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A Methodology to Revise a Municipal Zoning Bylaw for EV

Infrastructure
April 15, 2019 (updated from previous versions 2017 to 2019)
Jim Hindson, P.Eng. Victoria BC jhindson@telus.net

Overview
This document describes a three-step process for implementing regulations requiring electric
vehicle charging infrastructure in new construction through amendments to existing municipal
zoning bylaws.

Step 1) Add Definitions to the Municipal Zoning Bylaw for Off-street Parking
Electric vehicle means a vehicle that uses electricity for propulsion, and that can use an
external source of electricity to charge the vehicle’s batteries

Electric vehicle energy management system (EVEMS) is a means of controlling electric


vehicle supply equipment loads comprised of any of the following: a monitor(s), communications
equipment, a controller(s), a timer(s) and other applicable device(s).

Electrical Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) an AC charge station as defined in the


Canadian electrical code.

Energized means is electrically connected to, or is, a source of voltage.

Level 1 (L1) refers to a 120 Volt, 12- or 16-Amp continuous AC circuit as defined in the Society
of Automotive Engineers (SAE) J1772 standard.

Level 2 (L2) refers to a 208/240 Volt, less than or equal to 80 Amps continuous AC circuit as
defined in the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) J1772 standard.

Level 2 Managed (L2M) refers to Level 2 AC charging capability that varies electrical power to
EVSE loads.

Minimum charging performance standard is a standard that outlines the minimum charging
requirements for multiple electric vehicles sharing the same power supply. It specifies the
number of kWhs that is required to be delivered to each vehicle in a specified time period for a
given number of EVSEs sharing a power supply. Alternatively, the performance standard may
specify the circuit breaker size required for a given number of EVSEs sharing a power supply.

Step 2) Add text to the Zoning Bylaw for the Minimum Charging Performance Standard
and Signage

i. Where an electrical vehicle energy management system is implemented, the City


Director of Planning may specify a minimum charging performance standard to ensure a
sufficient rate of electric vehicle charging, protocols and management guidelines. The
performance standard may vary by zoning designation or classification.

ii. The electrical infrastructure shall include revenue metering if the apportionment of
energy costs is required.
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iii. If Council delegates the authority for setting minimum energized spaces and minimum
EVSE requirements for non-residential land uses, to the Director of Planning, (see
Option 3a below) the City Planner may specify the minimum number of spaces to be
energized and the EVSE requirements per required parking space under the zoning
bylaw.

iv. Parking spaces for electric vehicles should be identified with standard signage as
approved by the municipality

Step 3) Add the minimum EV Infrastructure Requirements to the Zoning Bylaw


Proceed with either Option a) or b) or c)

Option a) outlines the bylaw provisions that can be implemented to ensure a 100% requirement
for residential properties and the optimization of EV infrastructure regulations for all property
types based on the use of the property (see Appendix A). This approach avoids specifying too
much or too little EV infrastructure for each property (land) use. It can be used to phase in EV
infrastructure regulations over time by starting with those property types with the highest priority
and adding the infrastructure requirements for other land uses at later points in time. In this
option, the authority to specify the EV infrastructure requirements for non-residential1 parking
spaces is delegated to the City Planner by Council.

Option a) can be used even if the initial implementation is for residential property zoning
designations only2. Specifying the requirements at the individual zoning designation level rather
than at the aggregated level avoids encountering justified concerns from commercial, industrial,
institutional or other non-residential property owners that the EV infrastructure requirements for
their individual properties are onerous or lack justification. For example, although both land
classifications may be “commercial”, the infrastructure requirements for a financial facility and
fast food restaurant are substantially different.

Option b) This option is the same as Option a) except that Council retains the authority for
designating the EV infrastructure requirements for all property types. This option can also be
used to phase in EV infrastructure regulations over time by starting with those properties with
the highest priority such as residential properties with the addition of other property types
Council on the recommendations of the City Planner over time.

