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Field Installation Plan

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GE - ENERGY
SERIES COMPENSATION SYSTEM
dex Field Installation Plan

Section

1 Capacitors and Racks


Pre-Work, Visual Inspection & Installation

2 Platforms
Inspection, Assembly and Erection

3 Current Transformers
Inspection and Connection

4 Metal Oxide Varistors


Visual Inspection and Installation

5 Damping Reactors & Damping circuit


Visual Inspection and Installation

6 Bypass Breaker
Per Suppliers Recommendation

7 Fiber Optic Signal Column


Installation

8 Triggered Air Gap


Pre-Work & Installation

9 Wire, Cable & Aluminum Bus


Stress Cones, Terminations and Welding Specification

10 Insulators
Inspection and Installation

11 Specifications
Torque Values, Weight Table, etc.

NOTE: All procedures are GE recommended procedures. If the customer has more
stringent procedures, then the customer’s procedures will be followed. GE reserves the
right to amend these procedures without notification. It is also important to note that
these procedures do not cover every detail of assembly or installation. It is expected
that the installation will be conducted by experienced personnel and that this is only a
guide for the purposes of planning the installation.
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Section 1, Capacitors and Racks:

Installation and Inspection:


Objective: To outline the correct procedure for installing the Capacitors supplied in this
contract.
Description: The Series Capacitor units are custom designed for each application. A bank
consists of groups (or strings) of individual capacitor units connected in parallel.

Visual Inspection:
Objective: To visually inspect each capacitor unit for physical defects or damage during
shipment and to ensure proper installation to aid in unbalance detection.

Equipment Required:
Item Qty Description
1 1 Torque wrench, range 15-250 ft-lbs
2 1 Penetrox™ A
3 1 Small toolbox including wrenches, ratchets, and screwdrivers

Procedure:

1. Prior to raising the racks to the platform, visually inspect each capacitor unit for leaks,
dents, chipped or missing paint, and other physical damage.

2. After installation on the platforms, verify that the capacitor racks are installed consistent
with that shown in the data sheets.

3. Visually inspect each rack for damage, each capacitor unit for leaks, dents, chipped or
missing paint, and other physical damage that may have occurred during installation.

4. Verify that the correct insulators have been installed on each leg of the capacitor racks
using drawings. Also verify that the bolts are tightened to the correct torque as specified
in the table below by selecting one insulator of each type and checking the torque on the
bolts using the torque wrench. Look for signs of insulators that may have been pre-
stressed upon installation due to misalignment.

5. The insulator bolts have been supplied with lock washers for each bolt. Verify that these
are all present.

6. Verify that the aluminum platform bus is connected as shown in drawings. All of the
contact surfaces should have been cleaned with a wire brush or scotch bright and
assembled using a light coat of Penetrox™ on the connections. If contacts are found not
conforming to this, disassemble each piece and repair as needed.

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Fuseless Capacitor Rack Pre – Work


1. Identify the Capacitor Racks

Based on whether it is a multiple bank location or a single bank location, all Capacitor
Racks should be designated with a Location Indicator according to the Serial Number. Identify
and mark all racks, preferably with a paint pen with the Location Indicator. The following is an
explanation of the Location Indicator. Note – for single Bank locations the Bank Location
segment of the Indicator can be omitted. A location sheet was supplied with the capacitor
study in the instruction book, and includes the serial number of each rack and where it will be
located. Use this to identify the proper racks for each phase, and their location in the stack. It
is critical that the racks are located in the correct place. Also note that the special tag cap
should always be on the side of the platform where the tag is located so that the cable run to
the VAP is short.

A1 – A – 1 – C1 - T, M or B

BANK PHASE LINE ON STACK LOCATION


LOCATION LOCATION PLATFORM LOCATION IN STACK

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2. Sort the Capacitor Racks

Once all of the racks have been marked the sorting and moving can begin. Move the
racks into location as near to the platforms as possible, this depends on the amount of room
there is at the Capacitor Bank locations.

For a stack of 2 – Place the Top Rack on the Bottom Rack with the appropriate
insulators between the racks. Torque insulator bolts to the correct value.

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Typical Top Rack

Typical Bottom Rack

For ISA Peru there will be a stack of 5 racks.

105

115A161800703

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3. Stringing the Racks

With the racks identified, sorted, moved and stacked on insulators; the installation of
the Bus Angle, Insulators and connecting Cable can begin. The stringing of the racks will
follow the drawings provided for the stack racks. The balance of each phase requires that the
stringing of the rack follow exactly the same design was planned in the capacitor balance
study. When torqueing capacitor bushings, use care. An open end wrench should be used to
hold the fixed nut to avoid rotating the stud in the capacitor bushing while the loose nut is
torqued with the torque wrench. To string the racks the following guidelines should be used:

a. Install the bus angle support insulators.

b. Install the bus angle.

c. Measure, cut and trim the 5 Kv cable provided and terminate.

d. Note the Torque on the Capacitor Bushing is 20 ft/lbs MAXIMUM.

e. Install the Raptor or Bird Protection Caps.

4. Cleanup and Paint Touchup

When all other activities are complete, the cleanup and touchup portion can begin.
There are some Spin-Lock bolts on the vertical struts which are also welded. This welding
causes the Non-Corrosive finish to be damaged, and eventually they will rust. These need to
be removed.

There are several locations to pay attention to when doing the touchup painting.
1 The bottom side of the can.
2 The end opposite the bushings.
3 The inside of both tabs that are used to hang the cans.
4 Around the Bushing base.

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Section 2, Platforms:

Objective: To outline the correct procedure for inspection of the assembly and erection of
the platforms supplied for this contract.

Description: The platform provides a secure elevated base for the equipment to be mounted
on. The platform consists of the galvanized steel members, grating, handrail,
support insulators and diagonal insulators. Basic construction techniques will
be applied to the assembly to ensure the platform is built plumb, level and
square. Proper torque will be applied to all of the connecting bolts after the
platform is found to be square.

Equipment:

Item Qty Description


1 1 Torque wrench, range 15-250 ft-lbs
2 1 Toolbox including wrenches, ratchet, sockets and a level

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Procedure:
Assembly:

1. The platform must be built on a level stable surface. The galvanized steel members will
be handled in such a way as to not damage the galvanized surface. Any damage to the
galvanized surface must be repaired immediately.

2. Verify the orientation of the main beams, secondary beams and tertiary beams. Attention
must be paid to the areas where a single piece of equipment will be installed on both
secondary and tertiary beams. These areas must be checked for square.

3. Verify that the platform is square by measuring diagonally from outside corner to outside
corner. Compare the two measurements; the tolerance limit is 1mm per meter, i.e.; if the
diagonal measurement is 15 meters the allowable difference between the two distances
would be 15mm.

4. After verifying square, torque may be applied to all connection bolts. Verify the correct
connection bolts have been installed per the drawings. Verify torque and the presence of
lock washers.

5. Verify the grating is installed per the drawings. Verify sufficient grating clamps have been
installed to prevent movement of grating.

6. Verify the Handrail is installed per the drawings. Verify the handrail is plumb and level.

7. Verify the Bus Support Columns are installed per the drawings. Verify they are plumb.

8. Final visual inspection for galvanizing defects, debris and proper connection.

Assembly is complete

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Procedure:
Erection: There are many ways to erect the platforms; for the sake of simplicity two
separate ways will be outlined. Either way is an acceptable method.

Erection Procedure #1: Platform assembled on the foundations

1. Install the Universal Base Plates on the foundation anchor bolts.

2. Install all-threaded rod on 4 points of the Universal Plates to hold them level.

3. Verify they are square and level to each other.

4. Torque anchor bolts.

5. Install Upper Universal Plates.

6. Proceed with Assembly Procedures #1 through #8.

7. Install CT Rack.

8. Install as much conduit, Aluminum Bus and insulators as possible.

9. Using 2 cranes connect slings to appropriate connection points to ensure a level and
stable pick.

10. Pick platform just enough to clear foundations and swing slightly to one side. Adjust
cranes so that the main beams are directly over the foundations.

11. Lower as much as possible.

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12. Install Top Section of Support Column to Upper Universal Plate.

13. Raise platform enough to install Second Section of Support Column.

14. Raise Platform enough to install Bottom Section of Support Column.

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15. Raise platform enough so the bottom of the support columns clear the foundations.

16. Swing platform back over the foundations and lower until the support columns can be
bolted to the Universal Base Plate.

17. Install Polymer Tension Insulators. Tension all insulators equally, ensuring that the
support columns remain plumb.

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Erection Procedure #2: Platform assembled off the foundations

1. Install the Universal Base Plates on the foundation anchor bolts

2. Install all-threaded rod on 4 points of the Universal Plates to hold them level.

3. Verify they are square and level to each other.

4. Torque anchor bolts.

5. Proceed with Assembly Procedures #1 through #8.

6. Install CT Rack.

7. Install as much conduit, Aluminum Bus and insulators as possible.

8. Install the Support Column Insulators.

9. Verify that the Support Columns are plumb, adjust all-thread rod if needed.

10. Using 2 cranes connect slings to appropriate connection points to ensure a level and
stable pick.

11. Pick platform just enough to clear Insulator Columns and swing platform over.

12. Lower Platform onto the Support Columns, ensuring that all columns support evenly.

13. Install Polymer Tension Insulators. Tension all insulators equally, ensuring that the
support columns remain plumb.

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Section 3, Current Transformers:

Objective: To ensure that each Current Transformer (CT) Rack supplied for this contract
have not been damaged during transportation.

Description: Window-type CT’s are installed on the platform applied on the neutral bus of
the equipment to monitor platform-mounted equipment. The secondary
windings of the current transformers are connected to terminal blocks in the
platform communication module.

Equipment:

Item Qty Description


1 1 Small Toolbox

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Section 3, Current Transformers continued:

Procedure:

Visual Inspection

1. CT Racks are normally marked for Bank and Phase location. Generally there is no
difference in the CT Racks, so placement is discretionary.

2. Inspect and verify that the CT’s were not physically damaged during shipment.

3. Inspect and verify that the insulators connecting the aluminum bus work were not
damaged during shipment.

4. Look for signs of oxidation on the connection bolts for the CT’s.

5. Look for signs of water entering the Cabinet.

6. Open the CT terminal boxes and look for water damage. Verify all terminations are
securely fastened. Close all terminal boxes.

7. In the Control Cabinet, verify all electrical connections are properly terminated. Verify
that all equipment is properly mounted.

8. Verify the length of cable from the CT Rack to the TAG House is of sufficient length.

9. Verify the Temporary Power Cable is of sufficient length.

10. Determine location of conduit openings for CT / TAG conduits, Fiber Optic conduit and
Temporary Power conduit.

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Section 4, Metal Oxide Varistors:

Objective: To outline the correct procedure the installation of Metal Oxide Varistor (MOV)
equipment supplied for this contract.

Description: The MOV's provide the first level of protection for the capacitor bank by limiting
the voltage across it, and by conducting fault current around it. The varistor
itself consists of a number of porcelain housings each containing four parallel
columns of series stacked zinc oxide non-linear resistor disks. Compression
springs on the end of each housing provide physical and electrical connections
to the end fittings. These fittings are sealed to prevent moisture from entering
the housing.

Equipment:

Item Qty Description


1 1 Torque wrench, range 15-250 ft-lbs
2 1 Small toolbox including wrenches, ratchets, and screwdrivers

Procedure:

1. Verify all units share the same serial number (with different letter suffixes) per
platform.

2. Verify that the MOV’s and bus work have been installed exactly as shown on drawing. This
MOV is built and tested as a set for the complete bank (including spares), so units are
interchangeable with units of other phases.

3. The entire MOV is mounted on two separate plates isolated from the main platform by
insulators so that the current flowing through the two varistor groups can be monitored
using current transformers. Verify that the plates have been installed with the proper
insulators as shown on drawing. Confirm that Penetrox™ has been used in bolting the
MOV units to the plates as well as in all bus connections.

4. Check each MOV porcelain housing for damage that may have occurred during installation.

5. The insulator bolts have been supplied with lock washers. Verify that the lock washers
have been installed. Also verify that the bolts are tightened to the correct torque. Look for
signs of insulators that may have been stressed upon installation due to misalignment or
insulators that are mechanically damaged.

6. Verify that no damage has occurred to the galvanized end fittings (clamping rings).

7. Verify that the drain hole in the bottom of the MOV is unobstructed.
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Section 5, Damping Reactor:

Objective: To outline the correct procedure for the installation of the Discharge Current
Limiting Reactor supplied for this contract.

Description: The Discharge Current Limiting Reactor is used to limit the capacitor discharge
current when the bypass breaker closes. The reactor also provides damping
for the capacitor discharge current oscillations. The reactor consists of a
mechanically transposed aluminum conductor encapsulated in epoxy.

Equipment:

Item Qty Description


1 1 Torque wrench, range 15-250 ft-lbs
2 1 Penetrox™ A
3 1 Small toolbox including wrenches, ratchets, and screwdrivers

Reactor

Procedure:
1. Verify that the reactors have been installed exactly as shown on drawing. The reactor
terminals should be coated with Penetrox™ prior to connections to the with the platform
bus. Verify that Penetrox™ has been used. Avoid getting Penetrox™ in the fine copper
braid of the flex connectors.

2. Verify that the correct insulators have been installed under the reactors.

3. The insulator bolts may have been supplied with lock washers. Verify that the lock
washers have been installed. Also verify that the bolts are tightened to the correct torque.
Look for signs of insulators that may have been stressed during installation due to
misalignment or insulators that are mechanically damaged. Confirm the torque values for
each type of bolt with Section 11 of this guide.

4. Inspect the cooling ducts for any bolts, nuts, or other foreign objects that may have fallen
into them during installation.

5. Verify that all painted surfaces are smooth and free from dings, scratches, chips, or cracks.
Touch up any damaged areas.

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Section 6, Bypass Breaker:

Objective: To ensure that the Bypass Breaker has been properly installed and that no
damage has occurred during the shipment or installation of the Breaker.

Description: The three-phase bypass breaker provides a means of bypassing or inserting


the series capacitor as directed by the series capacitor control, or by an
operator via remote control. The breaker is mounted on the ground. Each pole
of the bypass breaker consists of an interrupter, a single column insulator
support, spring operator, and support base. The cabinet for the center phase
serves as the master control cabinet for the three-phase breaker. Each pole
has separate close and trip coils. A visible open-close indicator is provided.

NOTE: The breaker is normally installed under the supervision of the breaker
manufacturer representative. Please consult the contract before progressing on
breaker installation.

Procedure:

1. Install breaker foundations per drawings.

2. Assemble and install breaker Steel Base Supports per manufacturer’s drawings.

3. Each pole and Control Cabinet are phase designated, verify proper location before
installation.

4. Prior to installing the pole verify that the connections between sections are still properly
torqued. Inspect for any damage to the pole.

5. Use nylon slings and lift the pole from the shipping crate per manufacturer’s
recommendations.

6. Once pole is vertical, verify there is positive pressure of SF6 Gas, per manufacturer.

7. Install pole on base.

8. Install Control Cabinet on base frame work.

9. All internal connections of push / pull rods, filling of SF6 Gas, testing and commissioning
will be performed by a manufacturer technician.

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Section 7, Fiber Optic Signal Column:

Objective: To properly install the Fiber Optic Signal Column according to the manufacturer’s
recommendations.

Equipment:

Item Qty Description


1 2 Fiber Splice Tools
2 3 People
3 1 Hand Tools, wrenches.

Procedure:

After the platform is assembled and the fiber column base mounting channel has been
installed, and the fiber optic splice boxes mounted and the fiber run in the substation, work can
begin on installing the fiber columns.

1. Take special care when handling the Fiber Optic Columns, do not bend or induce torsion
on the columns.

2. Install the Fiber Columns per drawing.

3. Install the Fiber Optic Splice Boxes.

4. When passing the fibers through the opening into the CT control cabinet and Splice Box,
be sure not to bend the fibers excessively.

5. The splicing of connections to the fibers in should be done only by qualified technicians.

6. OTDR all fibers and record findings.

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Section 8, Triggered Air Gap:

Objective: To outline the correct procedure for installing the Triggered Air Gap (TAG)
supplied in this contract.

Description: The TAG provides protection for the Metal Oxide Varistors. The Varistor
Analog and Pulser (VAP) will cause sparkover of the gap when current or
energy thresholds are crossed. Plasma injectors help break down the air
between the electrodes.

TAG House Assembly Instructions

1. Assemble floor frame per Drawing 154D2260 – Sheets 1 through 5.

2. Square assembly and torque. Lubricate the stainless hardware to allow re-adjustment
as the assembly progresses. Do not over torque stainless hardware.

3. Install 4 Pedestals – Part #22.

4. Level floor frame, making adjustments under the pedestals.

5. Install floor grating – Part # 60. Pay attention to accessing holes under the grating.

6. Install Part #’s 33 & 34 – along wall line.

7. Install Part #’s 30, 31 & 32 – make sure of door opening location.

8. Start with a Corner Panel and work in either direction. Panels must be orientated with
the flat surface down and the tongue configuration (w / cams) up to attach the roof
assembly. The Stainless Steel surface must be inside.
a. Wall Panels are:
i. 4 – Corner Panels (Identical)
ii. 4 – Standard Panels (Plain)
iii. 1 – Standard Panel (Door)
iv. 1 – Standard Panel (Bushing)
v. 4 – Half Standard Panels (Plain)
b. Long Walls consist of 2 - Standard Panels and 1 – Half Standard Panel.
c. Short Walls consist of 1 – Standard Panel and 1 – Half Standard Panel.
d. Pay attention to location of Door and Bushing when standing Panels up.
e. Remove protective wrap prior to installation

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9. The panels are a Tongue and Groove construction and are held together with cam lock
latches. The latch has a male and female component. The male is operated with a hex
shaped wrench through a series of ¾” round holes located near the seams on the
inside of the panels. It is important to have the male rotated as far as possible
CLOCKWISE to disengage the cam action prior to assembly.

10. To assemble the Panels the cam lock must be rotated 270 degrees counter clockwise
to be fully latched. If there is proper engagement of the latches; the cam action will pull
the panels together. If the latch is not properly aligned and does not engage, the male
latch must be completely rotated clockwise to extend the cam action, and then can be
re-latched repeating the above procedure. Do not force the cam action by pushing
or prying the panel – this will only damage the panel.

11. Once all panels are in place and properly latched, square and align the walls. It may be
helpful to use wood as spreaders to obtain proper inside dimensions. Place wood
against both walls so as not to damage the interior skin.

12. Drill 24 holes for .375” bolts horizontally through the walls using the upper holes in Part
#’s 30, 31 & 32 as guides.

13. Seal the space between Part #’s 30, 31 & 32 and the wall panels with a bead of RTV
around the perimeter approximately 1” below the top of the strips.

14. Bolt the panels to Part #’ 30, 31 & 32 through to Inner Angle Part #’s 27, 28 & 29.

15. Bolt Inner Angle Part #’s 27, 28 & 29 through the grating into the Floor Frame.

16. Remove the wood spreaders from the bottom and place near the top of the wall panels
to ensure alignment and check for square.

17. Install adapter plates and the Turbine Vents on the roof panels.

18. The Roof Panel can now be set in place using the 4 lifting brackets provided.

19. Attach the roof using the cam locks in the same manner as the wall cams.

20. Plug cam lock holes with stainless steel plugs provided.

21. Install Bushing Adapter Plate.

22. Attach GE Logo using both screws and glue.

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TAG House Electrical Equipment Assembly Instructions

1. Install Bushing into TAG House at the Bushing Adapter Plate:

2. Inspect Bushing for chips, leaks and other deformities.

3. Attach 2 lifting slings at the lifting eyes provide on the flange and 1 sling under the top
petticoat of the bushing. It may be necessary to use some hoists in conjunction with the
slings to provide the proper angle.

4. Lift bushing out of shipping crate.

5. Install Top Terminal.

6. Proceed with installing bushing into TAG House.

7. Torque evenly to manufacturers specification.

8. Install TCM Control Cabinets.

9. Prepare all openings in grating for conduit and cable passage.

10. Install PVC Conduit from TCM Control Cabinet to TAG Electrode and Injector.

11. Install adapter plates to the 2 Station Post Insulators, install insulators.

12. Install Electrodes and Injectors, be careful of the injectors when installing them,
they are made of plastic.

13. Set gap of 100 mm between Electrodes.

14. Install C1 and C2 Capacitors.

15. Install Arrestors.

16. Install Corona Shield on Bushing Electrode.

17. Pull and terminate Coax Wires, TCM Control Cabinet to TAG Electrode.

18. Terminate 40 kV wire at Capacitors to TCM Cabinets. Check on proper routing to avoid
issue of electrical creepage and clearance.

19. Install and terminate 40 kV cable from Bushing to Electrode.

20. When all work is done, lock the door. No one will be allowed entry until the TAG House
is on the platform.

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Section 9, Wire, Cable and Aluminum Bus:

Objective: To outline the correct procedure for installing all cable, conductor and Aluminum
Bus supplied for this contract.

Description: Continuity, insulation integrity, and point to point checking of all cables,
conductors and bus.

Capacitor Cables
Procedure:

1. Verify that the 5Kv cable is installed per the drawings.

2. Verify Penetrox has been used on all connections

3. Verify torque on all connections.

4. Verify presence of silicon corona sleeves and Bird Caps (if supplied).

15Kv Cable – Capacitor Rack to TAG


Procedure:

1. When cable is cut and installed, both ends shall be sealed to prevent moisture and
contamination.

2. Keep conductor clean and dirt free during installation. If needed clean before installation.

3. For installation of the Stress Cones, follow manufacturer’s instructions.

4. Verify that the ground sheath is properly terminated.

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Aluminum Conductor
Procedure:

1. Pre-straighten all Aluminum Conductor prior to installation. The tensions that will be
applied to the conductor will not be enough to straighten it. Also for bolted fittings make
sure that the bus is square and true where the fitting will be placed. Fittings cannot
correct for misalignment and maintain full ratings.

2. Keep conductor clean and dirt free during installation. If needed clean before installation.

3. For Bolted fittings, the bus should be cleaned of oxide, and a coating of Penetrox applied
to prevent oxide from forming. The fittings should be carefully examined before
installation. The fittings should be carefully torqued to the rating supplied with the special
bolts included with the fittings.

4. For compression fittings, use the proper die for compressing the terminal. For welded
fittings, the conductor should be held inside the fitting approximately ¼”. Welding shall be
in a circular motion from the outside concentrically working in. The finished product
should have a slight dome.

Welded Aluminum Bus


Procedure: Recommended welding procedures to ensure a sound weld are as follows:

Pure aluminum melts at 1220 F while aluminum alloys melt in the range of 1020 F depending
on the alloy content of the particular metal involved. When aluminum alloys are heated there is
no color change. This makes it difficult, if not impossible, to tell if the metal is near the welding
temperature.

The ever present surface oxide films on aluminum have a melting point of 3600 F. The parent
aluminum or aluminum alloy can therefore be melted without fusing the surface oxides. Unless
the film is removed, cleanliness of the molten filler metal and the parent metal cannot be
complete and both strength and conductivity may be sacrificed. Therefore, it is of prime impor-
tance that the aluminum oxides be removed from the aluminum alloys before welding is
started. In the shielded arc welding method the shielding gas has a tendency to clean the
material as welding progresses.

CLEANING OF BUSES AND FITTINGS

It is very important to remove all greases and oxides from the surfaces to be welded. This can
be accomplished by using a mild alkaline solution or standard degreasing solution. The pre-
ferred method is to use a stainless steel wire brush and vigorously scrub the surfaces to be
welded. The stainless steel brushes are specified because the stainless steel has less of a
tendency to pick up particles of aluminum and aluminum oxides.
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WELDING METHODS

TUNGSTEN-ARC WELDING (TIG). The inert gas shielded tungsten-arc process is widely
used for welding aluminum bus fittings. In this process the arc is established between a
non-consumable tungsten electrode and the section to be welded, Inert gas envelops the area
to prevent oxidation during welding. Hence, no flux is required. A bare filler rod supplies filler
metal to the weld area. To initiate the arc the tungsten electrode is placed in contact with the
component and then withdrawn to establish an arc length of approximately 3/16".

The arc is given a circular motion until the base metal liquefies and the weld puddle is
established. Filler metal is added by hand as required. In this process, if more than one pass
is required for a sufficient weld, the weld should be wire brushed between passes to remove
any surface dirt or oxides which have accumulated from the previous pass. Since no flux is
used the finished weld does not require cleaning. In this process the heat of the tungsten arc
is concentrated in a smaller area and is much faster than the conventional type of welding and
distortion of the weld is negligible since the heat is concentrated in a small area. In this
process, if thicknesses greater than 1/2" are to be welded, preheating of the parts before weld-
ing will increase the welding speed.

METALLIC-ARC INERT-GAS SHIELDED WELDING (MIG). The consumable electrode


inert-gas shielded metal arc (MIG) welding process combines the advantages of tungsten-arc
welding with increased welding speed. Welding can be done from any position and the
process can be either manual or automatic. Manual welding techniques are somewhat
different from other methods. However, a welder can be trained to use the MIG process with
only a few days concentrated training. In the MIG process the bare filler rod is supplied as a
coil of bare wire. In the commercially available equipment this wire is added to the weld at a
predetermined rate by a motor driven feed that can be adjusted to the magnitude of the
welding current. In this process, as well as the tungsten arc process, gas forms a shield
around the arc to prevent oxidation during welding.

Either helium, argon or a mixture of helium and argon are suitable shielding gases. Pure argon
is most widely used on sections less than 3/4" thick. On sections over 3/4" thick, the gases are
usually mixed to combine the hotter arc characteristics of helium with the stabilizing effect of
argon. If exceptionally hot arc characteristics are required, pure helium can be substituted for
the gas mixture. Precaution should be exercised if this substitution is made in that it is very
easy to burn through the items that are to be welded with a pure helium atmosphere.

The reason Tungsten-Arc Inert-Gas Shielded Welding (TIG) will be preferred is because this
welding method allows the welder more control over how much filler material is added and at
what pace. If done properly TIG produces a very smooth weld with minimal excess weld
material, thus ensuring less corona effect on the energized bus. The (MIG) method is where
the filler metal is automatically fed through the welding mechanism at a set rate, most often
producing a weld with substantial excess weld material that requires grinding. This produces a

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much rougher weld that in turn increases the corona effect. The basic difference between the
two types of welding apparatus is the automatic feeding mechanism for the filler wire.

The electrode holder and the welding gun can or cannot be cooled by water. If welding
currents of more than 125 amps are required for the process there will be water cooling
apparatuses; to the electrode holder and the welding gun.

WELDERS' QUALIFICATIONS

Only operators certified for welding aluminum alloys by the methods described above will be
allowed to weld. It is suggested, if practical, that welders should practice on actual fittings or
buses before proceeding with the welding of the required job.

The following is the recommended specification for current fittings, wire feeds, gas flows, etc.
These specifications are of a general nature to the extent that many factors have to be
considered such as:

1. Type of equipment used, whether water cooled or not, etc.


2. The size and mass of the piece to be welded.
3. The position of the weld.
4. And most important of all, the operator's skill.
5. All persons in the welding area should wear the proper shields. The arc is
approximately twice as strong as the standard AC welding are. Extreme caution should
be exercised for the protection of eyes.

GENERAL WELDING SPECIFICATIONS FOR TIG WELDING METHOD

SCOPE: This specification applies primarily to welded aluminum connectors for substation
construction.

MATERIAL: Aluminum Bus Pipe – 4” Schedule 40 6034 Alloy and ACSR Conductor – 795
MCM 1350 Alloy.

CASTINGS: As furnished by SEFCOR are molded from 356 aluminum alloy and heat treated
to T6 condition, or 99% pure aluminum depending on the application.

FILLER ROD: 4043 aluminum alloy 1/8” to 3/16" diameter for all joints as shown in the
following tables.

SHIELDING GAS: Argon.

WELDING APPARATUS: Tungsten-arc (TIG). A 400 amp welding machine with reverse
polarity & high frequency is capable of handling the majority of aluminum welding jobs.

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PROCEDURES:
It is of the utmost importance to remove oil, grease, water and oxide from the surfaces to be
welded. All surfaces to be welded should be wire brushed with a stainless steel brush prior to
welding. If more than one weld pass is required, the original weld should be wire brushed
before applying additional weld.

Pre-heating of surfaces to 400 F is optional, but by preheating the surfaces before welding it is
possible for the operator to weld easily and faster.

TUNGSTEN – ARC (TIG)

GAS
IPS WALL CUP TUNGSTEN ARGON PREHEAT NO. 4043
SIZE THICKNESS AMPS DIA. DIA. FLOW F PASSES FILLER
INCHES CFH ROD SIZE
1/2 .108 125-160 3/8 1/8 20 None 1 1/8
3/4 .113 125-150 3/8 1/8 20 None 1 1/8
1 .133 125-150 3/8 1/8 30 None 1 1/8
1-1/4 .140 160-170 3/8 1/8 30 None 1 1/8
1-1/2 .144 160-170 3/8 1/8 30 None 1 1/8
2 154 170-190 1/2 1/8 30 None 1 3/16
2-1/2 .203 170-190 1/2 3/16 40 None 1 3/16
3 .216 170-190 1/2 3/16 40 Optional 1 3/16
3-1/2 .226 170-190 1/2 3/16 40 Optional 1 3/16
4 .237 180-200 1/2 3/16 50 Optional 1 3/16
4-1/2 .247 180-200 1/2 3/16 50 Optional 1 3/16
5 .258 180-200 1/2 3/16 50 Optional 1 or 2 3/16
6 .280 180-200 1/2 3/16 50 Optional 1 or 2 3/16

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Section 10, Insulators:

Objective: To properly identify and install the insulators supplied for this contract.

Procedure:

1. Verify Insulator type to drawings.

2. Verify total insulator quantity to BOM.

3. Verify that the insulators have the correct bolt circle for the application.

4. Verify that the bolt holes are the correct thread design and size, i.e. Metric vs. Standard
Imperial.

5. Check each insulator for damage to the porcelain and galvanized end caps.

6. Ensure the proper bolts are used for each connection.

7. All insulator bolts are supplied with flat washers and lock washers, ensure these are in
the correct place.

8. Verify torque on the insulator bolts (see torque table for values).

9. After installation of insulators and attachments to the insulators, verify they are clean.

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Section 11, Specifications:

Objective: To provide technical information on construction practices that will be


implemented during the construction of equipment supplied for this contract.

Torque Values:

0.727272727 N/M to Ft./Lbs. Ft./Lbs to N/M 1.3529411765

Structural Steel Bolt Torque Values


Imperial Imperial Decimal Metric Ft / Lbs. N/Meters
1/2" 0.5 12mm 40 55
5/8" 0.625 16mm 85 115
3/4" 0.75 20mm 105 140
7//8" 0.875 22mm 160 215
1" 1 24mm 235 320
1 1/8" 1.125 28mm 340 460
1 1/4" 1.25 30mm 435 590
1 1/2" 1.5 38mm 735 1000

Insulator Cap Screw Torque Values


Imperial Imperial Decimal Metric Ft / Lbs. N/Meters
1/2" 0.5 12mm 40 54
5/8" 0.625 16mm 70 95
3/4" 0.75 20mm 130 176

Bushing Flange Torque Values


Imperial Imperial Decimal Metric Ft / Lbs. N/Meters
3/4" 0.75 18mm 105 142
1" 1 24mm 200 271
1 1/8" 1.125 28mm 250 338

Aluminum Bolt Torque Values


Imperial Imperial Decimal Metric Ft / Lbs. N/Meters
1/2" 0.5 12mm 25 34
5/8" 0.625 16mm 40 54
3/4" 0.75 20mm 70 95

Stainless Steel Bolt Torque Values


Imperial Imperial Decimal Metric Ft / Lbs. N/Meters
1/2" 0.5 12mm 40 54
5/8" 0.625 16mm 55 74
3/4" 0.75 20mm 80 108

Capacitors All Capacitors are to be torqued to 20 ft /lbs. Or 28 N/Meters

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PRE REQUISITES FOR COMMENCEMENT OF PRE COMMISSIONING ACTIVITIES

Protection & Control System

1 All Control Cabinets mounted in Control House.

2 A 220 V Station DC Power Supply and 220 V AC Auxiliary Power Supply available throughout substation.

3 All Power Supply cables terminated at appropriate locations.


The Control power supply should not be switched ON unless the installation is tested by GE
Controls Engineer at Site

4 Field Control Cables and Fiber Optic fibers to yard equipment tested, terminated and landed at both ends
as per schematics and interface diagrams.
Yard equipment includes: Breaker, MOD’s and Fiber Optics

5 Breaker testing should be completed and witnessed by GE's representative at site.

6 Platform Equipment testing is in progress or complete

7 Fiber Optic termination completed and tested.


Termination of Fiber Optic cables to be performed by an experienced and Trained Technician only

8 Control cables to DFR (Digital Fault Recorder) are laid and terminated at both ends.

9 A 220 V AC Auxiliary power supply is provided at the breaker for the platforms auxiliary supply.
Platform aux. power should not be energized without a GE Test Engineer at site

10 Ensure proper safety earthing is done as per standards to all the cabinets.

11 An outside telephone land line (not an internal system telephone line) is extended near the Ground
Protection Cabinets to facilitate remote dialing during startup.

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PRE REQUISITES FOR COMMENCEMENT OF PRE COMMISSIONING ACTIVITIES

Series Compensation Power Equipment

1 All Platform Equipment mounted on Platforms as per Layout drawings.

2 All interconnecting bus-work completed.

3 Platforms grounded and Isolating MOD’s Locked and Tagged open with grounding switches in the ground
position, and all safety grounds in place.

4 A 220 V AC Auxiliary power should be supplied for the platforms auxiliary supply.
Platform aux. power should not be energized without a GE Test Engineer at site.

5 Platforms must be free of construction work during testing as dangerous test voltages will exist.

6 Safety and Fire Fighting Equipment that is in workable condition to be kept near the Platforms for
emergency.

7 Barricade the platform area and provide appropriate Safety Signs to avoid unauthorized entry during testing.

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