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Environmental Assessment Report (Draft)

Environmental Impact Assessment (Draft)


Project Number: 26194
August 2010

Socialist Republic of Viet Nam:


Ha Noi Pilot Metro Light Metro Line, section Nhon
- Ha Noi Railway Station (MRT3)

Prepared by the People’s Committee of Ha Noi for the Asian Development Bank

The environmental impact assessment is a document of the borrower. The views expressed herein do not necessarily
represent those of ADB’s Board of Directors, Management, or staff, and may be preliminary in nature. Your attention is
directed to the “Terms of Use” section of this website.
CURRENCY EQUIVALENTS
(As of August 2010)

United States Dollar (USD) – Vietnam Dong (VND)


USD 1.00 = VND 19,000

ABBREVIATIONS
a – acceleration
ADB – Asian Development Bank
AFD – Agence française de développement
Al – Aluminum
As – Arsenic
bgs – below ground surface
BOD – Biological oxygen demand
Cd – Cadmium
CEPT – Center for Environmental Protection in Transport
Cl – Chloride
CO – Carbon monoxide
Co – Cobalt
COD – Chemical oxygen demand
CPC – Commune Peoples Committee
Cu – Copper
dB – Decibels
DCI – Department of Culture and Information
DO – Dissolved oxygen
DOC – Ha Noi Department of Construction
DONRE – Ha Noi Department of Natural Resouces and Environment
DPC – District Peoples Committee
EC – Electrical conductivity
EIA – Environmental Impact Assessment
EMP – Environmental Management Plan
Fe – Iron
Fs – Feasibility Study
FF – Fatherland Front
GHG – Greenhouse Gas Emissions
GOV – Government of Viet Nam
HAPI – Ha Noi Authority For Planing and Invesment
HC – Hydrocarbon
HPC – Ha Noi Peoples Committee
HRB – Ha Noi Metropolitan Rail Transport Project Board

HUTP – Ha Noi Urban Transport Project


IEE – Initial Environmental Examination
IRR – Internal Rate of Return
JICA – Japanese International Cooperation Agency
LRT – Light rail train system
Mn _ Manganese
MOLISA – Ministry of Labor, Social Affairs and Invalids
MONRE – Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment
MOST – Ministry of Science and Technology
NDWRPI _ Northern Division of Water Resources Planning & Investigation
NH4+ _ Ammonia
NO3 _ Nitrate
NOx – Nitrous oxides
NPV – Net present value
NR – National Road
PAH – Project Affected Household
Pb – Lead
PC – Peoples Committee
PIC – Project implementation consultant; detailed design consultant
PM10 – Particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < 10 microns
PM2.5 – Particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 microns
PPTA – Project preparatory technical assistance
Q – Quarter
RP – Resettlement Plan
SIMC – Safeguards Independent Monitoring Consultant
SO2 – Sulfur dioxide
SO3 _ Sulfate
SOE – State Owned Enterprise
SOP _ Standard Operating Procedure
SVCAP – Swiss Vietnam Clean Air Program
TA – Technical assistance
TBM – Tunnel boring machine
TCVN – Vietnamese environmental quality standards
TDS – Total dissolved solids
TRICC _ Transport Investment and Construction Consultancy Company
TSS – Total suspended solids (waterborne)
TSP – Total suspended particulates
DTUPWS – Department of Transport Urban Public Works and Services
USco _ Ministry of Construction, Union of Survey Companies Ltd
VOC _ Volatile organic compound

US EPA – United States Environment Protection Agency


vph – Vehicles per hour
WHO – World Health Organization
WTP – Water treatment plant

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES

Ha – Hectare
Kg – Kilogram
Km – Kilometer
L/I – Liter
m – Meter
mg – Milligram
ug – Microgram

NOTE

(i) In this report, "$" refers to US dollars.


CONTENTS
Page

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1
I. INTRODUCTION 10
A. Preface of the EIA 10
B. Background to the Project 10
C. Project Overview 12
D. Project Status 14
E. Purpose of the EIA 14
II. POLICY, LEGAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE FRAMEWORK 16
A. The Legal Framework for Environmental Management 16
B. The Administrative Framework for Environmental Management 19
C. Vietnamese Environmental Requirements. 20
D. ADB Environmental Requirements 20
III. DESCRIPTION OF THE PROJECT 21
A. Project Location 21
B. Need for Project 21
C. Project Pre-Construction 27
D. Project Construction 29
E. Deep Tunnel Construction 31
F. Project Operation 33
G. Project Costs 39
H. Implementation Schedule 39
IV. DESCRIPTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT 41
A. Introduction 41
B. Physical Resources 41
C. Ecological Resources 69
D. Economic Development 70
E. Social and Cultural Resources 77
V. ANTICIPATED ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND MITIGATION MEASURES 90
A. Introduction 90
B. Depot 91
C. Viaduct Section 103
D. Tunnel Section 122
VI. ALTERNATIVES 144
A. Introduction 144
B. Corridor Conditions 144
C. Alternative Transport Modes 144
D. Alternatives within the Project 145
E. Do-Nothing or Do-Minimum Option 146
VII. INFORMATION DISCLOSURE, CONSULTATION AND PARTICIPATION 148
A. Introduction 148
B. GOV Supplementary EIA 157
C. EIA Consultation 2010 159
D. Project Implementation Stage 161
VIII. GRIEVANCE REDRESS MECHANISM 162
A. Legal Guidelines on Grievance Redress in the Environmental Field 162
B. GRM to be Applied to the Project 163
C. GRM Stakeholders 164
D. Steps in Grievance Redress Related to Environmental Impacts for the Project 165
IX. ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN 169
A. Environmental Mitigation Plans 170
B. Environmental Monitoring Plans 205
C. Responsibilities for EMP Implementation 214
D. EMP Reporting 216
E. Budget for EMP Implementation 216
F. Institutional Strengthening and Capacity Building in the Ha Noi Railway Board
(HRB) 220
X. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 225
XI. REFERENCES 227

APPENDIX 1: Photographs of Study Area


APPENDIX 2: Compliance Audit for the Depot
APPENDIX 4: Record of the Public Consultation Meetings
APPENDIX 3: Terms of Reference for the External Monitoring Expert
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

1. Ha Noi, in the north of Viet Nam, has experienced rapid economic and population growth in
recent years, which has led to a significant increase in traffic volumes and trip numbers and
associated deterioration of environmental conditions in the urban area. To counter such
environmental degradation and stem economic losses resulting from traffic congestion and low
travel times, the Government of Viet Nam (GOV) has identified public transport as a key
means of restraining the use of private vehicles and improving the regional air quality and
environmental conditions.

2. The Ha Noi Metro Rail System Project, will develop a new urban mass rapid transit (MRT)
line in Ha Noi as part of a planned larger urban transportation system in Viet Nam’s capital and
second largest city. The Project, which will involve construction of MRT Line 3 (MRT3), will facilitate
public transport connectivity and greatly enhance access in five districts of Ha Noi, as well as being
an integral part of the Ha Noi public urban transport system to support the Ha Noi Transport Master
Plan (HTMP) objective of increasing ridership on public transport and reducing dependency on
vehicle ownership. Under the HTMP, five MRT lines will be established to create a network
crisscrossing the central business area and serving outer population centers. The MRT3 Project
comprises a 12.5 km urban rail line along an east-west corridor between the city centre and the
rapidly developing western suburbs of Ha Noi. The rail line will be predominantly aboveground,
with 8.4 km of the route on an elevated viaduct, an underground section of 3.6 km at the eastern
end of the route and 500 m in ramps. A 15 ha depot will be constructed at the western end of the
route, to the north of the National Road (NR) 32 and Road No. 70 intersection for stabling and
maintenance of rolling stock.

3. A number of project alternatives were examined either as a mode of transport for the
corridor or within the project corridor. Road based systems such as buses, mini-buses and guided
road based systems were eliminated because of their inability to meet estimated passenger
demand on the route and because of conflicts with existing traffic. Systems operating on protected
or dedicated transport rights-of-way (i.e. partially or fully removed from the traffic stream) were
considered in more detail. Of these, three systems: tramways, Light Rail Trains (LRT) and Metro
systems were considered able to meet projected passenger demands on the east-west corridor.
The main difference between these three systems relates to their capacity:

(i) Tramway = 2,000 to 10,000 passengers/hour/direction


(ii) LRT = 6,000 to 30,000 passengers/hour/direction
(iii) Metro = 20,000 to 60,000 passengers/hour/direction

4. The higher capacity of the Metro system was selected as the overall best option because of
its greater flexibility into the future (i.e. ability to increase capacities of system); its longer design life
and energy efficiency.

5. Within the project corridor, the alignment utilizing NR 32 between Nhon and Cau Giay was
selected as the preferred option. Three other route alignments were examined and rejected due to
significant land acquisition, disruption of residential development and resettlement impacts. Prime
Ministerial Decision 173/TTg-CN in February 2005 relocated the eastern terminus to the Ha Noi
Railway Station (HRS), thus reducing the length of the line by 2.5 km and requiring the eastern
terminus of the line to be underground.

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6. Following selection of the route alignment, four line options were considered: 1, Line
located on elevated viaduct from Nhon terminus to the Swedish Embassy on Kim Ma, and then in
an underground tunnel to the Ha Noi Railway station; 2, Line located at-grade from Nhon terminus
to 3rd Ring Road, then on an elevated viaduct to the Swedish Embassy on Kim Ma, and then in an
underground tunnel to the Ha Noi Railway station using a tramway system on a shared route for
the at-grade sections. The third, same as 2, but using a Metro system on a dedicated route; 4, Line
located at-grade from Nhon to the Swedish Embassy on Kim Ma, and then in an underground
tunnel to the Ha Noi Railway station using a tramway system on a shared route for the at-grade
sections. Options 2 and 3 were eliminated from further consideration due to congestion and
performance issues associated with a mixed circulation tramway system. Option 4 was discounted
from further consideration because even though it involved a system operating on a partially
dedicated route, significant adverse changes to traffic management were required, particularly at
intersections and pedestrian crossings and it would have resulted in reduced operating efficiencies
and travel times. Option 1 was selected as the preferred option.

7. Based on the above and the 2005 Preliminary Feasibility Study, the project was initially
proposed with fifteen stations at intervals of approximately 800 m. Eleven of these were to be
elevated stations, and four underground. In 2007, the decision had not been made on the mode of
excavation for the tunnel and the underground stations.

8. A Final Feasibility Study and a preliminary design were completed in 2009. Based on this
study, fifteen stations were reduced to 12 stations, 8 elevated and 4 underground. A twin bored
tunnel concept using tunnel boring machines (TBM) was selected to tunnel -15 to -18 m
underground and to utilize the centerline of existing surface roads. Two underground stations-Cat
Linh and Van Mieu were relocated one block eastward to avoid cultural significant sites.

9. The do-nothing or do-minimum option is without merit. The failure to implement the project
will result in significant growth in private vehicle numbers that will continue to overload the road
network, existing public transport systems will reach their practical capacity limits and an
opportunity to facilitate a modal shift from private vehicles to public transport would be lost. Traffic
congestion and road safety would continue to worsen resulting in social and economic impacts as
travel speeds on the important east-west corridor decrease with a corresponding increase in travel
times. The do-nothing or do-minimum option would result in the continued deterioration of the
urban environment, particularly in terms of air and acoustic quality.

10. The construction of the MRT3 Project will offer a more equitable access to transport
choices for passengers wishing to access employment, education or commercial facilities.
Development of a new high capacity, high frequency public transport system on the east-west
corridor will have the potential to cater to existing and future passenger demand and will relieve
congestion on the road corridor and the existing public transport network. In addition, this form of
public transport will significantly benefit the environment. The removal of cars, buses and motor
bikes in favor of this mode of transport will reduce greenhouse has (GHG) emission. Once the
other four lines are constructed, there will be a cumulative regional air quality benefits. The project
will therefore be of benefit to the population in the project area and to the western area of Ha Noi

11. The project can be divided into three elements: Depot, Viaduct, and Tunnel, based on the
tender/construction schedule. There will be nine tender packages let for the project over a two to
three year period.

12. Construction of the Depot is expected to commence in late 2010. The Depot will contain
areas for rolling stock, maintenance workshops, internal track and road network, an administration
area including an operational control centre, training centre and waste water treatment system.
Wastewater will be treated on-site to meet relevant TCVN requirements and be recycled.

13. The Depot site has been cleared and provided with 1 m capping of sand ready for
construction. An environmental compliance audit has been prepared for the Depot (Appendix 3).
Findings of the audit show that the Depot is in compliance with GOV and ADB environmental
requirements. The tender documents for the Depot will conform to ADB guidelines and
environmental specifications. Specifically, the environmental management plan (EMP) will be
included in all civil works bid and contract documents for the entire Project. Once this EIA has
received approval from ADB, the corresponding EMP provisions will be included as an amendment
to the civil works contracts for the depot.

14. The Viaduct section has two transition ramps; one, at the Depot; second, at the tunnel
portal. The ramp at the Depot will require removal of 53 structures. Corresponding compensation is
specified in the Resettlement Plan prepared based on ADB requirements. The Viaduct will on
average be 12 m above the ground and the elevated stations 14 m above ground.

15. The tunnel section has a 700 m cut and cover transition section followed by two side-by-
side bored tunnels (using tunnel boring machines) ranging from -15m to -18m in depth. The
underground stations will all be excavated using cut and cover construction.

16. The ADB initial environmental examination (IEE) of 2007 recommended that the Project be
categorized as a Category A project based on a number of known and unknown significant
construction related adverse impacts. As a consequence of the categorization, an EIA is required
that examines the detailed design of the project, assesses the impacts, develops comprehensive
mitigation measures that can be applied through design options and utilize the environmental
management and monitoring plan to meet environmental due diligence during construction
activities to ameliorate impacts. A GOV EIA was prepared in 2006 and received approval from the
the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (MONRE) based on the Decree No
80/2006/ND-CP dated 9th August 2006.

17. Additional environmental and social assessments have been carried out since 2007 in the
form of ADB draft report on Social and Poverty Analysis (2008) and GOV Supplementary EIA
(2009). Consequently this EIA relies heavily on the GOV EIA for much of the early data collected
on the project, and which is still current. The GOV supplementary EIA was prepared in 2008/9 and
sampled air quality (7 sites), noise and vibration (7 sites), surface water and groundwater quality (3
sites) and carried out a public consultation/household questionnaire survey in the tunnel section of
the project.

18. Overall findings of this EIA is that when constructed and in operation this project provides
an environmental long term residual benefit to Ha Noi based on a reduction of vehicles and
emissions of GHG, safety improvements, and travel time benefits. However, there are a number of
construction-related negative impacts that must be addressed and mitigated. Fortunately, there are
best management practices and engineering solutions to ensure that these are restricted only to
the construction stage of the project.

19. Concerns for hydrogeology and groundwater were raised in the IEE that the tunnel or cut
and cover excavation would impede flow, groundwater re-charge and adversely affect the water
quality of the aquifer. Results of the hydrogeology study findings during the preparation of this EIA
were:

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(i) The underground section will not be an obstacle to the groundwater flow
because it is far too small a structure to form a significant barrier;

(ii) Large scale dewatering at the underground section is not likely to occur
because the heavy pumping of the lower aquifer has reduced the
groundwater pressure to near the bottom of the structure, i.e., 25 meters
below ground surface (mbgs)

(iii) The underground structures, both tunnel and stations will be “water-tight”.
Only a small amount of seepage is anticipated in the tunnel (0.5
liter/sec/km)

(iv) The upper aquifer consists of a series of lenses and thin layers of silty
sand with poor lateral extension and connection. Therefore, it only has a
very limited water-bearing capacity, and not many people rely on it for
their water supply, especially, most of the people living in the areas
around the underground section. They receive public water supply rather
than have their own private wells. Moreover, according to the borehole
report, the upper aquifer does not exist around the underground section.

(v) Regional subsidence has occurred due to the drawdown of the lower
aquifer. There expected to be subsidence (2-5 cm) along the tunnels
extending over a 20 m zone of influence

20. HPC indicated that there are available disposal sites at Van Noi and Nguyen Khe
communes in Dong Anh district which can accommodate spoils from tunneling and other
excavation works. Prior to commencement of site woks, the tunneling contractor shall be required
to prepare a spoils disposal plan while a traffic management plan as well as occupational and
public health and safety plans shall be prepared by depot, tunneling and viaduct contractors.
Although the establishment of pre-cast yard for piers and viaducts is a contractor decision and
specific location is yet to be identified, the EMP identifies specific mitigation measures for
implementation during construction phase to address anticipated impacts.

21. At the transition area of the rail line at Thu Le Lake in order to replace the two traffic lanes
lost to the tunnel portal and ramp, a swath (approx 500 m long) of parkland, mature trees and the
lake promenade will be lost from recreational use. GOV does not consider this a major impact
because the lake was artificially created over 30 years ago and the water quality is poor and
supports very few aquatic organisms. In order to compensate for the loss of traffic lanes, there will
be an approximate encroachment of 8 m into the lake. HPC shall implement a 1:1 tree replanting
policy to compensate for the mature trees that will be lost to the construction of new traffic lanes.

22. Specific impact assessment and mitigation measures were developed for the pre-
construction, construction and operational stages of the project associated with the Depot, Viaduct
and Tunnel works. The Depot will experience three phases of construction: one, the track and
workshops planned to start in late 2010; two, the ramp and viaduct (Contract 1) from N32 into the
Depot and; 3, the construction of the administration building and Control Center (Contract 5). A
UXO survey has been conducted for the site and following collection of some material, has been
declared safe. For the Depot during pre-construction one priority identified is the re-paving of Road
70 to reduce dust and withstand heavy construction traffic. An additional 0.6 – 1.5 m of sand is to
be placed on the site. Dust and noise mitigation measures are required on the equipment
23. The main construction activity will be the piling for the track and building foundations. The
soils are weak and compressible and piles will be vibrated into the ground. This is the quietest
piling method available and should, given the size of the site and existing ambient noise levels and
strict daylight working hours, be a minor concern. Air emissions should be within standards given
the size and openness of the site. Noise and air quality monitoring will be carried out at 2 sites (at
Road 70 and in the vicinity of the Industrial University) complementing the data collected during the
GOV EIA and Supplementary EIA.

24. The Depot will have its own groundwater source due to the large daily usage. One well has
been drilled, pump tested and analyzed for water quality. A treatment and a recycling system will
be built and additional water will be stored in a surface pond that will be landscaped. All rain runoff
and any oils or lubricants will be collected and treated. Sewerage will be hooked-up to the local
utility.

25. Operational concerns may occur from noise from the train movements and maintenance
noise. The trains will only be traveling 20 to 5 kph and noise levels are expected to be below
existing ambient noise levels. Noise walls can be added to the perimeter fencing should it be
required. All maintenance noise will be controlled inside the workshops.

26. Although HRB has indicated no work camps will be established at the Depot, the
community around the site should benefit through services to the construction work force. During
the operational stage of the project 250 personnel will be initially employed at the Depot rising
eventually to 372 by 2040. This will provide positive benefits to the community.

27. Construction of Contract 1, Viaduct piers, ramps, viaduct and special bridge structures
(over Ring Roads 2 and 3) will create a number of short-term construction impacts. These are
expected to be air emissions and dust, noise, vibration, traffic and reduced accessibility to
businesses and facilities.

28. Although the pier finished footprint will be 2 m X 2 m, a working easement of 5 m X 5 m will
be required along the centerline of Kim Mah Street and N32. A 2 m deep excavation will be
required at each pier site and four 1000 mm concrete piles of 50 m to 52 m will driven by churn
drill. A pile cap will be poured to ground level topped with a 60 cm vehicle collision protection collar.
The precast sections will then be brought to the pier and erected. Expected construction at each
pier site will be 5-7 days. The viaduct sections will require two cranes to lift a section into place and
require eight hours for each section.

29. Pre-construction of the ramp and access into the Depot will require the demolition of 53
structures. A draft Resettlement Plan has been developed and all the Affected Persons contacted.
Tree cutting and building the traffic lanes at Thu Le Lake will be required prior to construction of the
transition ramp. Dust and noise emissions can be controlled by best management practices and
working within normal operating hours of the day.

30. Construction of the Viaduct section will cause impacts to the residents and businesses
along N32 and Kim Mah through noise, emissions and dust generated from the pier excavation
and erection. It is anticipated that the lifting and placing of the precast pier and viaduct sections will
be done at night to reduce traffic congestion. However, the most negative impact will be on traffic
flows and access through the worksites, although there will still be one lane available, each way for
traffic, to businesses and facilities, especially during construction of the elevated stations (Contract
2). This will be most severe from Ring Road 2 to Ring Road 3 where there is a narrow (1 m)

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existing median. From Ring Road 3 to the Depot there is a 2 m median that will ameliorate the
need for lane closures and traffic congestion. The contractor, in close coordination with local
officials, must find safe access solutions to facilitate pedestrians through the work sites.

31. The operation stage concern will be noise from the trains and the elevated stations. The
expected train noise will be 76dB 15m from the facility without mitigation. The train as it passes is
an event lasting about 10 seconds, with the maximum noise lasting between 1 and 2 seconds.
Thus in an hour, one could expect 240 seconds of train noise, of which less than 48 seconds would
be maximum noise. The train stations with de-acceleration and acceleration of the trains,
announcements and door paging systems will provide a noisier environment to the immediate
neighborhood. Noise shielding can be placed on the stations to attenuate the noise.

32. The viaduct will be fitted with a noise shield, the rails are continuously welded, secured with
resilient fasteners and dampening pads are placed under the ties. This will ensure that no vibration
is experienced and with the mitigation in place the train noise is expected to be half the existing
ambient noise levels. Monitoring at 7 sites along N32 will be established at sensitive receiver sites,
such as the Industrial University and National University sites, during construction and the
operation stage will ensure that the contractor and operator, respectively, are due diligent in
regards to noise impacts from the project.

33. Social-economic benefits will result from the project based on travel time, safety and
business development in and around the stations.

34. The tunnel section requires a 700 m cut and cover from the transition zone to the bored
tunnel face at -15m (Kim Mah Station #9). The twin bored tunnels follow Kim Mah street and then
turn east to Cat Linh, past the Horizon Hotel (site of Cat Linh Station #10), past the Temple of
Literature to Station #11, Van Mieu, and then under the Ha Noi Railway Station to Station #12.

35. For pre-Construction it is anticipated that a large number of structures will be required for
the underground stations (to be constructed using cut and cover method) and until the detailed
management survey (DMS) is completed, these numbers and the total Affected Persons are not
known. A large 9,000 m2 parking lot near the Daewoo Hotel is identified for construction equipment,
lay-down of materials and for the assembly of the tunnel boring machines (TBM). Part of the
Horison Hotel parking lot and the Friendship Palace at the Ha Noi railway station may also be
required for construction purposes; these sites have not yet been acquired.

36. Construction of the stations and removal of the spoil from the TBM’s will result in over
500,000 m3 of spoils to be trucked to an approved site. Spoils shall be tested for contaminants prior
to disposal. Dust, vehicle and noise emissions from the excavation will managed in accordance
with the EMP and through best management practices.

37. Vibration concerns were raised if a bored tunnel was selected. Although there is a chance
that the geology and soils of Ha Noi might enhance vibration effects, bored tunnels carried out at
the same depths in Vancouver, Canada and Taipei, Taiwan produced no measurable or observed
vibration that was felt by residents within affected structures.

38. The hydrogeology study identified three concerns for the tunneling work: one, the intrusion
into the sand layer (top of the aquifer) below -18 m; two, uncontrolled release of drilling fluids in the
area of the municipal groundwater wells and; three, subsidence of the tunnel in response to
regional subsidence through the excessive removal of groundwater.
39. There may be a slight risk of sand eruptions caused by the hydraulic pressure of ground
water during the construction stage if the TBM’s intrude into the top of the aquifer layer.

40. The tunnels run through the Ngo Sy Lien well field. At least four of the municipal wells are
located close to the tunnel alignment. Slurry and additives will likely be used for tunneling and
ground treatment. Those materials could travel underground with groundwater flow or simply flow
by excessive operational pressure. As a precaution during tunneling, the wells should be capped,
pumping ceased and that all drilling fluids tightly controlled so that these materials could not
inadvertently pollute the wells and aquifer. Monitoring of groundwater quality shall be undertaken
regularly until the tunneling is completed.

41. Groundwater extraction is the main cause of land subsidence. The highest rates of land
subsidence occur in areas where large volumes of groundwater have been withdrawn. However,
the tunnels will also subside. The 2009 Feasibility Study indicated approximately 5 cm over the
centerline of the tunnel to 2 cm within a 20 m zone. The hydrogeology study recommends a
subsidence-monitoring program to ensure that structures are not adversely affected and to add to
the regional subsidence database.