Option c) outlines the bylaw provisions to implement EV charging requirements as an


alternative to a) or b) by specifying the EV infrastructure scenarios in the first column of a table
and the zoning designations to which they apply in the second column of the table. This
structure may be advantageous in cases where the municipality may wish to phase-in the EV
infrastructure requirements starting with the most important requirements (residential) and
adding other class groups as support and acceptance builds.

This option may also be advantageous in cases where the existing parking requirements are in
text form under each zoning designation rather than in table format or in cases where there are
a relatively low number of zoning variables. Option c) may also be easy to implement as it does
not involve the restructuring of the existing parking requirement table.

1 Residential parking space requirements should not be changed without Council approval
2 Typical zoning designations are prefixed with R for residential, C for commercial and I for Industrial
(refer to the example in Appendix A)
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Although a 100% infrastructure requirement could be specified for all residential properties, with
a separation for one- and two-family dwellings (L2) from MURBS (L2M) it is not recommended
that non-residential EV infrastructure requirements be implemented by general property class
without including the specific zoning designations (column 2). Such a scenario would result in
the same EV infrastructure requirements for all properties within that property class irrespective
of the specific use of the property. For example, office space and fast food restaurants are both
“commercial” uses but the EV infrastructure requirements are totally different with fast food
restaurants having no requirement.

It is also possible to start with Option c) then move to Option a) or b) at some later point in time
if it becomes practically or administratively advantageous to do so.

Option a)
Add the following text to the bylaw:

Minimum Parking Spaces

The minimum number of off-street parking spaces and electric vehicle infrastructure that
shall be provided and maintained in respect of each land use or building class shall be in
accordance with the following tables and in accordance with the land uses as set out in the
table:

Column A in each of the tables refers to the zoning class code or zoning designation.

Column B in each of the tables refers to the land uses that include a minimum parking space
requirement.

Column C in each of tables refers to the minimum number of parking spaces required for the
land use(s) indicated in Column B

Column D in each of the tables refers to the minimum number of parking spaces, either
expressed as a percentage of the total or as a whole number which shall be provided with
energized outlets.

Column E in each of the tables refers to the minimum number of energized3 outlets in Column C
that shall also be provided with EVSE units. It may be expressed as a % or a whole number.

Column F in each of the tables refers to the minimum charging level to be provided at each of
the energized parking spaces in Column D.

Where a percentage of spaces is specified and the calculated amount of energized parking
spaces or EVSE units results in a fraction, the number required shall be rounded up to the next
whole number.

3 Refer to the Appendix for additional information about Minimum Energized


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Revise the existing Bylaw to include the column entries as outlined above

Example only. The final version should be based on the existing municipal zoning bylaw and
local conditions.

Residential

(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (F)


Use or Class of Use Minimum Number of Parking Spaces Minimum Min. Minimum
Energized EVSE Charging
Level
R Residential
R-1 Single family dwellings 1 space per dwelling unit 100% 0% L2
R-2 Two family dwellings 1 space per dwelling unit 100% 0% L2
R-3 Buildings converted to 1 space for the first unit plus 0.5 space for 100% 2 L2M
housekeeping units every unit over 1
R-4 Buildings converted to rooming 1 space for the first unit plus 0.5 space for 100% 2 L2M
houses or boarding houses every unit over 1
R-5 New rooming houses or boarding 0.5 space per sleeping unit 100% 2 L2M
houses
R-6 New buildings containing 1 space per housekeeping unit 100% 2 L2M
housekeeping Units
R-7 Buildings converted to multiple 0.8 space per dwelling unit for any 100% 2 L2M
dwellings in zones other than a building containing more than 3 dwelling
multiple dwelling zone; both for units
rental and strata buildings
1.0 space per dwelling unit for any
building containing 3 dwelling units
R-8 Buildings containing residential 0.7 space per dwelling unit 100% 2 L2M
use in the C-4 and C-5 zones
R-9 Buildings containing residential 1 space per dwelling unit 100% 2 L2M
use in the C-9 Zone
R-10 Buildings containing senior 0.35 space per senior citizens’ unit 100% 2 L2M
citizens’ residences
R-11 Multiple Dwellings 1.3 space per dwelling unit 100% 2 L2M

