Bioresource Technology 92 (2004) 71–78

Mango seed uses: thermal behaviour of mango seed almond fat and its mixtures with cocoa butter
J.A. Sols-Fuentes ı
a

a,*

, M.C. Durn-de-Baza a u

b,1

Instituto de Ciencias Bsicas, Universidad Veracruzana, Av. Dos Vistas s/n carretera Xalapa-Las Trancas, a 91000 Xalapa, Ver., Mexico b Departamentos de Alimentos y Biotecnologa y de Ingeniera Qumica, PIQAyQA, Facultad de Qumica, ı ı ı ı UNAM, Edif. ‘‘E’’ planta baja, 04510 Mexico, DF Received 27 April 2003; accepted 10 July 2003

Abstract This paper deals with the physicochemical characterization, including thermal behaviour, by differential scanning calorimetry of mango seed almond fat (MAF), alone and in mixtures with cocoa butter (CB). Results showed that mango almond seeds contain about 5.28–11.26% (dw) of fat. The refraction index is 1.466, the saponification index 189.0 and the iodine index 41.76. Fatty acids found in MAF are oleic, stearic, and palmitic acids (40.81%, 39.07% and 9.29% (w/w), respectively) as well as smaller amounts of linoleic, with arachidic, behenic, lignoceric, and linolenic acids, among others. Calorimetric analysis showed that MAF crystallizes between 14.6 and )24.27 °C with a DHc of 56.06 J/g and melts between )17.1 and 53.8 °C, with fusion maxima at 18.54 °C and 40.0 °C for the a and b polymorphic forms. Their fusion enthalpies are 70.12 and 115.7 J/g. The MAF solids content profile is very similar to that of CB, both in stabilized and non-stabilized samples. The mixing compatibility was analyzed using isosolids curves of mixtures of different compositions. Ó 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Mango almond fat; Cocoa butter; Fat blends; Phase change; Fusion enthalpies; Isosolids diagrams

1. Introduction The identification and application of new materials is important for the development of new technological approaches towards the use of traditional raw materials. Agroindustrial residues may become unconventional sources for these traditional raw materials (Sols-Fuenı tes, 1998). Vegetable fats and oils are widely used in the food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and chemical industries and are normally obtained from oilseeds such as sesame seed, soy bean, cotton seed and oil (Gutcho, 1979; Birker and Padley, 1987; O’Brien, 1998). Among these fat and oil sources, cocoa butter (CB) is highly appreciated because of its physical and chemical characteristics.
* Corresponding author. Tel.: +52-2288-12-5745; fax: +52-2288-129963. E-mail addresses: jsolis@uv.mx (J.A. Sols-Fuentes), mcduran@ ı servidor.unam.mx (M.C. Durn-de-Baza). a u 1 Fax: +52-55-5622-5303.

Developing countries, the traditional producers of these seeds as well as of other agricultural products, are currently confronting environmental challenges due to the excess of agricultural wastes associated with production and exportation trends. To help reverse these problems, attention has been drawn towards the possible use of some of these agroindustrial wastes as nonconventional sources of useful materials, including the industrial use of fats and oils (Ben-Gera and Kramer, 1969; Maurya and Chawdhary, 1977; El-Zanati and Zaher, 1990). The physical, chemical and nutritional properties of fats and oils are limiting factors for their use in certain industrial sectors. Thus, obtaining nutritionally sound products for the food industry will greatly depend on the physical and/or chemical characteristics of the fat and oil formulations. Among these physical and chemical characteristics, thermal behaviour and phase changes are particularly important. In the food industry, for example, vegetable oil hydrogenation modifies its thermal behaviour and stability, making possible its use as a

