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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, VOL. 37, NO.

2, MARCH/APRIL 2001 541

Combined Electrical and Mechanical Model of


Electric Submersible Pumps
Olav Vaag Thorsen, Senior Member, IEEE, and Magnus Dalva, Member, IEEE

Abstract—The electric submersible pump unit consists of Electrical–mechanical–nominal angular ve-


a pump powered by a medium-voltage three-phase induction locity, rotor.
motor. The power transmission system is integrated with the riser Electrical angular velocity of magnetic flux
pipes. Starting the pump causes heavy dynamic stresses on the
motor shaft and the mechanical connection between pump (im- linkages vector.
pellers) and shaft. The motor and its load will generate transient Electrical angular velocity of common coordi-
torque pulsations that may be damaging to shaft and coupling, nate system.
particularly to the key grooves. System models are developed Nominal electrial angular velocity of rotor.
to predict the electrical and mechanical conditions on starting. — Loop currents in rotor equivalent circuit, -axis
Different torsional models with certain types of nonlinearities,
combined with different motor models have been examined to component.
find combinations that give the best results. The motor models — Loop currents in rotor equivalent circuit, -axis
applied include saturation in the main flux path and the leakage component.
flux paths, as well as rotor deep bar effect. It has been shown how Magnetizing current vector, - and -axes com-
the pump parameters, material coefficients, design dimensions, ponents, respectively.
and number of impellers affect the dynamic stresses. The aim has
been to optimize the design with respect to the transient stresses. Line currents.
The simulations reveal that the resulting shaft torque, caused Rotor current, - and -axes components, re-
by excitation from resonant frequencies during the acceleration spectively.
period, amount to high values that may result in excessive over- Stator current, - and -axes components, re-
loading of shafts, couplings, and key grooves. Maximum torque is, spectively.
as expected, strongly dependent on the shaft dimensions. Certain
shaft diameters may cause resonance and, thereby, heavy torsional Moment of inertia.
amplitudes. It has been shown how the model can be a tool in the Dynamic main inductance.
struggle to find the optimum shaft diameter. Stator and rotor leakage inductance, respec-
Index Terms—Electric submersible pump, modeling. tively.
Static main inductance.
– Inductances in rotor equivalent circuit.
NOMENCLATURE Magnetizing reactance.
Angle between air-gap field space vector and Load/friction, developed torque.
references. .
Winding axis of fictitious and winding. – Resistors in rotor equivalent circuit.
Electrical angle between stator and rotor Mechanical time constant.
winding axis. Stator voltage, – -axes components general
Magnetic flux linkages vector, - and -axes or rotor reference frame.
components, respectively. Voltages in stator phases a, b, and c, respec-
Rotor leakage flux linkages, - and compo- tively.
nents, respectively. Stator leakage inductance in motor equivalent
Stator flux linkages, - and -axes compo- circuit.
nents, respectively. Stator and rotor resistance per phase, respec-
Stator leakage flux linkages, and compo- tively.
nents, respectively.
I. INTRODUCTION
Paper IPCSD 00–063, presented at the 1999 IEEE International Electric Ma-
chines and Drives Conference, Seattle, WA, May 9–12, and approved for publi-
cation in the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS by the Electric
Machines Committee of the IEEE Industry Applications Society. Manuscript
T HE electric submersible pump unit consists of a pump
powered by a three-phase induction motor. The power
transmission system is integrated with the riser pipes. Pipe
submitted for review June 29, 1999 and released for publication January 10,
2001. stacks are flanged together, and consist of the riser pipe with
O. V. Thorsen is with Bergen University College, 5008 Bergen, Norway the power transmission system concentrically mounted inside
(e-mail: olav.thorsen@hib.no). of each section.
M. Dalva is with Stavanger University College, 4004 Stavanger, Norway
(e-mail: magnus.dalva@tn.his.no). The power transmission system comprises a protective pipe
Publisher Item Identifier S 0093-9994(01)02496-3. with the copper conductors mounted inside.
0093–9994/01$10.00 © 2001 IEEE
542 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, VOL. 37, NO. 2, MARCH/APRIL 2001