42. Excavation of the underground stations will create major adverse effects for traffic and
accessibility during the two to four years of construction. The Design Consultant has stated that for
Stations 9, 10 and 12 excavation will concentrate first on one side thereby allowing traffic flows and
access. Once one side is complete and covered, excavation will start on the other side. However,
Station 11, Van Mieu, is on a very narrow street and excavation will cause the street to be closed
completely to traffic until construction is complete. Provision for pedestrians must be developed to
access areas not directly under construction.

43. Cultural and archaeological resources on the project are confined to the tunnel section of
the project. The re-location of the Cat Linh Station (#10) to the east has avoided the two cultural
sites in that area (Cat Linh Pagoda and the Bich Cau Temple); the Temple of Literature is still at
risk even though the Van Mieu Station (#11) has been moved 100 m to the east. The west bound
tunnel will pass under the sidewalk in front of the Temple. The zone of influence –20 m– extends
under the Temple fence and into the flower garden, but not into the Temple structural area. As
described under tunnel subsidence, the anticipated subsidence will range from 5 to 2 cm. Although
this and the tunnel boring vibration are not expected to adversely affect this important facility, a
number of inclinometers and a vibration monitoring machine will be set in place to ensure that no
damage occurs. A set of remedial measures has been developed should the facility observe
excessive settlements.

44. Excavation of the four underground stations could yield important cultural relics.
Consequently a monitor (s) from the Department of Culture and Information should be on site to
observe excavation down to 4 m deep. In addition construction staff will be trained in the “chance
find” process so that any materials found can be recovered, restored and catalogued

45. Monitoring on the project will follow GOV standards. Air quality, noise and vibration sites
have been identified for pre-construction monitoring data collection. All of the noise and air quality
sites are located in the vicinity of sensitive receiver sites such as universities, schools and hotels.
An additional vibration monitoring site is proposed at the Temple of Literature. Groundwater quality
sampling is required at the Depot and the wells within the Ngo Sy Lien well field. In addition a
settlement monitoring program is also proposed. Sampling is not required at the ToLich or Nhue
Rivers because the viaduct piers are located well outside the riparian area. Monitoring costs to
cover 5 years of construction and 1 year of post-construction are estimated at almost $ 270,000

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(inclusive of external monitoring cost).

46. Public Consultation and disclosure has been, and continues to be, an important
cornerstone of the Project. There have been five rounds of consultation to-date: two GOV EIA
(2006, 2008), IEE (2007), ADB Draft Poverty and Social Analysis study (2008) and two meetings
under the tenure of this EIA. Concerns in all five sessions have identified air and noise quality
concerns, vibration from trains in the operational stage and issues on traffic and accessibility.
There is overwhelming support for the project based on how bad traffic flows, environmental
conditions (air quality) and safety.

47. Two meetings were held; first, in the Bah Dinh District (36 attendees) covered by the
tunnel; second, in Cau Giay (49 attendees) traversed by the Viaduct, meeting notes and
attendance sheets are compiled in Appendix 6. Results from the two meetings carried out under
this EIA were: concerns for traffic jams, access to businesses during construction, waste treatment
from construction workers, noise and vibration from construction activities.

48. HRB has committed in the Feasibility Study (2009) to develop and follow a multi-media
approach to inform government and the public on the project as soon as tendering takes place. A
cost estimate to hold 17 commune meetings is $5, 695.

49. Although HRB has indicated an establishment of a grievance redress mechanism (GRM)
process that allows disaffected persons to appeal their compensation assessment, a similar
process to deal with environmental concerns has not been advocated. Consequently, Section 8
describes a GRM process that will handle public concerns over environmental issues. HRB shall
adopt this GRM and shall be committed to publish and disseminate information to the community
along the corridor and affected persons on the grievance redress process.

50. The EMP (Section 9) details the mitigation and monitoring requirements that will ensure
compliance with the GOV environmental laws and regulations and comply with the Safeguards
Policy of the ADB.

51. Based on the project tendering program, the EMP details the measures to ameliorate
construction-related negative impacts during pre-construction, construction and operational
activities at the Depot, Viaduct and Tunnel sections. Therefore, the EMP tables can be lifted and
inserted in the tender packages prior to advertising.

52. Environmental effects monitoring and project performance monitoring criteria have been
developed to ensure due diligence is met over the project stages. Based on the EIA monitoring
data, and to remain consistent and to verify results, GOV sampling and monitoring standards will
be followed.

53. Monitoring responsibilities and reporting have been identified in the EMP. Being an
environmental category A project, HPC/HRB shall engage and retain a qualified and experienced
external expert to verify the monitoring information submitted to ADB. This is required under ADB’s
Safeguard Policy Statement 2009 (ADB’s SPS). The terms of reference and a budget estimate has
been prepared for external monitoring (Appendix 3). Budget of about $150,000 is estimated for a 6
year period (5 years of construction and 1 year post construction).

54. HRB as the implementing agency will require environmental expertise to monitor the pre-
construction, construction and operational aspects of the project. Currently, HRB has one
environmental specialist. Based on review of the project environmental requirements, an
Environmental Management Unit (EMU) is proposed for HRB’s PMU. This EMU is to be staffed by
the existing specialist with an additional staff - an occupational health and safety officer. Operating
budget for the EMU will be provided by HRB.

55. In conclusion the following are the key environmental benefits of the Project: That amount
of GHG emissions will be avoided because of the Project during the operational phase, due to the
displacement of diesel buses, automobiles and motor cycles. These reductions are expected to far
outweigh any short-term increase in GHG emissions that will be experienced during the
construction phase. Based on other elevated electric transit systems, the MRT3 line operation is
expected to avoid the release of greenhouse gases (Canada Line in Vancouver, opened in the fall
of 2009, and similar to the Project in length and design, is predicting that between 16 and 21
kilotonnes of greenhouse gases per year by the year 2021 will be avoided), the reductions will
arise due to the assumed replacement of diesel buses and increased displacement of private
automobiles by the train service, relative to bus-only transportation. These reductions will be partly
offset by the anticipated GHG emissions associated with additional electrical generation required to
power the MRT3 Line.

56. Socially the project will be a benefit to the population in the project area. The population,
located in the western area of Ha Noi will, by using the metro: avoid traffic congestion and reduce
safety hazards (especially traffic accidents); reduce health problems (especially respiratory
problems) due to air pollution and dust; and save time and benefit from a good transportation
alternative to go to Ha Noi Center.

9
I. INTRODUCTION

A. Preface of the EIA

57. A final Feasibility Study (2009) resolved some of the outstanding engineering issues, these
were: remove three of the elevated stations, resolve alternate alignment options, moved two
underground stations to avoid cultural sites -the Cat Linh Pagoda and the Temple of Literature, and
selected two Tunnel Boring Machines (TBM) to excavate the underground section of the line. Also,
a set of preliminary design drawings provide engineering details of the route. The detailed design is
on-going and will be completed within 2010.

58. Additional environmental and social assessments have been carried out since 2007 in the
form of ADB draft report on Social and Poverty Analysis (2008) and a GOV Supplementary EIA
(2009). Consequently this EIA relies heavily on the 2007 IEE for much of the early data collected
on the project, and which is still current. The GOV supplementary EIA was prepared in 2008/9 that
sampled air quality (7 sites), noise and vibration (7 sites), surface water and groundwater quality (3
sites) and carried out a public consultation/ household questionnaire in the tunnel section of the
project. The above cited information, available detailed design information, results of additional
hydrogeological study provided sufficient data to assess the impacts, provide mitigation measures
and formulate a detailed EMP for the pre-construction, construction and operation stages of the
Project. The anticipated impacts and mitigation measures presented in Section 5 resolves many of
the major impacts cited in the IEE. This EIA has been prepared consistent with the requirements of
ADB’s SPS.

59. Due to the pending award for construction of the Depot in late 2010, this assessment
details a compliance audit of the Depot (Appendix 3). To assess the project’s impacts and the
required mitigation measures to ameliorate these, the assessment and EMP examines the Depot,
Viaduct and Tunnelling sections in the pre-construction, construction and operation stages.

60. HPC indicated that there are available disposal sites at Van Noi and Nguyen Khe
communes in Dong Anh district which can accommodate spoils from tunneling and other
excavation works. Prior to commencement of site woks, the contractors shall be required to
prepare environmental management action plans in the form of specific management plans for
spoils disposal, traffic management, occupational and public health and safety, emergency
response and spills management. Although the establishment of pre-cast yard for piers and
viaducts is a contractor decision and specific location is yet to be identified, the EMP identifies
specific mitigation measures for implementation during construction phase to address anticipated
impacts.

B. Background to the Project

61. Ha Noi, in the north of Viet Nam, has experienced rapid economic growth in recent years.
GDP has been increasing at an average rate of 11% per year since 1995, rising to 11.2% for 2007,
thereafter dropping to 10.9% for 2008 and 6.67% in 2009. Poverty and unemployment rates have
been decreasing steadily. In tandem with this growth, increasing urbanization, land use changes
and improved socio-economic conditions, have led to a significant escalation of traffic volumes
and trip numbers in Ha Noi; much of which has occurred in the form of private vehicle trips.
Simultaneously, environmental conditions in the urban area have been deteriorating. Increasing
levels of air pollution, noise generation and contamination of surface water and groundwater are
affecting public health and amenity of urban residents. Much of this environmental deterioration is
attributable to high traffic volumes and increased congestion.
62. To counter such environmental degradation and stem economic losses resulting from traffic
congestion and decreasing travel times, the Government of Viet Nam (GOV) has identified public
transport as a key means of restraining the use of private vehicles within the urban areas of Ha
Noi.

63. Ha Noi has a well developed bus network that has increased substantially both in terms of
passenger numbers and route network coverage in recent years. However, increases in overall trip
numbers are such that there is a need for implementation of a comprehensive strategy for urban
transport to expand and complement existing public transport systems.

64. The GOV has prepared and approved an urban transport master plan for Ha Noi, which is
part of overall Ha Noi strategic planning to 2020. A number of urban transport initiatives contained
in this master plan have been identified as priority actions by the GOV and are proposed to be
implemented progressively in conjunction with the international donor community. A key part of the
overall urban transport strategy is an urban rail network comprising five rail lines covering the urban
and semi-urban areas of Ha Noi (Figure 1.1).

65. The Project is one of three priority lines in the proposed urban rail network that has been
identified by the GOV for development in the short term. The project comprises a 12.5 km urban
rail line along an east-west corridor between the city centre and the rapidly developing western
suburbs of Ha Noi.

66. The Ha Noi Metropolitan Rail Transport Project Board (HRB) has been identified as the
project implementing agency by the Ha Noi Peoples Committee (HPC).

11
Figure 1.1: Five planned mass transit lines for Ha Noi

Source: HAIDEP, 2009

C. Project Overview

67. The project involves construction and operation of a 12.5 km rail line from Nhon in the
western suburbs of Ha Noi to the main Ha Noi railway station, in Tran Hung Dao Street (Figure1.2).
The rail line will be predominantly aboveground, with 8.5 km of the route on an elevated viaduct
and an underground section of 4 km at the eastern end of the route.
Figure 1.2: Ha Noi Metro Rail System Project alignment and 12 stations (HRB Feasibility Study, 2009)

13
68. Twelve stations will be constructed along the route at intervals of approximately 1000 m,
eight of these will be elevated, and four underground. A 15 ha depot will be constructed at the
western end of the route, to the north of the National Road (NR) 32 and east of Road No. 70 for
stabling and maintenance of rolling stock. The stated objectives of the project are to:

(i) Satisfy the increasing traffic demand from short to long term along the east-west
corridor
(ii) Begin to establish a new collective transport mode for the future modern cities in
Vietnam
(iii) Contribute to the movement from private to public transport
(iv) Reduce traffic congestion
(v) Improve road safety
(vi) Improve urban environmental conditions
(vii) Introduce public transport services into Ha Noi city center

D. Project Status

69. At the time of the preparation of the IEE in 2007 the project was still at a conceptual
planning stage and alternatives were being considered along with the mode of construction. These
were presented in a pre-feasibility study (2005 ).At this time there was still uncertainty on the
construction modes for the underground section. Between 2007 and early 2010 the design
consultants, SYSTRA and HRB completed a Feasibility Study (2009) and preliminary design
drawings. These documents confirmed that the underground section would be excavated by a
bored tunnel method and the stations and transition section would be constructed using a cut and
cover method. Although detailed design is underway and is expected to be completed within 2010.

70. The 2007 IEE recommended a Category A Categorization of the project. In accordance
with the ADB’s environmental safeguards requirements the project was categorized as a Category
A project due to its potential for significant adverse environmental impacts.

71. The IEE also presented a framework EMP to be developed in the EIA to meet ADB
safeguards requirements. Specifically, the IEE carried out the following tasks:

(i) Collected existing secondary data sources on baseline environmental conditions


in the project area to allow characterization of the physical and social
environment and identification of deficiencies in available secondary information
datasets.
(ii) Undertook a preliminary screening of the potential environmental impacts of the
project to confirm the project categorization, and determine whether further
environmental assessment of the project was required.
(iii) Determined the scope of required further environmental assessment tasks to be
developed in the EIA.

E. Purpose of the EIA

72. The overall purpose of this EIA is to review the supplementary environmental monitoring
and assessment studies undertaken by the GOV (2009), ADB Draft Poverty and Social Analysis

14
study, and the HRB Final Feasibility Study (2009), examine the preliminary/functional design of the
project and assess environmental construction and operational management measures that avoid
and ameliorate negative effects in order that the project can be constructed to meet ADB
safeguards requirements. Specifically, the EIA has been prepared based on:

(i) Extensively utilizing the IEE which collected existing secondary data sources on
baseline environmental conditions in the project area which allows
characterization of the physical and social environment and identification of
impacts;
(ii) Determine the specific impacts, both positive and negative, of the project based
on supplementary studies, functional engineering design and environmental
mitigation measures required during construction and operational phases of the
project.
(iii) Prepare a detailed Environmental Management Plan (EMP) for the project
documenting specific mitigation, monitoring, budgetary and institutional
measures and identifying any outstanding project components not assessed
(iv) Review public involvement activities and agency consultation activities carried
out to date and complement this with two public consultations carried out under
this EIA (Section VIIl)

15
II. POLICY, LEGAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE FRAMEWORK

A. The Legal Framework for Environmental Management

73. The Vietnamese legal framework for environmental management continues to rapidly
evolve. This section introduces the nation’s relevant environmental policies. The key pieces of
environmental legislation is followed by the environmental standards that apply to the Project.

(i) Law on the Protection of the Environment (LEP) was enacted in 2005. The LEP:
 Identifies the responsibilities of the state centre, provinces, organizations and
individuals to prevent and remedy environmental deterioration and pollution
and carry out specified environmental protection functions;
 Provides for the development of environmental standards and submission of
environmental impact assessment reports on new and existing facilities;
 Provides for responsible parties to pay compensation for environmental
damage;
 Establishes the right of individuals and organizations to petition for
enforcement of environmental regulations;
 Calls for civil and criminal penalties for violations; and,
 Encourages international environmental co-operation.

(ii) Decree No. 80/2006/NS – CP promulgated on 09/08/2006 guides implementation


of the LEP.
(iii) Circular 08/2006/TT-BTNMT was promulgated in 2006 and provides
guidance in setting up and appraising environmental impact assessment
reports, strategic EIA and commitment to environmental protection.
74. To supplement the above key policies, there are a large range of decisions, regulations and
standards that may also apply to the Project. These are:

(i) Sectoral Standards 22TCN 242-98, dated 27/3/1998 of the Ministry of


Communication and Transport on EIA procedures during the preparation of
feasibility studies and for design and construction of transportation projects.
(ii) Temporary regulations on environmental monitoring analysis methods and
data management, the National Environmental Agency-Ministry of Science,
Technology and Environment, 1999.
75. The following are the environmental quality standards and regulations based on the
Vietnam Standards promulgated in 1995 by the Ministry of Science, Technology and
Environment : (TCVN 5937, 5944, 5945).

16
Environmental Standard Designation Concerns
Component
Air Quality QCVN 05:2009/BTNMT Ambient Air Quality
TCVN 5938:2005 Permitted maximum level of
toxic chemicals in ambient air.
Noise TCVN 5948:1999 by roadway traffic –
maximum allowable noise
levels
TCVN 5949:1998 Noise in public and residential
areas- maximum allowable
noise levels
TCVN 6436:1998 Noise caused by traffic
Vibration TCVN 6962:2991 vibration caused by
construction and industrial
activities – Permitted
maximum levels for public and
residential areas.

Soil QCVN 03:2008/BTNMT Soil Quality Allowable Limits


of Heavy Metals in Soil

Water QCVN 09 : 2008/BTNMT National technical regulation


on groundwater quality;
QCVN 08 : 2008/BTNMT Technical regulation on
surface water quality
QCVN 14 : 2008/BTNMT Technical Regulation on
Domestic Wastewater
QCVN 24: 2009/BTNMT Standard for Industrial
Wastewater

76. Other legislation that also apply to the Project are as follows:

(i) Public Health Protection Law No. 21-LCT/HĐNN8 approved by National


Assembly of Socialist Republic of Vietnam on 30th June 1989 and took effect
from 11th July 1989;
(ii) Cultural Heritage Law on No. 28/2001/QH10 approved by National Assembly
of Socialist Republic of Vietnam on 29th June 2001 and took effect from 1st
January 2002;
(iii) Construction Law No. 16/2003/QH approved by National Assembly of
Socialist Republic of Vietnam on 26th November 2003;

17
(iv) Decision No. 13/2003/QH11 approved by National Assembly of Socialist
Republic of Vietnam on 26th November 2003 and took effect from 1st July
2004;
(v) Government’s Decree No.16/2005/ND-CP dated 07th February 2005 on
project construction and investment management;
(vi) Environmental Protection Law No. 52/2005/QH11 dated 29th November
2005 issued by National Assembly of Socialist Republic of Vietnam and took
effect from 1st July 2006;
(vii) Government’s Decree No. 80/2006/ND-CP dated 09th August 2006
regarding detailed regulations and guidance on implementing some articles
of Environmental Protection Law;
(viii) Government’s Decree No. 81/2006/ND-CP dated 9th August 2006 on
administrative penalty in environmental protection field;
(ix) Decision No.13/2006/QĐ-BTNMT dated 8th September 2006 regarding
promulgation of regulations on organization and operation of Appraisal
Council of strategic EIA report, Appraisal Council of EIA report
(x) Government’s Decree No.112/NĐ-CP dated 29th September 2006 regarding
amendments and additions to some articles of Decree No. 16/ND-CP on
project construction and investment management;
(xi) Decision No. 22/2006/QĐ-BTNMT dated 18th February 2006 regarding
mandate to apply the Vietnam’s environmental standards;
(xii) Decision No 23/2006/QĐ-BTNMT dated 26th December 2006 issued by
Minister of Natural Resources and Environment on promulgating list of toxic
waste;
(xiii) MONRE’s Circular No. 12/2006/TT-BTNMT dated 26th December 2006
guiding conditions for practicing, and procedures for setting up dossiers,
registration, professional practice licensing and toxic waste management
code;
(xiv) Government’s Decree No. 59/2007/ND-CP dated 9th April 2007 on solid
waste management;
(xv) Decree No. 81/2007/ND-CP dated 23rd May 2007 regarding regulations on
organization of environmental department at state-owned companies and
enterprises;
(xvi) Circular No 10/2007/TT-BTNMT dated 22nd October 2007 regarding
guidance on quality insurance and control in environmental monitoring;
(xvii) Decree No 174/2007/ND-CP dated 29th November 2007 on environmental
protection fee of for solid waste;
(xviii) Government’s Decree No.21/2008/NĐ-CP dated 28th February 2008
regarding amendments and additions to some articles of Government’s
Decree No. 80/2006/NĐ-CP dated 9th August 2006 on detailed regulations
and guidance on implementing some articles of Environmental Protection
Law;

18
(xix) MONRE’s Circular No. 05 /2008/TT-BTNMT dated 8th December 2008
regarding guidance on strategic environmental assessment, environmental
impact assessment and environmental protection commitment;
(xx) MONRE’s Decision No. 16/2008/QĐ-BTNMT dated 31st December 2008
regarding issuance of national technical regulations on environment;
(xxi) Decision No. 27/2004/QĐ - BXD dated 09th November 2004 issued by
Minister of Construction regarding promulgation on Vietnamese Construction
Standard TCXDVN 320:2004 "Dumping of toxic wastes – Design standard”.
(xxii) Decision No. 3733/2002/QĐ-BYT dated 10th October 2002 issued by Heath
Care Department on application of 21 standards on labour sanitation
77. Other project related approvals are listed below:

(i) Decision 108/1998/QD-TTg dated 20/06/1998 of the Premier on adjustment


of the Ha Noi Master Plan to 2020.
(ii) Decision 60/2002/QD-TTg dated 13/05/2002 of the Premier on the approval
of Ha Noi Social-economic Development Master Plan in 2001-2010 period.
(iii) Decision 206/2004/QD-TTg dated 10/12/2004 of the Prime Minister
approving the Vietnam Transportation Strategy to 2020.
(iv) Decision 2707/QD-UB dated 23/4/2002 of the Ha Noi People’s Committee on
the preparation of Pre-feasibility study report (now the Investment report)
(v) Decision 6329/QD-UB dated 28/09/2004 of the Ha Noi People’s Committee
approving the Cost estimate for investment preparation of the Ha Noi Urban
Pilot Railway Line Project.
(vi) Decision 3891/QD-UB dated 08/06/2005 of the Ha Noi People’s Committee
approving on the supplemented investment preparation of the Ha Noi Urban
Pilot Railway Line Project.
(vii) Document No. 67/TTg-CN dated 12/01/2006 of the Prime Minister approving
the Pre-feasibility Study of the Ha Noi Urban Pilot Railway Line Project, and
allowing Ha Noi People’s Committee to prepare the Feasibility Study (Project
Investment and Construction).
(viii) Decision 909/QD-UB dated 20/02/2006 of the Ha Noi People’s Committee
approving the task for investment preparation of feasibility report for the Ha
Noi Urban Pilot Railway: Nhon-Ha Noi Railway Station Line.
(ix) Document No. 622/TTg-Cn dated 24/04/2006 of the Premier on the “Ha Noi
Urban Pilot Railway: Nhon-Ha Noi Railway Station Line

B. The Administrative Framework for Environmental Management

78. For the Project, the administrative framework’s relevant institutes are as follows:

(i) Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (MONRE). MONRE was


established by Prime Ministerial Decision on November11, 2002. The Ministry
includes four vice-ministers, 16 departments, one newspaper and one magazine.
(ii) Environmental Impact Assessment and Appraisal Department under MONRE
through Decree 91/2002/ND-CP. The Department’s function includes: To

19
appraise environmental impact assessment reports of projects and of business
and production establishments; and to issue environmental standards.
(iii) Department of Natural Resources and Environment (DONRE) it is responsible in
ensuring environmental protection, monitoring and implementation of the Project.

C. Vietnamese Environmental Requirements.

79. The Project requires a detailed EIA under Circular No05/2008/TT-BTNMT and submitted
to MONRE’s Environmental Impact Assessment and Appraisal Department. Once the report is
received MONRE will establish a committee to review and evaluate the project’s potential
impacts and mitigation measures. The committee will review and provide written comments to
MONRE within 60 days of the receipt of the EIA. If the EIA is found to be unsatisfactory, the
proponent must be notified 5 days from receipt of the report. Within 10 days following the date
of the EIA report is approved, the appraisal agencies will issue a decision on approval of the
EIA.

80. The GOV EIA of 2006 and the Supplementary EIA of 2008 went through this review
process and received GOV approval under Decision no. 869/QD-BTNMT dated 01/6/2007 and
30/03/2009.

D. ADB Environmental Requirements

81. The Project has been designated by ADB as environment category A for which this EIA
has been prepared based on ADB’s SPS 2009. ADB requires that the draft full EIA (including
the draft EMP) is submitted by the borrower (i.e., Ha Noi PC) to ADB for disclosure on ADB’s
website at least 120 days prior to ADB Board consideration of the loan. The draft EIA shall be
reviewed by ADB and the final EIA shall be posted on ADB’s website upon receipt from HPC.

20
III. DESCRIPTION OF THE PROJECT

A. Project Location

82. The project is located within the urban area of Ha Noi city. The area of Ha Noi is 92,100
ha and has a population of 3.44 million people (2008). There are nine inner urban and five
suburban districts. Table 3.1 identifies the districts and wards traversed by the project.