0960-8524/$ - see front matter Ó 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2003.07.003

fat. L. 1998). 2. 2. from seeds. ash. Considering that Manila mango might be an interesting source of fat. in order to compare the fat contents and the physical and chemical characteristics of both stages. However. Methods 2.. Toro-Vzquez et al. Kloek et al.. such as melting or fusion point. var. 2. etc. Moisture content (Horwitzs. 1985.72 J. (Bertoli et al. protein (Horwitzs.5 (w/v) while stirring and it was left to stand until phase separation. 1970): crude fat was dissolved in petroleum ether in a ratio 1:5 (w/v)..C. Almonds were also characterized by measuring their content of moisture. pulp and seed and. Crude fat extraction and further purification Once free of their external protective layer. adapting the Bannon et al. Fat extraction from dried almond seed meal was performed in a Soxhlet apparatus utilizing hexane as solvent. 2. 1980. MdAli ı and Dimick.A. Physicochemical properties MAF refraction index. 1977. and particularly the physicochemical properties of MAF from Manila variety are scarce. butter. Purified fat was kept in a freezer (5 °C) away from light until processing and/or analysis. Three exemplars for each maturation stage were taken. Fat purification MAF of mature fruits was purified using an adaptation of the Wesson method (Mehlenbacher. ash content (Horwitzs.. iodine index. new trends are starting to use less processed fats and oils because of the findings on the role played by trans fatty acids in some human health aspects (Khosla and Sundram. 2. solid contents. Solvent was removed from the resulting product under vacuum using a rotavapour. 2000. These mixtures should also possess adequate nutritional properties (Williams et al. Two stages of physiological ripeness or maturity were selected. Once dried.6. and cyanides (alkaline titration). Manila variety were obtained from a plantation located in the coastal mango-producing zone of the State of Veracruz in Mexico. Sampling Mangoes from Mangifera indica. cited by Horwitzs. and consistency. the aim of this research was: to determine the general composition of mango.. Solse u ı Fuentes. its lack of fibres. Manila.. ı a u 2001). 1980).) variety is a widely cultivated and processed agricultural product in Mexico. seed almonds of mature fruits were dehydrated in an oven at 60 °C until they reached a moisture content of about 10%. Then 50% ethyl alcohol was added in a ratio of 1:2. 1991).2. pH value (potentiometer measurement). Lakshminarayana et al. Fat was kept away from light and air at 5 °C until processing and analysis took place. 1980). 1996. However. a Mango seed almonds fat (MAF) has been the subject of several research studies because some of its characteristics show resemblance to those of CB (Narashima-Char et al. Hendrikse et al.. The soap alcohol phase was repeatedly reextracted with ether.1. A 6-h extraction was carried out for total removal of fat. Potassium hydroxide at 14% was added to dissolved fat (1 ml KOH per gram of dissolved fat) with vigorous stirring for 3 min. and tannins content (Folin–Denis method. Jimnez-Bermdez et al.4. 1997.. The MAF thermal and phase behaviour were studied and its interactions in mixtures with cocoa butter (CB) were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and drawing the resulting isosolids diagrams. cited by Horwitzs. The ether phase contained the neutral fat. The Manila mango (Mangifera indica. Fatty acids pattern 2. 2000). 1980). Ether extracts were processed in a rotavapour to recover purified fat.5. and the smallness of its seed. its almond seed characteristics. tannins (Folhin–Denis method.. reducing and total sugars content (Lane and Eynon method. the almonds) and weighed. 1995. 1980) analyses were performed. crude fibre. due to its particularly delicious and delicate flavour. MdAl et al. . Dhinigra and Kapoor. 1994). These trends open up new perspectives for the use of natural-origin vegetable fat mixtures as alternative sources of fatty products with adequate physical characteristics. 1985. Fruits characterization The size and proportions of constitutive parts as well as the chemical composition for each stage of ripeness were determined in randomly sampled fruits. they were manually crushed and ground and stored in polyethylene bags at 5 °C until use. there are no studies of thermal and phase behaviour of MAF from its different varieties. saponification index.3. cited by Southgate. including its fat (MAF) composition and some specific properties. 1995. parts removed (skin. 1994. pre-mature and mature. Durn-de-Baza / Bioresource Technology 92 (2004) 71–78 ı a u substitute for traditional saturated fats of animal origin as lard. (1982) and Hendrikse et al. 1998). O’Brien. their Fatty acids present in the MAF were analyzed using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectroscopy. Sols-Fuentes. etc. 1983. titrable acidity (by neutralization). were analyzed using officially approved techniques (Horwitzs. M. Pulp chemical analyses confirmed the ripeness stage.. Sols-Fuentes and Durn-de-Baza. L. 1980).