R-12 Those Multiple Dwellings Subject 1.2 space per dwelling unit 100% 2 L2M
to Strata Title Ownership
R-13 Rental attached dwelling 1.4 space per dwelling unit 100% 0% L2M
R-14 Condominium attached dwelling 1.5 space per dwelling unit 100% 0% L2M

Institutional

(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (F)


Use or Class of Use Minimum Number of Parking Spaces Minimum Min. Minimum
Energized EVSE Charging
Level
I Institutional
I-1 Community Care Facilities 1 space per 5 beds
I-2 Hospitals (other than extended 1 space per 4 beds; plus 1 space per 3
Refer to the latest Bulletin Issued by
care employees not counting doctors, plus 1
the Planning Department / City
hospitals) space per doctor.
Planner

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I-2A Extended Care Hospitals
(a) containing less than 100 1 space per 3 beds
beds
(b) containing 100 beds and 1 space per 2.5 beds
more
I-3 Buildings for private club use, 1 space per 9.5 m2 of floor area used or
fraternal lodges, athletic intended to be used for assembly
instruction, social halls and similar purposes
uses
I-4 Auditoriums and similar places of 1 space per 6 m2 of floor area used or
assembly intended to be used for assembly
purposes
I-5 Churches 1 space per 10 seats and per 5m of
bench in the
principal assembly room; or 1 space per
9.5m2 of floor area used or intended to Refer to the latest Bulletin Issued by
be used for public assembly purposes the Planning Department / City
whichever is the greater. Planner
I-6 Buildings used as schools
(a) Kindergarten and elementary 1 space per employee plus 2
schools
(b) Junior secondary schools 1 space per employee plus 2
(c) Senior secondary schools and 1 space per employee plus 2, plus 1
colleges space per 25 students

Commercial

(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (F)


Use or Class of Use Minimum Number of Parking Spaces Minimum Min. Minimum
Energized EVSE Charging
Level
C Commercial
C-1 Buildings for transient 0.5 space per transient accommodation
accommodation unit
C-2 Theatres 1 space per 10 seats in the public
assembly Area
C-3 Funeral Directors’ establishments 1 space per 4 seats in the public assembly
area Refer to the latest Bulletin Issued
C-4 a) Large retail shopping 1 space per 37.5m2 of gross floor area by the Planning Department / City
centers >10,000 m2 Planner
b) Retail stores, banks 1 space per 37.5m2 of gross floor area
personal services
establishments or similar
uses
C-5 Offices used for medical and 1 space per 37.5m2 of gross floor area
dental services
Other offices 1 space per 65m2 of gross floor area
C-6 Service Stations 1 space per 186m2 of lot area
C-7 Automatic car wash 10 spaces
C-8 Launderettes and coin-operated 1 space per 19m2 of gross floor area
dry-cleaning establishments
C-9 Commercial Exhibit Refer to the latest Bulletin Issued
(a) in the Commercial Exhibit 4 spaces by the Planning Department / City
Zones Planner
(b) in zones other than 1 space per 232 m2 of lot area
Commercial Exhibit zones
C-10 Commercial Amusement Park 1 space per 9m2 of site area used for the
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commercial amusement park and any
retail establishments plus 1 space per 8
patrons which can be accommodated by
the commercial amusement park and
associated establishments
C-11 Free standing food sales outlets 20 spaces plus 1 space for each 2.5 seats
C-12 Eating and Drinking 1 space per 5 seats
Establishments Refer to the latest Bulletin Issued
C-13 Neighbourhood Pubs 1 space per 3 seats by the Planning Department / City
C-14 Parking Facility Less than 10 parking spaces Planner
10 parking spaces or more

Industrial

(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (F)


Use or Class of Use Minimum Number of Parking Spaces Minimum Min. Minimum
Energized EVSE Charging
Level
IN Industrial
IN-1 Buildings for warehouse and 1 space per 93m2 of gross floor area or 1
wholesale distribution use space per 3 employees, whichever is
Refer to the latest Bulletin Issued by
greater
the Planning Department / City
IN-2 Buildings for manufacturing use space per 140m2 of gross floor area or 1
Planner
space per 3 employees, whichever is
greater

Option b)
Add the following text to the bylaw:

Minimum Parking Spaces

The minimum number of off-street parking spaces and electric vehicle infrastructure that
shall be provided and maintained in respect of each building or land use shall be in
accordance with the following tables and in accordance with the land uses as set out in the
table:

Column A in each of the tables refers to the zoning designation code

Column B in each of the tables refers to the land uses that include a minimum parking space
requirement.

