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History of Gaudiya Vaisnavism


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ITIHASA returns to the index The Manvantara di Vaivasvata: 28° Kali-yuga third part Second the
1500 part of and 1600 beginning the Gaudiya Movement In the sixteenth century many had been the
religious and philosophical shunting lines and contaminations. In means to many confusions it had
been the golden moon of Caitanya Mahaprabhu while still alive to bring back the pure devozione for
Radha-Krishna. The six Gosvami (with to other large ones bhakta) had codified the philosophy
Gaudiya Vaishnava, writing numerous books and dandole scientific dignity. With the passing of large
the Acarya contemporary of the Mahaprabhu the Gaudiya movement at all has not been dissolved,
but it has continued thanks to the successive generations. We will give to hour some information to
you on the screw and the activities on the second generation of Gaudiya Vaishnava. Particularly
important were Srinivasa Acarya, Narottama Dasa Thakura and Syamananda Pandita, that they had
fundamental un?importanza in the Gaudiya history: in fact they were in first person responsible of its
dissemination in all l?India (400). The witnesses who speak us about they are the Bhakti-ratnakara
(written to the end of the 700 from Narahari Cakravarti, disciple of Vishvanatha Cakravarti), the
Narottam Vilas (also this written from Narahari

Cakravarti), Prema-vilas (of Nityananda Dasa, disciple of Jahnavadevi), the Karnananda (of
Yadunandana Thakura, disciple of Hemalata Thakurani), l?Anuraga-dances (written towards the
1697 from Manohara Dasa, disciple of Ramsharana Chattaraja, in its turn pupil of same Srinivasa),
the Syamananda Prakasa, (of Krishna Caran Dasa, of which precise news if not that he was disciple
of Radha-Mohana Dasa and confratello of Baladeva Vidyabhushana is not had).

Srinivasa Acarya Was disciple of Gopala Bhatta and Jiva Gosvami. He was he to guide the first
group of distributors of books, converted the king Birhambir and it participated to the first one
festival of the Gaura-Purnima that was kept to Kheturi, that it was organized from Narottama Dasa
Thakura. The Gangadhara father and the moglie Lakshmipriya lived in the small village of Chakhandi
(on the western river of the Gange). Them were not a happy life, wanted of the sons that they did not
succeed to possession. In the 1510 Gangadhara went to find Sri Caitanya in the day in which it was
taking sannyasa. To Katwa (than one finds to approximately seven miles from Chakhandi) saw the
Getlteman while Madhu Sheel (the barber) was cutting hats to it. Lì saw also the companions more
tightened than Sri Caitanya, Nityananda, Candrasekhara, Mukunda and others. Gangadhara fell in
ecstasy and began to repeat?Krishna Caitanya! Caitanya! Caitanya!? When he returned to the village,
its friends gave the nickname to it of Caitanya Dasa for the frequency with which he repeated the
Saint name.

Later on these, accompanied from the moglie, went to find the Getlteman to Pure, which it foretold
they it birth of a son and churches that called it Srinivasa. The more probable date of the birth of the
great predicatore is 1517 (401). During its infancy, Srinivasa was a great erudite. Narahari Sarakara,
an intimate one associated of Caitanya knew, that it lived in the Srikhanda neighbor and that
Srinivasa accepted like siksa guru. In those days Caitanya Dasa died.

Narahari Sarakara advised to Srinivasa of prendersi cure of the mother, than in the meantime it had
gone to live in the parental home of Jajigram. But at the same time it insisted that it went in visit to
Pure in order meeting Sri Caitanya. A day determined to leave and was during the travel that came to
know of the passing of Sri Caitanya from this world. It was the 1534. Resisting to the temptation of
suicidarsi, the travel continued and reached Pure, with l?intenzione to take shelter in Gadadhara
Pandita. These, that he had been friend d?infanzia of the Mahaprabhu, informed it that Sri Caitanya
had foretold to it dell?arrivo of Srinivasa and that its task (of Gadadhara) was of insegnargli the
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Bhagavatam. But the copy of the book that Sri Caitanya had given to Gadadhara Pandita in guard
was ruined and was illeggibile, for which Srinivasa it was sent in Bengal to procurare un?altra copy.
When it arrived in Bengal from Narahari Sarakara, it came to know that also Gadadhara Pandita was
dipartito.