Table 3.1: Administrative Areas traversed by the Project

District Wards / Communes

Tu Liem Cau Dien, Phu Dien, Minh Khai, Tay Tuu

Cau Giay Quan Hoa, Dich Vong, Dich Vong Hau, Mai Dich

Ba Dinh Kim Ma, Giang Vo, Ngoc Khanh

Dong Da Quoc Tu Giam, Cat Linh, Van Mieu, Van Chuong

Hoan Kiem Tran Hung Dao, Cua Nam


Source: HRB FS, 2009

83. Land use in the western section of the project area is less developed and includes areas
of industrial and agricultural development, together with residential and educational facilities.
The eastern parts of the project area are more densely developed, comprising predominantly
residential and commercial land use. Land use at the depot site originally comprised of market
gardens bordered by houses and small, residence-based commercial activities. Since 2007 the
depot area has been extensively in-filled by approximately 1 m of sand (see Appendix 1, photo
10) in anticipation of the construction in 2010.

B. Need for Project

1. Introduction

84. The need for the project is demonstrated by the current and future traffic conditions
along the corridor that will be served by the project. Data on current passenger demand and
movements are presented together with the results of an analysis of the capacity of the existing
transport network. Predictions relating to future passenger demand and movements are then
presented based on 2007 analysis and additional data supplied in 2010. Conclusions are
assessed based on the ability of the project to fulfil future demand and ease future capacity
constraints.

2. Current Transport Conditions of East-West Corridor

85. Currently, the east-west corridor is served by a combination of private vehicles and
public transport in the form of a regular bus service (Route 32). Traffic surveys carried out in
2004 on two points along the east-west corridor on Xuan Thuy and Kim Ma Streets indicate that
the majority of vehicles on this route (84.8%) are motorbikes, followed by bicycles (10%), cars
(4.5%) and buses (0.7%). Table 3.2 summarizes traffic volumes on the east-west corridor.

21
Table 3.2: Summary of Traffic Survey Results

Morning Peak East to West West to East Afternoon East to West West to East
Count
Period Movements Movements Peak Period Movements Movements
Location
(vph, 2 way) (vph, 1 way) (vph, 1 way) (vph, 2 way) (vph, 1 way) (vph, 1 way)
12,294 4,290 8,004 10,296 6,810 3,486
Xuan Thuy
100% 35% 65% 100% 66% 34%

21,930 6,804 15,126 23,298 11,478 11,820


Kim Ma
100% 31% 69% 100% 49% 51%

Source: IMV, 2004.

86. Overall, traffic movements on the east-west corridor demonstrate a strong


temporal/directional relationship. In the morning peak period, 63% of traffic movements are from
the west to the east; and in the evening peak period, 56% of traffic movements are from the
east to the west. The corridor exhibits a strong work to home movement in the mornings as
passengers travel from residential areas to the west of the city centre and into the city centre for
employment, while in the evening the reverse trend occurs.

87. An analysis of the capacity of the road network indicates that in 2004, Xuan Thuy was
nearing capacity in both directions, while Kim Ma was at or above capacity in both directions
during the afternoon and morning peak hours.

88. In terms of modes used by passengers, private vehicles dominate. Motorbikes cater for
75% of passengers, while cars and bicycles account for 15% of passengers.

89. Importantly, buses, while only representing 0.7% of vehicles, cater to 10% of passengers
highlighting the importance of public transport for passengers using this corridor. Buses travel
along this route at an average frequency of 5 minute intervals. Buses travelling along the route
are operating at or near capacity with buses leaving and arriving at the western terminus of the
line at Nhon being overcrowded throughout the day.

90. Analyses of the characteristics of passengers using the bus line on the east-west
corridor indicate that the main origin of passengers arriving at Nhon is Giap Bat station in the
south of the city. The remainder of important origin points are situated west of Cau Giay and
include the National University, Cau Giay bus interchange and Cau Dien. The six stops in the
city centre are used by a relatively small number of passengers. The most commonly reported
origins are universities, of which there are a large number located along the corridor, followed
by residences.

91. The main destination of passengers leaving the Nhon terminus of the bus line is the Kim
Ma interchange, followed by Giap Bat, the National University, Cau Giay interchange and Cau
Dien. Approximately 60% of passengers departing Nhon are headed for destinations to the west
of Cau Giay, while only 6% travel to the city centre. Reported destinations of passengers are
residences, or universities/schools. A relatively large proportion of bus passengers (30.6%)
make at least one transfer during their trip indicating the importance of interchange points on the
east-west corridor (i.e. Kim Ma, Cau Giay, Daewoo Hotel intersection etc.).

22
3. Future Transport Conditions of East-West Corridor

92. Significant growth on the city-wide transport network is expected to occur as a result of
increasing urbanization, growing population and changes in socio-economic characteristics,
such as: increased leisure time and higher disposable incomes. Table 3.3 summarizes expected
growth on the overall transport network in Ha Noi between 2005 and 2030 (excluding Ha Tay
Province).

Table 3.3: Predicted Growth on Ha Noi Transport Network (excluding Ha Tay Province)

Annual
2005 2010 2020 2030 Average
Growth
Population 3,045,667 3,365,000 3,875,000 4,130,000 1.4%
Trips /day on network
5,055,807 6,898,250 8,796,250 9,745,250 3.7%

Source: SYSTRA, 2005.

93. There is little specific information available on expected trends in transport modes on the
east-west corridor. In the future, the number of trips per day and the number of passengers on
the east-west corridor is expected to increase in line with expected growth on the overall Ha Noi
transport network due to the residential population and development of new educational and
employment facilities in the western districts of Ha Noi.

94. Table 3.4 presents data on growth in particular transport modes across the Ha Noi
transport network. Two scenarios are considered: (i) without any improvement of existing public
transport systems; and (ii) with implementation of proposed urban rail network, including the
project.

Table 3.4: Predicted Growth on Ha Noi Transport Network by Mode (excluding Ha Tay
Province)

Without Project

2003 2010 2020 2030 Total %


Average
Increase
Mode Annual %
No. No. No. No. over
% % % % Increase
trips/day trips/day trips/day trips/day period

Walking 1.5 66,990 1.5 103,470 1.5 131,940 1.5 146,175 4% 118%

Bicycle 22 982,520 14.5 1,000,210 8 703,680 6 584,700 -1% -40%

Motorbike 65 2,902,900 52.1 3,593,858 38 3,342,480 28 2,728,600 0% -6%

Car 1.8 80,388 16.1 1,110,578 32 2,814,720 39 3,800,550 171% 4628%

Bus 9.5 424,270 15.5 1,069,190 20 1,759,200 25 2,436,250 18% 474%

23
Others 0.2 8,932 0.3 20,694 0.5 43,980 0.5 48,725 17% 446%

Total 100 4,466,000 100 6,898,000 100 8,796,000 100 9,745,000 4% 118%

With Urban Rail Network Development9

Total %
2003 2010 2020 2030
Average Increase
Mode Annual % over
%
No.
%
No.
%
No.
%
No. Increase period
trips/day trips/day trips/day trips/day

Walking 1.5 66,990 1.5 103,860 1.5 135,315 1.5 150,570 5% 125%

Bicycle 22 982,520 13.7 948,588 5.9 532,239 3.9 391,482 -2% -60%

Motorbike 65 2,902,900 50.4 3,489,696 25.6 2,309,376 15.5 1,555,890 -2% -46%

Car 1.8 80,388 15.8 1,093,992 28.3 2,552,943 32.3 3,242,274 146% 3933%

Bus + rail 9.5 424,270 18.3 1,267,092 38.6 3,482,106 46.6 4,677,708 37% 1003%

Others 0.2 8,932 0.2 13,848 0.2 18,042 0.2 20,076 5% 125%

Total 100 4,466,000 100 6,924,000 100 9,021,000 100 10,038,000 5% 125%

Source: SYSTRA, 2005.

95. Table 3.4 indicates that trends in the growth or decline of various transport modes will
vary according to the mode in question. Analysis of the data indicates the following:

(i) Implementation of the urban rail network will increase growth in the modal share
of public transport. This growth would continue even without the urban rail
network at an average rate of 18% per year on the bus network. However,
implementation of the urban rail network is expected to increase growth of this
mode share to 37%, resulting in a modal share of 47% in 2030 (compared to
25% without urban rail network implementation).
(ii) Implementation of the urban rail network will slow growth in car trips. If the
network is not implemented, the growth in car trips is expected to increase by an
average of 171% per year to 2030; whereas if the network is implemented,
growth will be less at 146% per year resulting in a modal share for cars of 32.3%
in 2030 (compared to 39% without urban rail network implementation).
96. The modal share of motorbikes is expected to continue to increase to 2010 in both
scenarios and then start to decrease. This decrease would be more dramatic in the scenario
where the urban rail network is constructed with total decrease of 46% compared to 6% in the
without project scenario. The modal share of motorbikes is expected to be 16% with
implementation of the urban rail network in 2030 compared to 28% without.

97. No specific data for expected trends in the east-west corridor are available. However,
the project represents a key element of the urban rail network and the broad trends described
above for the whole Ha Noi transport network can be assumed to be relevant for the east-west

24
corridor.

4. Summary of Project Need

98. Currently, the east-west corridor is an important part of the Ha Noi transport network. It
is served by high frequency, overly utilized public transport system in the form of buses
including the Route 32 bus, and carries substantial volumes of private vehicles. Passengers
along the east-west corridor have a range of origins and destinations with a strong west to east
movement pattern in the morning peak and a strong east to west pattern in the evening peak as
passengers travel from home to work / university and work / university to home respectively.

99. Trips to universities and employment along the corridor are the most important origins
and destinations for passengers travelling on the bus network.

100. Despite its importance, available capacity on this corridor is low. Sections of the road
network are already operating above capacity and a relatively small shift from the predominant
mode of motorbikes to cars will ensure that capacity constraints are exacerbated. Furthermore,
despite the high frequency of the bus service, capacity constraints are experienced with
overcrowding.

101. In the future the number of trips per day and the number of passengers on the east-west
corridor is expected to increase in line with expected growth on the overall Ha Noi transport
network and expected growth in residential population and development of new educational and
employment facilities in the western districts of Ha Noi . Such growth will arise from changing
land use, particularly increased urbanization in the west of Ha Noi, higher standards of living
and disposable income, and population growth.

102. Modelling on the Ha Noi transport network indicates that without implementation of the
urban rail system, growth in the number of car trips will be significant, decrease in the modal
share of motorbikes will be less and gains in public transport usage will be more modest
compared to the scenario if the urban rail network, including the project on the east-west
corridor, is developed.

103. Development of a new high capacity, high frequency public transport system on the
east-west corridor has the potential to cater for existing and future passenger demand and will
relieve congestion on the road corridor and the existing public transport network. In addition, this
form of public transport will significantly benefit the environment. The removal of cars, buses
and motor bikes in favour of this mode of transport will reduce GHG and ameliorate negative
climate change conditions.

5. Tunnel Construction Methods

104. Two tunnel construction methods will be used for the underground components of the
route:

(i) Cut and cover construction – a shallow tunnel construction method which
requires disturbance of the ground surface to implement a trench structure
underground which is eventually covered and the surface re-established. This
method will be used at the transition area between the bored tunnel and the
elevated guideway and for the four underground stations.

25
(ii) Deep tunnel excavation is carried out entirely underground by excavation
machinery, using either traditional methods or a tunnel boring machine (TBM),
and which requires minimal surface level disturbance. Deep tunnel construction
methods will be utilized along the entire length of the tunnel section. The depth of
the deep tunnel sections would be approximately -17 to -18m. There are a
number of tunneling options (Figure 3.1) that were examined in the 2009
Feasibility Study. The designers opted for a two TBM approach over a single
machine because it reduces costs in the time to build the machines, delivery time
and set-up.
105. Two TBM’s will be used to bore side-by side tunnels for the underground section as
shown in Figure 3.1 option 3.

26
Figure 3.1: Tunnel Construction Options (Systra, 2009)

C. Project Pre-Construction

6. Detailed Design

106. Detailed design of the project is expected to be completed by August 2010. Discussions
with HRB and the detailed design consultant (SYSTRA) indicate that the following activities are
part of the detailed design activities:

(iv) Pre-construction condition surveys of buildings in proximity of underground works


(v) Analysis of options for spoil management

27
(vi) Traffic management requirements and measures during construction and
operation
(vii) Analysis of noise and vibration protection requirements for project operation
(viii) Requirements for drainage and wastewater treatment systems
(ix) Landscaping and re-vegetation planting
(x) Investigations into heritage issues associated with Temple of Literature complex
(xi) Topographical, geological and geotechnical surveys
(xii) Updated patronage forecasts
(xiii) Project cost estimation
107. Although some of the above components are required for the overall project, HRB plans
to start civil works at the Depot site by late 2010.

7. Land Acquisition and Resettlement

108. The Feasibility Study (2009) contains preliminary data on land acquisition and
resettlement requirements (Table 3.5). It is estimated that 28.7 ha of land will be permanently
required for the project. Of this, 15.1 ha will be agricultural land at the depot area, while the
remaining 6.1 ha will be residential and public land. It is estimated that there may be 719 project
affected households (PAHs) that will require relocation. These estimates are based on feasibility
study (2009) and the current preliminary design requirements (Table 3.5).

Table 3.5: Preliminary Estimate of Land Acquisition Requirements


No. Relocated
Project Component Land Acquisition (ha)
Households
Depot area 15.1 2
Access to depot 1.95 53
Power substations 0.15 ?
Elevated stations 0.66 4
Modified road laneways 3.84 0
Land for underground structures 2.32 ?
TOTAL 23.9
Source: TRICC, 2006.

109. No estimate has yet been made of temporary land acquisition that will be required during
construction activities. Two areas have been identified in the 2009 feasibility study: a 9,000 m2
parking lot near the Daewoo Hotel, the Horison Hotel parking lot and Friendship Palace. These
would serve as ancillary construction works including materials and equipment storage sites, or
concrete batching plants.

110. A draft project Resettlement Plan (RP) is currently being prepared in compliance with
ADB requirements. The draft RP provides updated information on project land requirements
during construction and operation, and details of compensation and entitlements for households
requiring relocation or land acquisition.

28
D. Project Construction

1. Viaduct and Flyover Construction

111. About 8.5 km of the route will be constructed on elevated viaduct. In addition, a number
of flyovers are required along the route to cross major roads and rivers. These will include
flyovers at the access to the depot over NR32; across Nhue River; across Mai Dich intersection;
across To Lich River, 2nd Ring Road and Cau Giay roundabout (2nd Ring Road).

112. The construction methods for the flyover and viaduct sections will be similar. Once the
site is prepared, four 1000 mm concrete piles of +50 m will be churned drilled and capped by a
1.5 m support base 60 cm below ground level, for the piers and pre-cast reinforced concrete
sections of viaduct or flyover will be lowered into place before being fastened and secured. Rail
track will then be installed on the elevated sections.

2. Underground Construction

113. Two methods of underground construction will take place:

(i) Open cut, cut and cover construction for shallow tunnel section – transition area,
and underground station construction
(ii) Tunnel excavation construction using a TBM.
3. Covered Trench Construction

114. Construction of the covered trench tunnel will commence following completion of site
clearance and implementation of surface traffic management measures such as lane diversions
and fencing / barriers. Excavation will concentrate on onside of the station first, followed by the
opposite side. The broad steps in the construction process are shown in Figure 3.2.

29
Step 1: Install guide stakes to Step 2: Install reinforced steel
divide roadway into two halves and pour concrete to form first
with traffic movements tunnel wall.
continuing on undisturbed
sections. Excavate position of
first tunnel wall and insert
casting mold.

Step 3: Install reinforced steel


and pour concrete to form
tunnel cover. Reinstate
material above cover and
return road surface to original
height.

30
Figure 3.2: The broad steps in the construction process

115. Based on the recent studies of geology and hydrogeology, hydraulic pressure of
groundwater should not be a major concern. Groundwater pumping in the past several decades
has greatly depleted the aquifer. Currently, the water table is more than 20 m deep which is
well below the bottom of the underground stations. Some groundwater seepage may occur due
to perched groundwater at shallower depths. However, due to the low permeability of the
shallow layers, dewatering, if necessary, will be minimal.

116. Based on the detailed hydrogeology study, groundwater intrusion will not be a major
concern. Small amounts that may accumulate will be collected and pumped to local drains.

E. Deep Tunnel Construction

117. The first step in the deep tunnel construction process will be the development of an
open-cast well to function as a tunnel lay-down area. This area will be used for storage of
equipment and machinery and will allow access to the tunnel for spoil removal trucks. There will
be double tunnel entry points at both the eastern and western ends of the tunnel as well as
possibly at the centre, where ventilation shafts are planned.

118. Deep tunnel excavation will be carried out using two TBM’s. TBM machines operate like
large drills, excavating the tunnel formation as they progress horizontally along the tunnel
alignment. Pre-cast tubes are then inserted into the excavated area. Ngoc Khanh Car Park on

31
the north-eastern corner of the Kim Ma / Lieu Giai intersection, which is currently used for car
and bus parking, has been identified as a potential construction worksite for storage and
maintenance of the TBM and associated equipment.

1. Spoil Excavation and Management

119. The 2009 Feasibility Study indicates that up to 500,000 m3 of spoil (equivalent to
800,000 tons) will be removed as part of the tunneling activities. The potential for on-site reuse
of this soil is very limited as the project does not require utilization of large amounts of spoil; as
such, off site management options will be the responsibility of HRB and the contractor.

2. Construction Traffic Management

120. To date there is very little information available on construction traffic volumes or
proposed management measures. The IEE suggests that up to 20,000 trips, of average length
10 km, will be generated during construction works; however, these data will be updated in the
detailed design stage. The actual number of trips generated will depend on a number of factors
including construction scheduling; construction workforce size; and location of construction
support facilities such as material storage and parking areas. Construction traffic management
will be a critical component of the overall construction process given the potential for disruption
to the local road network and associated amenity impacts for nearby receivers. The contractor
shall only excavate half a station at a time to allow traffic flow and pedestrian access through
the construction site.

3. Services and Utilities

121. Construction works will require a range of services and utilities including electricity,
telecommunications, water supply (potable and non-potable), wastewater treatment and
disposal, and solid waste storage and disposal.

122. Based on discussions with HRB, electricity, telecommunications and water supply are to
be drawn from municipal services. Back-up electricity services may be provided in the form of
diesel generators for key construction activities such as tunneling if considered warranted.
Temporary wastewater treatment systems will be developed throughout the construction site to
ensure TCVN criteria for effluent are met prior to disposal to the municipal wastewater system.
Solid waste will be sorted and stored on site in temporary facilities prior to regular collection for
recycling and reuse (salvageable materials from site clearing and earthworks) or disposal at
suitable facilities (hazardous or putrescible materials) approved by local authorities.

4. Construction Workforce

123. Information available to date on the magnitude of the construction workforce is unknown,
with predictions of a maximum workforce of 100 persons. It is considered likely that the actual
construction workforce size will greatly exceed this prediction. Management measures for
construction workers’ accommodation and services have not yet been finalized. While priority
will be given to hiring local construction workers, given the relatively high socioeconomic status
of much of the project area, it is likely that a large proportion of the workforce will be from other
parts of Ha Noi or surrounding provinces. The HRB indicates that construction worker camps
will not be used, with preference being given to use of locally based workers, or housing of
workers in existing dormitories to enhance integration with the local community.

32
5. Ancillary Construction Facilities

124. A range of ancillary and support facilities for construction works will be required and will
include:

(i) Concrete batching plants and casting yard


(ii) Pre-cast yard for piers and viaducts
(iii) Laydown areas for tunneling and other equipment
(iv) Materials storage areas
(v) Truck/vehicle parking areas
(vi) Waste storage areas
(vii) Temporary road diversions

125. The number and size of these facilities will affect the size of the overall construction
footprint and the land acquisition requirements for the project. The location of the depot, viaduct
and tunnel have been identified to accommodate construction operations.

F. Project Operation

1. Introduction

126. The Project will be a bi-directional, tracked rail system comprising of four car trains to
start and after 2063 moving to five car trains. The system can reverse direction without turning
of the rolling stock. The system has a 40 year design life. Resilient track fasteners, noise
shielding and anti-vibration devices will be installed on the viaduct to minimize noise and
vibration effects to nearby receivers. The project will be owned and operated by HRB.

2. Passenger Numbers and Train Frequency

127. Table 3.6 summarizes the patronage forecasts for the project. Data presented in Table
3.6 are based on the Feasibility Study (2009).

Table 3.6: Predicted Passenger Numbers (excluding Ha Tay Province)

Year 2015 (opening) 2020 2030

Passengers / day 157,000 276,000 458,000


Total passengers in peak
hours 5,800 16,500 23,900
Passengers on busiest
section in morning peak
(1 way) 20,800 51,300 85,000

Source: Feasibility Study, 2009.

128. The system will operate from 5 am to midnight, seven days a week. Train frequencies of
6 min 33 s will be required to meet peak hour demand on opening of the line (8,600 passengers

33
/ peak hour). This will increase to 3 min 25 s in 2020 (16,700 passengers / peak hour) and 2 min
25 s in 2030 (23,900 passengers / peak hour). The frequency of non-peak services will be
approximately half that of peak hour services.

129. A total travel time along the line of 16.7 minutes is predicted for an average speed of
33.8 kph and an average 20 second wait at stations.

3. Rolling Stock

130. The choice of rolling stock will be made prior to commissioning of the project. Rolling
stock will be of Category PIII type as specified in standard EN12663, and will fulfil the following
general design specifications:

(i) Length of each carriage: 19 to 20 m


(ii) Width: 2.6 to 2.9m
(iii) Height: 3.8m
(iv) Platform height: 0.9 to 1.15 m
(v) Mass: 110 tons (empty); 160 tons fully loaded
(vi) Maximum velocity: 80 km/h
131. Rolling stock will be equipped with air conditioning and ventilation and will be required to
meet Ha Noi’s specific climatic conditions.

132. The passenger loading characteristics of a four carriage system are summarized below.

Table 3.7: Passenger Loading Characteristics – Three Carriage System

Passenger
No. Sitting No. Standing Total No. Places
Density

Comfort loading 4 persons / m2 130 324 454

Normal loading 6 persons / m2 130 486 616

High loading 8 persons / m2 130 648 778


Source: TRICC, 2006.

133. The rolling stock and overall system will be designed to allow accessibility by special
needs passengers.

4. Route Alignment

134. The route alignment is shown in Figure 1.2. The alignment is categorized into three
sections as described below:

(i) Section 1 - Nhon to 3rd Ring Road: In this section the alignment will follow the
alignment of NR32 which is currently being widened to 50 m to accommodate four
lanes on each side. It is anticipated that widening of NR32 will be completed prior to
the commencement of construction of the project. The project will be on a viaduct in

34
this section along a 5 m central section of the road. The average height of the rail
line on viaduct will be 12 – 13 m and it will have a width of 9.25 m along the rail
sections and 14.9 m at station locations. The viaduct will generally comprise 25 m
long pre-fabricated sections in U form except at the rail crossing which is 27.5 m -
39.5 m -27.5m. The ring road crossings will require special span lengths.
(ii) Section 2 - 3rd Ring Road to Swedish Embassy: In this section the alignment
will continue in an east-west direction along Cau Giay and Kim Ma. The project will
be on a viaduct in this section with the same general characteristics as those
described for the previous section. On one section of Kim Ma near the Thu Le zoo,
the carriageways are divided by a retaining wall and are at different elevations. This
section of road will need to be redeveloped to allow the installation of piles. On Kim
Ma west of the Daewoo Hotel, the line commences the transition zone descending
underground to allow it to obtain a depth of -17.5m before reaching the Swedish
Embassy.
(iii) Section 3- Swedish Embassy to Ha Noi Railway Station: In this section of the
alignment is underground. From Kim Ma, the route turns to the south east and is
aligned underneath Nui Truc, before turning to the north-east and travelling under
Giang Vo and then under Cat Linh to the Horison Hotel. The alignment follows Cat
Linh to the east of the Horison Hotel and then travels under Quoc Tu Giam adjacent
to the Temple of Literature. The alignment will continue underground to the
Friendship Palace in Tran Hung Dao. A service area will be constructed to the east
of the terminus station to allow for manoeuvring and stabling of trains and to tie into
any future possible extension of the line to the east.