Column C in each of tables refers to the minimum number of parking spaces required for the
land use(s) indicated in Column B

Column D in each of the tables refers to the minimum number of parking spaces, either
expressed as a percentage of the total or as a whole number which shall be provided with
energized outlets. With the exception of residential charging (100%) the minimum energized
outlets as a percentage or a whole number is determined by an assessment of the number of
vehicles that would require charging at that land use. Refer to "Minimum Energized" in Appendix
A.

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Column E in each of the tables refers to the minimum number of energized outlets in Column C
that shall also be provided with EVSE units. It may be expressed as a % or a whole number.

Column F in each of the tables refers to the minimum charging level to be provided at each of
the energized parking spaces in Column D.

Where a percentage of spaces is specified and the calculated amount of energized parking
spaces or EVSE units results in a fraction, the number required shall be rounded up to the next
whole number.

Revise the existing Bylaw to include the column entries as outlined above

Example only. The final version should be based on the existing municipal zoning bylaw and
local conditions.

Residential

(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (F)


Use or Class of Use Minimum Number of Parking Spaces Minimum Min. Minimum
Energized EVSE Charging
Level
R Residential
R-1 Single family dwellings 1 space per dwelling unit 100% 0% L2
R-2 Two family dwellings 1 space per dwelling unit 100% 0% L2
R-3 Buildings converted to 1 space for the first unit plus 0.5 space for 100% 2 L2M
housekeeping units every unit over 1
R-4 Buildings converted to rooming 1 space for the first unit plus 0.5 space for 100% 2 L2M
houses or boarding houses every unit over 1
R-5 New rooming houses or boarding 0.5 space per sleeping unit 100% 2 L2M
houses
R-6 New buildings containing 1 space per housekeeping unit 100% 2 L2M
housekeeping Units
R-7 Buildings converted to multiple 0.8 space per dwelling unit for any 100% 2 L2M
dwellings in zones other than a building
multiple dwelling zone; both for containing more than 3 dwelling units
rental and strata buildings
1.0 space per dwelling unit for any
building
containing 3 dwelling units
R-8 Buildings containing residential 0.7 space per dwelling unit 100% 2 L2M
use in the C-4 and C-5 zones
R-9 Buildings containing residential 1 space per dwelling unit 100% 2 L2M
use in the C-9 zone
R-10 Buildings containing senior 0.35 space per senior citizens’ unit 100% 2 L2M
citizens’ residences
R-11 Multiple Dwellings
(a) located in a R3-1 Zone 1.1 1.3 space per dwelling unit 100% 2 L2M
space per dwelling unit
(b) located in a R3-2 Zone 1.3 1.3 space per dwelling unit 100% 2 L2M
space per dwelling unit
(c) located in zones other than R3- 1.3 space per dwelling unit 100% 2 L2M
1 and R3-2

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R-12 Those Multiple Dwellings Subject 1.2 space per dwelling unit 100% 2 L2M
to Strata Title Ownership

R-13 Rental attached dwelling 1.4 space per dwelling unit 100% 0% L2M
R-14 Condominium attached dwelling 1.5 space per dwelling unit 100% 0% L2M

Institutional

(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (F)


Use or Class of Use Minimum Number of Parking Spaces Minimum Min. Minimum
Energized EVSE Charging
Level
I Institutional
I-1 Community Care Facilities 1 space per 5 beds 5% 2 L2
I-2 Hospitals (other than extended 1 space per 4 beds; plus 1 space per 3 5% 2 L2
care employees not counting doctors, plus 1
hospitals) space per doctor.

