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LTE-Advanced and 5G Overview

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Outline

q  4.5G LTE-Advanced


q  5G Objectives and Challenges

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4.5G LTE-Advanced

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Basic Requirements for a High Speed
LTE Network
7

q  High Order 6 QPSK 1/3


QPSK 1/2

Modulation

Spectral efficiency [bits/s/Hz]


QPSK 2/3
5 16QAM 1/2

(HOM)
16QAM 2/3
16QAM 4/5
4 64QAM 1/2
64QAM 2/3
3 64QAM 4/5
Shannon

1
QPSK Modulation 16 QAM Modulation 64 QAM Modulation
2 bits/sym 4 bits/sym 6 bits/sym
0

Small Cells
-5 0 5 10 15 20
q  SINR [dB] 16

q  MIMO

Radio channel

20MHz LTE
Up to 75Mbps (SISO)
Up to 150Mbps (2x2MIMO)

Intercell Interference
9
q  8 ~150 Mbps
2x2 MIMO @ 20MHz BW

Spectral Efficiency b/s/Hz


SISO
7
SIMO
SFC
6
JC

5
SISO / Diversity ~75 Mbps
4
@ 20MHz BW
3

0
-10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
G-Factor [dB]
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LTE Peak Data Rates

q  Downlink and uplink peak bit rates (Mbps)

Bandwidth, #RB / #Sub-Carriers


Modulation Bits / 1.4 MHz 3.0 MHz 5.0 MHz 10 MHz 15 MHz 20 MHz
MIMO usage
and coding Sym 6 / 72 15 / 180 25 / 300 50 / 600 75 / 900 100 / 1200
QPSK 1/2 1 Single stream 0.9 2.2 3.6 7.2 10.8 14.4
D 16QAM 1/2 2 Single stream 1.7 4.3 7.2 14.4 21.6 28.8
O
16QAM 3/4 3 Single stream 2.6 6.5 10.8 21.6 32.4 43.2
W
N 64QAM 3/4 4.5 Single stream 3.9 9.7 16.2 32.4 48.6 64.8
L 64QAM 1/1 6 Single stream 5.2 13.0 21.6 43.2 64.8 86.4
I
N 64QAM 3/4 9 2x2 MIMO 7.8 19.4 32.4 64.8 97.2 129.6
K 64QAM 1/1 12 2X2 MIMO 10.4 25.9 43.2 86.4 129.6 172.8
64QAM 1/1 24 4X4 MIMO 20.7 51.8 86.4 172.8 259.2 345.6

QPSK 1/2 1 Single stream 0.9 2.2 3.6 7.2 10.8 14.4
U 16QAM 1/2 2 Single stream 1.7 4.3 7.2 14.4 21.6 28.8
P
L 16QAM 3/4 3 Single stream 2.6 6.5 10.8 21.6 32.4 43.2
I 16QAM 1/1 4 Single stream 3.5 8.6 14.4 28.8 43.2 57.6
N
K 64QAM 3/4 4.5 Single stream 3.9 9.7 16.2 32.4 48.6 64.8
64QAM 1/1 6 Single stream 5.2 13.0 21.6 43.2 64.8 86.4

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LTE MIMO Options

Transmit Diversity Spatial Multiplexing : SU-MIMO


Better SNR Increased UE Throughout

Beamforming Spatial Multiplexing : MU-MIMO


Better SNR Increased Cell Throughput

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Improvements with 4.5G LTE-Advanced
(Release 10)
q  There are 3 main dimensions in LTE-Advanced

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The 2.6GHz band (Capacity)

120MHz separation duplex

FDD Uplink TDD FDD Downlink

2500 2570 2620 2690 MHz

q  Unique new band internationally harmonized


q  Benefits of future economies of scale
q  Capability to offer sufficient bandwidth per operator (20+20MHz)
q  Avoid prejudicial interference, optimizing the spectrum use, through
clear definition of FDD (70+70MHz) and TDD (50MHz) spectrum blocks

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700MHz band (Coverage)