5. Station Locations

135. Twelve stations will be constructed along the route at an average spacing of
approximately 1000 m, providing for a passenger catchment radius of 350 m to 400 m for each
station which is in keeping with international practice for maximizing passenger numbers.
Criteria used for the location of stations were as follows:

(i) Servicing existing residential areas, employment areas, education facilities and
other areas generating large numbers of passengers
(ii) Servicing future residential and urban areas
(iii) Station spacing that allows competitive speeds to be reached along the east-
west corridor when compared to other transport modes
(iv) Offering possibility of interchange with other existing and proposed public
transport network elements
(v) Sites with adequate area and surrounding land use to support development of
interchange areas and parking areas for use by passengers
136. The station locations will be as follows:

35
Table 3.8: Station location of the Project (HRB Feasibility Study, 2009)

Station Km point Inter-station distance


(meters)
S1 - Nhon terminal 10+150
S2 – Minh Khai 11+275 1125
S3 – Phu Dien 12+250 975
S4 – Cau Dien 13+260 1010
S5 – Le Duc Tho 14+395 1135
S6 - National University 15+480 1085
S7 - Chua Ha 16+640 1160
S8 - Cau Giay Interchange 17+825 1185
S9 - Kim Ma station 18+985 1160
S10 - Cat Linh station 20+520 1535
S11 - Van Mieu station 21+070 550
S12 - Ha Noi Railway station 22+190 1120
Total (in meters) 12040

Source: HRB FS, 2009

137. The eight elevated stations will be 17 m to 18 m high, 24 m wide and a length of 110 m.
The stations will be two-storey structures including the carriageway and platform. The platform
will be 4 m wide and 80 m long. The upper storey of the station will be for the platform and
tracks, while the lower storey will allow for passenger transfer, ticket selling and auxiliary
facilities.

138. Four of the stations will be underground stations (Stations 9,10, 11 and 12). These
stations will be generally rectangular in shape with a width of 16.7 m and a length of 120 m. The
stations will be constructed of in-situ case reinforced concrete. These stations will have two to
three stories. The lower storey of the station will be for the platform and tracks, while the upper
storey will allow for passenger transfer, ticket selling, ventilation/air conditioning and auxiliary
facilities. Station 12 will be a deep underground station, located at a depth of -17m to -18m. This
station will be generally rectangular in shape with a width of 24 m and a length of 120 m. This
station will be three stories. The lower storey of the station will be for the platform and tracks,
the middle storey will allow for alteration of tracks, while the upper storey will allow for
passenger transfer, ticket selling, ventilation/air conditioning and auxiliary facilities.

139. All stations will be equipped with the following:

(i) Facilities for pedestrian crossings from one platform to the other; configuration of
these facilities will be finalized during detailed design and may be at-grade or
elevated for stations located on viaduct
(ii) Accessibility arrangements for disabled or vulnerable passengers; configuration
of these facilities will be finalized during detailed design

36
(iii) Stairs and/or escalators to provide access to elevated or underground platforms;
configuration of these facilities will be finalized during detailed design
(iv) Surveillance cameras on platforms and ticket distribution areas
(v) Voice transmission system connected to the central control room
(vi) Emergency intercom for passengers
(vii) Automatic, real-time passenger information system
(viii) Fire detection, warning and protection systems which will be developed in close
consultation with local emergency response authorities
(ix) Parking for motorbikes and bicycles
140. Facilities at interchange stations to assist connections between the different public
transport networks; configuration of these facilities will be finalized during detailed design

6. Nhon Depot Operation

141. The Nhon Depot is located on a 15 ha site east of Road No. 70 north of the NR32
intersection. The land was previously used for production of vegetables, flowers and fruit. The
depot site will be used as the future rail line depot in the land use plan of Tu Liem district. For
the purposes of rail line planning, the depot is taken as Km 0.

142. A 66 m long fly-over of NR32, containing double tracks with a 4 m spacing, will provide
access to and from the depot for rolling stock. The fly-over will have a gradient of 4% and will
have a clearance to NR32 of at least 4.5 m.

143. The depot will include the following facilities:

(i) Maintenance bays


(ii) Washing areas
(iii) Stabling area for rolling stock
(iv) Workshops
(v) Wheel maintenance equipment
(vi) Fire control equipment
(vii) Internal track and road network
(viii) Administration area
(ix) Training center
(x) Wastewater treatment system
144. The total water demand at the depot for washing, maintenance and workers use is
estimated to be 384.0 m3/day. The total effluent generated at the depot is estimated to be 137.7
m3/day. Wastewater will be treated on-site to meet relevant TCVN requirements prior to
recycling and discharge to the city drainage network.

145. Access to the depot will be off of Road No. 70. This road is currently a narrow, poorly
formed road with residential and small scale commercial development close to the road
boundary. Widening of this road and acquisition of land will be required to allow access to the

37
depot site.

7. Services and Utilities

146. A third rail 750V DC supply system is to be utilized. Up to ten electricity transformer
stations will be required along the route and one for the depot station with a total capacity of
2500 kW. Each transformer station will incorporate a terminal box, transformer, transducer and
electrical switching. The total electricity demand of the project is estimated to be 7,500 kW in
2010 increasing to 16,200 kW in 2030. The location of the transformer stations has yet to be
determined.

147. Ventilation systems will be provided in the underground stations. Air compressors with
fans will be used to cool air, before injecting it into stations. Air will be filtered prior to exhaust to
the external environment. Under normal operating conditions, the tunnel section of the route will
be ventilated by the piston effects of train movements.

148. Water supply to stations will be sourced from the municipal water supply. Pumps will be
installed in the tunnel and underground stations to pump stormwater and wastewater.
Wastewater treatment systems will be installed at stations to treat sewage prior to discharge to
the city systems.

149. Communications systems (normal and emergency systems) will be installed throughout
the project components.

150. Fire protection, emergency response and evacuation systems will be implemented
throughout the project components. Back-up electricity and ventilation systems will be installed
in the tunnel sections. These systems, which will be designed to meet current European safety.
standards, will be finalized during detailed design activities.

151. A central operations control centre for the project will be established at the Nhon depot
to coordinate project operation and emergency response procedures.

8. Changes to Existing Public Transport

152. There are twelve existing bus lines that coincide either fully or partially with the project
alignment. These include Line No. 20 from Kim Ma to Phung town, of which nine out of eleven
bus stops are located on the project alignment; Line No. 32 from Giap Bat bus station to Nhon
Dept which travels along the project alignment from Kim Ma to Nhon depot; and ten other lines
which coincide to lesser extents with certain sections of the project alignment (Line Nos. 5, 7,
16, 25, 29, 34, 38, and 50).

153. To maximize the efficiency of the combined rail and bus public transport system, the
following modifications to bus network operation are proposed upon commissioning of the
project:

(i) Line No. 20 will be eliminated as it parallels the project for the majority of its
length
(ii) Line No. 32 will be shortened with the new northern terminus at Cau Giay or Van
Phuc rather than the current terminus at Nhon; passengers will then transfer to
the project to complete the journey west to Nhon

38
154. The remaining lines will be kept intact and they will function to collect and transfer
passengers between the bus and rail network. Some bus stops will require relocation to ensure
smooth transition to project stations. In addition, new bus lines are proposed to be introduced to
act as feeder lines to the project. The location of these lines will be developed by the relevant
authorities during project development.

G. Project Costs

155. The preliminary, estimated total cost for the project ranges from 775.45 to 853.0 million
Euros as shown in Table 3.9. The following table 3.10 shows the tendering Plan and Feasibility
Study cost estimates.

Table 3.9: Project cost estimate

Tendering Plan Feasibility Study

Loans Tender Cont Total Cost Phys Cont Price Cont Total

Civil 258.899 45.147 304.046 281.209 23.407 49.803 354.419


Equip 262.908 47.063 309.971 245.266 12.263 48.734 306.263
Total 614.017 660.682

GOV
Project Management 26.726 26.234 2.632 7.413 36.279
Land Clearance 18.496 18.142 0.907 1.905 20.954
VAT 30.605 45.266 45.266
Interest During Construction 31.45 44.96 44.96
Working Capital 0.725 0.711 0.711
Contingency 19.703
Total 127.705 135.313 3.539 9.318 148.17

Already Implemented 33.734

Total 775.456 808.852

Consultant Fee 38.8 3.88 1.478 44.158

Total 775.456 853.01


SYSTRA 2010

156. Financing mechanisms for the project construction and operation will be through the
GOV, ADB and AFD, a RPE loan from DGPTE (French Ministry of Finance Treasury and
Economic Policy General Directorate) and loan from EIB.

H. Implementation Schedule

157. Table 3.10 presents the preliminary implementation schedule for the project. There will
be 9 tender packages let for the project over a two year period. The first tender package (#4)

39
will be for the construction of the infrastructure at the Depot followed by tender # 5, construction
of the buildings. There are two Viaduct tenders: 1, piers, guideway, special bridges and ramps
and 2, elevated stations. One tender will be called for the tunnelling and underground stations.
The remaining four tenders are for the railway stock, systems and ticketing. Construction is
estimated to take five years

Table 3.10: Preliminary Project Implementation Schedule

Milestone Expected Completion Date

Completion of detailed design Quarter (Q) 3 2010


Letting of bidding documents for:
Depot construction #1 Q2 2010
Viaduct #1 Q3 2010
Remaining tenders 2011-2012

Commencement of construction Q3 2010


Completion of construction Q2 2015
Project commissioning Q3 2015
Project operation commencement Q4 2015
Source: SYSTRA, 2010.

40
IV. DESCRIPTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT

A. Introduction

158. The following sections present information on the biophysical and social environmental
components of the project area. Much of the information was compiled from a range of
secondary data sources presented in the IEE, and utilized with additional data and design
measures for this EIA. Available information for each issue is presented as follows:

(i) Environmental conditions in Ha Noi: Data is presented on environmental


conditions in Ha Noi to allow comments to be made on expected environmental
conditions or trends in the project area.
(ii) Monitoring data in project area: An EIA was prepared for the project to meet the
requirements of the Vietnamese Law on Environment Protection 2005 (referred
to as the GOV EIA). The GOV EIA, which was approved by MONRE in June
2006, contains monitoring data for a number of environmental issues in the
project area. A review of the quality and accuracy of this data was carried out
and relevant results were reported in the ADB IEE. A supplementary EIA was
carried out in 2008 where additional monitoring of air quality, noise, vibration and
water quality parameters were conducted possibly to meet the deficiencies cited
in the IEE. This supplementary EIA received approval by MONRE in March,
2009.
(iii) Conclusions and Additional Information Requirements: Using information on
expected environmental conditions in the project area, together with the results of
monitoring data presented in the GOV EIA and supplementary EIA, preliminary
conclusions were drawn on the adequacy of existing datasets and information
deficiencies identified.

B. Physical Resources

1. Climate

159. The project area is located in the tropical monsoon area with two distinctive seasons: the
dry, cool season from November to April and the rainy, hot season from May to October. The
coolest month is January and the hottest is July. The average monthly temperature in Ha Noi is
shown in Table 4.1.

Table 4.1: Average Monthly Temperature in Ha Noi (ºC) (excluding Ha Tay Province)

January February March April May June July August September October November December

16.4 17.0 20.2 23.7 27.3 28.8 28.9 28.2 27.2 24.6 21.4 18.2
Source: MVA Asia, 2006

160. Average annual humidity in Ha Noi is 83.0%, with monthly averages varying from 81% in
December to 87% in March and April.

161. The main wind direction in winter is northeast and in summer it is southeast. Table 4.2
provides data on the monthly average velocity of wind.

41
162. Storms occur frequently in Ha Noi from June to October, and are most frequent in
August. During such events wind velocity can reach 20 m/s.

Table 4.2: Average Monthly Wind Velocity (m/s) (excluding Ha Tay Province)

January February March April May June July August September October November December

2.9 2.9 2.8 3.1 2.9 2.6 2.4 2.2 2.3 2.2 2.3 2.4
Source: MVA Asia, 2006

163. Annual average rainfall in Ha Noi is 1676.2mm, with most rainfall occurring in August.
On average, 85% of the annual rainfall is experienced during the rainy season. Table 4.3 shows
the distribution of rainfall across the year.

Table 4.3: Average Monthly Rainfall (mm) (excluding Ha Tay Province)

January February March April May June July August September October November December

18.6 26.2 43.8 90.1 188.5 239.9 288.2 318 265.4 130.7 43.4 23.4
Source: MVA Asia, 2006

2. Air Quality

a. Air Quality in Ha Noi

164. Air quality in urban centres throughout Viet Nam has been deteriorating in recent years
in line with increasing urbanization and industrialization. Numerous studies on air quality have
been carried out from which the following general conclusions are of interest in construction and
operation of the project:

(i) The main issue of concern in relation to air quality is particulate matter (PM),
particularly PM10 and fine particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter
less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5) which causes the greatest risks in terms of
health impacts. PM2.5 results from combustion of fossil fuels in transport and
industry. Measured PM concentrations in Vietnamese cities are one to five
times higher than allowed by TCVN standards and recent monitoring in Ha Noi
suggests TCVN standards are exceeded by six to seven times over the
majority of the road network. Particulate matter levels are elevated in the dry
season when there is less rain.
(ii) Sulfur dioxide (SO2) levels are usually below the relevant TCVN criteria in
urban areas, although levels exceeding TCVN criteria by two to three times
can occur near major intersections (Ha Noi DONRE, 2005). Diesel powered
vehicles are the major source of SO2 in urban areas, together with coal
burning for domestic use.
(iii) Nitrogen oxides (NOx) result from fuel combustion and are usually found at
levels below TCVN criteria in urban areas. Elevated levels, however, are
increasingly observed at major urban intersections (Ha Noi DONRE, 2005).
(iv) Carbon monoxide (CO) levels commonly exceed TCVN standards at major
intersections in urban areas and along major thoroughfares, but are generally

42
within standards in other areas. Mobile emission sources such as vehicles are
the main generators of CO.
(v) Benzene levels are above EU recommended levels in many locations with the
highest levels found at traffic intersections and along major roads.
165. In Ha Noi, attention and investigations have focused on CO, PM10 and PM2.5 because
SO2 and NOx levels have traditionally been considered to be less of a concern; although levels
of these pollutants are increasing due to growing levels of industrial and transport activities.

166. Examination of historic data for CO and PM10 generation between 1999 and 2003
undertaken as part of the Ha Noi Urban Transport Project (HUTP) indicates that there has been
a steady increase in pollutant loads and that this increase is expected to continue into the
foreseeable future in line with expected traffic growth and fuel consumption.

167. It is estimated that 33% of overall particulate matter generation is from transport As of
July 2005, there were approximately 149,000 cars and trucks, 800 buses, 2,000 taxis and
1,500,000 motorcycles in Ha Noi. The number of vehicles is expected to increase at a rate of
approximately 20% per year. Long range transport and vehicles are the major source of fine
particulate matter PM2.5 and PM10; two stroke engines account for 10% of PM2.5 generation
and 5% of overall PM1038. Coal burning for cooking in households can cause localized
incidences of PM pollution.

168. Soil from construction activities and road surfaces are the major sources of total
suspended particulates (TSP). During 2005, Ha Noi DONRE conducted monitoring for TSP
along side of major roads in a number of districts in the project area including Hoan Kiem, Ba
Dinh, Dong Da, Cau Giay, and Tu Liem. The monitoring was conducted in six periods: 24-25
and 27 August; 16-17 and 22 September; 23-25 October; 12-13 and 16 November; 30
November -2 December; and 9-11 December 2005. Table 4.4 presents the percentage of
samples exceeding the permitted levels in QCVN 05:2009/BTNMT.

Table 4.4: Monitoring Results for Total Suspended Particulates by District

District Hoan Kiem Ba Dinh Dong Da Cau Giay Tu Liem

Samples with TSP exceeding


77.7% 61% 80.5% 66.8% 66.7%
TCVN (over 300 ìg/m3)
Source: Ha Noi DONRE, 2005.

169. Elevated TSP levels were found in the majority of samples in all monitoring districts.
Monitored levels at three sampling locations along Ho Tung Mau, Xuan Thuy and Cau Giay
(where the proposed rail line traverses) exceeded TCVN criteria in 83% of the total samples
across all six monitoring periods.

170. A study of exposure of road users to PM10 and CO in Ha Noi was carried out to
determine if road users were more at risk than other groups from these pollutants (East-West
Centre, 2007). The study concluded that road users are exposed to significantly higher
concentrations of PM10 and CO than monitoring results from fixed air quality monitoring
stations. Road users were exposed to a mean value of PM10 = 455 μg/m3 and a mean value of
CO = 15.7ppm; both of which significantly exceed WHO recommended limits for human

43
exposure. The study also measured PM10 and CO levels in roadside cafes directly adjacent to
major roadways in Ha Noi and recorded levels at roadside of PM10 = 404 μg/m3; CO = 3.2 ppm
(Giai Phong) and PM10 = 617 μg/m3; CO = 11.3 ppm (Pham Van Dong); recorded PM10 levels
are significantly higher than relevant TCVN criteria. The results of this study indicate that
depending on monitoring locations, monitoring data for PM10 and CO can underestimate the
actual exposure levels of road users and roadside inhabitants.

b. Air Quality in the Project Area

171. The GOV EIA contains data on air quality monitoring in the project area (Table 4.5).
Monitoring was carried out in late May 2006 at the end of the dry season and beginning of the
rainy season. Monitoring locations were between 2 and 5 m from the road edge. The GOV EIA
compared the monitoring results to QCVN 05:2009/BTNMT and TCVN 5938:2005.

Table 4.5: Results of Air Quality Monitoring in the Project Area

Hydrocarb
TSP CO SO2
Sample Monitoring Location Land Use 3 NO2 (ìg/m3) on
(ìg/m ) (ìg/m3) (ìg/m3) 3
(ìg/m )

Western boundary of Agricultural /


KK01 111 450 150 70 180
depot residential

Opposite University of
Commercial
KK02 Industry in forecourt of 150 720 220 240 300
/ residential
small restaurant

Along NR 32 5m from
Commercial
KK03 road boundary at 124 660 160 150 260
/ residential
residence
At intersection of
Commercial
KK04 NR 32 and national 159 690 200 120 280
/ residential
railway
Intersection with Le Duc Industrial /
KK05 154 540 200 90 150
Tho Road residential

Ha Noi National University


Education
KK06 near intersection with 3rd 71 600 190 110 270
facility
Ring Road

Near Cau Giay Post


KK07 Office on Cau Giay Commercial 215 680 200 120 170
Street

Daewoo Hotel on NW
KK08 corner of intersection Lieu Commercial 68 910 270 290 140
Giai / Kim Ma
Intersection Cat Linh /
Commercial
KK09 Ton Duc Thang near 105 270 260 290 220
/ residential
Horison Hotel

Gate of Ha Noi Railway Commercial


KK10 75 650 170 140 310
Station in Tran Quy Cap residential

TCVN 5937-2005 (1hr criteria) 300 30,000 350 200 -

44
Hydrocarb
TSP CO SO2
Sample Monitoring Location Land Use 3 NO2 (ìg/m3) on
(ìg/m ) (ìg/m3) (ìg/m3) 3
(ìg/m )

TCVN 5938-2005 - - - - 5000


Source: CEPT, 2007

172. The data contained in Table 4.6 indicates the following:

(i) Total suspended particulate (TSP) levels are within relevant TCVN criteria for
all monitoring locations; even at major intersections within the project area. Given
that numerous other studies in Ha Noi reveal highly elevated particulate matter
concentrations throughout the city and in particular at major intersections, and
that no monitoring of fine particulate matter (PM10 or PM2.5) was carried out,
further data are required to validate data on particulate matter levels in the
project area. Discussions with the consultants responsible for preparation of
the GOV EIA indicated that monitoring methodology, which involved taking one
sample every two hours over a 16 hour period and then averaging the results,
may have resulted in recorded levels that were lower than expected and made
comparison with TCVN 1-hour criteria of limited value. More frequent or
continuous air quality monitoring would have provided more accurate results.
(ii) The monitoring data indicates that CO levels are well within relevant TCVN
criteria at all monitoring locations. Given that numerous other studies in Ha Noi
indicate that CO levels are generally elevated and close to or outside TCVN
criteria at major intersections and along major roadways, further data on CO
levels in the project area are considered necessary to validate these results.
(iii) SO2, NO2 and hydrocarbon levels are within relevant TCVN criterion at all
monitoring locations. This finding requires validation in light of recorded
incidences of elevated levels of these pollutants at intersections throughout Ha
Noi.
173. The air quality data collected in 2008 and shown in Table 4.7 indicate the following: that
the concentration of air pollutants (NO2, SO2, CO, HC) and suspended particles at KK01, KK02,
KK03 monitoring sites are below the standard limits in TCVN 5937-2005 and TCVN 5938-2005.

174. The concentration of dust at KK04 monitoring point is 1.12 times higher than permissible
limits. The concentration of SO2 at KK05, KK06 monitoring points are 2.14 – 3.11 times higher
than permissible limits. The concentration of NO2 at KK04, KK05, KK06, KK07 monitoring points
are 1.39-1.56 times higher than permissible limits.

45
Table 4.6: Supplementary 2008 Air quality measurements

Environment quality parameters


Samples Dust CO SO2 NO2 HC NO
( g/m3) ( g/m3) ( g/m3) ( g/m3) ( g/m3) ( g/m3)
KK01
Near Industrial 188 476 241 129 296 100
University
KK02
Rice field at edge of 59 231 105 63 135 49
Depot
KK03
39 141 92 34 96 23
Centre of depot
KK04
Road No. 70 224 767 268 163 191 99
KK05
Voi Phuc 101 1007 285 278 701 235
KK06
Giang Vo intersection 155 1306 389 321 731 291
KK07
Ha Noi railway station 114 802 299 134 367 116

200 10000 125 200


TCVN
(average (average (average (average - -
5937-2005
24h) 8h) 24h) 1h)
TCVN - - - - 5,000 -
5938-2005 (average
24h)
Source: Measurement results of CEPT, 2008

3. Noise and Vibration

a. Noise and Vibration in Ha Noi (excluding Ha Tay Province)

175. The acoustic environment in Ha Noi is characterized by high noise levels arising from
transport movements, construction activities, industry and daily living activities. Noise levels are
elevated throughout the day and night. Typical daytime noise levels in residential areas are 75 –
78 dB(A), and can reach 80 – 85 dB(A) in the vicinity of major road corridors.

176. Noise monitoring results at 16 locations on major roads in Ha Noi in 2006 indicate that
average noise levels during the daytime vary from 64.4 - 80.5 db(A), and during the evening
from 67.3 – 73.0 db(A). Most locations had noise levels exceeding the maximum TCVN limits for
mixed development areas (the most noise tolerant category) during the daytime and night time.

177. Increasing number of vehicles and excessive use of horns are major sources of noise
emissions. It has been estimated that 60 to 80% of noise in urban areas is generated by traffic
movements. Vibration in the urban area is generated by construction activities and traffic

46
movements. There are no available data on ambient vibration levels in Ha Noi.

b. Noise and Vibration in the Project Area

i. .N
i oise Levels

178. As part of the GOV EIA, monitoring of noise levels in the project area was carried out.
The results are presented in Table 4.7. The monitoring was carried out in May 2006 and a
supplementary set of noise measurements were carried out in 2008 (Table 4.8). The monitoring
duration was 16 hours/day, with three, ten minute measurements per hour and three samples
per measurement. Monitoring locations were between 2 and 5 m from the road edge. Results
are compared to TCVN 5949:1998.

Table 4.7: Noise Monitoring in the Project Area (dB(A))

TCVN
Monitoring Monitoring Leq LAmax L50 5949:1998
Sample Land Use49
Location48 Period dB(A) dB(A) dB(A) Criteria
dB(A)

Daytime (6h-18h) 75.0 91.2 65.0 60


Western Predominantly
N01
boundary of depot residential
Evening (18-22h) 72.4 89.0 63.1 55
Opposite
University of Daytime 77.2 93.2 71.4 50
Industry in
N02 Education facility Evening 69.3 79.4 66.1 45
forecourt of small
restaurant

N03 Residential with Daytime 78.3 95.4 72.4 60


Along NR32 5m some small scale
from road commercial
Evening 73.9 84.6 69.6 55
boundary at
residence
N04 Intersection of NR Residential with Daytime 74.9 92.3 69.1 60

32 and National some small scale


Railway commercial Evening 70.2 86.2 63.8 55

Intersection with Residential, small Daytime 73.8 93.2 64.9 60


N05
Le Duc Tho Road scale industrial
Evening 69.5 85.3 64.3 55
Ha Noi National Daytime 71.2 83.9 70.2 50
N06 University near 3rd Educational
Ring Road Evening 66.1 72.9 65.1 45

Near Cau Giay Daytime 74.5 86.2 71.3 70


N07 Post Office on Commercial
Cau Giay Street Evening 69.9 80.7 65.4 70

Daewoo Hotel on
N08 NW corner of Hotel / residential Daytime 73.8 85.3 70.6 60
intersection Lieu

47
TCVN
Monitoring Monitoring Leq LAmax L50 5949:1998
Sample Land Use49
Location48 Period dB(A) dB(A) dB(A) Criteria
dB(A)
Evening 69.3 81.3 65.8 55
Intersection Cat
Residential with Daytime 73.3 84.6 70.9 60
Linh / Ton Duc
N09 Thang near some small scale
Horison Hotel commercial Evening 70.7 80.8 68.2 55

Gate of Ha Noi Residential with Daytime 70.1 80.6 67.0 60


N10 Railway Station in some small scale
Tran Quy Cap commercial Evening 67.2 77.5 63.4 55

Source: CEPT, 2007

179. Table 4.7 indicates that existing ambient noise levels exceed TCVN criteria for all
development types at all monitoring locations for day time and evening levels. No night time
data was presented in the GOV EIA. Of particular note are the highly elevated noise levels at
educational facilities along the route. Maximum recorded noise levels at the National University
of Ha Noi exceed TCVN criteria by over 30 dB(A). These findings are in keeping with expected
results for ambient noise levels in the vicinity of major road corridors.