It is not known very of what made Srinivasa in that painful period. When Jahnava You must went to
Vrindavana, Rupa Gosvami the churches that to its return in Bengal Srinivasa to Vrindavana sent
because it deepened the studies. The Srinivasa young person accepted l?istruzione and left. During
the travel it was stopped to visit the places of the pastimes of the Getlteman to Navadvipa. It met
great devout people, and also Jahnava You must same and Virabhadra. That travel was longer of the
previewed one. When it reached Vrindavana (402), Sri Rupa from had little abandoned this world.
Srinivasa accepted formal l?iniziazione from Gopala Bhatta Gosvami and, on council of quest?
ultimo, it went to study under the guide of Jiva Gosvami. With c?erano Srinivasa also Narottama
(that it lived already to Vrindavana from at least a year) and Duhkhi Krishnadas (better known like
Syamananda). Raghava Pandit taught it geography to they of Vrindavana.

A day, from Bengal, Jahnava You must made to ask Sri Jiva to make they to reach the books of the
Gosvami, so that they could be copied and be rendered publics for the benefit of all. Therefore Jiva
chose its better students in order to carry out the that most delicate task. After travel months, the
three reached in Bengal, in a small called village Gopalpur, to the border with the reign Malla di Vana
Vishnupur. Here the precious books were stolen from the king Birhambir (403), which it had known
from an astrologer that the Vaishnava pilgrims possessed a treasure from the inestimabile value.
Srinivasa succeeded to recover the books and indeed to convert the raja to the Vaishnavismo
Gaudiya. L?Acarya would have passed many years to preach in that region, with l?appoggio of
Birhambir. Between the many disciples of Srinivasa (single Prema-vilasa ne nomination seventeen),
the more important was probably Ramacandra. Historically important she was also its daughter (had
from the first moglie, Isvari) and disciple, of name Hemalata Thakurani. One of the more
authoritative witnesses on the life of Srinivasa has been written from Yadunandan, disciple of
Hemalata Thakurani. Later on Srinivasa, accompanied from Ramacandra, would be returned to
Vrindavana in order to resume the studies.

Narottama Dasa Thakura (birth 1534 approximately) its birth had been foretold from Sri Caitanya,
which it said that Nityananda Prabhu would have lead to the Padma a devout person of Narottama
name and that, when these had entered in the river, it would have received l?amore divine.
Narottama Dasa nacque probably in the same year of the passing of the Mahaprabhu. The place of
the birth was Kheturi, in the Bangla Desh. Its father was the king Krishnananda Datta and its mother
called Narayani Must. Since the first years of its life she showed symptoms of great attraction for the
bhakti. After to have dreammed Nityananda Prabhu, a day Narottama Dasa went to the Padma river
and lì, as it had been foretold, it was pervaso from overflowing emotions of spiritual love. From that
day the young person changed: it was always dipped in ecstasy and null of they peel seemed more
interessarlo. When he manifested l?intenzione to go via of house, the preoccupied parents glielo
prevented. A day succeeded to elude the surveillance of the guards and to escape in direction of
Vrindavana. Lì, in the sacred place of the activities of Sri Krishna, Narottama Dasa initiation from
Lokanatha Gosvami taken, which it sent it from Sri Jiva for one deepened study of the writings. In
that period divenne intimate friend of Srinivasa and Syamananda.