748

758

803
698 703 806 MHz

5 45 10 45 3

q  Perfect fit to majority of countries in the region


q  The alignment with Asia-Pacific permits the creation of a big market
(economies of scale, availability of terminals, etc.)
q  Offer 2 continuous blocks of 45+45MHz (spectrum optimization,
flexibility on license process, better data transmission performance
than US 700);
q  Tool to bring the mobile broadband to rural and low density population
areas

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2.6GHz + 700MHz

q  Ideal combination for


•  Coverage
•  Capacity
•  Convergence
•  Device availability
•  Roaming

q  Convergence for countries with the legacy US band plan


(850/1900MHz) and the legacy European band plan (900/1800MHz)

q  Note: no plans/proposals in 3GPP for LTE in 450Mhz band

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LTE-Advanced (Rel-10 onwards)

q  LTE-Advanced is deployed as an evolution of LTE and on new bands


q  LTE-Advanced is backwards compatible with LTE
q  Smooth and flexible system migration from Rel-8 LTE to LTE-
Advanced

LTE-Advanced backward compatibility with LTE Rel-8

LTE-Advanced contains all features of


LTE Rel-8&9 and additional features for
further evolution

LTE Rel-8 cell LTE-Advanced cell

LTE Rel-8 terminal LTE-Advanced terminal LTE Rel-8 terminal LTE-Advanced terminal

An LTE-Advanced terminal An LTE Rel-8 terminal can


can work in an LTE Rel-8 cell
work in an LTE-Advanced cell

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Key Features in LTE-A Release 10

q  Support of Wider Bandwidth(Carrier Aggregation)


•  Use of multiple component carriers(CC) to extend bandwidth up to 100
MHz
•  Common physical layer parameters 100 MHz
between component carrier and
LTE Rel-8 carrier
f
•  Improvement of peak data rate,
backward compatibility with LTE Rel-8 CC

q  Advanced MIMO techniques


•  Extension to up to 8-layer transmission
in downlink
•  Introduction of single-user MIMO up to
4-layer transmission in uplink
•  Enhancements of multi-user MIMO
•  Improvement of peak data rate and
capacity

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Key Features in LTE-A Release 10

q  Heterogeneous network and eICIC (enhanced Inter-Cell Interference


Coordination)
•  Interference coordination for overlaid
deployment of cells with different Tx power
•  Improvement of cell-edge throughput
and coverage
q  Relay
•  Type 1 relay supports radio backhaul
and creates a separate cell and appear
as Rel. 8 LTE eNB to Rel. 8 LTE UEs
•  Improvement of coverage and flexibility of service area extension
q  Coordinated Multi-Point transmission and reception (CoMP)
•  Support of multi-cell transmission
and reception
•  Improvement of cell-edge throughput
and coverage

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Key Benefits of Carrier Aggregation

q  Delivering successively higher data


rates.
•  Carrier aggregation offers successively
higher peak data rates as well as better
broadband experience across the
coverage area.

q  Higher capacity for bursty applications.


•  Increased data rates of carrier
aggregation can be traded off to get
higher capacity for bursty applications,
such as web browsing, streaming,
social media apps and others
•  This means operators can choose a
higher capacity for the same user
experience, better user experience for
the same capacity, or both.

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Enhanced MIMO in LTE-A Release 10

q  Enhanced MIMO


•  Perform an intelligent Space-
Division Multiple Access (SDMA)
so that radiation pattern of base
station is adapted to each user
to obtain highest possible gain
in the direction of that user.
q  Single-User MIMO (SU-MIMO)
•  Transmit diversity and spatial
SU MIMO
multiplexing techniques can be
selected for transmission in
combination with beamforming.
•  This new feature together with
a higher-order MIMO (i.e. an
increased number of antenna
ports) make possible a Cooperative
substantial increase in the peak MIMO MU MIMO

user data rates


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Enhanced MIMO in LTE-A Release 10

q  Multi-User MIMO (MU-MIMO)