180. The supplementary noise data collection focused on three areas of the Depot and three
downtown sites. As with the data collected in 2006, the ambient noise levels all exceeded the
GOV standards even in the more rural area of the project.

Table 4.8: 2008 Noise monitoring results

Mean Value
Samples
Leq LAmax L50 TCVN 5949-1998
Daytime Daytime: 60
N01 68.1 82.1 65.4
(6 - 18h) Nighttime: 55
Near Industrial
Nighttime
University 62.6 77.3 59.7
(18 - 22h)
N02 Daytime 62.6 76.8 57.0
Rice field at edge
of Depot Nighttime 57.7 69.4 52.6

N03 Daytime 68.5 84.2 65.4


Centre of depot Nighttime 62.9 79.3 60.4
N04 Daytime 58.8 69.7 55.7
Road No. 70 Nighttime 56.5 68.7 53.1
N05 Daytime 70.9 84.0 68.4
Voi Phuc
Nighttime 69.5 83.3 66.6
N06 Daytime 74.3 86.5 72.0
Giang Vo
intersection Nighttime 70.1 83.6 67.7

48
Mean Value
Samples
Leq LAmax L50 TCVN 5949-1998
N07 Daytime 70.9 82.4 69.6
Ha Noi Railway
station Nighttime 68.0 78.9 66.0
Source: Measurement results of CEPT, 2008

ii. Vibration Levels

181. As part of the GOV EIA, monitoring of baseline vibration levels was carried out in the
project area. The results are compared to TCVN 6962:2001 Vibration emitted by construction
works and factories – Maximum levels in the environment of public and residential areas and
TCVN 7210:2002 Vibration by traffic means – Maximum levels for the environment of public and
residential areas (Table 4.9). The frequency and time periods of sampling were not reported.

Table 4.9 Vibration Monitoring in the Project Area

TCVN 6962
Monitoring Leq Daytime TCVN7210:2002
Sample Land Use51 Criteria
Location50 (dB(A)) Criteria
(dB(A))
Western boundary of Predominantly
V01 53.0 75 65
depot residential
Opposite University
of Education
V02 48.3 75 65
Industry in forecourt facility
f
Residential
Along NR32 5m from
with some
V03 road boundary at 54.1 75 65
small scale
residence
commercial
Residential
Intersection of NR 32 with
V04 and some small 41.2 75 65
National Railway scale
commercial
Intersection with Le Residential,
V05 Duc small 38.8 75 65
Tho Road scale industrial
Ha Noi National
V06 University Educational 39.3 75 65
near 3rd Ring Road
Near Cau Giay Post
V07 Office Commercial 46.7 75 70
on Cau Giay Street
Daewoo Hotel on NW
Hotel /
V08 corner of intersection 48.8 75 65
residential
Lieu Giai / Kim Ma

49
TCVN 6962
Monitoring Leq Daytime TCVN7210:2002
Sample Land Use51 Criteria
Location50 (dB(A)) Criteria
(dB(A))
Residential
Intersection Cat Linh /
with
V09 Ton Duc Thang near 44.6 75 65
some small
Horison Hotel
scale
Gate of Ha Noi Residential
V10 38.3 75 65
Railway with
some small
Station in Iran Quy scale
Cap commercial
Source: CEPT, 2007

182. Monitored vibration levels within the project area were within day time ambient criteria
contained in both TCVN 6962 and TCVN 7210. No monitoring data were available for the night
time period. No monitoring data were available at sensitive receivers such as the Temple of
Literature or other structurally vulnerable items. The data collected in 2008 and shown in Table
4.10 confirms the results collected in 2006, that levels are below the GOV standard.

Table 4.10: 2008 Vibration Monitoring

Environment quality parameters


(Average per day)
Vibration Vibration
acceleration speed TCVN 7210:2002
Laeq(dB) Lv (dB)
V1
49.2 39.7
Near Industrial University
V2
36.3 26.0
Rice field at edge of Depot
V3
33.2 22.1
Center of depot
V4
41.6 31.3 Acceleration: 70 dB
Road No. 70
V5
42.7 31.9
Voi Phuc
V6
46.7 42.7
Giang Vo intersection
V7
43.9 37.3
Ha Noi Railway station
Source: CEPT, 2008

4. Topographical and Geological Conditions in Ha Noi (excluding Ha Tay


Province)

183. Ha Noi is located near the centre of the Red River Delta and is characterized by low-
lying plain with average surface elevations of 7 to 8 m, with the highest elevation of
approximately 10 m and lowest elevation of approximately 5 m.

50
184. The city of Ha Noi is located to the southwest side of the Red River. The surface is
covered by a complex sequence of alluvial delta deposits. Table 4.11 contains an overview of
the geological strata in Ha Noi. The sequence is from new to old.

Table 4.11: Overview of geological settings in Ha Noi (excluding Ha Tay Province)

Approximate
Formation Description Hydrogeology
Thickness (m)

Holocene
Thai Binh 3 – 4 Alluvial clay, clayey silt 5–6 Aquitard
Unconfined aquifer recharged by
Loose to medium dense surface water infiltration. Only
Thai Binh 1 – 2 6 – 15
alluvial sand and silty sand supplies small scale wells. Low to
medium permeability.
Hai Hung 2 – 3 Marine clay, silty clay 6 – 15
Lacustrine – swamp silty Low permeability
Hai Hung 1 2–4
clay
Pleistocene
Vinh Phuc 4 Unknown -
Low permeability
Complex alluvial and
Vinh Phuc 3 7 – 12 Note: (Not present in Ha Noi)
lacustrine silty clay
Alluvial clayey/silty sand
Vinh Phuc 2 15 – 30
with gravel lenses
Alluvial sand gravel and Primary aquifer for municipal
Vinh Phuc 1 cobbles with some clayey 30 - > 50 water supply in Ha Noi.
silt thin layers Recharged mainly by Red River
Alluvial cobble and gravel in the upstream where the
with lenses and thin layers formations directly expose to the
Ha Noi of silty sand and occasional 2 - > 50 surface. Highly permeable
stiff sand clay, known to be
up to 65m thick in Ha Noi
Sandstone, conglomerate
Bedrock, low to medium
Lệ Chi with lenses and thin layers 35 - 70
permeability
of mudstone
Source: Almec Corporation et al, 2006

5. Topographical and Geological Conditions in the Project Area

185. Topography in the project area is similar to the rest of Ha Noi where is characterized by
low-lying plain with average elevations of 7 to 8 m.

186. Evaluation of the geological conditions in the project area is mainly based on the hydro-
geological study completed by NDWRPI (2009), and the ground investigation report completed
by USCo (2008).

51
187. The comprehensive hydro-geological study (NDWRPI, 2009) integrated the most
updated available data of more than 100 geological logs, which provided a detailed cross-
section of the areal geology and hydrogeology. Figure 4.1 shows the locations of the
boreholes/wells and the geological cross-sections. The near-surface geology consists of a
sequence of Pleistocene and Quaternary sediments as described from bottom to top:

(i) Pleistocene
 Le Chi Formation: consists of mainly sandstone and conglomerate with lenses
or thin layers of mudstone of limited lateral extension; thickness: 35 - 70 m.
 Ha Noi Formation: consists of mainly cobble and gravel, with lenses of yellow
sand/silt; thickness: 2 - 50 m.
 Vinh Phuc Formation: contains mainly sand, silt, and clay layers; thickness: 5
- 20 m.
(ii) Holocene
 Hai Hung Formation: consists of inter-bedded of marine silt and greenish-grey
clay; thickness: 2 -10 m.
 Thai Binh Formation: consists of alluvial clay, silt, and some fine- sand layers,
which is a synchronous deposit of Hai Hung Formation ; thickness: 1- 5 m.
 The marine facies Hai Hung Formation does not exist in the project area.

52
Figure 4.1: Location map of boreholes/wells and geological cross-sections.
(Source: NDWRPI, 2009)

188. The uppermost unconfined aquifer (Thai Binh Formation 1-2 of Table 4.11) only exists to
the south of the project alignment. Along the Project alignment, the low permeable clay layers
of Holocene (Hai Hung Formation 1-3 and Thai Binh Formation 3-4) and the Upper Pleistocene
(Vinh Phuc Formation 3-4) combine together to form the top aquitard layer. The thickness of the
aquitard ranges from 13 to 22 m along the line (Figure 5.2).

189. The lower aquifer consists of the lower Vinh Phuc (1-2) and Ha Noi formations, which
serve as the primary water supply source for Ha Noi.

Figure 4.2: Geological cross-section along the project line. Refer to Figure 4.1 for the
location of the cross-section. (Source: NDWRPI, 2009)

53
190. The regional groundwater flow direction is similar to the surface drainage system and
follows the regional terrain from west and northwest to east and southeast. Flow direction may
vary in scale due to local surface relief or groundwater pumping.

191. USCo (2008) divided the setting based on the geotechnical properties of the materials
(Table 4.12). Layers 1, 2, and 3 could be correlated to the Thai Binh Formation; layer 4 is
correlated to the Upper Vinh Phuc Formation (3-4); layers 5 and 6 is interrelated to the lower
Vinh Phuc Formation (1-2); and layer 7 is equivalent to the Ha Noi Formation.

Table 4.12: Geotechnical layering along the project alignment.

Average
Layer Geology and Geotechnical Properties Thickness m
NSPT
1 Backfill 0.7 – 4.6
2 Stiff clay, brownish or greenish grey 3.2 – 12.8 9
3 Soft clay with organic remains, brownish to dark grey 1.1 – 16.9 4
4 Very stiff clay, brownish-grey to yellowish brown 4.0 – 11.8 17
5 Medium dense silty fine-sand, brownish grey to grey 6.2 - 24.5 22
6 Dense silty medium to fine sand, brownish grey to grey 7 – 15.3 44
7 Gravel, yellowish to dark grey unknown >50
(Source: USCo, 2008)

a. Geology and Groundwater along the Viaduct Section

192. The viaduct section starts from the Depot site (west end) and ends at about the location
of borehole PZ10 in Figure 4.3. The geology of the top 13 to 20 m consists of mainly soft to stiff
silty-clay layers with low hydraulic conductivity. The geotechnical properties of the clay layers
vary due to the heterogeneous characteristics of the formation.

193. The underlying medium dense to dense sand layers and the gravel layer combined to
form the major aquifer of the region, which is the principle water supply source for Ha Noi. The
thickness of the aquifer ranges from 22 to 55 m.

194. Groundwater tables were measured during the period of borehole exploration in 2008
(USCo, 2008). There is a significant water level difference between the top clay layer and the
underlying sand and gravel aquifer. The depth of the groundwater table in the clay layer ranges
from 1.5 to about 5.5 m, and the depth of the groundwater table in the upper part of the aquifer
is around 10 m. In the lower part of the aquifer, the water table depth was more than 20 m bgs
due to heavy groundwater pumping. The water level of the aquifer is declining at a rate of about
0.5 m /year in recent years, and is expected to accelerate due to increased in water demand
with time (NDWRPI, 2009).

b. Geology and Groundwater along the Underground Section

195. The underground section starts from Thu Le Lake (borehole PZ10) to the east end (the
Railway station) for a total length of about 2.9 km. Similar to the viaduct section, the geology of
this section consists of a top clay layer (the Thai Binh and Upper Vinh Phuc formations)
underlain by a sand layer (the Lower Vinh Phuc Formation) and a gravel layer (Ha Noi
Formation). The geotechnical properties of the clay layer vary due to the heterogeneous
characteristics of the formation. The thickness of the top clay layer ranges from 15 to 20 m. The

54
designed depths of the tunnel and underground stations will be as deep as 18 to 20 m. Most of
the tunnel and the underground stations will be constructed in the top clay layer. But, at some
places, the tunnel or the underground stations may reach the underlying sand layer.

196. The range of the groundwater table depth in the top clay layer should be similar to the
viaduct section. The water table in the upper part (sand)of the aquifer ranges from 8.5 to 16.5
m bgs (USCo, 2008); and more than 20 m deep in the lower part (gravel) of the aquifer
(NDWRPI, 2009).

c. Conclusions

197. The project line is located on a flat delta plain The geological setting and characteristics
are fairly consistent along the project alignment, which is typical for Ha Noi. The unconsolidated
Quaternary deposits contain a low permeable top clay layer (Pleistocene to Recent in age) and
an underlying medium to high permeable sand and gravel aquifer (Pleistocene).

198. The strength of the top clay layer ranges from very soft to medium stiff dependant mainly
on its organic and water contents. The soft clay presents a higher hazardous potential for the
civil work. Moreover, it is not distributed in a regular pattern. The thickness of the top clay layer
ranges from 13 to 20 m in the viaduct section, and 15 to 20 m in the underground section.

199. The proposed depth of the underground section could be up to -20 m. Most of the
underground structure will be in the top clay layer. However, part of the underground structure
may be constructed in the underlying sand layer. There may be a slight risk of sand eruptions
caused by the hydraulic pressure of ground water during construction.

200. In the viaduct section, the groundwater table depth ranges from 1.5 to 5.5 m for the top
clay layer. The depth to the groundwater table is about 10 m for the underlying sand layer, and
is more than 20 m bgs for the gravel layer. In the underground section, the groundwater table
depth is similar to the viaduct section. The depth to the groundwater table is about 8.5 to 16.5 m
for the underlying sand layer, and is more than 20 m bgs for the gravel layer. The distribution of
water table shows that the lower aquifer has been depleted by heavy pumping.

6. Hydrogeology and Groundwater Usage

a. Hydrogeology in Ha Noi and the Project Area

201. In Ha Noi, most of the groundwater is contained in two Quaternary aquifers, the upper
aquifer (part of the Holocene Thai Vinh Formation) and the lower aquifer (Lower Vinh Phuc and
Ha Noi formations of Pleistocene). The upper aquifer consists of a series of non-continuous silty
fine to medium sand lenses and thin layers of low to medium permeability. The aquifer is
unconfined or semi-confined. The average thickness of the aquifer is 9.2 m in the north and 13.3
m in the southern part of the Red River Delta. The permeability of the aquifer is 20 to 800
m2/day. The source of groundwater of the upper aquifer is mainly from direct surface infiltration,
including precipitation and surface water bodies. Due to its relatively low transmissibility and
limited water-bearing capacity, the upper aquifer is only used for small-scale water supply. The
upper aquifer does not exist along the project alignment.

202. The lower aquifer is separated from the upper aquifer by a Pleistocene clay layer.
Where the upper aquifer is absent, the Pleistocene clay layer is combined with Recent clay
deposits to form a top confining layer. The depth to the top of the confined aquifer increases

55
from north to south in Ha Noi. The top of the aquifer is at depth of about 12 to 40 m bgs, and
the bottom of the aquifer is about 45 to 90 m deep. The permeability of this aquifer ranges from
200 to 1,600 m2/day. Direct surface recharge is not likely to be the groundwater source of the
lower aquifer in Ha Noi because the thick top confining layer forms a barrier for surface
percolation. The main source of the groundwater in the lower aquifer is through recharge in the
outcrop area where the aquifer formation is directly exposed to the surface. The recharge area
is upstream in the headwaters of the Red River Delta where the top clay layer pinches out. The
groundwater moves laterally downstream to Ha Noi. The lower aquifer has been used as the
main water supply for Ha Noi since 1909.

203. In the past decade groundwater of the lower aquifer has been over-pumped, mainly as a
municipal water supply. As a result, depression of the groundwater table has occurred in most
of Ha Noi City (Figure 4.3). The three well fields that the metro rail system traverses all have a
water level more than 20 m deep, and yet declining at a rate of 0.4 to 0.7 m/year (Figures 4.4
and 4.5) (NDWRPI, 2009). The water demand is expected to rise with an increase in
population of Ha Noi, in turn; it will accelerate the depletion rate of the aquifer.

b. Land Subsidence

204. In Ha Noi, land subsidence has occurred due to the decline of groundwater table. A
subsidence rate of 30 to 40 mm/year was observed near the Tuong Mai and Thuong Dinh well-
fields located in southern Ha Noi (World Bank, 2003). In the project area, the average
subsidence rates has been about 10 to 20 mm/year (Figure 4.6). Studies of land subsidence in
Ha Noi since 1997 indicate the following:

(i) Groundwater extraction is the main cause of land subsidence.


(ii) The highest rate of land subsidence occurs in areas where large volumes of
groundwater have been depleted and the existence of the thick soft clay layer. In
the absence of soft strata, land subsidence is insignificant.
(iii) Land subsidence rate reduces with time when the soft layers become more
condensed.

56
Figure 4.3: Groundwater depression cone of the lower aquifer in Ha Noi in 2001. (Source:
Tong Ngoc Thanh, 2001)

Figure 4.4: Groundwater level record at Ngo Sy Lien Well field. Please see Figure 3.1 for
well location. (Source: NDWRPI, 2009)

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Figure 4.5: Groundwater level record at Mai Lich Well field. Please see Figure 3.1 for well
location. (Source: NDWRPI, 2009)

Figure 4.6: The average land subsidence rate in Ha Noi of year 2001. (Source: World Bank,
2003)

project area

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c. Groundwater Availability and Use

205. Groundwater has been the principal source for water supply in Ha Noi and surrounding
area since the early twentieth century. Currently, the estimated total extraction rate of
groundwater in Ha Noi is about 800,000 m3/day, including municipal, industrial, and private
domestic wells. Most of the water supply comes from the highly permeable lower aquifer. Only
small portion of the water comes from the upper aquifer because of its limited water-bearing
capacity and relatively poor water quality. There are 9 municipal well fields in Ha Noi and
producing about 500,000 m3/day of water in total. There are 3 municipal well fields located
near the project site: Mai Dich, Ngoc Ha, and Ngo Sy Lien well fields (Figure 4.1). Among them,
the Mai Dich and Ngo Sy Lien well fields exist under the project alignment and may receive
some impact from the project. In 2008, the average extraction rates for Mai Dich, Ngoc Ha, and
Ngo Sy Lien well fields were 56,000 m3/day; 40,000 m3/day; and 51,200 m3/day, respectively
(NDWRPI, 2009).

206. The total groundwater pumpage of Ha Noi is expected to increase to 1,400,000 m3/day
in 2020. However, with the current depletion rate of the aquifer, it is questionable whether the
aquifer will be able to sustain the current pumping rate for even a few more years.

207. The Ngo Sy Lien Plant is located to the west of Ha Noi Railway Station. The
underground section of the project line runs across the well field. The well field contains a
network of 17 wells; four of them are located right next to the project line (1 on Nui Truc, 1 on
Giang Vo and 2 on Quoc Tu Giam). The well field extracts water from the lower aquifer with an
average rate of 51,200 m3/day in 2008. The wells are 70 to 90 m deep and pump at a rate of
about 40 m bgs. In 2008, the steady-state water level was over 20 m deep, and 23 to 33 m deep
when pumping. Since 1998, the groundwater level has declined more than 4 m. After, 2007, the
water level is estimated to drop at a rate of more than 0.7 m/year (Figure 4.4) (NDWRPI, 2009).

208. According to the geological logs of the water wells, the thickness of the lower aquifer in
the Ngo Sy Lien Well field varies from 60 m to more than 80 m due to bedrock relief (Figure
4.7). Because of the existence of the confining layer, the lower aquifer does not receive
recharge directly from surface anywhere near the well field. Most of the water comes from
lateral movement from upstream, some from infiltration from the top and bottom confining strata.
The pressure depression in the aquifer caused by groundwater pumping induces recharge from
the confining strata and the upper aquifer. But because of the low permeability of the confining
layer, the induced recharge rate is very limited. The evidence for this is demonstrated by the
large hydraulic head difference between the upper and the lower aquifers.

209. The Mai Dich well field contains 21 wells distributed around Ring Road 3 near the
National University. In 2008, the average pumping rate of the well field is about 56,000 m3/day.
Since 1998, the groundwater table has dropped for more than 6 m, and continues to drop at a
rate of more than 0.6 m/year (NDWRPI, 2009). The current groundwater table is estimated at
about 29 m bgs.

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Figure 4.7: North-south geological cross-section across the Ngo Sy Lien Well-field. The
well-field is located in the vicinity of 10NSL and P32, and the project line is very close to
10NSL. (Source: NDWRPI, 2009)

210. According to the geological logs of the wells, the thickness of the lower aquifer in the Mai
Dich Well field varies from 34 m to 40 m (Figure 4.8), which is about half the thickness of what
exists in the Ngo Sy Lien Well field. The depth to the bottom of the aquifer is in the range of 54
to 60 m. Because of the top confining layer, the lower aquifer does not receive recharge directly
from surface anywhere near the well field. Most of the water comes from lateral movement from
upstream, some from infiltration from the top and bottom confining strata. The behaviour of the
groundwater here is very similar to that of the Ngo Sy Lien well-fixed.

Figure 4.8: North-south geological cross-section across the Mai Dich Well field. The
project line is located at BH7. (Source: NDWRPI, 2009)

211. In addition to the two municipal water supply plants, there are numerous households and
small scale wells within the project area with individual pumping capacity in the order of 0.5 to
3.0 m3/day.

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7. Groundwater Quality

a. Groundwater Quality in Ha Noi

212. Surface infiltration is the major groundwater source of the upper aquifer in Ha Noi. Since
a large portion of the surface water bodies are polluted, the water quality of the upper aquifer is
also very poor. Monitoring of water quality indicates that, in the upper aquifer, the
concentrations of arsenic (As), ammonium (NH4+),and nitrate (NO3-) frequently exceed the
GOV drinking water standards at many places in Ha Noi (NDWRPI, 2009). It is believed that As
originates from the geological formation itself. Pumping of groundwater changes the reduction-
oxidation (redox) condition in the aquifer, which re-dissolves the As-bearing complexes into the
groundwater. High concentrations of NH4+ and NO3- are clear indications of artificial pollution
due to urban and agriculture activities. Normally, NH4+ only occurs in a chemically reducing
environment, and can hardly move in the aquifer due to its strong absorbability. Nitrate (NO3-)
exists in an oxidizing environment and is conservative in water, and therefore, is commonly
used as a pollution indicator. High NH4+ concentration in water is very unusual. If there are no
errors with the sampling procedure and the laboratory analyses, it indicates that the aquifer
contains abundant levels of organic matter, or the aquifer is seriously polluted from human
activities. The severely nitrogen polluted area occurs mainly in the southern part of Tu Liem
District. The water quality of the upper aquifer near the project area is still in fair condition.

213. Most of the groundwater of the lower aquifer is not polluted because of the protection of
the top clay layer. Monitoring data indicates that, in some places, the concentrations of As, iron
(Fe), and manganese (Mn) exceeds the drinking water standards (NDWRPI, 2009). It is
believed that the constituents are from the formation itself rather than artificial pollution. The As
complexes, originally adsorbed on the aquifer media, is mobilized because of the pumping
activities change the redox conditions in the aquifer. The confined lower aquifer, which is
isolated from the atmosphere and from oxidation sources, should be in a reducing
environmental condition. High dissolved concentrations of Fe and Mn are commonly found in
this environment.

214. Despite the protection of the top confining layer, the excessive pumping of groundwater
will eventually deteriorate the water quality in the lower aquifer by inducing movement of poor
quality water.

215. Coliforms do not normally survive in aquifer environment for more than a few days.
Existence of coliforms in groundwater is an indication that the aquifer is receiving pollution.
Contamination of groundwater by coliforms has been observed in some areas in Ha Noi as a
result of recharge of contaminated surface water and uncontrolled leaks and discharges from
untreated sewage and septic tanks. Groundwater in the upper aquifer is more polluted than the
lower aquifer. The fecal coliform levels are higher in the dry season than in the rainy season.

216. Elevated levels of pesticides have been found in some groundwater monitoring locations
throughout Ha Noi. It is likely that pesticide contamination is the result of agriculture activities.

b. Groundwater Quality in the Project Area

217. The existing groundwater quality data for the project area indicates that the type of
pollution is similar to the regional problem. Among the examined constituents, As, Fe, Mn,
NO3-, and coliforms were found that frequently exceed the drinking water standards
(HRB/SYSTRA, 2008; ADB, 2007; CEPT, 2009; NDWRPI, 2009). High As, Fe, and Mn levels

61
were found in both the upper and lower aquifers. It is believed that the source of the
constituents is natural. Generally, the upper aquifer possesses higher concentration levels of
NO3- and coliforms. Both are indications of human pollution. The higher pollution levels of the
upper aquifer are because it receives more polluted surface recharge than the lower aquifer.
Because the thick confining layer forms a barrier to the surface pollution, it will take much longer
for any surface pollution to reach the lower aquifer. However, some low level pollutants were
detected in the lower aquifer. It is common that poorly constructed wells and poorly sealed
abandoned wells provide direct conduits for pollution to reach the lower aquifer in a relatively
short time.