When the writings of the Gosvami were stolen from the king Birambir, Srinivasa churches to the two
friends to go to Kheturi, where Narottama Dasa determined to remain in order to preach, while
Syamananda chose l?Orissa as field of dissemination of the conscience of Krishna. Prema Vilas gives
a list to us of 123 names of its disciples, but it is sure that ne it had many more. After to be returned
from along pilgrimage to Navadvipa, Lokanath Gosvami appeared in dream to the disciple and it said
it to begin l?adorazione of the divinity. Narottama Dasa, like day for l?installazione of the Divinity,
chose the that one of the recurrence dell?apparizione of Sri Caitanya in this world; from then, the
known Saint day as Gaura-Purnima comes honored from all the Gaudiya Vaishnava. To the first
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Gaura-Purnima the greatest devout people participated to all dell?epoca, comprised those that had
participated personally to the activities of Sri Caitanya. Narottama Dasa wrote a lot, especially songs
and poetries. The more famous collection is the Prarthana, still today honored from all the Vaishnava.

As far as the date of its passing, is known that it survived to Jiva Gosvami, which it left the world to
horse of the end of the 500 and l?inizio of the 600. Syamananda Pandita (1535 approximately)
Krishna Mandal and its moglie Durika Dasi suffered the loss of their sons, that they died one after l?
altro endured after the birth. When finally one of they survived, Dukhi was called, the one who that
is been born in the suffering. These lively intelligence and one detached tendency to the religion and
the philosophy showed endured one. It chose its personally guru, in the person of Hridaya Caitanya,
a disciple of Gauridas Pandita and intimate associate of Sri Caitanya. From he it learned the bases of
the Vaishnavismo. After some time churches to the master the permission to leave for a travel, and
was to its return that Hridaya Caitanya said to the disciple of recarsi more to Vrindavana for a course
of held deepened study from celebre the sage Jiva Gosvami. Before what that it made to its arrival
was to go to find Raghunath Dasa and Krishnadasa Kaviraja, than to the time they lived to the
Radhakunda, than they received it with heat fraterno. Then it was placed under guide dell?Acarya
(Sri Jiva) and increased its already considerable erudizione. The history of as its name it was changed
from Duhkhi Krishnadasa to Syamananda is one history to part (404).

In Orissa, Syamananda divenne a great and spiritual predicatore and main important. The sideslip
that follows the passing of a reference figure as it had been Sri Caitanya had made yes that the
spiritual standard of the Vaishnava in Orissa was directed to the decadimento, also because many
devout people had thought that the plan of Vrindavana was more important than whichever other
and you had moved themselves. In Orissa they were however remained devout people of a sure
importance, like Gopal Guru Gosvami, Dhyanacandra and others, and also in close Bengal they lived
and they operated great predicatori and personages realized like Srimati Jahnava and Viracandra. But
it is however true that Syamananda covered a determining role in the history of the Vaishnavismo
Gaudiya in Orissa. He does not have himself neanche to be neglected l?azione of the Raj Man Singh,
one of the generals of Akbar and disciple of Rupa Gosvami (405), in particolar way in the defense of
the Tempio di Jagannatha from the muslim fanatismo. Man Singh freed Orissa dall?oppressione of
the Pathan, the sons of Kutlu Khan (406). It was in that period, little after the 1590, than
Syamananda it reached Puri.

In one of its travels of visit to Vrindavana it established a tempio known like Syamasundar-kunja,
than later on it would have been guided from the famous Baladeva Vidyabhushana. Of the activities
of it foretells of Syamananda tell extraordinary things. Its disciple more important was Rasikananda
(407). Between its works the Govinda-Mangal, l?Advaita-Tattva, the Vrindavana Parikrama, l?
Upasana are remembered Sara, and l?Aprakasita Padaratnavali. The Rasikananda disciple wrote the
Syamananda Shatakam, a poema that he narrates the gesta of the master. He died towards the half of
the 1600. Rasikananda established the twelve festival Vaishnava more important, days that still today
they come regularly honored (408).