•  Great emphasis is placed in MU-MIMO since it offers the best
complexity–performance trade-off.
•  Flexibility of SDMA is increased by allowing different number of streams
to reach each user to increase the cell average data rate.
q  SU-MIMO and MU-MIMO constitute what is called single-site MIMO.
q  Cooperative MIMO
•  Cell-edge user throughput is
boosted by enabling techniques SU MIMO
that use coordination in
transmission and reception of
signals among different base
stations, which also helps
reducing inter-cell interference.
•  These techniques are known as
Cooperative Multipoint (CoMP) Cooperative
MIMO MU MIMO
transmission and reception
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How MIMO Helps to Address
4.5G Challenges?
q  MIMO uses techniques such as
spatial multiplexing and precoding
q  Creates multiple streams to
increase data rate
q  Uses beamforming to increase SNIR
q  Require mobile feedback of channel state information (CSI)
•  Call Quality Indicator (CQI), Pre-coding matrix Indicator (PMI), and
Rank Indicator (RI)

eNodeB
Precoding UE

Original x0 y0 rx0
Mapping

Weights

De-MUX
010110 010110
Layer

x1 y1 rx1

Nt Antennas Nr Antennas
Up to 4 Layers (R8)
Channel State Infor (RI, PMI, CQI)
Up to 8 Layers (R10)

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Advanced Precoding in Release 10

q  Increase in the number of transmission layers in both the uplink and the
downlink to achieve higher peak rates has two drawbacks.
•  Firstly, the gains due to additional diversity with such high-order
configurations become much smaller.
•  Secondly, spatial multiplexing of a large number of transmission layers
to a single user may only be feasible if the radio conditions (i.e. SINRs)
are extremely favourable, which is unlikely to be found outside very
small cells, indoor scenarios or the proximities of an eNB.
q  Besides, a more relevant target rather than further increasing the peak
rates is to improve the range of the data rates and that is the reason
why beamforming is the base element of these new techniques.
q  Advanced Precoding involves a combination of single-user
beamforming with spatial multiplexing and spatial diversity as well as
multi-user beamforming.
•  E.g. two beamformed users are served with multiplexing and diversity,
respectively.

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Advanced Precoding in Release 10

q  Single-user or multi-user beamforming can be combined with spatial


multiplexing and diversity in order to simultaneously improve the range
of the transmission and either obtain higher data rates (multiplexing) or
a higher reliability (diversity).

SU- and MU-MIMO


in 4T2R Configuration
in 4.5G
q  Advantages

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MIMO Support in LTE Release 10

q  Supports dual layer beamforming Beamforming MU-MIMO


Better SNR + Throughput
q  Providing full support for downlink MU-MIMO
q  Increasing the max number of BS antenna
ports to eight
q  Support SU-MIMO with a maximum of eight
antenna ports and eight transmission layers
SU- and MU-MIMO
q  A Rel 10 network might typically in 4T2R Configuration in 4.5G

•  prefer SU-MIMO in uncorrelated channel conditions or to maximize the


peak data rate to a single mobile
•  use MU-MIMO in correlated channel conditions or to maximize the cell
capacity
q  In addition, the network might select any intermediate point between
the two extremes, such as the transmission of two layers to each of two
mobiles in a 4-port BS antenna
•  To achieve this, the base station antenna must provide two
uncorrelated (for SU-MIMO) and two correlated (for MU-MIMO) ports
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Antenna Requirements for
Implementation of Advanced Precoding
q  Beamforming is able to provide high directional gain and reduce
interference from other directions provided that the MIMO channels are
highly correlated.
•  This implies that, under the beamforming mode of operation, the
antenna spacing must be small.
q  On the other hand, both spatial diversity and spatial multiplexing
techniques require the antenna spacing to be large enough so that the
correlation among the MIMO channels is low and the distribution of
their corresponding fadings can be considered as independent.
q  Two spatially separated antennas can be replaced by a cross polarized
single antenna element emulating two MIMO channels, while multiple
x-pol antennas should be spaced only a half wavelength apart so that
beamforming can be also applied.