218. Water samples from the boreholes located on the project line were also analysed for
constituents of engineering concern, i.e. chloride (Cl-) and sulfate (SO42-) for their corrosion
capacities. Results indicate that the groundwater quality will have no or minimum negative
effect on the structural materials (USCo, 2008).

8. Soil Quality

a. Soil Quality in Ha Noi

219. Soil quality in Ha Noi is influenced by historic and current land uses. Areas that are or
have been subject to agricultural or industrial activities have the potential to be contaminated
with heavy metals, pesticides, fuels/oils and a range of other chemicals. Areas that have been
filled also have the potential for contamination depending on the source of the fill material. No
comprehensive secondary data on soil quality in Ha Noi was available for this report.

b. Soil Quality in Project Area

220. The GOV EIA contains limited data on soil quality in the project area (Table 4.13).
Monitoring focused on heavy metals and no monitoring of pesticides or other contaminants was
carried out. No data are available on historic land use at monitoring sites; current land use is
indicated in Table 4.13. No data are provided on the depth of monitoring samples; although
discussions with the consultants responsible for preparing the GOV EIA indicated that samples
were taken from shallow soils after removal of approximately 20 cm of topsoil. The monitoring
data are compared to the criteria contained in TCVN 7209:2002 - Heavy metal standards in
soils.

Table 4.13: Soil Monitoring Results in the Project Area

Analysis results TCVN 7209-2002


D03 D04
Opp. Mai Temple of
D01 D02 Dich Literature – Land for Land for
Parameters Unit Depot site - Adjacent to Cemetery – Agricultural residential trading and
public
agricultural NR32 - agricultural space land and public services
land vacant land land space areas

Cu mg/kg 54.6 31.2 28.9 32.8 50 70 100

Zn mg/kg 205 79.1 75.1 44.0 200 200 300

Cd mg/kg 0.35 0.45 0.62 0.35 2 5 5

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Pb mg/kg 26 34 30 18 70 120 200

Co mg/kg 2.3 2.8 1.8 2.3 - - -

Total
% 1.50 1.59 3.36 1.29 - -
organics
Source: CEPT, 2007.

221. The results of soil monitoring data in the project area show that at all sampled locations,
soil quality was within criteria contained in TCVN 7209 – 2002, except for soils from the Depot
location where Cu and Zn level exceeds permitted levels for agricultural land use. Further
monitoring of soil quality is considered necessary at key locations along the project such as at
tunneling areas where generated spoils could be potentially contaminated.

9. Flooding

a. Flooding in Ha Noi

222. Minor flooding events are common in Ha Noi after heavy rain. Flooding is caused by the
low elevation of the land, the poor condition of drainage and storm water infrastructure, which
becomes overloaded in rain events greater than 100 mm/hr, and the changing land use
patterns, which have resulted in many low-lying undeveloped areas that previously formed
retarding basins or flood channels being used for urban development. Minor and localized flood
events occur throughout the rainy season but are most common in July and August.

223. Major flood events are relatively rare and are caused predominantly by elevated flows in
the Red River. Ha Noi is protected from such floods by a two-series dyke system of length of
2,700 km. The last major flood event in Ha Noi was in 1971 when flood levels reached + 14.31
m and caused substantial damage and loss of life. Since then authorities have developed
contingency plans for major flood which involve the release of flood waters from the Red River
into less populous areas to the north-west of Ha Noi. Flood modeling indicates that any future
major flood events that reach Ha Noi could be significantly more damaging than the 1971 event
as the flood channel has narrowed over time due to the silt build-up in the river. Major flood
events are most likely to occur during July and August.

b. Flooding in the Project Area

224. The project area is subject to minor, temporary flood events after heavy rain. Minor
inundation areas on the eastern part of the project area are shown in Figure 4.9.

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64

Figure 4.9: Minor Inundation Areas in Project Area (Source: Modified from Almec
Corporation et al. 2006)

Project route

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10. Surface Water Quality

a. Surface Water Quality in Ha Noi

225. The surface water network in Ha Noi is characterized by five main rivers (Nhue River, To
Lich River and its tributaries the Lu, Kim Ngu and Set Rivers). The lower section of To Lich
River receives all of the city’s wastewater before discharging it into Nhue River via the Thanh
Liet sluice. There are also numerous natural and artificial lakes (118 in total) and a large number
of artificial canals and streams (25 in total). These canals are: 3 -10 m wide, 1.5 - 2.5 m deep,
and 18.1km in length. Table 4.14 summarizes characteristics of the main rivers in the Ha Noi
area.

Table 4.14: Features of Ha Noi River Network

Catchment Maximum
River Length
Depth (m) Area Flow Other Features
Name (km)
(km2) (m3/s)
Main receiving body for
wastewater; flows
Nhue 74 Max. 5.6 57.9 No data
controlled by sluice gates;
modified natural formation with
some riparian vegetation
Receives waste from 15
discharge points; total of
To Lich 13.5 2–3 77.5 30
150,000 m3/day; concrete
formation with little riparian
vegetation
Receives waste from 14
Kim Ngu 11.9 2–4 17.3 15
discharge points, total of
120,000 m3/day
Lu 5.8 2–3 10.2 6 Receives 50,000 m3/day
discharge
Set 6.7 3-4 7.1 8 Receives 65,000 m3/day
discharge
Source: MVA Asia, 2006; CENTECD, 2006.

226. All of the water bodies in Ha Noi have been subject to high levels of disturbance and do
not exist in their natural state. The majority of lakes, canals and some sections of rivers have
been dredged and lined with concrete. Very little, if any, natural riparian vegetation exists.

227. Surface water in Ha Noi is polluted by discharges of untreated wastewater and disposal
of solid waste. Industrial wastewater discharges, including discharges from hospitals, are one of
the major sources of pollution. In 2003 it was estimated that 260,000 m3/day of industrial
wastewater was discharged to water bodies within Ha Noi. Of this, only approximately 6.2% had
undergone some form of treatment.

228. Water quality monitoring in four main rivers and lakes in Ha Noi indicates poor and

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66

worsening water quality. Concentrations of BOD, COD, heavy metals and coliforms in To Lich,
Set, Lu and Nhue Rivers typically exceed TCVN criteria by three to four times, DO levels are
low, levels of suspended solids are highly elevated (150 to 300 mg/l); and the ammonia (NH4+)
content is up to 20 times higher than permitted levels. The dry season pollutant loads are higher
than in the wet season; however, sediment loads are higher in the wet season. Most of the
lakes in Ha Noi are seriously polluted with high BOD (15 to 45 mg/l), suspended solids (100 to
150 mg/l) and low DO levels (0.5 to 2.0 mg/l).

229. Water quality monitoring in drainage canals (Hao Nam, Cong Vi, Trung Kinh, and Thuy
Khe canals) showed that the water is heavily polluted by organics, oils and microorganisms. The
levels of BOD5 and COD exceeds TCVN 5945:1995 by 1.6 to 2.7 times; the oil levels are 5 to 7
times higher than TCVN criteria; coliform levels exceed TCVN criteria by 75 to 210 times; and
elevated levels of suspended solids (SS) and Fe are present.

230. Mobilization of contaminated sediments is another source of water quality contamination.


Sampling of river bed sediments in the To Lich and Nhue Rivers, particularly in the vicinity of
industrial zones indicate that cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc are all found in
the sediments.

b. Surface Water Quality in the Project Area

231. The project traverses the Nhue and To Lich Rivers. These will be clear spanned by a
bridge /viaduct structure.

232. The GOV EIA contains monitoring data for surface water quality in the project area
(Table 4.15). In addition the supplementary EIA (2008) collected additional water samples at
three locations: and the results are shown in Table 4.16. Samples of surface water quality were
taken at rivers and lakes in proximity to the route as follows:

(i) NM01: Lake to the north of depot station boundary

(ii) NM02: Km1+500, adjacent to NR32 in lake in front of Ha Noi Electro-Mechanical


Company

(iii) NM03: Km3+100, Nhue River downstream of project alignment (Cau Dien)

(iv) NM04: Km4+200, lake within Mai Dich cemetery

(v) NM05: Km7+750, To Lich River downstream of project alignment (Cau Giay)

(vi) NM06: Km8+900, Thu Le Lake adjacent to Kim Ma

(vii) NM07: Ngoc Khanh Lake, 200m to 300m south of the project alignment

(viii) NM08: Van Lake opposite Temple of Literature

233. Samples were taken at each location over the course of one day; one sample in the
morning and one in the afternoon. No information is provided on weather conditions at the time
of sampling; in particular, whether there had been any rainfall in the project area. Data have

66
been compared to criteria in TCVN 5942-1995.

Table 4.15: Surface Water Quality Monitoring in Project Area (CEPT 2006)

Parameter Unit TCVN 5942-1995 Monitoring Locations

Category Category
NM01 NM02 NM03 NM04 NM05 NM06 NM07 NM08
A B
pH - 6 – 8.5 5.5 – 9 7.47 7.24 7.42 8.29 7.36 7.21 7.47 7.60
Colour Co-Pt - - 55 36.5 40 15.5 61.5 31 60 46.5
Odour - - - Present Present Present Present Present Present Present Present
Turbidity NTU - - 13.7 11.2 19.6 21.8 63.0 32.5 21.3 23.1
EC MS/cm - - 41.12 57.25 54.85 29.86 30.50 98.36 67.73 54.42
DO mg/l >6 >2 5.89 4.50 4.20 6.74 1.05 2.35 2.30 3.54
TDS mg/l - - 26.7 37.2 38.37 20.48 17.74 56.78 47.91 36.82
Sulphate mg/l - - 30.3 23.2 34.4 23.6 42.1 43.2 20.7 18.7
Al mg/l - - 0.03 0.04 0.06 0.03 0.11 0.05 0.07 0.03
Temperature oC - - 23.6 23.5 23.0 24.4 24.1 24.4 22.3 24.1
N-total mg/l - - 2.4 1.7 3.2 3.2 2.9 2.0 2.2 2.9
P-total mg/l - - 0.16 0.23 0.28 0.17 0.49 0.19 0.32 0.40
Cl- mg/l - - 1.2 1.5 1.4 1.1 1.7 1.5 1.1 0.9
Oil/grease mg/l None 0.3 0.007 0.010 0.030 0.004 1.282 unknown 0.850 0.250
Chlor- organic
mg/l - - 0.06 Trace 0.07 Trace 0.07 Trace Trace Trace
pesticide
MPN/
Total Coliform 5,000 10,000 24,000 22,000 29,000 18,500 31,000 15,500 23,500 22,000
100ml
MPN/
E. coli - - 6,000 1,503 5,000 6,000 5,500 3,000 4,500 5,000
100ml
Pb mg/l 0.05 0.1 0.03 0.05 0.04 0.02 0.14 0.07 Trace 0.08
Zn mg/l 1 2 0.018 0.034 0.034 0.030 0.255 0.285 0.295 0.240
Cr(III) mg/l 0.1 1 0.076 0.058 0.057 0.031 0.101 0.049 0.061 0.040
Co mg/l - - 0.02 0.05 0.04 0.30 0.64 0.30 0.49 0.41
Source: CEPT, 2007.

234. Surface water from water bodies in the project area is not used for domestic purposes.
As such, comparison with criteria for Category B waterways is most relevant. Data in Table 4.15
indicates the following:

(i) Odor was present in all monitoring samples. Some odors were reported to be
offensive, smelling of sewage or strong ‘fishy’ smells.
(ii) There was visual evidence of high turbidity in all samples. There are no TCVN
criteria for turbidity and no monitoring of total suspended solids (TSS) was carried
out which would have allowed further evaluation of sediment loads in waterways.
(iii) DO levels were within TCVN criteria for all but one sampling location in the To
Lich River.

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68

(iv) Oil and grease was present in all samples and exceeded TCVN criteria in three
locations.
(v) Trace levels of pesticides were detected in five samples and thus exceeded
TCVN criteria.
(vi) Total coliforms and E. coli exceeded TCVN criteria in all samples.
(vii) Remaining parameters were within TCVN criteria.
235. Monitoring data indicates that water quality in the project area exhibits evidence of
pollution in terms of turbidity, odor, oil/grease, pesticides and coliforms. Data on water quality
parameters that are typically measured in urban settings to characterize pollutant loads, such as
BOD, COD, and TSS, were not monitored.

Table 4.16: 2008 Surface water quality monitoring

Analysis results TCVN


(On average) 5942 - 1995
Analytical
Unit NM02 NM03
parameters NM01
Giang Vo Hao Nam Column B
Depot
Lake Canal
pH - 7.2 7.2 7.6 5.5 - 9
Odour - Fishy smell Fishy smell Bad smell -
turbidity NTU 53 48 76 -
Conductance S/cm 31 42 62 -
SO42- mg/l 26.9 15.7 44.4 -
Al mg/l 0.025 0.060 0.15 -
o
t0 C 21.9 24.2 23.2 -
T-N mg/l 3.5 2.3 3.2 -
T-P mg/l 0.17 0.10 0.61 -
Cl- mg/l 1.5 0.9 1.7 -
Oil and grease mg/l 0.0 0.7 1.4 0.3
Organic chlorinated
mg/l 0.08 Trace Trace -
pesticides
Coliform total MPN/100ml 18500 14500 59000 10000
Ecoli MPN/100ml 4750 5500 11000 -
Pb mg/l 0.08 0.06 0.24 0.1
Zn mg/l 0.57 0.09 2.8 2
Co mg/l 0.05 0.06 0.64 -
DO mg/l 1.39 2.55 3.4 >2
TDS mg/l 18.8 15.0 34.0 -
COD mg/l 43.7 32.6 70.4 < 35
BOD5 mg/l 15.3 16.5 33.1 < 25
Hg mg/l 0.0001 Trace 0.0006 0.002
As mg/l 0.070 0.033 0.222 0.1
Source CEPT 2009

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236. Table 4.16 highlights the additional sampling carried out in 2008. Almost all parameters
are below the standard limits prescribed in TCVN 5942 - 1995 (Column B). However, the total
coliform count at all of sampling sites is 1.5-2.9 times higher than permissible limits.

237. The levels of DO, COD and Coliform at the Depot monitoring site are 1.44, 1.25 and
1.85 above GOV standards. The concentration of Coliorm at Gian Vo Lake is 1.45 times higher
than permissible limits.

238. The levels of Coliform, Pb, Zn, COD and BoD5 at the Hao Nam Canal are 5.9, 2.4, and
1.4, 2.01, 1.32 and 2.22 times higher than permissible limits.

11. Surface Water Availability and Use

239. Within the project area surface water resources are abundant. Surface water bodies are
rarely used for domestic purposes but fulfill an important function in terms of aesthetic and to a
lesser extent recreational quality. They also function to convey stormwater flows to control
flooding and receiving wastewater flows. Some recreational fishing and collection of
crustaceans and other aquatic fauna takes place in lakes around Ha Noi for recreational
purposes and to supply local households and restaurants. Water from the Nhue River is used
for irrigation and aquatic production.

C. Ecological Resources

1. Terrestrial Ecology

240. According to Ha Noi DONRE, there are approximately 400 terrestrial flora species in Ha
Noi. Artificially planted communities include industrial and agricultural crops, ornamental plants
and street trees which provide shade and amenity (50 species). Terrestrial fauna in Ha Noi
reportedly includes 23 mammal species, 90 bird species, 19 reptile species and 14 amphibian
species. Most mammal and bird species are concentrated in vegetated areas of the suburban
Soc Son district to the north of the city centre and few species are found in more densely
developed urban areas.

241. Terrestrial ecology values in the project area are very low due to the urban nature of the
environment and the high level of disturbance. Flora in the project area is limited to scattered
roadside and garden trees of various exotic and endemic species and agricultural land use at
the depot site (vegetables, flowers and fruit trees). Flora in the project area has no biodiversity
value but in some locations, such as Kim Ma and Giang Vo streets, trees along roadsides and in
the median are large and mature specimens that have value in terms of landscaping, shade and
visual amenity. The gardens surrounding the Temple of Literature also contain numerous
mature trees with amenity and cultural value.

242. Fauna in the project area is limited to domestic animals, several species of birds
adapted to the urban environment and vermin such as rats and mice, and a large number of
captive animals kept in the Thu Le Zoo on Kim Ma. No non-captive, endangered species are
expected to be found in the project area.

2. Aquatic Ecology

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70

243. Aquatic flora communities of Ha Noi reportedly include 18 high level species, 122
ephemera and 16 benthic species. Most of these species are found in West Lake and in small
wetland areas in the southern suburban district of Thanh Tri. West Lake contains the highest
density of high level species (Macrophyta), water fern and alga (such as Euglenophyta,
Pyrropphyta, Chlorophyta, Dinophyta, Cryptophyta, and Xanthophyta).

244. Most fish species are found in the Red River particularly in Dong Anh suburban district
(69 species) and in West Lake (39 species).

245. Aquatic ecology values in the project are low due to the poor water quality in the rivers,
lakes and canals. Aquatic flora comprises algae, water ferns and other exotic species. Aquatic
fauna species are limited to benthic organisms, insects, worms, shrimps, and molluscs. No
endangered species are expected to be found in the project area.

3. Protected Areas

246. There are no protected areas in or in the vicinity of the project area.

4. Fisheries and Forestry

247. There are no fisheries or forestry activities in the project area.

D. Economic Development

1. Land Use

a. Land Use in Ha Noi (excluding Ha Tay Province)

248. With an area of 921 km2, Ha Noi comprises fourteen districts with four urban core
districts (Ba Dinh, Hoan Kiem, Hai Ba Trung and Dong Da), five urban fringe districts (Tay Ho,
Long Bien, Hoang Mai, Cau Giay and Thanh Xuan), two suburban districts (Tu Liem and Thanh
Tri) and three rural districts (Soc Son, Gia Lam and Dong Anh). These fourteen districts are
further divided into 98 communes and 128 precincts. The land use structure is summarized
below (Table 4.17).

Table 4.17: Land Use Structure in Ha Noi (excluding Ha Tay Province)


Land Use Type Area (km2) % of Total Land Use
Rural 626.6 68.0%
Residential 62.5 6.8%
Commercial 3.6 0.4%
Industrial 16.8 1.8%
Institutional 23.9 2.6%
Open space / green areas 2.6 0.3%
Urban facilities / infrastructure 34.9 3.8%
Source: HPC & JICA, 2006.

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249. The following comments can be made on existing and future land use patterns in Ha
Noi:

(i) Residential land accounts for a small proportion of overall land use but is
characterized by extremely dense development, particularly in the urban core
areas where an area of 35 km2 has an average population density of 305
persons/ha. Residential land use is characterized by mixed development patterns
with commercial and industrial activities regularly interspersed with households.
Future residential growth is planned mainly outside the boundary of the 2nd ring
road; on the south of the Red River a population of 0.7 million people is
expected, and north of the Red River the population is expected to reach one
million people. Ha Noi is continuing to develop many new urban residential areas
in the west, south and north of the city to cater for future population growth. The
demand for residential land in 2020 is expected to increase to 12,580 ha from the
current area of 6,250 ha.
(ii) Rural land use is the dominant overall land use but is concentrated in the large
rural districts of Soc Son, Dong Anh and Gia Lam, and to a lesser extent in the
suburban districts of Tu Liem and Thanh Tri. Rural land use is virtually non-
existent in the urban fringe and urban core districts.
(iii) The largest area of industrial land use is located in the rural districts, although the
proportion of the urban core and urban fringe areas that are used for industrial
purposes is relatively high. Most of this development is in the form of small-scale
mixed industrial development. In the future, existing industrial zones are
proposed to be upgraded and organized. New industrial zones as Soc Son, North
Thang Long, South Thang Long, Sai Dong and Dong Anh will be developed; and
improvements and expansion will occur for the existing industrial zones of Cau
Dien (located in the project area), Cau Buou, Phap Van, and Duc Giang.
Industrial development located in residential areas will be relocated to industrial
zones, although small-scale, non-polluting and advanced technology producers
will continue to locate adjacent to residential areas. Demand for industrial land is
expected to increase from 1,680 ha to 4,100 ha by 2020.
(iv) There are numerous areas of green space and parks throughout the city
including Thu Le Zoo, Bach Thao Park, Unification Park, together with
developing green spaces near Yen So Lake, Linh Dam, Trieu Khuc, Me Tri, Nhue
River, Phu Thuong, Van Tri, Co Loa, Gia Lam, and Sai Dong. However, the per
capita rate of green space remains low, particularly in the rapidly urbanizing outer
districts and in most areas is below the targets set by the GOV in the Building
Code of Viet Nam. Demand for green space is expected to increase to 6,320 ha
by 2020 to allow for an average area of green space of 16m2/person.
(v) Educational and training facilities are concentrated on larger avenues as Giai
Phong Avenue, Nguyen Trai Avenue, National Road No. 32, Trau Quy, Me Tri
and other locations. Future development of tertiary educational facilities will be
concentrated in Tu Liem district.
(vi) Scientific research institutes are primarily concentrated in older inner city districts
and the Nghia Do area, including existing offices and institutes and newly
renovated facilities, and science and research parks.

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(vii) Medical care centers include general and specialized hospitals located in the
areas of Bach Mai, Tran Khanh Du, Trang Thi, Quan Su, Dich Vong and other
locations. New specialized hospitals will be exclusively constructed in the districts
of Gia Lam, Soc Son and other locations.
(viii) National and municipal sporting centers are located at My Dinh (Tu Liem district).
Others occur throughout the city in Hang Day, Quan Ngua, Nhon, Van Tri, Co
Loa, and Trieu Khuc.

b. Land Use in the Project Area

250. Land use structure in the districts traversed by the project is presented below (Table
4.18).

Table 4.18: Land Use Structure in Districts in Project Area (%)

Park /
Urban
District Rural Residential Commercial Institutional Industrial Open
Facilities
Space
Tu Liem 65.9 9.7 0.4 4.4 4.9 2.1 0.2
Cau Giay 16.8 44.8 1.8 11.0 13.5 0.9 1.6
Ba Dinh 2.3 41.5 7.6 12.3 20.1 1.2 5.2
Dong Da 0.8 53.9 3.4 12.1 5.6 3.4 0.7
Hoan Kiem 2.2 45.3 3.9 13.4 14.0 0.6 2.3
Source: HPC & JICA. 2006.

251. Information on the present land use characteristics of the project area have been derived
from the 1:5,000 topographic maps and aerial photography. Land use in the project catchment
can be divided into three sections.

(i) Section 1: from Nhon to the 3rd Ring Road is the suburban / rural part of the city
that comprises Tu Liem and Cau Giay districts. This area is being gradually
urbanized from rural land use to urban land use, and still comprises a large
proportion of agricultural land.
(ii) Section 2: From 3rd Ring Road to the 2nd Road is fringe part of the city, it has
been developing for fifteen years and there are many newly built areas. The
urban face along Xuan Thuy and Cau Giay Streets undergoes frequent renewal
with a high rate of urban development.
(iii) Section 3: From the 2nd Ring Road to the Ha Noi Railway Station is the old part
of the inner city. This includes Ba Dinh, Dong Da and Hoan Kiem districts. Along
Kim Ma, Nui Truc, Giang Vo, Cat Linh and Quoc Tu Giam Streets, there is
residential development interspersed with governmental and municipal
offices, foreign representative offices as well as large and small scale
commercial centers.
252. The dominant land use within the project area is residential and mixed residential and
commercial land. The second major use is commercial / office land; green space and industrial
land occupy small parts of the project area and agricultural land is found only in Tu Liem district.
A description of the main existing land use types in the project area follows:

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(i) Residential land: The residential areas in Section 1 have been urbanized from
the rural communes and low density and low scale housing with one to two
storeys is typical. The houses along to NR32 and Ho Tung Mau Street are being
upgraded and redeveloped in line with upgrading of NR32. The majority of
private houses have a dual purpose and are also used for business purposes
such as show-rooms, restaurants or other small businesses. The residential
areas in Section 2 and 3 have a very high density and multiform. Beside private
houses, there are many kinds of old and newly built apartment buildings in this
area. In the inner urban parts of the project area the residential population is
expected to decrease by 2020, but in Cau Giay and Tu Liem districts population
growth is expected to increase to 2020 and beyond.
(ii) Hospitals and clinics: In Section 1 there are three hospitals including Thang
Long Hospital, Traditional Medicine Hospital and 19-8 Hospital (Ministry of
Police). In Section 3, there are two large hospitals; the Ha Noi Obstetrical
Hospital and Swedish Children’s Hospital. The Family Medical Practice Clinic is
also located on Kim Ma Street.
(iii) Universities and College: In the project area, there are a number of major
universities such as Vietnam National University, University of Commerce,
University of Industry, Academy of Journalism and Communication, University of
Stage and Cinema and some colleges including Communication and Transport
Technical College, Ha Noi Commercial College, and Ha Noi Pedagogical College.
Most of them are located in Cau Giay and Tu Liem districts, however the RMIT
International University is located in Kim Ma Street and the Public Health
University is located in Giang Vo Street. A new university is planned for Tu Liem
district and this area will accommodate the largest growth in tertiary students in
all of Ha Noi.
(iv) School: There are several schools including primary, secondary, high schools
and kindergartens within the project area. Some of them are located directly
adjacent to the route including the Ha Noi-Amsterdam High school, Cat Linh
Secondary school, Ha Noi Lycee Francais and Le Duan Young Pioneer School.
(v) Offices: Government offices, municipal offices, private offices and international
representative offices are generally located along the main roadways. On the
northern side of Kim Ma there are many foreign representative offices and
embassies including the Swedish, Burma, Malaysian, Bulgarian and Russian
Embassies and the Van Phuc Diplomatic Compound.
(vi) Commerce and public service: There are large areas of commercial land use,
especially in Sections 2 and 3. Major buildings include the Daewoo Hotel,
Horison Hotel, V Tower, Ha Noi Toserco, and VIT Cooperation. There are many
restaurants, show rooms and small shops located along streets.
(vii) Industry: In Cau Dien (Tu Liem district), besides the small-scale factories that
have historically dominated this area, there is a newly-built industrial zone that
recently been established and is proposed to be upgraded in the future.
(viii) Green space and surface water: These areas are concentrated in Section 1
and include Thu Le Zoo, and a number of lakes including Ngoc Khanh, Giang Vo,
and Linh Quang.