1658-1707 Aurangzeb as soon as we have seen as Aurangzeb (1658-1707) has conquered the
imperial throne. These were a rigid maomettano, therefore bigoted and lacking in scrupoli that
dissacrò and destroyed to all the templi hindu that it met, between which the Tempio di Madana
Mohana to Vrindavana, constructed from Sanatana the Gosvami, most ancient between all. We know
also that devastò the tempio of Bindu Madhava to Varanasi, in place of which it constructed one
great mosque. Between the profanati important places of cult from Aurangzeb, figure also the tempio
of Kesavaji. Srila Prabhupada had way to say that, according to its opinion, these did not hate the
hindu: he was only a maomettano fanatic who not sopportava various religious ideas from its. This
thesis of the Master is suffragata from the fact that, in sure moments of its reggenza, made sontuosi
gives and said contribuzioni to the templi of Vrindavana. Moreover it had like ministers some hindu,
like Maharaja Jayasingha. Sure it cannot be said that he was favorable to the religious pluralismo. In
order to induce the people to become muslim, it inaugurated a tax (jizya) that they had to only pay
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the hindu, for which many between poor were forced to convertirsi. In this way the population that
professava l?Islam increased. But this politics were its ruin (409): little little the old ones allied of its
father and its grandfather, annoyed from much cruelty, ended for abbandonarlo and indeed for
tramare against of he. In particular way noble the Rajputi, deeply indignati from its tyranny. The Sikh
To Ramdas, third party in the descendancys of successive masters sikh to Guru Nanak (quest?ultimo
died in the 1538), Akbar had donated a land to Amritsar, equipped of a great lago, where in future
the celebre would be risen?Tempio d?Oro. The fifth Guru, Arjan Badly (1581-1606) composed the
sacred book of the Sikh, l?Adi-Grantha, composed from instructions of its predecessori and poemi
written from several saints hindu and Muslims. In quell?epoca the Sikh they earned great infuence
and wealth. Vedendolo like a potential political, l?imperatore enemy moghul Jahangir condemned it
a.morte. It was an error of immense capacity, in how much l?intera Sikh community swore vendetta
to the Moghul. When the son of Arjan Badly was freed from the imprisonment, began to organize the
own followers on military bases and they began un?opera of terrorism. Generation after generations,
the Sikh fought the Moghul until the dell?impero dissolution.

In that period between the two religious etnie, hindu and Muslims, serpeggiava one sure rivalry. Of
sure the religion it was only a pretest and it was instrumentalized for political issues. By this seed of
discord ne they would have profited English. from the 1500 Europeans In India: The Portugueses the
way of the sea always had been one of the surer roads in order to reach destination, especially in
places like l?India, the periods in which Turkish l?impero it exercised always greater un?influenza. In
the 1498 Vasco de Gama discovered the new road, that one that costeggia l?Africa, in order to reach
in the nations of which fabulous things were told. Between the Europeans, the Portugueses were first
to arrive in India. To Calicut, in Kerala, Vasco de Gama was received without inimicizia (410). With
the time, but, instead of limitarsi to arricchirsi with the commerce, the portuguese government tried
to establish colonies and in the 1500, strongly of a great fleet, the western coast tried to control the
marine traffic along all. In the 1503 Alfonso de Albuquerque, than the king of the Portugal governor
had name, arrived in India to head of a small army of soldiers and in the 1510 he got hold of
Christian Fanatical Goa., hurried to impose with the force its religion to the premises, putting
a.morte anyone refused of convertirsi. In the 1515 Alfonso de Albuquerque died, but it was
successful to assure the portuguese control on the seas of the western coast. Its successory ones
tried to expand the territories portuguese but scontrarono with strong local resistances. To the fine
ones they had to accontentarsi of Goa and some other small territory.

