. highly dependable on a instructor or assistant to operate the simulator. Full mission simulator can provide good effectiveness assessments and reproduce the mission to debriefing sections. learn with the errors and mistakes and be motivated to master on this task. to execute a mission or just a part of it. doesn’t represent more training opportunities to the fourth year cadets. A full mission bridge simulator will allow more flexibility to the training sections. the fourth year cadets could rehearse the tasks before the OJT classes at any time or environmental conditions. etc. since more crew members are needed to populate the ships. repeat the mission. The student should be able to access the training system at anytime. The development of an Adaptative Training System to be used as an on-line course is a more formal way to present the classroom contents in a interactive way. pelorus. A PC game based bridge simulator. More Training Ships to the original set of instructional resources. d.2. An on-line Adaptative Training System. Using intelligent tutoring (McCarthy 2008) can provide guidance during a mission task execution and orienting the trainee thru virtual post-action debriefing sections (testing learning). with less mobilization efforts than the traditional ships. Adaptative Training Systems will require a more rigid participation of the training in a controlled participation thru a sequence modules and assessments. The Adaptative Training System approach tends to be Page 27 . Since the trainee characteristics of high anxiety and low time availability require a flexible and not time constrained training experience. We have already seen that the cadets schedule doesn’t allow more long training sections (three hours) during the afternoon (the only time slot available to OJT). Keep the same number of Training Ships but increase the number of OJT sections to the fourth years. be dependable of other cadets to assume secondary functions at the bridge (radar operator. If needed.

Every fourth year room at the BNA has a PC installed. the select media is the PC game based simulation. scoring the achievements and enabling network playing. the trainee can play stand-alone missions or interact with other students in a network. with effectiveness assessment capabilities. Based on the pros and cons of all the candidates. the cadets have access to Lab and library PC’s and almost all of them have a personal laptop or computer at home. a key for the success: motivation. A personal computer would be the best platform to implement a training system that should be accessed at any time of the year. after implementation of AvSim module. The game based simulation can also have a library of 3D models of ships of the Fleet and ports (scenarios) available to create an even more immersive environmental. after the implementation of AvSim is: Figure 4 . stands for “Aviso de Instrução Simulator” or Training Ship Simulator) will comprise one of the modules of the BNA’s SHTS. in a low cost open source implementation. 3. allowing other students to play (cadets of the other years). the students can be involved to execute the tasks and learn from these experiences. and it can be boring (if not obligatory) to the very anxious cadet. Page 28 . In a game environment. The final SHTS configuration. optionally during the other years and a instructional tool available for the instructors lectures at the classroom.3.more rigid and it doesn’t allow so much flexibility. Functional Description of the Training System The PC game based simulation (AvSim. this is important because gives a lot of independence to the trainee (doesn’t need a complex support team or instructor to exercise).A final block diagram of BNA's SHTS. applied mandatorily during the fourth year of academy. A game based simulation can bring. Using the mission tasks in a competitive way. The game could be installed at any machine in a free license agreement and executed.

presenting stimulus material: the game itself could have a graphics level and physics models good enough to make the trainee feel like it was close to reality.Snapshot of AvSim with a VE Brazilian Naval Academy at the background. distances. such arrows indicating the correct course. eliciting performance: the trainee can use practice the same mission as many times as he wants until master in that skill/knowledge. accessible by any instructor. assessing performance: scoring the tasks and keeping a record (log book) for each player. Page 29 . Almost immediately the mission can be repeated and assessed again.AvSim perfectly meet the “nine events of instruction” defined by Gagne’s (1965) (Sugrue & Clark. stimulating recall of prerequisite learning: at the menu above a list of all the previously acquired knowledge/skills (entry point) could be visible. reinforcing error learning. speed.…). o o o o o o o Figure 5 . providing learning guidance: increasing the difficult level between stages the trainee can go from the “beginner” to “expert” level in a gradual decrease of aids offered by the system (artificial cues. interactively triggering the trainee. 2000): o o gaining attention: the game approach offer a very good appeal to the young anxious cadets. and enhancing retention and transfer: this is the main goal of AvSim and will be reached by increasing the entry point at the OJT (aboard classes). providing corrective feedback: at the end of each mission an interactive mission review could be provided for the trainee and/or instructor identify the wrong and/or correct actions. informing the learner of the objective: before each lesson the trainee could be forced to navigate thru a menu listing the objectives in a classic way and also thru 3D VE visualization to better immersion.