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(ix) Agricultural land: The majority of land use in Tu Liem District is used for
agriculture. Tu Liem district is the one of major sources of vegetables and cut
flowers for the rest of the city.
2. Traffic and Transport Conditions

a. Traffic and Transport Conditions in Ha Noi (excluding Ha Tay


Province)

253. Since 2002, the density of the road network in Ha Noi has increased steadily with the
expansion, upgrading and construction of more than 50 km of roads. In many locations, the road
network is operating close to or above capacity. Roads are characterized by high traffic
volumes, diverse combinations of vehicle types and conflicts between road users, numerous
property accesses and other intrusions into the roadways, and low available capacity. During
morning and afternoon peak hours, congestion and delays are experienced throughout the
network, particularly at major intersections and bottle necks on the network.

b. Traffic and Transport Conditions in the Project Area

254. Within the project area, traffic volumes are significant and place substantial and growing
pressure on the current road systems. The project traverses a number of major roads which are
part of the major east-west road corridor from the city center to the western semi-urban areas.
The corridor is used by high volumes of commuter, industrial and other traffic. The project also
intersects a number of major north-south routes in the Ha Noi urban area (Table 4.19).

Table 4.19: Major Roads in the Project Area

Interaction with Road Name


Description of Road Conditions
Project (from
west to east)
Very narrow road with poorly formed road surface and
Inter-provincial vegetation and development close to the road edge.
Road This road was observed to carry a large proportion of
No. 70 trucks and heavy vehicles which cannot pass each other
freely due to the narrow alignment.
At the western end near the depot the width of this
road is less than 9 m and roadside development and
Roads traversed trees restrict available trafficable space to less than 6
by project – on National Road m. This road carries a large proportion of heavy
viaduct (NR) vehicles. Congestion is common with the bridge across
32 the Nhue River acting as a squeeze point. To the east of
the Nhue River bridge, the road has been widened to
50 m and there is little traffic congestion. Upgrading of
the western section of NR32 is expected to commence
in the near future.
The road is wide as a result of recent upgrading and
Ho Tung Mau development is relatively low density. Traffic flows well
and there appears to be little congestion.

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Interaction with Road Name
Description of Road Conditions
Project (from
west to east)
Development density and traffic volumes increase
moving eastwards along this road. Traffic counts in
2004 indicated two-way traffic volumes of 12,294 vph in
the morning peak and 10,296 vph in the evening peak
Xuan Thuy with a strong directional focus (west to east in morning
peak and east to west in evening peak). At the time of
the traffic counts, motorbikes were the predominant
form of vehicle and the road was operating close to
theoretical capacity.
Similar conditions to Xuan Thuy with higher density
Cau Giay development and traffic volumes. Traffic congestion is
common, particularly during morning and evening
peaks.
High density development and high traffic volumes
with congestion common, particularly during morning
and evening peaks. Traffic counts in 2004 indicated
two-way traffic volumes of 21,930 vph in the morning
Kim Ma peak and 23,295 vph in the evening peak with a strong
directional focus (west to east in morning peak and
east to west in evening peak). At the time of the traffic
counts, motorbikes were the predominant form of
vehicle and the road was operating above theoretical
capacity.
Kim Ma Refer above

Narrow secondary road providing connection between


Nui Truc Kim Ma and Giang Vo with width of approximately 5m
for 2-way flows. Congestion occurs at intersections with
Kim Ma and Giang Vo.
Roads traversed Road Name
by Description of Road Conditions
(from
project – in tunnel west to east)
Major urban thoroughfare with high traffic volumes
and congestion particularly during morning and
evening peaks. Traffic counts in 2004 indicate
Giang Vo morning peak hour volumes of 18,846 vph and evening
peak hour volumes of 19,602 volumes with strong
directional flow trends (morning peak, west to east and
evening peak, east to west). Counts indicate road is
operating above theoretical capacity.

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Interaction with Road Name


Description of Road Conditions
Project (from
west to east)
Major urban thoroughfare with high traffic volumes
and congestion particularly during morning and
evening peaks. Traffic counts in 2004 indicate morning
peak hour volumes of 15,408 vph and evening peak
Cat Linh hour volumes of 19,086 volumes with strong
directional flow trends (morning peak, west to east and
evening peak, east to west). Of note are the higher
evening volumes recorded during the counts. Counts
indicate road is operating above theoretical capacity.

Secondary urban road passing in front of Temple of


Quoc Tu Giam Literature. Carries lower traffic volumes and lower
incidence of congestion points.

Major peri-urban corridor from north to south with limited


3rd Ring Road
access, high capacity and high traffic volumes. Low
levels of congestion.
Major roads Major urban corridor from north to south which is
intersected 2nd Ring Road proposed to be upgraded to reduce current capacity
by project - flyover constraints.

Lieu Giai – Major urban thoroughfare with high traffic volumes and
Nguyen congestion particularly during morning and evening
Chi Thanh peaks.
Urban thoroughfare with high traffic volumes and
congestion particularly during morning and evening
Major roads peaks. Traffic counts in 2004 indicate morning peak
crossed by Ton Duc Thang hour volumes of 16,320 vph and evening peak hour
project – in tunnel volumes of 16,032 volumes with strong directional flow
trends (morning peak, south to north and evening peak,
north to south). Counts indicate road is operating within
theoretical capacity.
Source: IMV, 2004. & IEE Project Team observation.

3. Infrastructure Facilities

255. The project passes through a developed urban area which contains numerous
infrastructure and service items including:

(i) Primary and secondary roads


(ii) National railway located perpendicular to the project alignment, 600 m to the
west of the Nhue River crossing
(iii) Numerous medium and low voltage electricity lines located in the central road
medians and/or road reserves

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(iv) Underground water supply and sewer lines, there are numerous water supply
lines in the area of Nui Truc, Giang Vo, Cat Linh and Quoc Tu Giam associated
with the Ngo Si Lien WTP
(v) Telecommunications lines and cables

E. Social and Cultural Resources

1. Population and Community Structure

256. The population of Ha Noi (excluding Ha Tay Province) as of 31 December 2006 was
estimated to be approximately 3,331,900 persons. The population of the nine inner urban
districts was 2,079,300 and the population of five suburban districts was 1,252,600 persons.
The average population density was 3,618 persons/km2. The population density in the inner city
is 11,630 persons/km2, and that of suburban areas is 1,688 person/km2. Ha Noi is well gender-
balanced, with the female/male ratio is 50/50 (compared to the national figure of 51/49)102.

257. The population of wards and communes in the project area is shown in Table 4.20.

Table 4.20: Population in the Project Area (2004)

Population Natural area Population density


Administrative units
(persons) (km2) (person/km2)
Hoan Kiem District103 180700 0.5 36,100
Tran Hung Dao ward 10,906 0.5 21,812
Cua Nam ward 12,716 0.4 31,790
Dong Da District 387400 10 38700
Van Mieu ward 11,300 0.4 28,250
Quoc Tu Giam ward 9,795 0.2 48,975
Cat Linh ward 13,486 0.4 33,715
Van Chuong ward 12,319 0.4 30,798
Ba Dinh District 49,611 2.3 21,570
Giang Vo ward 12,216 0.7 17,451
Kim Ma ward 13,000 0.5 26,000
Ngoc Khanh ward 24,395 1.1 22,177
Cau Giay District 46,240 6.0 7,707
Quan Hoa ward 13,716 1.0 13,716
Dich Vong ward 10,796 1.4 7,711
Dich Vong Hau ward 8,641 1.5 5,761
Mai Dich ward 13,087 2.1 6,232
Tu Liem District 37,094 14.7 2,523
Cau Dien township 8,202 0.2 41,010
Phu Dien commune 9,929 4.1 2,422
Minh Khai commune 8 ,300 5.1 1,627
Tay Tuu commune 10,663 5.3 2,012
Source: CEPT, 2007.

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258. The population of Ha Noi has increased rapidly in recent years with a 19% increase
experienced between 2000 and 2006. Currently, the natural population growth rate is 1.18%
and the population growth rate due to migration is 1.0%, a decrease from 2.01% in 2000. Table
4.21 summarizes data on historic and expected future population growth in Ha Noi.

Table 4.21: Population Growth in Ha Noi (persons) (excluding Ha Tay Province)

2000 2003 2004 2005 2006 2010 2020 2030


2,756,300 3,007,500 3,088,700 3,182,7 3,283,600 3,365,000 3,875,000 4,130,000
Source: Ha Noi Statistical Office, 2007; TRICC, 2006.

259. Table 4.22 summarizes data on population densities and growth in the districts traversed
by the project and compares it with data for Ha Noi, the Red River Delta region and the national
average.

Table 4.22: Population Density and Growth

Annual Population Population Density106 Expected Population


District104
Growth105 (%) (persons / km2) Growth 2003 to 2020

Hoan Kiem 1.4 34,064 - 2.2%


Dong Da 2.2 38,213 -1.9%
Ba Dinh 2.7 25,870 - 0.6%
Cau Giay 6.5 15,415 + 1.9 %
Tu Liem 5.5 3,748 + 5.8%
Ha Noi 3.0 3,681 + 2.4%
Red River Delta n/a 1,225 -
National 1.26 (urban 2.18) 254 -
Source: Ha Noi Statistical Office, 2007; JICA & Ha Noi PC, 2006.

260. Table 4.22 indicates that urban fringe district of Cau Giay and the suburban district Tu
Liem experience very high annual population growth, which is more than double the Ha Noi
average. Growth in these areas is expected to continue to 2020, with the highest growth
expected in Tu Liem.

261. The three core urban districts of Hoan Kiem, Dong Da and Ba Dinh have annual
population growth lower than the city average; however their population density is already seven
to ten times higher than that of the average level for Ha Noi. Population is expected to decrease
in these areas to 2020 with the highest rate of population decline expected in Hoan Kiem
district.

262. In general, the population of the urban fringe and outer parts of the project area is
increasing more rapidly than that of Ha Noi or the country urban average (3.0% versus 2.18%),
and the population density is significantly higher than the national average and the Red River

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Delta region.

2. Socio-Economic Conditions

a. Economic Structure

263. Ha Noi has experienced rapid economic growth in the last decade. The city GDP has
grown constantly at around 11% a year since 1995107, higher than the national average growth
of 7.5-8.0% during the same period. In 2006, the highest growth was experienced in secondary
sector (13%), followed by the tertiary sector (11%). In 2006, Ha Noi’s GDP per capita stood at
USD 1,731109, more than twice the national average of USD 723110.

264. The economic structure of Ha Noi is characterized by the high contribution of tertiary
sector (services), which accounted for 57.7%111 of the city’s GDP in 2006, compared to the
national figure of 38.1%112. This was followed by the secondary sector (industries,
construction) of 40.8%, compared to the national figure of 41.5%. The primary sector
(agriculture, fishery) accounts for just 1.5% in the city’s economy (compared to the national
figure of 20.4%). The primary sector has gradually diminished in Ha Noi as the level of
industrialization and urbanization has accelerated in fringe urban and rural districts.

265. However, a notable feature of Ha Noi’s economy is the shift in growth from the tertiary
sector to the secondary sector during the last decade. The share of the tertiary sector
decreased progressively from 64% in 1995 to 60% in 2000 and further to 57.7% in 2006. During
the same period, the secondary sector’s share increased from 31% in 1995, to 36% in 2000 and
to 40.8% in 2006. However, it is expected in the coming years that there will be more growth in
the tertiary sector than in the secondary as appropriate locations within Ha Noi for the
secondary sector become increasingly constrained.

b. Employment and Poverty

266. The structure of the workforce in Ha Noi (tertiary sector 55.5%, primary sector 22.2%,
and the secondary 21.7%) favours the tertiary sector, whereas the primary sector is still
dominant in the overall national economy (55.7%).

267. The unemployment rate in Ha Noi has been progressively reduced from 10% in 2001 to
7% in 2004116, and to 6.2% in 2005117. This is despite Ha Noi belonging to the Red River
Delta region, where the highest growth in unemployment rate in the nation was observed in
2006. However Ha Noi’s unemployment rate is still higher than the national urban
unemployment figure of 4.4% in 2006118. The Ministry of Labour Invalids and Social Affairs
(MOLISA) has set a goal to reduce Ha Noi’s unemployment rate to 5.5% by 2010.

268. Unemployment is highest amongst the younger section of the workforce. Contributing
factors to unemployment in Ha Noi include the growth in numbers of working age people,
creation of are due to rural workers migrating to the city to look for work, and redundancies from
SOE restructuring.

269. The poverty rate in Ha Noi (measured by the percentage of poor households) under the
new national poverty criteria119 decreased from 4.13% in 2003 to 3.1% in 2006. This rate is
lower than the national urban average (13.74%), Red River Delta (18.48%), and the national

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average (23.17%).

c. Public Services and Utilities (excluding Ha Tay Province)

i. Water Supply

270. In Ha Noi, 62% of households have access to piped water from water companies. Of the
five districts traversed by the project, the suburban district of Tu Liem has the lowest coverage
of piped water supply of 36%. The remaining urban districts have good coverage of 97% to 99%
(Table 4.23).

ii. Drainage and Wastewater Disposal System

271. The drainage system of Ha Noi consists of natural systems, such as urban rivers and
lakes, and artificial drainage canals, culverts, sewers and pumping stations. The system
functions both to prevent frequent inundations in urban areas and for wastewater disposal
system.

272. About 43.6% of households are connected to the urban sewerage system, 40.0% to on-
site sanitation facilities (septic tanks) which are emptied by municipal services and 16.5% have
no access to sewage treatment. As of 2005, only two wastewater treatment sites (Truc Bach
and Kim Lien) exist in Ha Noi, serving only 1.2% of the population, meaning that most
wastewater is discharged directly into local water bodies.

iii. Solid Waste Collection

273. Around 85% of households in Ha Noi are served by a public waste collection service.
The existing landfill Nam Son site is expected to reach its capacity earlier than the planned
closure date of 2020 due to increased waste generation. All of the five districts traversed by the
project have good waste collection coverage of 90% to 97% (Table 4.23).

iv. Electricity and Telecommunications

274. Of five districts traversed by the project, 100% of households in the urban districts have
electricity supply (Hoan Kiem, Dong Da, Ba Dinh and Cau Giay), and 99% of households in the
suburban district (Tu Liem) have supply. Telephone services cover 93 to 96% of households in
the four urban districts, and 77% in Tu Liem district.

275. Table 4.23 summarizes urban service coverage in Ha Noi and the five districts traversed
by the project.

Table 4.23: Urban Service Coverage in Project Districts (%)

Hoan Kiem Dong Da Ba Dinh Cau Giay Tu Liem Ha Noi

Electricity 100 100 100 100 99 100


Piped Water 99 98 99 97 36 62

80
Telephone 93 95 94 96 77 82
Solid Waste
94 92 90 97 93 84
Collection
Source: JICA & Ha Noi PC, 2006.

d. Household Income and Quality of Life

276. As part of GOV EIA, a survey on incomes and housing conditions was conducted in 100
out of 193 PAHs. The survey found that the number of households having monthly income of:
less than VND 3 million accounted for 35% of the total households surveyed; between VND 3
million and VND 7 million accounted for 38% of households; and over VND 7 million accounted
for 27% of households.

277. As part of a joint study by JICA and Ha Noi PC in 2006 on urban development in Ha Noi
(HAIDEP program), a survey of household incomes in Ha Noi showed that the low income
group (under VND 1.5 million/household/month) accounted for 27% of households, the middle
income group (VND 1.5 - 3.0 million) accounted for 41% of households, and the high income
group (from VND 3.0million) accounted for 32% of households. Household incomes in the
project area districts are shown below (Table 4.24).

Table 4.24: Average Household Income in Project Area

Hoan
District Dong Da Ba Dinh Cau Giay Tu Liem Average
Kiem
Average HH income
(mill 3.297 3.179 3.323 3.373 2.233 3.081
VND/month)
Source: JICA & Ha Noi PC, 2006.

278. Table 4.24 indicates that the level of household income in four urban districts is
generally similar (ranging from VND 3,179,000 to VND 3,373,000), whereas the income in
suburban district Tu Liem is approximately 70% less than that of urban areas.

279. The survey indicated that a majority of households surveyed (65%) in the project area
have an income higher than the average income level of around VND 3 million identified through
the HAIDEP study. Such results should however be interpreted with caution as the interviews
focused on a small number of households directly along the project alignment. Although not
explicitly stated in the GOV EIA report, the higher than average incomes of these households
might be associated with household-based street businesses.

280. Information on quality of life indicators, based on the ownership rate of major durable
items, in the five districts traversed by the project is presented below (Table 4.25).

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Table 4.25: Goods ownership in Project Districts

Hoan
District Dong Da Ba Dinh Cau Giay Tu Liem Average
Kiem
Car 2 2 2 4 2 2.4

One
47 51 55 59 36 49.6
Vehicle Motorcycle
ownership
(%) More than 1
37 34 31 29 45 35.5
Motorcycle

Bicycle 7 9 8 7 15 9.2

TV 99 99 99 100 98 99

Radio 63 66 58 66 53 61.2

Refrigerator 93 91 92 92 61 85.8

Goods Washing
57 63 60 67 27 54.8
ownership Machine
(%)
Air-
31 36 36 32 7 28.4
conditioner

Computer 41 51 49 57 22 44.0

Mobile
58 61 64 65 31 55.8
Phone
Source: JICA & Ha Noi PC, 2006.

281. Most households in all five districts own one or more motorcycles (81% to 88%). Car
ownership remains low (2%, except for Cau Giay with 4%). Televisions are owned by the vast
majority of households in all districts (98% to 100%), and refrigerators (91% to 93%, with
exception of suburban Tu Liem with 61%). In general, households in all districts have similar
level of goods ownership, with the exception of suburban district Tu Liem where lower
ownership rates are consistent with lower average household incomes.

e. Quality of Life Indicators

(i) Convenience and Accessibility (CA): convenience to participate in daily


activities and access to information
(ii) Safety and Security (SS): safety from risks of emergencies/accidents and the
protection of life and property from disasters and crimes
(iii) Health and Well-being (HW): access to health services to increase resistance
to diseases and have an improved well-being

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(iv) Amenity (A): basic social and cultural freedoms and a comfortable
environment
(v) Capability (CA): residents’ assets and abilities to increase their capacities
282. These criteria were given scores ranging from -2 (very bad/very unsatisfactory) to +2
(very good/very satisfactory) (Table 4.26).

Table 4.26: Summary of Living Conditions Analysis in Project Districts

Objective Score
District
CO SS HW A CA
Hoan Kiem 1 1 0 -2 -1
Dong Da 1 1 1 -2 0
Ba Dinh 1 1 1 -2 -1
Cau Giay 1 0 0 -2 0
Tu Liem 0 -1 -1 -1 -1
Source: JICA & Ha Noi PC, 2006.

283. Table 4.26 indicates that the convenience level is similarly high in all the urban core
districts (Hoan Kiem, Dong Da, Ba Dinh) and the urban fringe district of Cau Giay, and is
acceptable in the suburban district Tu Liem. This finding is understandable given that the urban
core hosts high level concentrations of services and information channels.

284. The level of security and safety is equally good in all the urban core districts, but is fair in
urban fringe Cau Giay and poor in Tu Liem.

285. The health and well-being assessment is good in Ba Dinh and Dong Da, but is fair in
Hoan Kiem and Cau Giay and poor in Tu Liem.

286. The assessment of amenity shows that it is inadequate in all districts but Tu Liem, where
the amenity provision is better but still unsatisfactory. This finding indicates that Ha Noi
generally lacks adequate green/open space and relaxed living environments.

287. The capability level is relatively low in all districts except for Dong Da and Cau Giay
which have fair level.

3. Ethnic Minority Groups

288. Within Ha Noi, the Kinh ethnic group accounts for 99.38% of the population. Other ethnic
groups represented in Ha Noi include: Tay, Chinese, Muong, Nung, Thai, Dao, San Diu, San
Chay, H’mong, Gia Rai, and Khmer.

289. Table 4.27 summarizes 1999 data on ethnic minority groups in the districts traversed by
the project area.

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Table 4.27: Ethnic Minority Groups in Ha Noi

District % Ethnic Minority Groups123 Main Groups Present


Hoan Kiem 0.53 Chinese, Tay
Dong Da 0.68 Tay, Muong
Ba Dinh 0.60 Tay, Chinese
Cau Giay 3.20 Tay, Muong
Tu Liem 0.28 Tay, Muong
Source: MOLISA, 1999.

290. Table 4.27 indicates that Cau Giay has the highest proportion of ethnic minority groups
(3.20%), while Tu Liem has the lowest (0.28%). The remaining districts have similar proportions
of ethnic minority peoples, ranging from 0.53% to 0.68%. The most common groups are Tay,
Muong and Chinese.

4. Public Health and Safety

291. Ha Noi is the country’s second most populous city, and is a densely populated urbanized
centre with a range of public health issues including communicable diseases (such as diarrhea,
respiratory infections, etc.) and health and safety issues relating to the urban lifestyle
(respiratory diseases, traffic accidents) and rapid socio-economic development (such as
HIV/AIDS, cancer, obesity, diabetes, mental health diseases etc). Current data on basic public
health indicators are as follows:

(i) The average life expectancy of the residents is 76


(ii) The infant mortality reduced from 6.5% in 2001 to 5.3% in 2004
(iii) The infant mortality of children under one year old reduced from 9.2% in 2000
to8.5% in 2004
(iv) The infant mortality of children under 5 years old reduced from 10.3% in 2001 to
9.8% in 2004
(v) The ratio of infant children weighing less than 2.5kg reduced from 6.5% in 2001
to 5.3% in 2004
(vi) The ratio of children under 5 years old that are malnourished reduced from
18.7% in 2001 down to 14.9% in 2004
292. Respiratory diseases such as chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and asthma occur
throughout the city. Such diseases are aggravated by air pollutants; especially fine particulate
matter generated by traffic movements. Anecdotal evidence suggests such diseases are more
prevalent close to major road corridors.

293. In 2004, Ha Noi experienced 47,151 reported incidents of diarrhoea, cholera, and
dysentery; 540 incidents of dengue fever and 220 incidents of hepatitis. These diseases are
indicators of poor sanitation and water supply conditions.

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294. Road safety is a major public health issue in Ha Noi with high traffic volumes, low
adoption of safety equipment such as helmets and seat-belts, and a mixture of vehicle types
including trucks, cars, motorbikes, bicycles and pedestrians leading to numerous fatalities and
injuries. Traffic management is still nascent and Ha Noi residents have been slow to accept
many basic traffic management techniques such as median barriers and traffic channelization.
Though fatality rates in the city (about 2.72/10,000 vehicles) are difficult to compare
internationally because of the unusual dominance of motorcycles, surveys suggest that traffic is
a major source of stress, particularly for women and for people making motorcycle trips over 7
km.