The whole system is filled with hydraulic oil that is continu-


ously circulated at a higher pressure than the pumped medium.
The pump/motor unit has forced oil lubrication. The hy-
draulic oil is fed down to the thrust bearings and mechanical
seal via slots in the stator of the motor and returns to the surface
via the rotor/stator gap and transmission system.
Such pumps are for use in seawater lift service on offshore
platforms and floaters. They may also be an alternative for sub-
merged pumping in crude oil or product applications, in under- Fig. 1. Physical representation of the system.
ground caverns, or other storage facilities where hazardous areas
exist.
III. MODELING THE PUMP
The range of pump capacity is up to 5000 m /h with motor
power up to 2400 kW, and motor voltage alternatives are 380 V, Fig. 1 gives a physical representation and a list of symbols
440 V, 660 V, 690 V, 2.4 kV, 3 kV, 3.3 kV, and 6 kV. used for the system (see also Fig. 2). For modeling this system
with more rotary inertias and , inertiafree shafts
II. MODELING THE MOTOR with torsional stiffnesses and , damping factors
, and , and load torques for impellers
The conventional differential equations that describe the dy- , the different torques can be expressed as
namic behavior of the motor are based upon the following as- follows:
sumptions.
• Stator and rotor winding (bars) are symmetrical,
Damping torques Accelerating torques
Impeller 2: Impeller 2:
and so distributed that the magnetomotive forces
Shaft 2: Impeller 1:
(MMFs) are sinusoidal.
Impeller 1: Motor:
• The coefficient of mutual inductance between any
Shaft 1:
stator and rotor winding is a cosine function of the elec-
Motor:
trical angle between the axes of the two windings, and
the self-inductance independent of the rotor position,
Spring torques Load torques
Shaft 2: Impeller 2:
that is, the physical inductance matrix is symmetrical.
Shaft 1: Impeller 1:
• The effects of magnetic saturation, hysteresis, and
eddy currents are neglected. To represent the dissipation of vibration energy, viscous
• The motor parameters are independent of tempera- damping torques are incorporated. For the shafts the relative
ture and frequency. twisting motion is decisive, and for the impellers and the motor
• The motor is switched to a rigid supply system. the absolute velocity. In addition, the following state variables
• All switchings take place instantaneously. are defined:
Referring to transformed circuit equations in p.u. form, gen-
eral reference frame [2] one has

(1)
Here are introduced for angular momentum, and for an-
(2)
gular difference between two points.
System equations for the pump
Impeller 2:
(3)

(4) With state variables

For more accurate simulations, care must be taken to satura-


tion and variation of the motor parameters during the starting (5)
period.
An equivalent rotor circuit consisting of four -circuits has Impeller 1:
been developed, and the elements in the rotor circuit are then
calculated from performance data [2]. Reference [3] gives
methods to measure the rotor parameters for saturated induc-
tion machines with current-displacement rotor as functions of
current and frequency.
THORSEN AND DALVA: MODEL OF ELECTRIC SUBMERSIBLE PUMPS 543

1) Motor:

With state variables

(7)
(8)
(9)

The spring stiffness for a shaft is ,


(polar second moment of area for the shaft
cross-sectional area), shear modulus, shaft section
length, shaft section diameter, and .
It is difficult to find reliable expressions for damping. In the
present system, one has suggested that damping torque inside
the shafts is proportional to the relative speed of rotation of the
shaft ends, with damping factors and . For the impellers,
the damping torque is estimated to be proportional to the angular
speed, with damping factors and .
The damping factor for a steel shaft may be expressed

is the resonant angular velocity and the torsional stiffness


of the shaft. If one regards a system consisting of a massless
shaft with a flywheel with moment of inertia in one end, and
one with a moment of inertia in the other end, then
.
Inserting this in the expression for yields

The station-ground damping factors can be calculated from


estimated losses in impellers and the motor. The load torque
is estimated to be proportional to the square of the speed, and
the load factors and for the two impellers are found
from the impellers respective torque and speed at 100% load:
.

Fig. 2. General arrangement pump/pipe and top plate [1].


IV. SIMULATION RESULTS
The following data are used for the simulations.
With state variables 1) Motor: 735 kW, 2400 V, 60 Hz, = 6.6 kg m ,
1.24 N m s, damping factor is calculated linearly from 6% me-
chanical losses.
2) Pump: 900 m /h.
Shaft 1: 40, 58.5, 60, 80, 90, 100, 120, 140, and 160
(6) mm, 500 mm, = 248, 7 10 , 54,4 10 , 49, 1
10 , 15, 5 10 , 9, 7 10 , 6, 4 10 , 3.1 10 , 1.7
10 , 1.3 10 , 0.97 10 1/Nm. R 6.54, 14, 14.7, 26.2,
Expressions for possibly more impellers may be obtained 33.1, 40.9, 58.9, 80.1, 92, 104,7 N m s.
from the expression for impeller 1 by just changing the sub- 3) Impellers: = 1.0 kg m , = 0.050 15 N m s ,
scripts. 0.1 N m s, linear.
544 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, VOL. 37, NO. 2, MARCH/APRIL 2001

Fig. 3. Shaft torque for simplified motor model.