I-2A Extended Care Hospitals 5% 2 L2


(c) containing less than 100 1 space per 3 beds
beds
(d) containing 100 beds and 1 space per 2.5 beds
more
I-3 Buildings for private club use, 1 space per 9.5 m2 of floor area used or 0%
fraternal lodges, athletic intended to be used for assembly
instruction, social halls and similar purposes
uses
I-4 Auditoriums and similar places of 1 space per 6 m2 of floor area used or 0%
assembly intended to be used for assembly
purposes
I-5 Churches 1 space per 10 seats and per 5m of 0%
bench in the
principal assembly room; or 1 space per
9.5m2 of floor area used or intended to
be used for public assembly purposes
whichever is the greater.
I-6 Buildings used as schools
(a) Kindergarten and elementary 1 space per employee plus 2 5% 2 L1
schools
(b) Junior secondary schools 1 space per employee plus 2 5% 2 L1
(c) Senior secondary schools and 1 space per employee plus 2, plus 1 5% 2 L2M
colleges space per 25 students

Commercial

(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (F)


Use or Class of Use Minimum Number of Parking Spaces Minimum Min. Minimum
Energized EVSE Charging
Level
C Commercial
C-1 Buildings for transient 0.5 space per transient accommodation 0%
accommodation unit

C-2 Theatres 1 space per 10 seats in the public 0%


assembly Area
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C-3 Funeral Directors’ establishments 1 space per 4 seats in the public assembly 0%
area
C-4 a) Large retail shopping 1 space per 37.5m2 of gross floor area 5% 4 L2
centers >10,000 m2
b) Retail stores, banks 1 space per 37.5m2 of gross floor area 0%
personal services
establishments or similar
uses
C-5 Offices used for medical and 1 space per 37.5m2 of gross floor area 5% 1 L2
dental Services
Other offices 1 space per 65m2 of gross floor area
C-6 Service Stations 1 space per 186m2 of lot area 1 1 L2
C-7 Automatic car wash 10 spaces 0%
C-8 Launderettes and coin-operated 1 space per 19m2 of gross floor area 0%
dry-cleaning establishments
C-9 Commercial Exhibit 0%
(a) in the Commercial Exhibit 4 spaces
Zones 1 space per 232 m2 of lot area
(b) in zones other than
Commercial Exhibit zones
C-10 Commercial Amusement Park 1 space per 9m2 of site area used for the 0%
commercial amusement park and any
retail establishments plus 1 space per 8
patrons which can be accommodated by
the commercial amusement park and
associated establishments
C-11 Free standing food sales outlets 20 spaces plus 1 space for each 2.5 seats 0%
C-12 Eating and Drinking 1 space per 5 seats 0%
Establishments
C-13 Neighbourhood Pubs 1 space per 3 seats 0%
C-14 Parking Facility Less than 10 parking spaces 1 1 L2
10 parking spaces or more 5% 2% L2

Industrial

(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (F)


Use or Class of Use Minimum Number of Parking Spaces Minimum Min. Minimum
Energized EVSE Charging
Level
IN Industrial
IN-1 Buildings for warehouse and 1 space per 93m2 of gross floor area or 1 5% 2 L2M
wholesale distribution use space per 3 employees, whichever is
greater
IN-2 Buildings for manufacturing use space per 140m2 of gross floor area or 1 5% 2 L2M
space per 3 employees, whichever is
greater

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Option c)
Option c) can also be used detail the EV infrastructure requirements at the individual zoning
designation level through a summary table of the EV infrastructure requirements and the
zonings to which they apply. It is a simpler way of describing the same regulations as Options a)
or b), however its complexity increases, depending on the number of unique infrastructure
requirements that may be desired within each zoning class.

Add the following text to the bylaw:

1. Provisions for Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure

Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Requirements


Electric Vehicle charging infrastructure shall be installed as follows:

Residential Zones:

Min EV Infrastructure Applies to:


One energised L2 circuit per parking R-1, R-2, R-13, R-14
space (100% requirement)
One energized L2M circuits per parking R-3, R-4, R-5, R-6, R-7, R-8, R-9, R-10,
space (100% requirement) with a R-11, R-12
minimum of 2 EVSEs.