1999) programme and the Statistica programme (StatSoft.26%.25. DHf . and purified CB. Results and discussion The physiological development of the mangoes used for MAF extraction was characterized using chemical analysis of the pulps. samples are 100% solids. These samples were then stored for 15 days at 5 °C.9. Sols-Fuentes. In order to find the thermal history of the samples. 28. 2000).32 mm internal diameter and 0. The temperature programme for the calorimeter was: (a) Cooling to )60 °C and heating at 10 °C/min to 90 °C. The mass analyzer range was 10:450 m/z. The purging gas used was nitrogen at a flow of 20 mL/min.7. Fatty acids methylic esters preparation The boron trifluoride method (AOAC. many MAF and CB samples were previously tempered by heating at 90 °C for 5 min and then cooled at 24 °C for 24 h. the Lambelet and Raemy (1983). 2. Samples between 5 and 15 mg were weighed in a thermobalance (TA). Solid fat contents were calculated as described above and the diagrams of isosolids were produced using the same Origin (Microcal.A.57 ± 0. Since solid fat contents (SFC) depend on temperature these values may be presented as a function of temperature. Cocoa butter Commercially available pure CB was characterized in the same way as MAF (iodine index and fatty acids analysis). total sugar content. The average compositions (mean ± standard deviation of triplicate analyses) for unripe mango fruits pulps were: moisture content.8. An empty sealed capsule was used as reference. 1. DSC 910) equipped with a thermal analysis data station (Thermal Analysis 2100). 2. and heating at 10 °C/min to 90 °C. Thermal behaviour of mixtures MAF–CB A matrix was created with mixtures of MAF and CB in different proportions.45 J/g). 0.12. which were then hermetically sealed.10. Chromatograms and mass spectra for each fatty acid methyl ester were obtained. in aluminium SFI capsules with a precision of ±0. following the methodology and equipment described above.11 ± 0. Temperature ranges of fusion and crystallization were determined using the thermograms. 7. The system had an AT Silar capillary column 30 m long.25 lm film thickness. coupled to a mass spectrometer with an electronic ionization detector. The instrument was calibrated with indium (melting point. were calculated using the area below the integration curve and the thermogram baselines.22. ash content.1 mg.40 ± 0. Samples were tested before and after stabilization (samples that were stored for 15 days at 5 °C). 1995) was used for fatty acid methyl ester preparation and approximately 1 ml of the resulting heptane layer was transferred to a glass tube and injected into the chromatograph. 2. These were dissolved in heptane. The temperature programme was 2 min at 100 °C increased by 4 °C/min to 180 °C which was maintained for a final time of 5 min. Each sample was prepared with its duplicate and fusion profiles were studied using DSC. Registration of the crystallization profile.4 mL/min and a pressure at 50 °C of 38 kPa. titrable acidity. Thermal profile Samples of purified MAF. were fed to a differential scan calorimeter (Dupont Inst. Registration of the fusion profile.05%. Helium was the carrier gas with a flow of 0. through the identification in the curves of the onset and offset temperatures for the phase changes. and .C. cooling at )60 °C for 10 min. 1999). 2. 2. Durn-de-Baza / Bioresource Technology 92 (2004) 71–78 ı a u 73 (1994) methodology. separated by packed column chromatography and passed to a mass spectrometer for identification through comparison of the spectra with previously injected standards. Contents of solid fat The amounts of solids in the fats as a function of the temperature were calculated using DSC experiments.23.6 °C. 24. methodology and the computational package Origin (Microcal. Compound identification was carried out using a data base complemented with internal standards of fatty acids methyl esters. as well as the crystallization enthalpies needed to solidify them. 3. M. and cooling at 10 °C/ min to )60 °C. Registration of the profile and enthalpy of fusion. Gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy Fatty acid methyl esters analysis was performed in a Hewlett Packard gas chromatograph model 5890 series II. (b) Heating at 90 °C for 10 min.008%. Fat was converted into the corresponding methyl esters of its fatty acids. The enthalpies of fusion needed to melt the fat sample crystals. 74. (c) Heating at 90 °C. Injector temperature was 250 °C and starting oven temperature was 100 °C. tannins.J. Partial areas of the thermograms were calculated and correlated with solids percentages considering that at )60 °C. 156. 2.11.50 ± 1. pH values of 3.55 ± 0.089 ± 0. 0.