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Antenna Spacing and Port Correlation

q  Port correlation depends on antenna spacing and angle spread seen
by the antenna
q  Signal spread in elevation is less than in azimuth, so dv > dh
to achieve decorrelation
•  Wide antenna spacing: dh > 4λ, dv > 12λ
•  Narrow antenna spacing: dh < 1λ, dv < 8λ
q  Wider antenna spacing = lower correlation
q  Wider angle spread = lower correlation dh
P1 P2
dv
q  Ports in a x-pol antennas
= low correlation
q  Horizontal Separation
•  Used in normal macro cell with
wider UE distribution in Azimuth
q  Vertical Separation
P1 P2 P3 P4 P3 P4
•  Used in Urban Canyon or P1 P2 P3 P4
Side-By-Side Horizontal Vertical
high rise coverage Antenna Separation Separation
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Some Key Features in LTE-A Release 11

q  Further Downlink MIMO enhancements for LTE-Advanced


•  Addressing low-power modes, relay backhaul scenarios, and certain
practical antenna configurations
q  Provision of low-cost M2M UEs based on LTE
q  LTE Coverage Enhancements
q  Network-Based Positioning Support for LTE
q  Further Self Optimizing Networks (SON) Enhancements
•  Mobility Robustness Optimisation (MRO) enhancements
•  Addressing Inter-RAT ping-pong scenarios
q  Carrier based HetNet Interference co-ordination for LTE
•  Carriers in same or different bands in HetNet environments with mixture
of different BTS types
q  Enhancements to Relays, Mobile Relay for LTE
•  RF core requirements for relays
•  Mobile relay: mounted on a vehicle wirelessly connected to macro cells

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LTE-A Release-12

q  Extreme capacity needs and spectrum efficiency


q  Flexibility, efficient handling of smartphone diversity
q  Offloading to unlicensed radio technologies
q  Power efficiency
q  More optimized small cell deployments
q  Carrier Aggregation Enhancements (inter-site, LTE/HSPA)
q  Cognitive radio aspects
q  SON and MDT enhancements
q  Local Area optimizations

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LTE category 36.306 v14.1.0
(Rel 14 Dec 2016)

http://niviuk.free.fr/ue_category.php

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LTE-Advanced UE Category

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LTE-Advanced UE Category

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5G Objectives and Challenges

Copyright © Rosenberger 2017 – Proprietary / Confidential


Challenges for 5G – Big Data

q  Big Data is data whose scale, diversity and complexity require new
architectures, techniques, algorithms, and analytics to manage it and
extract value and hidden knowledge from it
q  Internet of Things (IoT) is the network of physical objects - devices,
vehicles, buildings and other items embedded with electronics,
software, sensors, and network connectivity - that enables these
objects to collect and exchange data.

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Challenges and Objectives of 5G

Challenges Pressure on Network


§  1000 times more traffic
§  Cloud Computing, HD Streaming, M2M
§  Zero Latency and Response Time
§  Real time applications
§  100 times more devices
§  IoT
§  Up to 10 Gbps
§  For Cloud Computing
§  At least 1 Gbps
§  For HQ streaming, etc
§  Zero-second Switching
§  To ensure seamless continuity of service
§  Energy Consumption
§  To ensure devices’ batteries durability

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Challenges and Gaps to 5G

5G

Gap 30-50x 100x 100x 1.5x SDN/NFV

4G

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What is 5G?

q  The Next Generation Mobile Networks Alliance defines the following
requirements for 5G networks:
•  Data rates of tens of megabits per second for tens of thousands of users
•  1 gigabit per second simultaneously to many workers on the same office
floor
•  Several hundreds of thousands of simultaneous connections for massive
wireless sensor network
•  Spectral efficiency significantly enhanced compared to 4G
•  Coverage improved
•  Signalling efficiency enhanced
•  Latency reduced significantly compared to LTE

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5G Needs Revolutionary Innovation

LTE Advanced 5G
2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
… R12 R13 R14 R15 R16 R17 and Later

5G 5G Trial Revolution
Standardization
5G innovations will be
partly applied to 4G

At least 3X Spectrum Efficiency


Improvement

4.5G
4G 4.5G Commercial Evolution
Standardization

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5G Revolutionary Road

Network vEPC 5G NW Functions


Architecture EPC Virtualization + Cloud-Native Architecture
Cloud formation

256QAM Multiple Access


M-MIMO Waveform
Air LAA NEW Duplex
LTE LTE
Interface NB-loT ........ Frame AIR ........
Massive CA Channel Coding