Fig. 4. Shaft torque for motor model with saturation.

Fig. 5. Shaft torque for motor model with saturation and deep bar effect.

Shaft 2: = 96 mm, 300 mm, = 4.497 10 showed heavy resonance torque peaks, the highest being 32 300
1/N m, 36.9 N m s. N m.
For shaft 1, acceleration has been simulated with shaft diam- The corresponding torque peaks for motor model 2 are about
eters from 40 to 160 mm. The natural frequencies of the system 5400, 6800, and 32700 N m for the shaft diameters 40 mm, 80
have been calculated by Holzer’s procedure, and for the first mm, and 58.5 mm, respectively.
order they are: 25.7, 54.5, 57.3, 99.2, 122.5, 145.9, 187.3, 215.1, For motor model 3, the torque peaks are about 4600, 5600,
224.1, and 230.7 Hz. and 20 400 N m for shaft diameters 40, 80, and 58.5 mm, re-
The torque between the motor and the impeller is given by spectively.
the torsional deformation and internal damping
V. CONCLUSIONS
Starting the pump causes heavy dynamic stresses on the
The simulations followed are executed for the following three motor shaft and on the mechanical connection between the
motor models pump (impellers) and the motor (Figs. 1 and 6). In this paper,
Motor model 1: without saturation and deep bar effect, system models have been developed. They can, e.g., be used for
(1)–(4) (see Fig. 3). predicting the electrical and mechanical conditions on starting
Motor model 2: with saturation but without deep bar effect with various types of starters. It has been shown how pump
(see Fig. 4). parameters, the material coefficients, the design dimensions,
Motor model 3: with saturation in both the leakage- and and the number of impellers affect the dynamic stresses. The
main flux paths, and with deep bar effect (see Fig. 5). aim has been to optimize the design with respect to transient
During run up simulation by motor model 1 the shaft torque stresses.
peak amounted to about 5200 N m with a shaft diameter of 40 The simulations reveal that the resulting shaft torque, caused
mm, and to 5700 N m with 80 mm. A shaft diameter of 58.5 mm by excitation from resonant frequencies during the acceleration
THORSEN AND DALVA: MODEL OF ELECTRIC SUBMERSIBLE PUMPS 545

Further, one inserts for leakage flux linkages (p.u.)

(15)
(16)
(17)
(18)

The expressions above inserted in (1)–(4) yield

(19)

(20)

Fig. 6. Pump/motor cross section [1].

(21)
period, amounts to high values that may result in excessive over-
loading of shafts, couplings, and key grooves. Some simula-
tion results for a 900-m /h pump with a 735-kW 2400-V 60-Hz
motor were shown.

APPENDIX

Saturation in the main path, when the currents are used as (22)
state variables, is taken into account by inserting the following
expressions in p.u. form for the motor [2]:
For the simulations, come in addition

(10) (23)

(11) (24)
(25)
(12)
(26)
(13) (27)
(28)
(14)

In the model, stator and rotor leakage inductances have been


is the angle between the air-gap field space vector and the made functions of their respective currents, with one constant
reference system. part and one current-depending part. Saturated paths give no
546 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, VOL. 37, NO. 2, MARCH/APRIL 2001

Fig. 7. Equivalent circuit for motor with deep bar rotor.

possibility to separate these reactances, and the effect of satu- The differential equations for motor (10), (11), (23), (26), and
ration is, therefore, divided proportionally between the two. (29)–(36), and for pump (5)–(9) are solved by the IMSL sub-
For the induction machine model, with an equivalent rotor routine DIVPAG. This routine accepts equations of the form
circuit consisting of 4 circuits (see Fig. 7), including deep bar
effect, the equations for a rotor-oriented system are [2] The methods used are Adams’ or Gear’s. Some inductances
are given as discrete data. Cubic splines are applied to inter-
polate between the data points. The cubic spline routines are
IMSL’s DCSDEC, DCSVAL, and DCSDER. All calculations
are in DOUBLE PRECISION.
1) Calculation of the natural frequencies in the system—One
(29) shaft with two flywheels: Consider a damping-free massless
shaft of even diameter and length with a flywheel (im-
peller) in each end with the moments of inertia of and ,
respectively. Twisting the flywheels in opposite directions and
releasing them will cause them to oscillate with the natural an-
(30) gular speed , being the same for them, and with a certain
point of the shaft between the flywheels being stationary. The
distances from the flywheels to the stationary point are and
, respectively, so that . The equivalent spring
constants (stiffnesses) for the two parts of the shaft are