27 35.06 1. Mature fruits showed the logical changes in proteins. Refer to Table 3 for (1.48 0.036 9.16 °C and a maximum of 5.60% (as oleic acid).47 2.09. 1.0 and iodine index of 47. 1 shows the thermograms of fusion for stabilized MAF and the solidification thermograms of the same fat after being heated until complete fusion and maintained at 90 °C for 10 min. These figures are within the reported values for MAF from other mango varieties.08%. 90.001%.08 ± 0.69%.51%.59 ± 0. 4. and almond.58 ± 0. Depending on the origin of the cacao bean. stearic and palmitic acids.8 °C.034 0. these acylglycerides vary from 80% to 95% (mainly POP and POS. °C Fig. titrable acidity.11%. saponification index 189.86 4 -80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 Temperature.01 ± 0. These compositions give unique physicochemical characteristics to this fat. The fat extracted and purified had a solid consistency at environmental temperature of 20–23 °C and presented a cream colour with a characteristic aroma. pH values of 4. 66.52 CB 24. 3.07 ± 0. 11.A. Table 2 presents the analytical results for the GC-ME for MAF and CB (the commercial CB sample had an iodine index of 43.. .466. pulp. These values and differences clearly show the inherent characteristics of unripe and mature fruits. 5.0007 90.02 0.25 ± 6.51 ± 0. with a less opened peak starting at 26.73 ± 1.32 4.012 5. b Free nitrogen extract. where P ¼ palmitic acid. CB has a little over 60% of saturated fatty acids whereas MAF has 52% and the ratio among saturated fatty acids to unsaturated ones is. 3. and a higher melting point fraction.01 °C. The almond chemical composition is presented in Table 1.36 ± 1. ash contents. fats. Values found for both unripe and mature fruits were: average weight 298 g.18 °C and presenting a maximum at 40. 85.1 ± 0.80 ± 0. completing the phase change at around 53. mango almond and cocoa. crude fibres. ashes and tannins. and FNE. there is a low melting point fraction with fusion starting at a temperature of )17. The enthalpy change for this fusion process was 115. Mature fruits had: moisture content. resulting from the cellular differentiation and specificity of tissues related with maturity processes. seed and almond).004 0.80 ± 1.85 0. for CB.18 Heating 32.45 ± 0. According to Table 2.04%.98 ± 1.72 J/g. Manila almonds Characteristics (%) Moisture contents Ashes contents Fat contents Crude fibre Proteins Tannins Cyanides FNEb a 1 3 2 5 Unripe fruits Average ±r a Mature fruits Average Ær 19. Mean ± standard deviation of triplicate analyses. all dry basis. In both types of fats. and for CB (MdAl et al. MAF 9.001 69. total sugars. 2. 66. It is shown that. 1988. ı 1985.07 40.81 6.04 ± 0.09. these three fatty acids constitute more than 95% of the total content.02 ± 0. NFE. 2. The cooling process for the melting fat starts the solidification step at 14.52 and for MAF. 1998). Durn-de-Baza / Bioresource Technology 92 (2004) 71–78 ı a u Table 2 Profile of fatty acidsa in the MAF and in a commercial sample of CB Fatty acid Palmitic Stearic Oleic Linoleic Linolenic Arachidic Behenic Lignoceric No identified a nitrogen-free extract.30 1.87 7. determining its thermal and phase conduct (Timms. M.60 ± 0. Talbot.62%.29. with some as SOS. and S ¼ stearic acid). tannins.8).29 39. 1.64 0.10 36. acidity value 0. the fatty acids profiles show oleic.7 (average of two determinations). seed. Sols-Fuentes. pulp. 1995).006 ± 0. for both unripe and mature fruits. except moisture contents. Physiological development had no significant effect on the weight of each portion of the fruit (peel. 4 and 5) transition temperatures. profiles for phase change S–L and viceversa are relatively simple and closely correspond to the similarly relatively simple fatty acid composition. The physicochemical characteristics of purified samples MAF of mature fruits were: refractive index 1.32 °C. giving this fat a relatively simple acylglyceride composition. O ¼ oleic acid.24 ± 0.17 2.06 0. Schlichter-Aronhime and Garti.64 2. with ripeness processes increasing sugar contents and reducing acidity and tannins.06%. Fig.25 ± 0.63 1.01 – – – Average of duplicate analyses.13 1. 1980.28 ± 1. As may be observed.62 ± 0. with peel. Solsı Fuentes.018 ± 0. 0.C.64 °C and 2 4 3 Cooling 1 Heat Flow > >Exo Table 1 Chemical composition of Mexican mango var.49 0.25%. Differential scanning calorimetry crystallization and fusion curves for stabilized MAF. 1.13 1.74 J.58%. 16.14 ± 0. during fusion. For CB.