Commercial Zones:

Min EV Infrastructure Applies to:


5% of parking spaces with energised L2 C-4a
circuits and a minimum of 1 EVSE
5% of parking spaces energised L2 C-5
circuits and a minimum of 4 EVSEs
Minimum of 1 EVSE at L2 C-6
Less than 10 parking spaces 1 L2 EVSE, C-14
more than 10 parking spaces 5% L2
energised, 2% of energized shall include
EVSE units
No requirement C-1, C-2, C-3, C-4b, C-7, C-8, C-9, C-10,
C-11, C-12, C-13

Institutional Zones:

Min EV Infrastructure Applies to:


5% of parking spaces energized L2 I-1, I-2, I-3, I-6
circuits with a minimum 2 EVSEs
No requirement I-3, I-4, I-5

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Industrial Zones
Min EV Infrastructure Applies to:
5% of parking spaces energized L2 IN-1
circuits with a minimum 2 EVSEs
5% of parking spaces energized L2M with IN-2
a minimum of 2 EVSEs

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Appendix A – Rationale for the suggested standards

The following factors should be considered in the development of minimum charging


requirements and have been considered in these suggested standards.

Cost
EV charging standards should be implemented for residential and accommodation land uses at
a minimum, as the cost of installation at the time of construction is considerably less than
retrofitting electric vehicle infrastructure after construction. Concerns about the application of the
standards in individual cases can be referred to the zoning variance and appeal process
provided that the final implementation is consistent with the intent of the bylaw. To manage
costs, managed or shared Level 2 charging should be specified for MURBS.

Minimum Energized
The minimum energized requirement for non-residential properties could hypothetically be the
maximum number of EVs at any point in time, arriving at a property that do not have sufficient
range to complete the next leg of their journey or the remainder of their daily travel or otherwise
described as ORR (Out of Return Range). It is currently a subjective variable due to a number
of factors including insufficient real-world data and experience that could lead to a more
definitive determination of minimum energized values.

As 90% of vehicles travel less than 100 km per day, the minimum value could be considered to
be 5% to 10 % of the number of required parking spaces with some discount for intercity travel
using DCFCs. The minimum requirement could be at the higher end in remote areas with longer
daily travelling distances or lower EV ranges due to cold weather or mountainous terrain. On the
other hand, the minimum requirement could be at the lower (below 5%) in areas with temperate
climates, and lower daily driving requirements or in communities located on islands.

The arrival of longer range EVs and faster charging times is not expected to reduce minimum
Level 2 EV charging requirements for non-residential property types4 for the following reasons:

• Battery capacities are not expected to rise indefinitely because of the trade-off between
eliminating virtually all range anxiety and higher market penetration by producing more
affordable EVs.
• Occasional out-of-town travel that results in the EV being out of return range (ORR)
• Unexpected travel resulting in an ORR condition.
• Travel to a distant sporting or cultural event
• Either too many DCFCs would be required to meet peak needs (e.g. sporting event) or
their use would be inconvenient in terms of disruptions to a meeting or sporting event in
order to move EVs at the start or end of a DCFC session.
• Although generation 2 EVs generally have higher charging speed capabilities (100kW
plus), charging speeds measured in Gen 2 production vehicles have been shown to be
significantly reduced in cold weather5 conditions which would lead to additional DCFC
charge times and queuing if L2 requirements for non-residential properties were
eliminated.

4 Additional information is available from the article “Why EV regulations are needed for non-residential
properties”
5 DCFC charging seeds for some production Gen 2 vehicles are indicating charge speeds of 40 KW or

less near 0 degrees C


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At the time of this writing 5% is viewed as a starting point as a minimum energized standard for
non-residential properties that should have an EV infrastructure requirement. Properties that are
characterized by short stays (e.g. fast food establishments, strip malls) or that are essentially
local destinations (e.g. theatres, private clubs) should generally not have a minimum
infrastructure requirement.