(31)
and

(32) where is the shear modulus and the second polar moment
of area of the shaft. The natural angular speed is
(33)

(34)
Since and are equal for the two sections of the shaft, one
One has corresponding expressions for the remaining rotor finds from these equations
current loops and, for the last one, the following are valid:
and
(35)
and substituting into one of the expressions for yields
(36)

In addition, come (23) and (26)–(28). Further, 2) Two shafts with three flywheels: With definitions analo-
gous to the above case, the shaft diameters are and , and
(37) their lengths and . The flywheels (impellers) inertias are
(38) , and .
THORSEN AND DALVA: MODEL OF ELECTRIC SUBMERSIBLE PUMPS 547

Twisting two neighbor flywheels in the same direction, and Finally, one arrives at
the third in the opposite direction will give the lowest natural
frequency, the fundamental. Twisting the two outer flywheels s or Hz and
in the same directions, and that in the middle in the opposite s or Hz
direction, give a harmonic oscillation frequency.
To find the two natural frequencies, let the flywheel positions
referred to the frame be , , and , then REFERENCES
[1] F. Mohn, Electric Submersible Pumps. Bergen, Norway: AS Oil & Gas
Division, Frank Mohn AS, 1994.
[2] O. V. Thorsen and M. Dalva, “Development and industrial application
The dimensions and the material of the shafts give the spring of a practical model for simulation of saturated deep bar induction ma-
constants and for the two shafts respectively. The three chines,” in Conf. Rec. IEEE-IAS Annu. Meeting, 1994, pp. 137–142.
[3] O. V. Thorsen and M. Dalva, “A comparative investigation and evalua-
differential equations for the system then are tion of different methods for experimental determination of parameters
for saturated induction machines with current-displacement rotor,” in
Conf. Rec. IEEE-IAS Annu. Meeting, 1995, pp. 599–605.
[4] J. M. Vance, Rotor Dynamics of Turbomachinery. New York: Wiley,
1988.
[5] G. W. Buckley, “The effects of torsional elements on the transient per-
formance of large induction motor drives,” Elect. Mach. Electromech.:
Int. J., vol. 5, pp. 53–64, 1980.
The second time-derivatives of the equations for the position [6] R. L. Hyde and T. R. Brinner, “Starting characteristics of electric sub-
angles yields , and mergible oil well pumps,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Applicat., vol. IA-22, pp.
. 133–144, Jan./Feb. 1986.
Substituting this into the three differential equations and elim-
inating yields

Olav Vaag Thorsen (M’88–SM’91) received the


M.Sc. degree in electrical engineering from the
Norwegian University of Science and Technology,
From these three equations, , , and are eliminated, Trondheim, Norway, in 1963.
He was a Research and Development Engineer
and one finally arrives at the following equation: in the field of electric machines with A/S National
Industry (ABB). In 1985, he became an Associate
Professor with Bergen University College, Bergen,
Norway, where, since 1987, he has been a Professor
of Electrical Engineering. He has authored several
published technical papers and textbooks on elec-
This is apparently a fourth-degree equation, but since first and trical engineering. His fields of interest are electric machines and drives, power
third powers are absent, it may easily be solved as a second- electronics, and high-voltage technology.
order equation in two steps. With numerical values of the con-
stants of the present pump

mm mm mm
Magnus Dalva (M’92) received the M.Sc. degree in
mm N/mm kg m electrical engineering from the Norwegian University
of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway, in
kg m 1963.
He was a Research and Development Engineer
one has in the field of electric machines with Norwegian
Electric and Brown Boveri A/S (ABB). He was also
kg m an Assistant Professor of Electrical Engineering at
the University of Nairobi, Kenya. He is currently an
kg m N m Associate Professor at Stavanger University College,
kg m N m Stavanger, Norway. His fields of interest are electric
machines and drives, power electronics, and high-voltage technology. He has
kg m N m authored several published technical papers and textbooks.