32 )2.38 °C. that might be assumed to be the solidification of the low fusion point fraction.50 2 10. 42. According to Hagemann (1988). Schlichter-Aronhime and Garti. with a higher melting or fusion point than the previous one. Differential scanning calorimetry crystallization and fusion curves for stabilized CB.62 36. 1957.06 56. vegetable origin lipids (fatty acids. constituted by triacylglycerides with unsaturated fatty acids.31 11.d. 2. 3. 1988.51 23.01 22. 2 shows the profile of fusion for the CB. 3. Differential scanning calorimetry fusion curves for MAF and CB without stabilization. °C Fig. The CB also presented the two maxima for fusion. and a DHc of 56.C. Temperature. 3 that shows the fusion profiles for both fats without stabilization and subjected to immediate heating after solidification with rapid cooling.27 )26. Polymorphism for CB has been widely studied (Lutton.11 53.47 40. allowing comparison of the CB with the MAF data. is produced from the other two forms by incubating at slightly higher fusion temperatures than for the a form.d. The value for DHc for this solidification process was 56.90 )15. Loisel et al. 1998) and there is still controversy with respect to the number and types of forms in which it crystallizes. and the CB crystallization profile after being completely melted and maintained at 90 °C for 10 min.18 n.98 115. is generated through solidification of fat under certain conditions of temperature or due to transition from form a.80 19. ºC Fig. and with more frequency. stabilized under the same conditions as MAF.06 J/g. 2.08 3 )9.17 J/g.17 80.12 128.54 52. In this case. 2.02 )3.d. Refer Table 3 for (1. the observed fusion and crystallization profiles are also relatively simple and show a great resemblance with those for MAF. acylglycerides. 4. Form b0 .64 12.41 6. Polymorph b. Fig. Similarities in the thermal behaviour of MAF and CB are also evident in Fig. Polymorph a (lowest fusion point) is generally present after rapid cooling processes from melted fat. Durn-de-Baza / Bioresource Technology 92 (2004) 71–78 ı a u 75 2 4 3 Cooling 1 MAF 1 Heat Flow >>Exo Heat Flow <<Endo 23 1 4 2 5 6 5 CB 1 Heating 2 3 5 3 4 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 -80 -60 -40 -20 0 4 20 40 60 80 100 Temperature. 5 6 .90 °C. ends at )24. with correspondingly higher fusion temperatures. solidify in three different crystalline forms: a.02 14.: Not determined.18 2.16 )15. One of the most accepted Table 3 Transition point temperatures and crystallization and fusion enthalpies for MAF and CB Sample Crystallization MAF CB Fusion Stabilized MAF Non-stabilized MAF Stabilized CB Non-stabilized CB n.A. With respect to crystallization. Refer to Table 3 for (1.51 °C.98 J/g. and fats and oils) present polymorphism. and in general. A slight ‘‘shoulder’’ is observed at )9.27 °C. it starts at 12. and 6) transition temperatures.94 )11.64 8.. with a crystallization maximum at 10. The first one corresponds to the low fusion point fraction. Table 3 presents the more representative transition temperatures in the thermograms.41 °C.22 26. DH (J/g) Transition temperature (°C) 1 56.38 5. The DHf for the CB analyzed was 128. 3. M. Sols-Fuentes. and b.84 18.70 4 )24.d. b0 .72 70.23 n. 4 and 5) transition temperatures.17 40.71 )17.71 °C with a maximum at 6. 5. the most stable crystalline form. with a maximum temperature of 11. n.64 °C and the second one corresponds to the higher fusion temperature triacylglycerides with a maximum point at 36.01 10.J.