1600 - 1759 the Dutch Arrived in India after the 1600, also the Dutch initially seemed only interested
to the commerce. Modifying with the time their plans, they succeeded to tear to the Portugueses
many cities, but the Dutch presence in never meaningful India not divenne. From 1759 in then, the
Dutch government abandoned every expansionistic sight in India in favor of the British ones. Second
part of the 1600 - the 1700 Gaudiya Vaishnava the third generation of Vaishnava dell?epoca Gaudiya
sees great and important personages, like Vishvanatha Cakravarti and Baladeva Vidyabhushana. In
order to reassume, the Gaudiya Parampara can be read like follows: Sri Caitanya began Rupa, which
it was the guru of Jiva Gosvami, lived until at the beginning of the 600. Successive L?Acarya is
considered Krishnadasa Kaviraja, which it was followed from Raghunatha Dasa Gosvami. Successive
L?Acarya could be considered Narottama Dasa Thakura (second part of the 500 beginning 600),
which the chip ax formal l?iniziazione from Lokanatha Gosvami and siksha (411) from Jiva Gosvami.
Narottama Dasa begins Sri Yuta Krishna Carana Cakravarti, which it is the guru of Radha Ramana
Cakravarti, which in its turn it connects Vishvanatha Cakravarti to the Gaudiya Sampradaya.
Vishvanatha Cakravarti Thakura the credited date more of its birth is the 1638. Become indifferent to
the things of the world, Sri Vishvanatha went to living to the Radha-kunda. Deeply estimated from
all the Vaishnava community, it came considered un?incarnazione of Rupa Gosvami. Srila
Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati said that?Vishvanatha Cakravarti Thakura was the protecting one,
guardiano and Acarya during medium period (1600-1700) of the historical development of the
Vaishnavismo Gaudiya (412). Between its numerous jobs (one says that it wrote at least 40 books in
sanscrita language) we remember the Sri Krishna Bhavanamrita and the Madhurya Kadambini.
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It is not a case that Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati has called


Vishvanatha?protettore and guardiano Cakravarti? of the Vaishnavismo Gaudiya. Towards the end of
the 600 a problem rose that could damage seriously l?intera Gaudiya community. The Tattvavadi
(descendants of Madhva) and the Ramanandi (heretical descendants of Ramanuja from someone
considered) tried to delegitimize the Gaudiya, first asserting that in truth the Gaudiya did not belong
at all to the Madhva Sampradaya (413), the second ones that them was not a serious and acceptable
school because they did not boast a comment to the Vedanta-sutra. On the first accusation the
Gaudiya was divided in the strategy of the answer: some said that Sri Caitanya, being a avatara of
Krishna, could begin one new anytime sampradaya wanted and was just what it meant to make, while
others supported that the Mahaprabhu had wished to make part of the Madhva-sampradaya. To
defense of the second ersero thesis Vishvanath Cakravarti and Baladeva Vidyabhushana. As far as
instead the problem of the Vedanta-sutra, - as we will see in the successive paragraph - this was
resolved from the Vidyabhushana. Baladeva Vidyabhushana These nacque in the second half of the
600 close Remuna, in Orissa. Rich of one strongly tendency to the obvious philosophy since the first
days of life, after a careful study initiation in the Tattvavada-sampradaya taken. Divenne one of more
celebrates philosophers dell?India. To Jagannath Pure it was converted to the Vaishnavismo Gaudiya
from Radha Ramana Cakravarti, from which it was reiniziato. To Vrindavana it studied the Srimad-
Bhagavatam under the guide of Vishvanatha Cakravarti, from which in 1706 it was sent to Galta
(close Jaipur, in the Rajasthan) in order to defend the Gaudiya credibility from the velenosi and
ingiustificati it attacks of the Ramanandi and the Tattvavadi. In those days Baladeva wrote the
Govinda-bhashya, l?unico Gaudiya comment on the Vedanta-sutra. In all it wrote ventiquattro books
at least. Cont' d...