Minimum charging performance standard


The minimum charging performance standard is based on the average daily charge (in kWh)
that would be needed to meet the daily travel requirements of 95% of the vehicles in the local
area and surrounding districts. The minimum performance standard should be determined
separately for each municipality as it is dependent upon local travel characteristics, congestion
levels, climate and terrain.

In jurisdictions that include (or that may be considering) Time of Use (TOU) charging rates, it will
be necessary to consider the impacts of TOU rates on the minimum charging performance
standard. It is in the interest of all parties to harmonize reduced grid loads benefits of managed
charging with a complimentary TOU rate structure (if implemented) such that the TOU structure
does not encourage peak loads on the grid overnight nor should it shorten the performance
standard compliance window. In general, TOU rate structures should not be implemented as an
EV adoption incentive due to unintended consequences including reductions in utility revenue
that could be used to finance EV infrastructure improvements.

Level 1 in MURBS
Although, in some cases, Level 1 charging infrastructure might meet the minimum performance
standard, slow EV charging times (irrespective of how many vehicles are simultaneously
charging), may lead to dissatisfaction on the part of residents being restricted to only Level 1
charging capability.

Charging levels
Charging Levels are defined according to SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers)
Level 1 (L1) is suggested in cases where there is sufficient dwell-time (overnight) to
obtain the minimum charging requirement.

Level 2 (L2) is suggested in cases where the vehicle operator needs a faster charging
rate and needs certainty about the time to obtain a specific amount of charge and is not
sharing a supply.

Level 2 Managed (L2M) is the managed charging of multiple L2 connections to charge


vehicles on one supply. It is more desirable (and cost-competitive with L1) as it allocates
charging according to the number of vehicles connected and hence is more likely to
charge a group of vehicles faster and at less cost than L1.

DCFC (Level 2 DC which is frequently erroneously referred to as Level 3) is generally


not recommended for regulation through zoning due to its high cost. It is primarily
intended for inter-city or general community use when a fast charge is needed.

Land use
Residential and Accommodation
Most electric vehicle charging is expected to occur when vehicles are idle overnight and
the impacts on the electrical grid peaks are minimized. Therefore, in the long term, it is
very important that all residential and accommodation spaces have access to charging

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infrastructure and that 100% of the parking spaces be energized (less EVSEs) to avoid
successive and expensive retrofits.

Institutional
Electric vehicles that may be driven by out of town visitors to institutional land uses such
as post-secondary schools and hospitals are more likely to require certainty about
charging times and hence L2 should be considered. Institutional land uses that may be
frequented by local citizens such as churches and art galleries do not generally require
minimum charging infrastructure.

Commercial
Electric vehicles have longer dwell times at commercial land uses such as shopping
centres and professional offices. Electric vehicle owners visiting these locations should
have certainly about charging times and hence L2 should be specified. Commercial land
uses that have short electric vehicle dwell times such as strip malls and fast food outlets
generally should not require minimum charging infrastructure. The rationale for generally
excluding other land uses such as bowling alleys and theatres is that they cater to local
residents who, for the most part, would not require additional daily charging. In the
absence of a separate zoning category for smaller strip malls with short vehicle parking
times, the zoning variance process could be used to exempt strip malls or small
commercial or retail centres from charging requirements while retaining them for larger
shopping centres.

Parking facilities (subset of Commercial)


Parking facilities may be permanently constructed above, below or at-grade. Permanent
parking facilities are distinct from the temporary use of land for parking pending its
development or redevelopment. It may be necessary to establish zoning designations
specifically for permanent parking facilities if they are not already included in the bylaw in
order to bring them within the scope of EV infrastructure regulations.

It is suggested that the zoning designation for parking facilities be included within the
Commercial class (See C-14 in the tables in Options a) and b) and “Commercial” in
Option c)) and, if necessary, an appropriate definition should be added to the existing
zoning bylaw.

Parking Facility means a building, structure or land designed or intended for


short-term parking of vehicles weighing less than 5,000 kilograms [11,023 lbs.]
G.V.W.

Some municipalities make a distinction between at-grade parking lots and above and
below grade parking structures (parkades). Adding such a distinction permits the option
of having different EV infrastructure requirements for larger, more expensive and
permanent parking structures.

It may also be necessary to add “Parking facility” as a permitted use or class of use
within multiple commercial designations such as “office” or “shopping centre” land uses
in order to include cases where a land owner does not wish to forfeit the option of the
higher (office) zoning designation but, in the interim, may wish to establish a parking lot
for a prolonged period of time before proceeding with the development of the property.

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Industrial
The rationale for including a minimum charging requirement for Industrial land uses is
that they are more likely to have visitors with electric vehicles from other cities outside
the local area and beyond the return range of an EV. A minimum of infrastructure
facilitates electric vehicle travel to and from Industrial land uses. L2 minimum is specified
due to the need for charge time certainty.

Security
A consideration in the cases of L1 charging infrastructure is the security of the L1 charging unit.
Although all EVs come with an L1 charging unit these valuable units ($500) are used outside the
vehicle and are vulnerable to theft and vandalism. In exposed areas or where the long-term
serviceability and maintenance of the L1 receptacle (wall outlet) is of concern L1 EVSE units
should be considered as a mandatory requirement.

Workplace (Employee) Charging


“Workplace charging” is sometimes suggested as a means of increasing EV adoption rates by
either accommodating those employees that are long distance commuters (and would not have
sufficient range to return home) or by providing a daily charging opportunity6 for those
employee EV owners that do not have access to a charger at their place of residence.

Specifying requirements for workplace charging spaces is out of scope of the zoning bylaw as
the requirement for parking spaces in zoning bylaws:
a) deals with the total number of parking spaces required by the property and does not
distinguish between parking spaces required by patrons or employees (workers).
b) the use of the required parking spaces is at the discretion of the property owner up to
and including not providing any employee parking.

Visitor Charging
Visitor parking requirements are sometimes specified for residential (MURB) zones. EV
infrastructure requirements for visitor parking spaces are generally not recommended as they
would be used by persons with other charging options and such a requirement could preclude
ICE vehicle parking in visitor spaces during the transition process to higher EV adoption.

Current structure of the local zoning bylaw – tables or text


The parking provisions of the local zoning bylaw are usually included in a table format (see
above examples) or may be included within the text describing each individual zoning category.

If the parking provisions are in text format, it may be advantageous for ease of administration
and reference, to separate all parking provisions for all zonings into a table format in the zoning
bylaw. Another option that could be implemented quickly with less restructuring of the parking
provisions of the bylaw would be to use Option c).

Impact on building costs over time


The general principal used is to minimize the initial impacts on building construction cost while
taking advantage of the savings in avoiding future costly retrofitting.

6
It is noted that workplace charging has potential implications for increasing peak grid loads and that policies to
increase the availability of residential charging are preferable in terms of supplying EV owners with their daily
charge requirements. Exceptions could be for jurisdictions that may have periods of surplus or excess renewable
power such as may be found in the south western United States.
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Other EV charging policy considerations
a. Public property electricity and space occupancy charges.
Charges for electricity in public spaces should be considered to discourage
opportunity charging and occupancy of the charging space by vehicles that have
been fully charged or that have exceeded the maximum charging time permitted.

b. Private property third party electricity charges


Third party charging for electricity may be necessary in order for property owners to
recover the costs of the electricity dispensed including reasonable administrative and
maintenance charges. Property owners should have the ability to charge for the
electricity used to charge electric vehicles. Charges can be levied directly or through
third party charging systems. Changes to the Utility Act may be required.

c. Enforcement
Enforcement is necessary in order to ensure that charging spaces are not occupied
by; non-electric vehicles; electric vehicles that are not charging; or vehicles that are
otherwise in contravention of the conditions of occupancy of the charging space. The
tagging and/or towing of vehicles should be considered for vehicles that are in
violation of the terms of use of the charging spaces.

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