According to this.A.6 0. when solids content is small. In samples without stabilization. MAF. contains saturated fatty acids of longer chain. with the extreme case occurring when eutectic mixtures are formed (minimum points). If the lines are parallel and approximately horizontal. Once stable. etc. This can be positive or negative depending upon the final product.2 0. If this is not the case. when subjected to stabilization.8 1. it is also a bstable fat and different from the so-called b0 -stable fats such as those obtained from palm.76 100 J. Fig. This behaviour is probably due to the composition differences.C. 4 shows the MAF and CB samples solids profiles.0 30 40 50 60 70 MAF (Weight Fraction) Fig. 1995). fats affect the functional properties of foods. or the formation of higher fusion points compounds (Birker and Padley. Isoline diagram of solid fat content (SFC) for mixtures of MAF and CB in stabilized samples. since MAF has a somewhat higher oleic acid content that may have a ‘‘dilution effect’’ for the saturated fatty acids acylglycerides.0 0. considering the typification of Larsson or to forms II and V as a function of the Wille and Lutton studies (Talbot. Isoline diagram of solid fat content (SFC) for mixtures of MAF and CB in non-stabilized samples. The fat phase of a product may be constituted by a fat of single origin or by several fats from different sources and of different compositions. 5 shows that MAF is slightly softer than CB and has a more evident softening effect in mixtures when its contribution to solids is 60–80% by weight. Similarities can be observed in the behaviour of the solid and liquid phases of the fats due to the temperature effect. 1995). This type of diagram links points of equal contents of solids in the fat. °C Fig. and may be a multiphase one. 1 and 3 suggests that. slightly reducing the fusion point. If its contribution to the mixtures is small. the isosolid diagram of Fig. In fact. Sols-Fuentes. as a way of analyzing the interaction of the components and the fusion profiles for the mixtures. As it is well known. then the components exhibit good compatibility.4 0. stabilized and without stabilization. considering the pure components. Figs. that might be influencing the requirements for higher temperatures for MAF complete fusion. proposals is that it may be crystallized in six different polymorphs (Talbot. 5.2 0.0 Solid Fat Content 80 60 40 20 0 -20 -10 0 10 20 22 18 14 10 6 2 0.) becomes a relevant issue for the overall product quality. 50 44 Temperature °C SFC = 5 10 20 30 50 60 70 38 32 26 80 20 0.8 1. and MAF requires higher temperatures than CB to melt. soy or colza oil hydrogenation or those known as lauric fats from coconut or palm seeds. cosmetics and pharmaceutical products. phase separation. The thermal behaviour for MAF shown in Figs. 2 and 3 correspond to forms a and b2 respectively. 1987. 5 and 6 show the isosolids diagrams for mixtures of MAF and CB. and its stability greatly influences that of the product. softening effects occur. MAF is softer than CB at lower temperatures and has a harder consistency at higher temperatures. the fusion thermograms for CB in Figs.0 MAF (Weight Fraction) Fig. modification of the polymorphic phases. preserving more solids than CB. 4. 6. the effect is negligible and if higher.6 0. The effect of deliberate mixing or the migration of the fat in the product on the thermal behaviour and consistency of the fat phases (resulting from the formation of eutectic products. Talbot. 1995). on the other hand. Durn-de-Baza / Bioresource Technology 92 (2004) 71–78 ı a u Non-stabilized CB Stabilized CB Stabilized MAF Non-stabilized MAF Temperature °C 30 26 SFC = 5 10 20 30 50 60 70 80 0. the profile of fusion for MAF is wider.4 0. Temperature. within a composition-temperature graph. melting starting at lower temperatures and phase changing completely at higher temperatures than CB. M. Solid fat content for stabilized and non-stabilized MAF and CB. . such as behenic and lignoceric acids. following the CB case. the effect is compensated.