using their appropriate 3D models. in order to increment the motivation for ship handling topics at the classroom and instructors during the lectures. In addition. including the first year (who has no OJT). software distribution to the fourth year cadets. the cadet can learn with his errors and visualize the correct procedures. bring the cadets at the same level.But the AvSim module by itself is not sufficient. a systematic use of the tool needs to be implemented in order to be efficient. Merchant Maritime School. becoming useless. 4. The authors propose the following implementation sequence: software development and validation. If no mechanism or rule is applied to the use of this powerful game a great percentage of less interested students will ignore it. AvSim could be distributed to other training institutions such the Naval High School. performance assessment using AvSim. practice period using AvSim. DISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS We have seen that the BNA implements a training system called Ship Handling Training System (SHTS) in order to develop cadet’s basic ship handling skills/knowledge. Page 30 . familiarization period. - - AvSim can also be distributed to the other years of BNA. and cadet is ready to another topic. proficiency test to check cadets adaptation to the interface and controls. the instructor require the cadet to reach some level of proficiency at a mission task and/or executing this mission task a specific number of times above some level. A 3D VE is a very powerful tool to visualization of such complex tasks that require a perfect situational awareness of the other contacts and navigation hazards. This system consists of a binomial of classroom and On Job Training (OJT) activities from the first thru the fourth years of Academy and a problem with the ending point at the learning curve of the cadets was identified. classroom instruction of a topic is given (optionally the instructor can use AvSim to illustrate the concepts). or even to the Fleet ships. cadet master in AvSim. ready to go to OJT (aboard class). A lack of mission repetitions and a small number of chances to develop their own decision-making process during the maneuvers was diagnosed as the potential cause of the problem. Some time constrains in the fourth year cadet schedule was pointed as the main reason that make the actual SHTS inefficient to offer more OJT using the BNA’s Training Ships. feedback from OJT should be used to reproduce the same situation (mission task and environmental conditions) using AvSim.

Programa de Ensino – PROENS Salvatore. http://pachome1. that will fit the time constrains of the fourth year cadets offering VE training sections. Ship Analytics Inc. Naval Postgraduate School. Escola Naval Brasileira (2009. E. second and third year makes this game an even more powerful and cheap solution. The possibility of indirect use of AvSim as an instructional tool inside a classroom and to be used as motivational resource for cadets from the first. R. for instance. Full Mission Ship-Handling Simulation Systems. The Design of a Stand-Alone Division Tactics Simulator Utilizing Non-Proprietary (Open Source) Media and Iterative Development. Grassi. By the other hand. B. A Task Analysis of Underway Replenishment For Virtual Environment Ship-Handling Simulator Scenario Development. Using Open Source Software in Visual Simulation Naval Postgraduate School. September).sg/~aptks/sa1. REFERENCES United States Naval Academy (1991.pacific. A Task Analysis of Pier Side Ship-Handling for Virtual Environment Ship-Handling Simulator Scenario Development. Media Selection for Training. R. R.Given the circumstances. Master’s Thesis. This new module should be a PC game based simulation. Master’s Thesis. R. September). C. (1998). & Clark. Prensky. a MOB mission in four minutes and repeat the same maneuver or in different difficult levels. B. 5. (2000). Norris. called AvSim.2A. February). (2000. the authors decided to add a new module to the original Training System as a problem solving recommendation. D. (2000). (2001). each three hours class allow the cadet to execute a maximum of two MOB maneuvers.htm#Full (HTML Document). Digital Game-Based Learning. (2005. Sugrue. YP Standard Operating Procedures DEPTSEANAVINST 3120. B. Ernst. without the possibility of review his mistakes and learn from his errors more efficiently. Page 31 . Using AvSim the cadet can execute. November). Naval Postgraduate School. as many times he wants. S. (2006. M. at the regular OJT. Master’s Thesis. March).

Task Analysis Lecture for MOVES Students. Naval Page 32 . Caird.Amory. February). Building an Educational Adventure Game: Theory. and Lessons. A. (2010. Journal article by. K. Ciavarelli. (1996). A. Department of Psychology. Postgraduate School. (2001). Journal of Interactive Learning Research. J. University of Calgary. Persistent Issues in the Application of Virtual Environment Systems to Training. Design.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful