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There are only in English.


An English Grammar Book.

A very simple, easy, and colorful book about “parts of speech” and “verbals”.
A gift for teachers.
A guide for students.
The “Grammar Book” written according to modern teaching techniques.

BY
JAMIL AHMED NIZAMANI
M.A, B.ED, M.ED.
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CONTENTS
Sr. No. Topic Page

1. Introduction 1
2. The words’ colors table 2
3. The noun 3
4. The adjective 5
5. The pronoun 7
6. The verb 9
7. The adverb 11
8. The preposition 13
9. The conjunction 15
10. The interjection 17
11. The infinitive 19
12. The gerund 21
13. The participle 23
14. The sentence perspective 25
15. Exercise 12 36
16. Bibliography 37
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Introduction

Two main techniques have been used in this book. One is to relate the
words with the colors, and the other is to see the sentence with the perspective of the
kinds of the words. Every kind of the word has been given a particular color, the
word is written in that font color.

Terms more than one for the same thing causes confusion for the
learner. Terms just like “articles” and “determiners” for “adjectives” are also
exempted to avoid it. Even the terms “parts of speech” and “verbals” are not
mentioned.

Most of the Grammar books are lengthy. A reader’s mind gets


confused seeing so many things and their kinds at a time .The important things are
not highlighted accordingly. This book contains the most important words of the
English Language. All other information not concerned with the concept of the
words is omitted. This is not an informative book. This is a conceptual book.

Learning not only depends upon reading and observation. It is


attention that causes learning and higher levels of attention speeds up the learning.
A book that saves a reader from attention diversion is a good source of learning.
The book is well targeted a ccording to the aims and objectives. The aim of writing
this book is to bring the things in attention of the reader according to their
importance.
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The words’ colors table

Words Colors Name of the colours

Noun Blue
Adjective Dark Yellow
Pronoun Pink
Verb Red
Adverb Green
Preposition Gold
Conjunction Turquoise
Interjection Brown
Infinitive lime
Gerund Violet
Participle Orange
Not Mentioned Black
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The Noun

A Noun is a word used as the name of a person, place, or thing.

A noun is written in blue color in the following sentences.

1. Akbar was a great king.


2. Pakistan is our country.
3. My friend gave me a book.
4. Sunday is the first day of the week.
5. March is a third month of a year.
6. Karachi is a big city.
7. He saw a boy carrying a bag.
8. I like bread, butter, and milk.
9. Good students go to school daily.
10. Islamabad is the capital of Pakistan.
11. His courage won him honor.
12. The crowd was very big.
13. Always speak the truth.
14. The elephant has great strength.
15. The class is studying grammar.
16. Intelligence without ambition is a bird without wings.
17. I looked down from my window.
18. Put away your books.
19. The cat sleeps on the rug.
20. Cocks crow in the morning.
21. Your book lies on the table.
22. The fire burns dimly.
23. The birds sing in the green trees.
24. My new watch does not keep good time.
25. The beggar sat down by the side of the road.
26. I learnt Urdu at school.
27. He took shelter under a tree.
28. The boy easily lifted the heavy weight.
29. Akram wrote a letter to his uncle.
30. A tiny bird lived under the cave.
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Rewrite a noun in blue color in the following sentences.

1. This child has broken that dish.


2. The wolf ran after the sheep.
3. The doctor was looking at her tooth.
4. Monkeys were sitting on the branches of the trees.
5. There was a parrot in a cage.
6. A committee of five was appointed.
7. He gave me a bunch of grapes.
8. Wisdom is better than strength.
9. I often think of the happy days of childhood.
10. I believe in his innocence.
11. Cleanliness is next to godliness.
12. The crowd was very big.
13. We all love honesty.
14. Our team is better than theirs.
15. I often think of the happy days of childhood.
16. I recognized their voice at once.
17. Wisdom is better than strength.
18. Akbar was famous for his wisdom.
19. We saw a fleet of ships in the harbor.
20. Never tell a lie.
21. The streets of some of our cities are noted for their crookedness.
22. A committee of five was appointed.
23. I bought three dozen oranges.
24. A live ass is better than dead lion.
25. The sun shines brightly.
26. The boy cut his hand with a knife.
27. The clock stopped this morning.
28. The policeman blew his whistle.
29. The sun rises in the east.
30. An old beggar stood by the gate.
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The Adjective

An Adjective is a word used to add something to the meaning of a noun.

An adjective is written in dark yellow color in the following sentences.

31. He is a brave boy.


32. There are twenty boys in this class.
33. I ate some rice.
34. He has lost all his wealth.
35. The hand has five fingers.
36. There are several mistakes in this exercise.
37. Neither accusation is true.
38. There are no pictures in this book.
39. The ship sustained heavy damage.
40. Every man has his duties.
41. The poor woman had happier days.
42. We had never such sport.
43. It rained every day during my holidays.
44. Five boys were seated on each bench.
45. Your son makes no progress in his studies.
46. Encyclopedias have accurate information.
47. The article was important.
48. Zaid read a long, difficult article on lasers.
49. You can learn many fascinating facts from an encyclopedia.
50. Some articles have colorful pictures.
51. This experiment requires three small mirrors.
52. Those lenses curve inward.
53. African weather is dry.
54. A warm climate is found in some parts of the world.
55. That storm was bad.
56. He looked behind the rusty shed.
57. He was lost in the huge store.
58. My sister is ill.
59. A hungry man is an angry man.
60. She wore a diamond necklace.
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Exercise 2
Rewrite an adjective in dark yellow color in the following sentences.

31. Some boys are very clever.


32. Have you got any milk?
33. There is a little hope of her success.
34. He is the best player in our school.
35. Anwar is my elder brother.
36. No news is good news.
37. Bad habits grow unconsciously.
38. The last poem is rather difficult.
39. I like short books.
40. I know a funny little man.
41. I see a dark cloud.
42. The bird was killed by a cruel boy.
43. It was a horrible night.
44. A valuable ring was found yesterday.
45. She wants medical advice.
46. He is professional cricketer.
47. The weather was sunny but cold.
48. The old woman was very proud of her new house.
49. The ancient mariner raised his skinny hand.
50. Fine feathers make fine birds.
51. The first batsman was out to a brilliant catch by Asad.
52. A black, shaggy dog barked furiously at the visitors.
53. Sheila wore a rough, woolen cardigan.
54. It is cheaper to travel by road.
55. Saeed is the worst writer in the class.
56. This book is better of the two.
57. This is the oldest castle in the country.
58. Toothache is a very painful ailment.
59. My uncle lives in the next house.
60. This is the nearest Post Office to my house.
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The Pronoun

A Pronoun is a word used instead of a noun.

A pronoun is written in pink color in the following sentences.

61. Aslam is absent; because he is ill.


62. This book is mine.
63. All were drowned.
64. Nobody was there to rescue the child.
65. I will do it myself.
66. I hurt myself.
67. None of his poems are well known.
68. The book which you see on the table cost me two rupees.
69. Somebody has stolen my watch.
70. What is it that troubles you so much?
71. It was I who first protested.
72. If the thief is caught, he will be punished.
73. Do good to others.
74. The teacher gave us seeds to plant and test.
75. Everyone used them for planting.
76. Nadia helped me plant some seeds.
77. The teacher told us to write a procedure for the experiment.
78. The task took me a few minutes to complete.
79. We gave her some suggestions.
80. That idea of yours is excellent.
81. When I saw the child it was crying.
82. It rains.
83. Rama and I were present.
84. Karim brought his book and laid it on the table.
85. Each of the men received a reward.
86. They never fail who die in a great cause.
87. All is not gold that glitters.
88. I asked who was speaking.
89. Whoever told you so?
90. I am the person that is to blame.
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Exercise 3
Rewrite a pronoun in blue color in the following sentences.

61. I bought each of these mangoes for ten rupees.


62. The man who is honest is trusted.
63. He that is content is rich.
64. I mean what I say.
65. The answer which you gave is not right.
66. They that seek wisdom will be wise.
67. He has not brought the knife that I asked for.
68. Which do you prefer tea or coffee.
69. Whose is this book?
70. What is the matter?
71. It snows.
72. It thunders.
73. I do not know who is there.
74. Whatever are you doing?
75. This is the boy that I told you of.
76. Either of you can go.
77. Some say he is a sharper.
78. Did you ask anybody to come?
79. One hardly knows what to do.
80. We often deceive ourselves.
81. It is certain that you are wrong.
82. That is her book.
83. Nobody but he was present.
84. I know the woman whose child was hurt.
85. The task which you have to do is easy.
86. These men received each a reward.
87. He who hesitates is lost.
88. None but fools have ever believed it.
89. He whom we worship, by whose gift we live, is the Lord.
90. This is the juggler whom we saw yesterday.
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The Verb

A Verb is a word used to say something about some person, place, or thing.

A verb is written in red color in the following sentences.

91. Time changes all things.


92. We eat three times a day.
93. I have learnt my lesson.
94. An old beggar stood by the gate.
95. The boy cut his hand with a knife.
96. Stop him from going.
97. He told me to leave the room.
98. I am watching you very carefully.
99. Fortune favors the brave.
100. He ran a long distance.
101. The baby sleeps.
102. There is a flaw in this diamond.
103. His father gave him a rupee.
104. He told me a secret.
105. Explorers discover new places.
106. Christopher Columbus made his first voyage.
107. Men and women will go to new places in the future.
108. He drinks tea every morning.
109. We go to Bombay next week.
110. He has written a letter.
111. He has been sleeping for five hours.
112. When I saw him, he was playing chess.
113. I had written the letter before he arrived.
114. At that time he had been writing a novel for two months.
115. I shall see him tomorrow.
116. He will be meeting us next week.
117. I shall have written my exercise by that time.
118. By next July we shall have been living here for four years.
119. I have known him for a long time.
120. She always carried an umbrella.
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Exercise 4
Rewrite a verb in red color in the following sentences.

91. The horse kicked the man.


92. He spoke the truth.
93. Tell the truth.
94. Birds fly in the air.
95. I shall bring my camera with me.
96. The sun shines brightly.
97. The clock stopped this morning.
98. He waited an hour.
99. The window is broken.
100. He made his wife do the work.
101. They have been building the bridge for several months.
102. She left school last year.
103. The light went out while I was reading.
104. I’ll be staying here till Sunday.
105. When he gets his degree, he will have been studying at Oxford for
four years.
106. Before you go to see him, he will have left the house.
107. Tomorrow will be Sunday.
108. I am going to the cinema tonight.
109. If it rains, we shall get wet.
110. He has been ill since last week.
111. I have never known him to be angry.
112. He drinks tea every morning.
113. I knew he was there, for I had seen him come.
114. It has been raining all night.
115. I shall have plenty of time tomorrow.
116. We have heard a strange story.
117. I had finished when he came.
118. I promise you a fair hearing.
119. He failed to notice me when he came in.
120. I shall be reading the paper then.
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The Adverb

An Adverb is a word used to add something to the meaning of a verb, an adjective,


or another adverb.

An adverb is written in green color in the following sentences.

121. He worked the sum quickly.


122. This flower is very beautiful.
123. She pronounced the word quite correctly.
124. That day he arrived late.
125. We were very kindly received.
126. They looked up.
127. I met him yesterday.
128. He has slept only three hours.
129. I see things differently now.
130. She arrived a few minutes ago.
131. Cut it lengthwise.
132. The secret is out.
133. I have heard this before.
134. Try again.
135. I have spoken to him already.
136. Our family drove slowly to the zoo.
137. Dad always drives extremely carefully.
138. We waited outside for the gates to open.
139. Many people waited quietly.
140. The gates opened early.
141. The people bought their tickets inside.
142. I happily watched the polar bears.
143. The crew moved extraordinarily fast.
144. The children felt utterly frightened.
145. We went outside.
146. The people clapped loudly.
147. Naveed immediately pointed to a monkey.
148. The penguins dove gracefully into the water.
149. Nadir waited patiently for the monkey to reappear.
150. The monkey hid swiftly.
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Exercise 5
Rewrite an adverb in green color in the following sentences.
121. Stand here.
122. The boy works hard.
123. The child slept soundly.
124. Wasted time never returns.
125. I had a letter from him lately.
126. This is a very sweet mango.
127. He frequently comes unprepared.
128. I am fully prepared.
129. He was too careless.
130. He tried again and again.
131. The results are out.
132. You speak too loudly.
133. He waited patiently at the station.
134. He soon went to Bangladesh.
135. His command was promptly obeyed.
136. He was too old and lived too far from school.
137. Some people traveled quite suddenly to America.
138. Religious freedom was very important.
139. Other people wanted a much better chance to earn living.
140. The United States offered people a fairly better life.
141. The journey to America was extremely difficult.
142. The weather seemed terribly cold.
143. Some passengers seemed somewhat excited.
144. The captain of the ship was completely content.
145. The ship docked fairly speedily.
146. The people were finally happy.
147. The sun was shining brightly.
148. Monkeys swung playfully from the trees.
149. Lions can hunt skillfully.
150. The passengers were incredibly quiet.
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The Preposition

A Preposition is a word used with a noun or a pronoun to show how the person or
thing denoted by the noun or pronoun stands in relation to something else.

A preposition is written in gold color in the following sentences.

151. There is a cow in the garden.


152. The cat jumped off the chair.
153. The boy is sitting under the tree.
154. What are you looking at?
155. Owing to his ill health, he retired from business.
156. He preserved in spite of difficulties.
157. There is a big tree in front of his house.
158. He acted according to my instructions.
159. He could not attend the school because of his father’s serious illness.
160. In course of time he saw his mistake.
161. She sat by the fire, and told me the tale.
162. After a month he returned.
163. We can not live without water.
164. This work is beyond his capacity.
165. He jumped into the river.
166. Such a number of rocks came over her head.
167. He goes on Sunday to church, and sits among his boys.
168. He lives in Hyderabad. He lives at 48 Tilak Street.
169. The portrait was painted by a famous artist who flourished in the
sixteenth century.
170. The noise from downstairs prevented me from sleeping.
171. I am indebted to you for your help.
172. Besides his children, there were present his nephews and nieces.
173. The sun was shining through the trees.
174. Near the water, we saw a deer.
175. We rode across town.
176. Children stood between their parents.
177. Our teacher showed us a video about exercise.
178. I like to run around the school track.
179. Everyone agreed except him.
180. Rashid really seemed against him.
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Exercise 6
Rewrite a preposition in gold color in the following sentences.
151. He sat on a chair.
152. He walked to the end of the street.
153. The snake crawled into its hole.
154. I have eaten nothing since yesterday.
155. Besides his children, there were present his nephews and nieces.
156. It is hard to get access to him.
157. They were prohibited from entering the village.
158. He was afraid of telling the truth.
159. He is fond of swimming.
160. The book lies on the table.
161. Besides being fined, he was sentenced to a term of imprisonment.
162. He lives in Tando Allahyar. He lives at Unnar parah.
163. The sun peeked through a cloud.
164. The birds flew among the branches.
165. People were jogging around the track.
166. We gathered around him.
167. I put a table beside you.
168. She sat by the cottage door.
169. After a month he returned.
170. I came the day before yesterday.
171. He rules over vast empire.
172. She made grand preparations against his coming.
173. I have eaten nothing since yesterday.
174. He lived in Karachi for ten years.
175. Instead of talking, prove your worth by doing something.
176. The dolphin disappeared beneath the waves.
177. I‘d like you to trim my hair just below the ears.
178. The light switch was beyond the child’s reach.
179. He noticed two policemen coming towards him.
180. We climbed slowly up the hill.
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The conjunction

A conjunction is a word used to join words or group of words.

A conjunction is written in turquoise color in the following sentences.

181. I ran fast, but missed the train.


182. Two and two make four.
183. She must weep, or she will die.
184. Aslam as well as Ali was present there.
185. I would die before I lied.
186. Many things have happened since I saw you.
187. He was so tired that he could scarcely stand.
188. We arrived after you had gone.
189. He deserved to succeed, for he worked hard.
190. Unless you tell me the truth, I shall punish you.
191. As he was poor I helped him.
192. I waited till the train arrived.
193. You will get the prize if you deserve it.
194. I will stay until you return.
195. He asked whether he might have a holiday.
196. Either take it or leave it.
197. It is neither useful nor ornamental.
198. I will not see him, though he comes.
199. Though he is suffering from pain, yet he does not complain.
200. I do not care whether you go or stay.
201. Not only is he foolish, but also obstinate.
202. After the shower was over the sun shone out again.
203. They arrived while we were having dinner.
204. He ran so quickly that he soon overtook me.
205. I don’t really enjoy sports, although, I did watch the game.
206. I saw Hashim as I was getting off the bus.
207. When I give signal, turn off the light.
208. He is rich, yet he is not contented.
209. As soon as he heard the news he wrote to me.
210. Waseem runs faster than Saleem.
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Exercise 7
Rewrite a conjunction in turquoise color in the following sentences.
181. He ran away because he was afraid.
182. He finished first though he began late.
183. He found his watch where he had left it.
184. You will pass if you work hard.
185. Since you say so I must believe it.
186. He will not pay unless he is compelled.
187. When I was younger I thought so.
188. I shall go whether you come or not.
189. While he found fault, he also praised.
190. You must work or starve.
191. He got malaria while traveling in Africa.
192. I can see his point, although, I have to say, I think he’s wrong.
193. As time passed, things seemed to get worse.
194. When I was younger, I thought so.
195. I would die before I lied.
196. I will stay until you return.
197. Give me to drink, else I will die of thirst.
198. He fled lest he should be killed.
199. He asked whether he might have a holiday.
200. We shall stay here till you return.
201. I heard that your brother is in London.
202. He deserved to succeed, for he worked hard.
203. He was sorry after he had done it.
204. He ran away, because he was afraid.
205. Neither a borrower, nor a lender be.
206. I heard a noise so I got out of bed and turned the light on.
207. It’s only a little shop and yet it always has such lovely decorations.
208. You need to know what rights you have and how to use them.
209. He was alright; only he was fatigued.
210. We shall go, but you will remain.
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The interjection

An interjection is a word or group of words that expresses strong feeling.


Use a comma (,) after a mild interjection. Use an exclamation mark (!) after an
interjection that expresses very strong feeling.

An interjection is written in brown color in the following sentences.

211. Hurrah! We have won the game.


212. Alas! She is dead.
213. Oh! I got such a fright.
214. Hello! What are you doing there?
215. Ah! Have they gone?
216. Oh, that looks delicious.
217. Gee, the menu has many interesting dishes.
218. Wow! That’s my favorite food.
219. Well, a new restaurant has opened.
220. Great! A new restaurant has opened.
221. Look, the new restaurant has opened.
222. Oh, we have heard about this restaurant for weeks.
223. Well, my family wants to eat dinner there.
224. Gee, we shall go to dinner early.
225. My goodness! This restaurant serves great food!
226. Oops! Put your napkin in your lap.
227. Wow! Something smells delicious.
228. Oh, will you please sit down!
229. My goodness, I am getting hungry.
230. Well, do you know what you will order?
231. Aha! I see they have chicken in garlic sauce.
232. Well, they always serve exceptionally fine pie.
233. Wow! This restaurant is great for party and wedding!
234. Hooray! What a wonderful restaurant for the family in town.
235. Yum, this chicken tastes wonderful.
236. Well, I have plenty to eat.
237. Hooray! They have ice cream for dessert!
238. Oh, we don’t see that on the menu.
239. Yikes, did you see the check?
240. Aha! They are under the bed.
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Exercise 8
Rewrite an interjection in brown color in the following sentences.

211. Gee, that’s Andy’s birthday, too.


212. Yuck! Dad says that I have to wear a tie.
213. Oh, maybe I can have ice cream for dessert.
214. Wow! We are going to Ricardo’s Restaurant for my birthday.
215. Yum! Ricardo’s Restaurant has the best pasta.
216. Oops! I can’t eat too much.
217. Well, I should get ready.
218. Wait! Has anyone seen my shoes?
219. Aha! They are under the bed.
220. Hooray! We’re ready to go.
221. Wow! This is a beautiful restaurant.
222. My goodness, did you see the flowers?
223. Look! That waiter spilled the soup.
224. Yum! The food looks delicious.
225. Oh, each table has candles.
226. Oh no! I tripped over my chair.
227. Shh, here comes the waiter.
228. Oops! I dropped my napkin.
229. Hooray! They have spaghetti and meatballs.
230. Hmm, do they have blue cheese dressing?
231. Alas! We shall hear his voice no more.
232. Ouch! Stop pinching me.
233. Yes, she did win the game.
234. Vow! That’s a surprise.
235. Oh, you’re going too.
236. Oh no, I forgot that the exam was today.
237. Hey! Put that down!
238. Well! You’ve got some nerve!
239. Darn! You just lost the game.
240. Hurray! I am for the other team.
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The infinitive

The verb that is not limited to the person and number is called infinite verb, because
it has no subject. It is simply called an infinitive. An infinitive is a noun with a
certain features of verb. An infinitive is a Verb-Noun.

An infinitive is written in lime color in the following sentences.

241. To see is to believe.


242. Teach me to swim.
243. To give is better than to receive.
244. To find fault is easy.
245. I heard him cry.
246. He likes to play cricket.
247. I made him run.
248. You had better ask him permission.
249. We eat to live.
250. I have come to see you.
251. To respect our parents is our duty.
252. He refused to obey the orders.
253. Birds love to sing.
254. Many men desire to make money quickly.
255. I saw him do it.
256. One way to improve your writing is to elaborate.
257. The Prime Minister is to visit America next month.
258. The conference is to discuss “Nuclear Tests”.
259. We compelled the enemy to surrender.
260. It started to rain while we were playing tennis.
261. Akhtar wants to be a doctor.
262. As I read it my blood began to boil.
263. The headmaster wants to speak to you.
264. Members sell cookies to raise money.
265. Plants need light and water to grow.
266. We did not want to have a tiger.
267. They were not afraid to play our team.
268. The crowd must not forget to applaud both teams.
269. Scientists will discover new ideas to travel.
270. I will remember to take my binoculars.

Note: After certain verbs (bid, let, make, need, dare, see, hear), we use the infinitive
without to. The infinitive without to is also used after the verbs shall; will; do; did;
should; would; may; might; and the verbs must and can, could.
The infinitive without to is also used after had better, had rather, would rather,
sooner than, rather than.
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Exercise 9
Rewrite an infinitive in violet color in the following sentences.
241. To err is human.
242. They always try to find fault with me.
243. Let him sit there.
244. Make him stand.
245. I do not mean to read.
246. The boys are anxious to learn.
247. Everybody wishes to enjoy life.
248. It is delightful to hear the sound of the sea.
249. I am not afraid to speak the truth.
250. My desire is to see you again.
251. This medicine is pleasant to take.
252. The boys are anxious to learn.
253. He is too ill to do any work.
254. I do not mean to read.
255. Her greatest pleasure is to sing.
256. His custom is to ride daily.
257. The speaker is about to begin.
258. This is not the time to play.
259. You will have cause to repent.
260. Let us pray.
261. He was quick to see the point.
262. Every body wishes to enjoy life.
263. I would rather die than suffer so.
264. You need not do it.
265. There was nothing for it to fight.
266. He has the power to concentrate his thoughts.
267. My desire is to see you again.
268. Can you hope to count the stars?
269. To tell the truth, I quite forgot my promise.
270. He is slow to forgive.
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The gerund

A gerund is that form of the verb which ends in –ing, and has the force of a noun
and a verb. It is used as a noun.

A gerund is written in violet color in the following sentences.

271. Seeing is believing.


272. I am tired of waiting.
273. He was punished for telling a lie.
274. He has ruined his sight by reading small print.
275. Walking on the grass is forbidden.
276. I like reading poetry.
277. He is fond of swimming.
278. Smoking is injurious to health.
279. We were prevented from seeing the prisoner.
280. Stop playing.
281. I hope you will excuse my leaving early.
282. The time of the singing of the birds has come.
283. Success is not merely winning applause.
284. He preferred playing football to studying his lessons.
285. He is addicted to gambling.
286. I assisted her in climbing the hill.
287. I do not believe in pampering servants.
288. I am bent on attending the meeting.
289. He has hardly any chance of succeeding.
290. He is desirous of visiting Japan.
291. He despaired of achieving his object.
292. There is some difficulty in perceiving his meaning.
293. Remember the duty of helping the poor.
294. He is expert in inventing stories.
295. He appreciated the necessity of acting promptly.
296. He persisted in disobeying orders.
297. Telling your father was a mistake.
298. What is there to prevent him from leaving Hyderabad?
299. It was only a pretext for delaying the matter.
300. I insisted on having my say.
24

Exercise 10
Rewrite a gerund in violet color in the following sentences.

271. The making of the plan is in hand.


272. Asking questions is easier than answering them.
273. Ali consented to the eating of the fruit.
274. Hunting tigers is a favorite sports in this country.
275. He contemplated marrying his cousin.
276. I determined to increase my salary by managing a little farm.
277. Singing to herself was her chief delight.
278. Children love making mud castles.
279. The year was spent in visiting our rich neighbors.
280. The miser hated spending money.
281. He thought of eluding his pursuers.
282. He succeeded in convincing his critics.
283. He has no scruple in begging.
284. There is a little satisfaction in sitting idle.
285. You were right in suspecting him.
286. I refrained from hurting his feelings.
287. They were prohibited from entering the village.
288. I had the privilege of knowing him intimately.
289. He is confident of securing the first prize.
290. The custom of tipping is prevalent everywhere.
291. You have no excuse for talking bluntly.
292. The firm was fortunate in securing the government’s support.
293. He felt the humiliation of withdrawing his words.
294. Video is used for teaching the students.
295. We should be indefatigable in doing good.
296. He was afraid of telling the truth.
297. He has a knack of doing it.
298. You were not justified in imputing motives to him.
299. I have an aversion to fishing.
300. She had the privilege of giving him the award.
25

The Participle

A Participle is a word which is partly a verb and partly an adjective.

A participle is written in orange color in the following sentences.

301. Loudly knocking at the gate, he demanded admission.


302. Gathering my courage, I asked for a temporary loan.
303. The man seems worried.
304. He kept me waiting.
305. The boy excited about the presents sat on the couch.
306. The sea being smooth, we went for sail.
307. Generally speaking, we receive what we deserve.
308. I saw the storm approaching.
309. Having elected him President, the people gave him their loyal support.
310. Playing cricket, he gained health.
311. Walking along the road, he noticed a dead cobra.
312. Seeing, he believed.
313. Waving their hats and hand kerchiefs, the people cheered the king.
314. Sleeping in the garden, I didn’t hear the telephone.
315. Sitting on the gate, he was stung by a scorpion.
316. A woman answered her front door and found two boys holding a list.
317. Jumping over the fence, the thief escaped.
318. I saw him opening the box.
319. Hearing their father’s footsteps, the boys ran away.
320. Finding himself in difficulty, he went to his teacher for help.
321. Having finished his exercise, he put away his books.
322. Weather permitting, there will be a garden party at Government
House tomorrow.
323. The wind having failed, the crew set to work with a will.
324. Speaking honestly, I do not know.
325. Finding the door unlocked, the thief entered the house.
326. I heard my mother talking on the phone.
327. The umbrella found at the bus stop belongs to Javed.
328. Looking down from the tower, we saw many people walking in the
streets.
329. Sajid hurt his leg doing Karate.
330. Pretending to sleep, she hears the whole conservation.
26

Exercise 11
Rewrite a participle in orange color in the following sentences.

301. Hearing the noise, the boy woke up.


302. Mounting his horse, the bandit rode off.
303. Not knowing my way, I asked the policeman.
304. The child, thinking all was safe, attempted to cross the road.
305. Deceived by his friends, he lost all his wealth.
306. Driven by hunger, he stole a piece of bread.
307. Roughly speaking, the distance from here to the nearest railway
station is two miles.
308. We saw a few trees laden with fruits.
309. We saw a clown standing on his head.
310. Going up the hill, an old temple was seen.
311. God willing, we shall have another good monsoon.
312. His mater being absent, the business was neglected.
313. The wind being favorable, they embarked.
314. Entering the room, I found the light quite dazzling.
315. Wandering through the campground the man saw the bear.
316. Tasting his lunch, he mentioned his love for polenta.
317. Having been to the beach, her feet were covered with sand.
318. I talked to the man reading the newspaper.
319. The girl sat crying on the sofa.
320. Watching T.V., she forgot everything around her.
321. Winter coming on, the grasshopper had no food.
322. Shivering with cold, the cat warmed itself in the house.
323. I picked up the can, thinking it would be cold.
324. The captain of the sinking ship remained standing on deck.
325. Having waited for a long time, I decided to go home.
326. We met a girl carrying a basket.
327. Blinded by a dust storm, they fell into disorder.
328. Seeing the sunshine, I threw open the window.
329. Having rested, the men continued their journey.
330. Seizing him by the arm, his friend led him away.
27

The sentence perspective

All words are written in their respective colors in the following sentences.

1. Akbar was a great king.


2. Pakistan is our country.
3. My friend gave me a book.
4. Sunday is the first day of the week.
5. March is a third month of a year.
6. Karachi is a big city.
7. He saw a boy carrying a bag.
8. I like bread, butter, and milk.
9. Good students go to school daily.
10. Islamabad is the capital of Pakistan.
11. His courage won him honor.
12. The crowd was very big.
13. Always speak the truth.
14. The elephant has great strength.
15. The class is studying grammar.
16. Intelligence without ambition is a bird without wings.
17. I looked down from my window.
18. Put away your books.
19. The cat sleeps on the rug.
20. Cocks crow in the morning.
21. Your book lies on the table.
22. The fire burns dimly.
23. The birds sing in the green trees.
24. My new watch does not keep good time.
25. The beggar sat down by the side of the road.
26. I learnt Urdu at school.
27. He took shelter under a tree.
28. The boy easily lifted the heavy weight.
29. Akram wrote a letter to his uncle.
30. A tiny bird lived under the cave.
28

31. He is a brave boy.


32. There are twenty boys in this class.
33. I ate some rice.
34. He has lost all his wealth.
35. The hand has five fingers.
36. There are several mistakes in this exercise.
37. Neither accusation is true.
38. There are no pictures in this book.
39. The ship sustained heavy damage.
40. Every man has his duties.
41. The poor woman had happier days.
42. We had never such sport.
43. It rained every day during my holidays.
44. Five boys were seated on each bench.
45. Your son makes no progress in his studies.
46. Encyclopedias have accurate information.
47. The article was important.
48. Zaid read a long, difficult article on lasers.
49. You can learn many fascinating facts from an encyclopedia.
50. Some articles have colorful pictures.
51. This experiment requires three small mirrors.
52. Those lenses curve inward.
53. African weather is dry.
54. A warm climate is found in some parts of the world.
55. That storm was bad.
56. He looked behind the rusty shed.
57. He was lost in the huge store.
58. My sister is ill.
59. A hungry man is an angry man.
60. She wore a diamond necklace.
29

61. Aslam is absent; because he is ill.


62. This book is mine.
63. All were drowned.
64. Nobody was there to rescue the child.
65. I will do it myself.
66. I hurt myself.
67. None of his poems are well known.
68. The book which you see on the table cost me two rupees.
69. Somebody has stolen my watch.
70. What is it that troubles you so much?
71. It was I who first protested.
72. If the thief is caught, he will be punished.
73. Do good to others.
74. The teacher gave us seeds to plant and test.
75. Everyone used them for planting.
76. Nadia helped me plant some seeds.
77. The teacher told us to write a procedure for the experiment.
78. The task took me a few minutes to complete.
79. We gave her some suggestions.
80. That idea of yours is excellent.
81. When I saw the child it was crying.
82. It rains.
83. Rama and I were present.
84. Karim brought his book and laid it on the table.
85. Each of the men received a reward.
86. They never fail who die in a great cause.
87. All is not gold that glitters.
88. I asked who was speaking.
89. Whoever told you so?
90. I am the person that is to blame.
30

91. Time changes all things.


92. We eat three times a day.
93. I have learnt my lesson.
94. An old beggar stood by the gate.
95. The boy cut his hand with a knife.
96. Stop him from going.
97. He told me to leave the room.
98. I am watching you very carefully.
99. Fortune favors the brave.
100. He ran a long distance.
101. The baby sleeps.
102. There is a flaw in this diamond.
103. His father gave him a rupee.
104. He told me a secret.
105. Explorers discover new places.
106. Christopher Columbus made his first voyage.
107. Men and women will go to new places in the future.
108. He drinks tea every morning.
109. We go to Bombay next week.
110. He has written a letter.
111. He has been sleeping for five hours.
112. When I saw him, he was playing chess.
113. I had written the letter before he arrived.
114. At that time he had been writing a novel for two months.
115. I shall see him tomorrow.
116. He will be meeting us next week.
117. I shall have written my exercise by that time.
118. By next July we shall have been living here for four years.
119. I have known him for a long time.
120. She always carried an umbrella.
31

121. He worked the sum quickly.


122. This flower is very beautiful.
123. She pronounced the word quite correctly.
124. That day he arrived late.
125. We were very kindly received.
126. They looked up.
127. I met him yesterday.
128. He has slept only three hours.
129. I see things differently now.
130. She arrived a few minutes ago.
131. Cut it lengthwise.
132. The secret is out.
133. I have heard this before.
134. Try again.
135. I have spoken to him already.
136. Our family drove slowly to the zoo.
137. Dad always drives extremely carefully.
138. We waited outside for the gates to open.
139. Many people waited quietly.
140. The gates opened early.
141. The people bought their tickets inside.
142. I happily watched the polar bears.
143. The people clapped loudly.
144. The crew moved extraordinarily fast.
145. The children felt utterly frightened.
146. We went outside.
147. Naveed immediately pointed to a monkey.
148. The penguins dove gracefully into the water.
149. Nadir waited patiently for the monkey to reappear.
150. The monkey hid swiftly.
32

151. There is a cow in the garden.


152. The cat jumped off the chair.
153. The boy is sitting under the tree.
154. What are you looking at?
155. Owing to his ill health, he retired from business.
156. He preserved in spite of difficulties.
157. There is a big tree in front of his house.
158. He acted according to my instructions.
159. He could not attend the school because of his father’s serious illness.
160. In course of time he saw his mistake.
161. She sat by the fire, and told me the tale.
162. After a month he returned.
163. We can not live without water.
164. This work is beyond his capacity.
165. He jumped into the river.
166. Such a number of rocks came over her head.
167. He goes on Sunday to church, and sits among his boys.
168. He lives in Hyderabad. He lives at 48 Tilak Street.
169. The portrait was painted by a famous artist who flourished in the
sixteenth century.
170. The noise from downstairs prevented me from sleeping.
171. I am indebted to you for your help.
172. Besides his children, there were present his nephews and nieces.
173. The sun was shining through the trees.
174. Near the water, we saw a deer.
175. We rode across town.
176. Children stood between their parents.
177. Our teacher showed us a video about exercise.
178. I like to run around the school track.
179. Everyone agreed except him.
180. Rashid really seemed against him.
33

181. I ran fast, but missed the train.


182. Two and two make four.
183. She must weep, or she will die.
184. Aslam as well as Ali was present there.
185. I would die before I lied.
186. Many things have happened since I saw you.
187. He was so tired that he could scarcely stand.
188. We arrived after you had gone.
189. He deserved to succeed, for he worked hard.
190. Unless you tell me the truth, I shall punish you.
191. As he was poor I helped him.
192. I waited till the train arrived.
193. You will get the prize if you deserve it.
194. I will stay until you return.
195. He asked whether he might have a holiday.
196. Either take it or leave it.
197. It is neither useful nor ornamental.
198. I will not see him, though he comes.
199. Though he is suffering from pain, yet he does not complain.
200. I do not care whether you go or stay.
201. Not only is he foolish, but also obstinate.
202. After the shower was over the sun shone out again.
203. They arrived while we were having dinner.
204. He ran so quickly that he soon overtook me.
205. I don’t really enjoy sports, although, I did watch the game.
206. I saw Hashim as I was getting off the bus.
207. When I give signal, turn off the light.
208. He is rich, yet he is not contented.
209. As soon as he heard the news he wrote to me.
210. Waseem runs faster than Saleem.
34

211. Hurrah! We have won the game.


212. Alas! She is dead.
213. Oh! I got such a fright.
214. Hello! What are you doing there?
215. Ah! Have they gone?
216. Oh, that looks delicious.
217. Gee, the menu has many interesting dishes.
218. Wow! That’s my favorite food.
219. Well, a new restaurant has opened.
220. Great! A new restaurant has opened.
221. Look, the new restaurant has opened.
222. Oh, we have heard about this restaurant for weeks.
223. Well, my family wants to eat dinner there.
224. Gee, we shall go to dinner early.
225. My goodness! This restaurant serves great food!
226. Oops! Put your napkin in your lap.
227. Wow! Something smells delicious.
228. Oh, will you please sit down!
229. My goodness, I am getting hungry.
230. Well, do you know what you will order?
231. Aha! I see they have chicken in garlic sauce.
232. Well, they always serve exceptionally fine pie.
233. Wow! This restaurant is great for party and wedding!
234. Hooray! What a wonderful restaurant for the family in town.
235. Yum, this chicken tastes wonderful.
236. Well, I have plenty to eat.
237. Hooray! They have ice cream for dessert!
238. Oh, we don’t see that on the menu.
239. Yikes, did you see the check?
240. Aha! They are under the bed.
35

241. To see is to believe.


242. Teach me to swim.
243. To give is better than to receive.
244. To find fault is easy.
245. I heard him cry.
246. He likes to play cricket.
247. I made him run.
248. You had better ask him permission.
249. We eat to live.
250. I have come to see you.
251. To respect our parents is our duty.
252. He refused to obey the orders.
253. Birds love to sing.
254. Many men desire to make money quickly.
255. I saw him do it.
256. One way to improve your writing is to elaborate.
257. The Prime Minister is to visit America next month.
258. The conference is to discuss “Nuclear Tests”.
259. We compelled the enemy to surrender.
260. It started to rain while we were playing tennis.
261. Akhtar wants to be a doctor.
262. As I read it my blood began to boil.
263. The headmaster wants to speak to you.
264. Members sell cookies to raise money.
265. Plants need light and water to grow.
266. We did not want to have a tiger.
267. They were not afraid to play our team.
268. The crowd must not forget to applaud both teams.
269. Scientists will discover new ideas to travel.
270. I will remember to take my binoculars.
271. Seeing is believing.
272. I am tired of waiting.
273. He was punished for telling a lie.
274. He has ruined his sight by reading small print.
275. Walking on the grass is forbidden.
276. I like reading poetry.
277. He is fond of swimming.
278. Smoking is injurious to health.
279. We were prevented from seeing the prisoner.
280. Stop playing.
281. I hope you will excuse my leaving early.
282. The time of the singing of the birds has come.
283. Success is not merely winning applause.
284. He preferred playing football to studying his lessons.
285. He is addicted to gambling.
286. I assisted her in climbing the hill.
287. I do not believe in pampering servants.
288. I am bent on attending the meeting.
289. He has hardly any chance of succeeding.
290. He is desirous of visiting Japan.
291. He despaired of achieving his object.
292. There is some difficulty in perceiving his meaning.
293. Remember the duty of helping the poor.
294. He is expert in inventing stories.
295. He appreciated the necessity of acting promptly.
296. He persisted in disobeying orders.
297. Telling your father was a mistake.
298. What is there to prevent him from leaving Hyderabad?
299. It was only a pretext for delaying the matter.
300. I insisted on having my say.
37

301. Loudly knocking at the gate, he demanded admission.


302. Gathering my courage, I asked for a temporary loan.
303. The man seems worried.
304. He kept me waiting.
305. The boy excited about the presents sat on the couch.
306. The sea being smooth, we went for sail.
307. Generally speaking, we receive what we deserve.
308. I saw the storm approaching.
309. Having elected him President, the people gave him their loyal support.
310. Playing cricket, he gained health.
311. Walking along the road, he noticed a dead cobra.
312. Seeing, he believed.
313. Waving their hats and handkerchiefs, the people cheered the king.
314. Sleeping in the garden, I didn’t hear the telephone.
315. Sitting on the gate, he was stung by a scorpion.
316. A woman answered her front door and found two boys holding a list.
317. Jumping over the fence, the thief escaped.
318. I saw him opening the box.
319. Hearing their father’s footsteps, the boys ran away.
320. Finding himself in difficulty, he went to his teacher for help.
321. Having finished his exercise, he put away his books.
322. Weather permitting, there will be a garden party at Government
House tomorrow.
323. The wind having failed, the crew set to work with a will.
324. Speaking honestly, I do not know.
325. Finding the door unlocked, the thief entered the house.
326. I heard my mother talking on the phone.
327. The umbrella found at the bus stop belongs to Javed.
328. Looking down from the tower, we saw many people walking in the
streets.
329. Sajid hurt his leg doing Karate.
330. Pretending to sleep, she hears the whole conservation.
38

Exercise 12
Rewrite all words in the sentences given in previous 11 exercises in their
respective colors.
39

Bibliography

P.C. Wren & H. Martin,


High School English Grammar & Composition,
2003. S.chand & Company Ltd.

Michael Strumpf & Auriel Douglas,


The Complete Grammar,
Goodwill Publishing House,
New Delhi.

McGraw-Hill,
Language Arts,
2001 Macmillan/McGraw-Hill,
Grade 3.

McGraw-Hill,
Language Arts,
2001 Macmillan/McGraw-Hill,
Grade 5.

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English,


Longman Group Ltd,
1995-First Indian reprint 1998,
Thomas press (India) Ltd.