Existing + New allocated spectrum Existing + New allocated spectrum Existing + New allocated spectrum

Spectrum

6GHz 100GHz 6GHz 100GHz 6GHz 100GHz

4G 4.5G 5G

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The Super Connected World in 2020

People’s 10Gbps Peak Rate


Experience 100Mbps Anytime Anywhere
Driven 5ms Latency

Machine’s 106 Connections/km2


Connection 100x Energy Efficient
Driven 1ms Latency

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Wide Range of Opportunities
for Cellular loT
Personal (15%)
q  Smart Band
Industry (40%) q  Smart Watch
q  Smart Agriculture
q  Smart Meters

>10Mbps

§  ~1Mbps
Speed §  Low Power
Home (15%)
Demand consumption q  Door Sensors
q  Remote Camera
LPWA (NB-loT,)
§  Small Packet (<100Mbps)
§  Deep Coverage (20dB)
§  Low Power (10 Years)
§  Low Cost ($5)

Connections in 2020

Public (30%)
q  Asset Tracking
LPWA – Low Power Wide Area
q  Smart Parking
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One Physical Network to Carry
Many Industries

Adaptive Radio Cloud Native Architecture Self Service Agile


Operation

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New Spectrum Access Opens
a Huge Market

Spectrum Europe Africa Arab CIS North Latin Asia and


GHz America America Pacific
3400-3600 Y Y Y Y Y Y Y

q  3.5 GHz will be a choice band, since it combines both wide bandwidth
and NLOS coverage capabilities
Group30 Group40 Group80

2GHz Max. 3~5GHz Max. 6~10GHz Max.

q  39 GHz will likely be a global high frequency Supports 28/37/39/66GHz


band Supports 28/38GHz

Supports 30~50GHz

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Some of the Key Solutions

q  Increased spectrum, with most of it at higher frequencies


(e.g. mm waves)
q  Massive MIMO
q  Ultra Dense Networks
q  Moving Networks
q  Machine-to-Machine / Device-to-Device Communications

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Massive MIMO

q  Scales up current state-of-the-art by MIMO Arrays


orders of magnitude
q  Arrays with 100s of antennas serving
10s of users in the same time-frequency
q  Enabler for future broadband, connecting
people and thins with network
infrastructure
q  If used with mm wave, large arrays could
be very compact
Distributed Antennas

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Beamforming using Spatial Multiplexing

q  Massive MIMO uses beamforming to send multiple data streams


q  Offers way to share frequency in close proximity, increasing capacity /
data rate
q  Uses pilot signals to
characterize the channel

Typical Concept Each case demonstrates the idea of optimizing


for one user (red) while minimizing
interference to others (blue)
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Potential Benefits of Massive MIMO

q  Increase Capacity 10x+


•  Aggressive spatial multiplexing with large number of antennas
q  Improve radiated energy-efficiency 100x
•  With large arrays, energy can also be focussed with extreme sharpness
•  Reduces both power consumption and potential interference
q  Can use inexpensive, low-power components
•  Conventional 50W amplifiers replaced by hundreds of low-cost, mW
amplifiers
q  Significantly reduces latency
•  Eliminates impacts of fading
q  Increases robustness to interference and jamming
•  With large arrays, algorithms can reduce these effects

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Summary

Copyright © Rosenberger 2017 – Proprietary / Confidential


Summary

q  4.5G and 5G addresses the network challenges of massive growth of


mobile data and connected devices, and the increased diverse
applications and use case requirements.
q  The future Super Connected World is characterized by Enhanced
Mobile Broadband (eMBB), Massive Machine Type Connections
(mMTC), and Ultra-reliable and Low-latency Communications (uRLLC).
q  3.5 GHz is a choice band for 5G, since it combines both wide
bandwidth and NLOS coverage capabilities.
q  To address the requirements of 4.5/5G, Rosenberger has
•  various base station antenna topologies to address macro and small cell
coverage requirements.
•  Twin Beam antennas densifies the network without degrading the
average cell throughput.
•  IBS passive and active DAS for indoor coverage and capacity
q  More solutions are under review and developments, and will be rolled
as 5G gets closer.
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THANK YOU
www.rosenbergerap.com

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