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Thermal behavior and polymorphism of acylglycerides. O’Brien. The isosolid diagrams for mixtures of MAF and CB showed that there is compatibility between both fats. November 4–7.T. 1995).. Preparation of butterfat and vegetable butter substitutes. 1983.. Horwitzs. W. Virginia. 93–132. T. Official Methods of Analysis. AOAC International. ı e Sols-Fuentes.. It is. B. Jimnez-Bermdez. (Eds. 1988. 1985. 61–65. Sols-Fuentes. (Eds. JAOCS 54.R. Its properties and thermal conduct also make it suitable for use in mixtures with vegetable oils for specialty fatty products with specific consistencies and characteristics. Truifler. 6 is found with no softening effect at compositions of lower than 20% of MAF. Phase transitions and polymorphism of cocoa butter. Kates. 1977.. New York (Chapter 9). Lancaster. Varietal variations in content characteristics and composition of mango seed and fat. Hornwood... JAOCS 75 (4).. Lambelet. N.. Chrom. Thirumala-Rao.A. K. P. References AOAC. Lecq. Origin 6.. Hagemann.. R. Statistica for Windows.. Durn-de-Baza / Bioresource Technology 92 (2004) 71–78 ı a u 77 The diagram shows a lower compatibility between MAF and CB than between CB and other fats such as Coberine. In: Hamilton.... G. Food Agric. 35 (2). The phase behavior of mixtures of cocoa butter and milk fat. P. In: Cunniff. 4–14..A. Narashima-Char. E. Adv. Walstra. JAOCS 77 (4).R.D.. Padley. D.. B. Hai. F. or hydrogenated cottonseed oil.. Reddy.S. with isolines more parallel and horizontal during its mixing with CB (Talbot.. Finally. Again. Elsevier. New Jersey. Solidification and polymorphism in cocoa butter and the blooming problems. 1987. Physical properties of fats and oils. MA. A. 1999.. J. 1988. Garti. Sols-Fuentes. K.. 247. Zaher. J. M. 521.M. however. 494–495. making it a bstable fat. M. Therefore. Utilization of rice bran oil to produce an antifoamer. F. a very steep slope around 30–40 °C. Microcal.E. J. 1983. A. mango almond fat from mature fruits of the Manila variety (MAF). Processing mango stones for fat. Hosszu-Sackett. Fat and Oils. 1998. R.. Harper.). Bannon. C..L.. JAOCS 67 (1). MdAl. (Ed. Dimick. Hendrikse.).A. 1995.W.R.. 1994. 2001. Los cidos grasos ı a u a trans en los alimentos y algunos efectos de su consumo en la salud. has physicochemical characteristics and a fatty acids profile close to those of CB.. vol. H. Recent Advances in Chemistry Technology of Fats and Oils. Raemy. even better than that of mixtures of CB with milk fat. J. 752–756.. M. C. S. D. Khosla..B. 1980. StatSoft. 36. Marcel Dekker.. I. Edible oils and fats...S. La grasa de semilla de mango como a u posible sustituto de la manteca de cacao. vol.

M. M.78 J. Brice~ o-Montelongo.. (Ed. Durn-de-Baza / Bioresource Technology 92 (2004) 71–78 ı a u kinetics of palm stearin in blends with sesame seed oil. Dibildox-Alvarado. Ransom-Painter.C.T.F. Mixtures of palm kernel oil with cocoa butter and milk fat in compound coatings. Physico-Chemical Aspects of Food Processing. R.. Chapman and Hall. Talbot. E. a n Char-Alonso. JAOCS 74 (45).. Crystallization o a . London (Chapter 7)... 1997. M. 357–366.. Fat eutectics and crystallisation. 297–310.D.A. J. In: Beckett. 2000. JAOCS 77 (3). 1995...). G. S.L. Hartel. J. Williams. Sols-Fuentes. K. S. Blackie Academic and Professional.. Toro-Vzquez. Reyes-Hernndez.W.

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