295. The presence of unexploded ordnance (UXO) in the project area is an important public
health and safety issue. The Depot site was subject to a UXO survey and some materials were
collected. Another survey will occur when the 53 houses for the viaduct ramp at the depot site
are cleared.

5. Community Facilities

296. There are a large number of universities, colleges and schools, as well as health and
other community facilities located in the project area close to the route alignment (Table 4.28).

Table 4.28: Community Facilities in the Project Area

Distance to the
Location Establishment
route
Tay Tuu commune (Tu Liem
University of Industry 30 m
District)
Communication and Transport Technical
30 m
School
Minh Khai commune Minh Khai High School 50 m
(Tu Liem District)
Minh Khai Secondary School 150 m
Minh Khai Primary School 150 m
Phu Dien commune
Hydro-metrological Centre 400 m
(Tu Liem District)
University of Commerce 15 m
University of Stage and Cinema 15 m
Mai Dich Ward Dance Institute 15m
(Cau Giay District) Ha Noi Commercial College 300 m
Mai Dich Secondary School 200 m
Mai Dich Primary School 200 m
Vietnam National University 15 m
Academy of Journalism and
15 m
Dich Vong Ward Communication
(Cau Giay District) Nguyen Tat Thanh High School 15 m
Tu Liem Vocational Training Centre 100 m
Dich Vong Secondary School 100 m
Quan Hoa ward Ha Noi Pedagogical College 300 m
(Cau Giay District) Ha Noi Electronics College 350 m

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Distance to the
Location Establishment
route
Cau Giay High School 100 m
Hoa Mai Kindergarten 200 m

Yen Hoa Ward ( Cau Giay 400 m


Yen Hoa Secondary School
District)

University of Communication and


Lang Thuong ward 60 m
Transportation
(Dong Da District)
Le Duan School 20 m
Pham Hong Thai High School 200 m
Kim Ma Ward
International School 200 m
(Ba Dinh District)
RMIT International University 15 m
Ngoc Khanh High School 150 m
Phan Chu Trinh High School 150 m
Ngoc Khanh
(Ba Dinh District) People-sponsored Phuong Dong
200 m
University
Ngoc Khanh Kindergarten 100 m
Ha Noi-Amsterdam High School 10 m
Giang Vo Ward
Lycee Francais Alexandre Yersin 10 m
(Ba Dinh District)
Tuoi Hoa Kindergarten 50 m
Cat Linh ward Cat Linh Secondary School 15 m
(Dong Da District) Nguyen Trai High School 150 m
Medical Facilities
Thang Long Hospital 15 m
Mai Dich Ward
Traditional Medicine Hospital 200 m
(Cau Giay District)
19 – 8 Hospital (Ministry of Police) 200 m
Yen Hoa Ward ( Cau Giay
Yen Hoa Clinic 250 m
District)
Ngoc Khanh Ha Noi Obstetrical Hospital 250 m
(Ba Dinh District) Swedish Children’s Hospital 250 m
Kim Ma Ward (Ba Dinh District) Ha Noi Family Medical Practice Clinic 10 m
Van Chuong Ward
Trang An Hospital 130 m
(Dong Da District)
Tran Hung Dao Ward
Ha Noi Heart Hospital 15 m
(Hoan Kiem District)
Source IEE,2007

6. Visual Amenity

297. The project area is located in an urban landscape environment. Within the project area,
visual and landscape characteristics of the route can be broadly categorized as follows:

(i) Semi-urban, low density landscape in the western section of the route
generally from Nhon to the 3rd Ring Road. This area is characterized by low-

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scale residential development interspersed with household commercial activity
and large and small scale industrial development. Maximum building heights
are one to two stories. Relatively large areas of agricultural and unused land
are present and can be viewed from the project alignment. This area exhibits
both remnants of earlier agricultural land use together with current trends to a
purely urban landscape. Roads are unformed and development tends to merge
into the roadside. Vegetation is scattered and informally planted.
(ii) Commercial urban landscape in the middle section of the route generally
from the 3rd Ring Road, along Kim Ma and Giang Vo. This area is
characterized by a more formal urban commercial landscape with larger buildings
including office buildings, universities, and shopping centers. Urban renewal
has taken place recently in much of this area and is in fact ongoing in
scattered undeveloped areas. Much of the development visible from the
roadways is new and has a distinct architectural style which differentiates it
from older development in the eastern section of the route. Residential
development is present but is less evident than commercial development.
There are very few open spaces visible from the project alignment; except for
the Thu Le zoo and associated gardens which are important visual open space
features. Major roads are well formed and street furniture and landscaping is
evident. Formal mature tree planting along the central median and northern side
of Kim Ma and along Giang Vo are important visual elements in this section of
the project area
(iii) City-center heritage landscape in the eastern section of the route, generally
from Giang Vo to Tran Hung Dao, is dominated by lower scale, dense
residential and commercial development. Much of the building fabric in this
section is noticeably older than in other parts of the project area and is mixed
in some locations with newer development in an ad-hoc manner. The roads are
well formed and generally narrow, with street furniture and formal roadside
landscaping features. There are few open spaces in this area. The Temple of
Literature and surrounds, including the Van Lake on the southern side of
Quoc Tu Giam, are key features of this area; as is the Ha Noi Railway Station
complex including the associated buildings.

7. Physical and Cultural Heritage (excluding Ha Tay Province)

a. Heritage Values of Ha Noi

298. Ha Noi has been established as a major city in Viet Nam for nearly 1000 years and is
rich in cultural and historical heritage despite rapid development and land use changes. There
are numerous heritage items interspersed throughout the city’s landscape; many of which are
focused around the traditional ancient quarter of Ha Noi north of Hoan Kiem Lake, the ancient
citadel complex and the Temple of Literature complex to the west of the city center. In addition,
numerous culturally important, more recently constructed or rebuilt pagodas and temples are
located throughout the city’s suburbs and outskirts.

b. Heritage Values of the Project Area

299. Within the project area there are several important cultural and historical sites (Table

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4.29).

Table 4.29: Sites of Cultural and Historical Heritage in Project Area

Location Site Distance to the route


Minh Khai Ward Dong Co temple and communal
30 m
(Tu Liem District) house
Minh Khai Pagoda 200 m

Dinh Quan Pagoda 250 m


Mai Dich Cemetery and
Mai Dich Ward 15 m
structures (*)
(Cau Giay District)
Xom So Pagoda 200 m
Ha pagoda 200 m
Quan Hoa Xom Tang Pagoda 200 m
(Cau Giay District) Quan Hoa Pagoda 350 m
Bao An Pagoda 200 m
Kim Ma Ward Voi Phuc Temple 100 m
(Ba Dinh District) Kim Son pagoda 230 m
Giang Vo Ward
Hao Nam Temple 150 m
(Dong Da District)
Cat Linh ward Cat Linh pagoda (*) 50 m
(Dong Da District) Bich Cau Dao Quan (*) 15 m
Van Mieu Temple of Literature and Van
15 m
(Dong Da district) Lake (*)
Quoc Tu Giam
Pho Giac Pagoda 30 m
(Dong Da district)
Source: CEPT, 2007 and IEE Project Team observations
Note: (*) indicates that the item was identified by the Department of Culture and Information (DCI) as an important
relic requiring protection in correspondence 210/QLDT dated 15 June 2007

300. The Temple of Literature is the most significant heritage item in the project area. This
item has been identified by the GOV as an item of national significance and was declared a
World Heritage site in 2010. The Temple of Literature Complex is located on a 5 hectare site on
Quoc Tu Giam.

301. The site was the first university in Viet Nam and comprises Van Mieu (Temple of
Literature) and Quoc Tu Giam (Imperial College). Van Mieu was constructed circa 1073 and
Quoc Tu Giam was constructed circa 1076. Van Mieu is positioned towards the south and
includes five zones which are divided by partial walls. Important features within the complex
include Than Quang Tinh Lake which is surrounded by steles recording the names of students,
Dai Bsi and E-Iau Cung houses and a large cast bell. The physical and interpretive connection
with Van Lake on the southern side of the Temple of Literature is an important characteristic of
this item.

302. The Temple of Literature complex is a major tourist attraction with large numbers of
domestic and international tourists visiting the site throughout the year. The Ha Noi DCI
estimates that 800,000 to 900,000 visitors visit the site each year. The Temple of Literature
complex will play an important role in Ha Noi’s 1000 year anniversary celebrations in 2010.

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303. There is a relatively high probability that as yet undiscovered archaeological relics are
located outside the fenced boundaries of the site and possibly in other parts of the project area.
Discussions with the Ha Noi DCI indicate that in the past the site extended past its current
boundaries and as such, the extent of the actual heritage zone may intrude into the rail
alignment corridor. Based on the results of archaeological excavations undertake in the northern
part of the site in 2000, archaeological relics are considered most likely to be located at a depth
of 5 to 6 m.

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V. ANTICIPATED ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND MITIGATION MEASURES

A. Introduction

304. This environmental impact assessment focuses on the major environmental issues
identified for the pre-construction, construction and operational phases of the three development
components of the Project: Depot, Viaduct and underground Tunnel and Stations. The rationale
for presenting the impact assessment under these three components is the imminent call for
bids in 2010. The HRB are planning to start construction of the Depot by late 2010. Construction
will be about five years in duration prior to the opening of the line in 2015-2018.

305. The following is a list of direct and indirect project and environmental components
assessed in this section:

(i) Geophysical Environment (geology, hydrogeology, soils, water resources);


(ii) Air Quality;
(iii) Noise and Vibration;
(iv) Cultural and Heritage Resources;
(v) Land Use;
(vi) Socio-Economic and Community Conditions;
306. The assessment methodology for the disciplines listed above will address impacts
relative to their:

(i) Geographical (spatial) extent;


(ii) Magnitude;
(iii) Duration (temporal);
(iv) Reversibility; and
(v) Frequency;
307. Negative environmental effects can either be avoided, mitigated through design and
construction measures or where mitigation measures are unavailable, provide compensation in
cash or kind.

308. An assessment of any residual environmental effects that are expected to remain after
the application of mitigation measures and an assessment of the significance of those effects. A
project can be considered environmentally sustainable if there are no, or minimal, residual long-
term negative effects and there are in fact positive long-term benefits.

309. Consequently, this section reviews the anticipated environmental impacts for the depot,
viaduct and tunnel sections in the pre-construction, construction and operational phases provide
mitigation measures to offset negative impacts and conclude with an assessment of the long-
term residual environmental effects.

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310. There could be significant adverse effects during the pre-construction and construction
stages of the project. Most of these negative impacts were identified as construction activities
on air quality, noise, water quality, hydrogeology, soils, archaeology, traffic management, and
resettlement of project affected persons. However, except for noise effects, which will be
minimal during the operational stage of the project, positive benefits will accrue to the
environment from construction and operation of the Project.

B. Depot

311. There will be two tender packages developed for the construction of the Depot site.
Tender package #4 calls for construction of the tracks, workshops, water system and roads. The
second package, #5 will be for the construction of the buildings.

1. Pre-construction Impact and Mitigation

312. The Depot site has been cleared and capped with 1 m of sand in anticipation of
construction during the last quarter of 2010. A UXO survey was carried out in 2008/9 and the
site is clear of any potential threats.

2. Construction and Operation Impacts and Mitigation

313. The depot will have three main areas: a maintenance workshop for rolling stock, stabling
areas for rolling stock, parking for operating staff and an Operations Control Centre – OCC, and
an administrative building (administrative, maintenance and operating staff). The secondary
works include:

(i) Peripheral fence: peripheral wall which will delimit the depot area from the
surrounding area
(ii) Roads & parking area: all asphalted designed to withstand traffic loads in the
depot area.
(iii) Green area: a vegetated area composed of grass and shrubs.
(iv) Track area : all suitably designed to withstand metro traffic loads
(v) Services: sewerage, drainage, telecommunication, water supply, energy supply.
314. Land requirements at the Depot are summarized in Table 5.1.

Table 5.1: Depot Area Usage


Area Surface (m2) Percentage (%)
Depot total area 150550 100
Gardening area 55760 37
Building area 22920 15
Road area 27720 18
Tracks area 35660 24
Storage & miscellaneous 5050 3
Parking 3440 2
Remaining underdeveloped land 3750 2
HRB Feasibility Study 2008

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315. Once equipment begins work on the depot site itself, the size of the area and distance
from residences will alleviate some of the direct negative effects. However there are expected to
be a number of short-term negative impacts related to physical resources which include air
quality, noise, geology and soils, and water resources.

a. Air Quality

i. Construction

316. Air quality sampling in 2006 and 2008 at the Depot site found the following: the
concentration of air pollutants (NO2, SO2, CO, HC) and suspended particulate are below the
standard limits. Concentration of dust at Road 70, which is the access road to the depot, is 1.12
times higher than permissible limits (possibly due to Road 70 being unpaved), and the
concentration of NOx is 1.39 times higher than permissible limits (possibly due to commercial
traffic).

317. Emissions from construction equipment and dust generation are short-term impacts that
will be generated during construction of depot facilities. Emissions are not expected to create
any significant concerns because of the size and openness of the site. However, dust
generation will result from transport of construction materials, grading the track area,
construction of the internal road system and parking areas.

318. Since Road 70 is unpaved, transport of equipment and construction materials to the site
will cause dust emission affecting residential areas and other sensitive receptors along the road.
HRB may opt to pave the road 70 to a high standard in order to withstand overweight loads. If
Road 70 is not paved it will require continual maintenance.

319. To reduce gaseous and dust emission during construction, the contractor shall
implement the following measures:

i) Before site works commence, a Dust Control Plan shall be prepared by the
contractor and shall be approved by project supervision consultant (PSC). The
plan shall provide details of mitigation measures, specific location and
schedule where such measures shall be implemented to minimize impacts to
sensitive receptors (residential areas, schools, hospitals, etc.) due to
construction works, sourcing and transport of construction materials, and other
project-related activities.
ii) Consider paving Road 70
iii) Wherever possible, use electrically-powered equipment rather than gas or
diesel-powered equipment
iv) Position any stationary emission sources (e.g., portable diesel generators,
compressors, etc.) as far as is practical from sensitive receptors;
v) Use only vehicles and equipment that are registered and have necessary
permits.
vi) Burning of wastes generated at the construction sites, work camps and other
project-related activities shall be strictly prohibited.

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vii) Construction equipment and vehicles shall be well-maintained and shall meet
national TCVN emission standards.
viii) Specify the use of clean fuels such as ultra-low sulphur diesel in dump trucks
and other heavy-duty diesel vehicles and/or equipment, in conjunction with the
use of particulate trap control devices, as well as catalytic converters, to avoid
excessive diesel emissions.
ix) Keep stockpiles moist and cover vehicles with tarpaulin sheets or other
suitable materials to minimize dust emission and prevent spillage of materials
(e.g., soil, cement, stone, sand, aggregates, etc.).
x) Provide temporary covers (e.g., tarpaulins, grass, etc.) on long term materials
stockpiles.
xi) Concrete mixing areas at the Depot site shall be located at least 100 m from
the nearest residential area.
xii) Clean road surfaces of debris/spills from construction equipment and vehicles.
xiii) Install temporary fencing or barriers around particularly dusty activities in
vicinity of sensitive receivers
xiv) Ensure availability of water trucks on site and if the works surface and access
roads near sensitive receptors (i.e., residential areas, roadside tea and food
stalls, schools, hospitals and other sensitive receptors) are dry and dusty,
spray water on the exposed surfaces to reduce dust emission.
xv) All construction equipment and machinery shall be fitted with emission control
equipment in full compliance with the national (TCVN) and local regulations.
xvi) Fuel-efficient and well-maintained haulage trucks will be used to minimize
exhaust emissions. Smoke belching vehicles and equipment shall not be
allowed and shall be removed from the project.
xvii) Impose speed limits on construction vehicles to minimize road dust in areas
where sensitive receptors are located.
xviii) Locations for stockpiling material at the depot area will be at least 100 m from
the nearest residential sensitive receivers.
xix) Undertake immediate repairs of any malfunctioning construction vehicles and
equipment.
xx) Discourage idling of engines
xxi) Provide prior notification to the community on schedule of construction
activities
xxii) Implement 24 hour community complaints hotline
ii. Operation

320. To minimize odor generation, wastewater treatment facilities shall be properly


maintained and solid wastes shall be regularly removed from the depot area to disposal sites
approved by local authorities. Burning of waste materials shall be prohibited and idling of
vehicles shall be minimized.

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b. Noise

i. Construction

321. Four sampling sites were established in 2008 within and around the Depot area and
monitoring took place from 6 AM to 10 PM. Daytime Leq ranged from 58.8- 68.5 and night time
values were from 56.5 to 62.9. The dBA max ranged from 68.7 to 84.2 during the daytime with
night time values ranging from 68.7 to 77.3. All the measured values exceeded the GOV limits
of daytime 60 dBA and night time 55 dBA.

322. The site will have high noise levels during three to four years of construction, although
ambient measurements in 2008 (CEPT) indicate existing high noise levels. Table 5.2 provides
the anticipated noise levels of construction equipment working from a receiver. The depot area
is 15 ha in size. Noise impacts from construction are expected to be in the low 70’s, very similar
to existing daytime ambient measurements by CEPT in 2008.

Table 5.2: Anticipated construction equipment noise levels

Distance (m) 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
L Ap (dB) 88.5 82.5 78.9 76.4 74.5 72.9 71.6
CEPT 2009

323. Permanent noise barriers are not required at the Depot. Once construction has ceased
the activities within the depot should result in ambient noise levels at existing community noise
levels. Mitigation measures to be implemented by contractors to reduce noise levels from
construction works are listed below:

i) Before site works commence, a Noise Control Plan shall be prepared by the
contractor and shall be approved by project supervision consultant (PSC). The
plan shall provide details of mitigation measures, specific location and schedule
where such measures shall be implemented to minimize impacts to sensitive
receptors (residential areas, schools, hospitals, etc.) due to construction works,
sourcing and transport of construction materials, and other project-related
activities.
ii) All construction equipment and vehicles shall be well maintained, regularly
inspected for noise emissions, and shall be fitted with appropriate noise
suppression equipment consistent with applicable national and local
regulations.
iii) Use only vehicles and equipment that are registered and have necessary
permits.
iv) No noisy construction-related activities (e.g., transport of materials along
residential areas and other sensitive receptors, piling, etc.) will be carried out
during the night. Such activities shall be restricted to daylight hours.
v) Truck drivers and equipment operators shall minimize the use of horns.

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vi) Impose speed limits on construction vehicles to minimize noise emission along
areas where sensitive receptors are located (houses, schools, hospitals, etc.).
vii) Provide temporary noise barriers (3-5 meter high barrier can reduce 5-10 dB(A),
as necessary, if depot works will generate high noise levels that could disturb
nearby households and other sensitive receptors.
viii) As much as possible, use quiet equipment and working method.
ix) Whenever possible, completely enclose noisy equipment which can reduce
noise level by 15-25 dB(A), restrict use of noisy equipment (e.g.15 min for every
consecutive 30 min period) and undertake sequential operation of equipment
with objective to reduce noise generated;
x) No noisy construction activities near schools during examination period.
xi) Avoid noisy construction activities in vicinity of sensitive receivers during night
time or other sensitive periods (e.g. during school hours in vicinity of schools)
xii) Provide prior notification to the community on schedule of construction activities
xiii) Implement 24 hour community complaints hotline
ii. Operation

324. Trains in the depot area will only be traveling between 7-20 km/h. Trains will also not be
banging into each other like freight/goods carriages. Grinding and other maintenance activities
that will generate high noise levels will occur inside the maintenance sheds. The specifications
also call for the installation of insulators/anti-vibration devices under the rails thereby reducing
noise and vibration. In addition the rails are fastened with resilient fasteners and continuously
welded. This further reduces vibration and noise. While the noise levels are not expected to
cause nuisance to the local community, noise monitoring will continue during the operation to
determine and provide noise abatement measures, as necessary. Noise sampling shall also be
conducted in response to complaints.

c. Geotechnical Concerns

325. Geotechnical: The depot area was identified in the 2008 Feasibility Study as having
poor and compressible soils. It will require soil consolidation to withstand loads from the
building, the equipment, tracks and road area. Since acquiring the property HRB has been
filling the site with sand. This pre-loading has resulted in over 1 m of material capping the site in
preparation for construction. No geotechnical report or detailed design drawings have been
received or reviewed regarding the site filling.

i. Construction

326. Without proper engineering measures to ensure consolidation, differential settlement


could result creating pier, viaduct and track alignment concerns. Moreover, utility conduits such
as water lines and electrical systems may also be adversely affected by settlement.

327. There are a number of options that can reduce settlement and ensure compaction. The
design consultant has indicated that they will pile all areas of rail tracks, the ramp, the buildings
and the workshops. Pile driving will be carried out using vibratory pile system because the soils

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are compressible. This type of piling also has a low noise signature.

ii. Operational

328. With a piled base, settlements should be limited. However, settlement will still occur and
incremental soil and or paving may be required in the foreseeable future.

d. Groundwater/Soil Contamination

329. The GOV EIA indicated that the Depot site had soil samples with Cu and Zn values that
were above permissible levels. However, no sampling for pesticides was undertaken even
though the area had been an intensive market garden area. Consequently, the IEE suggested
additional sampling to assess for pesticides at the depot site and, if confirmed, that soil removal
be considered. However, since publication of the IEE, HRB has capped the depot site with 1m
or more of sand in preparation for construction.

i. Construction

330. With the capping of 0.6 – 1.5 m of sand, the site has been altered sufficiently that any
contaminated soil that existed can no longer be reached and assessed. The sand layer is highly
permeable and will allow any kinds of liquid spill to seep through with little retention. This could
increase the risk of a potential long-term groundwater and soil pollution issue.

331. Potential contamination of groundwater may occur due to spills of fuel and other
hazardous substances. Should HRB decide to install an additional back up well, contaminants
may also be introduced to the aquifer due to improper well construction. These impacts will be
addressed through implementation of the following measures by the contractors:

i) Before site works commence, a Spill Management Plan shall be prepared by the
contractor and shall be approved by project supervision consultant (PSC). The
plan shall provide details of procedures, responsibilities, resources,
documentation and reporting requirements, training provisions for relevant staff ,
etc. to avoid spills of hazardous substances and to effectively respond to such
incidents, in case these occur.
ii) Store fuel and hazardous substances in paved areas with embankment. If spills
or leaks do occur, undertake immediate clean up.
iii) Ensure availability of spill clean up materials (e.g., absorbent pads, etc.)
specifically designed for petroleum products and other hazardous substances
where such materials are being stored.
iv) Train relevant construction personnel in handling of fuels and spill control
procedures.
v) Ensure all storage containers are in good condition with proper labeling.
vi) Regularly check containers for leakage and undertake necessary repair or
replacement.
vii) Store hazardous materials above flood level.
viii) Equipment maintenance areas shall be provided with drainage leading to an oil-
water separator that will be regularly skimmed of oil and maintained to ensure

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efficiency. Discharge of oil contaminated water shall be prohibited.
ix) Store waste oil, used lubricant and other hazardous wastes in tightly sealed
containers to avoid contamination of soil and water resources. Transport and off-
site disposal of such wastes shall be consistent with national and local
regulations.
x) The back-up well shall be designed and constructed such that surface pollution is
prevented from percolating downward along the annular space between the
borehole and the well casing.

ii. Operational

332. Currently, there is one well installed in the depot site. The water is to be used for all the
Depot operational needs. There is a concern about the risk to human health by consuming the
deteriorated groundwater quality. Groundwater analyses indicate that artificial contamination
has reached the lower aquifer with the appearance of phenol, cyanide and coliforms (SYSTRA,
personal communication). An industrial wastewater treatment plant shall be constructed at the
depot to ensure that relevant TCVN standards and requirements are met prior to recycling and
discharge to the city drainage network. The treatment plant has been designed to remove
pollution, debris and re-use the water. Mitigation measures to be implemented to address
potential impacts on water resources are as follows:

i) Wastewater shall be treated at the depot’s industrial treatment plant to ensure


that relevant TCVN standards and requirements are met.
ii) In the vehicle washing, maintenance area and wheel lathe pits, drains shall be
linked to the industrial water treatment plant.
iii) Drainage emanating from the depot workshops will be equipped with oil
interceptors.
iv) Office buildings shall be provided with toilets and septic tanks to handle
domestic sewage.
v) The sewer system will be designed to prevent leakage or overflow of waste water
that could contaminate the surrounding areas.
vi) All hazardous and potentially contaminating materials (chemicals, fuels, oils, etc.)
shall be stored in facilities with weatherproof flooring and roofing, security
fencing and access control and drainage/wastewater collection systems.
vii) A groundwater quality monitoring program shall be implemented to ensure that
groundwater for domestic purposes are adequately treated to meet applicable
TCVN standards (based on the monitoring results).

e. Groundwater Availability

333. Groundwater is an important resource for Ha Noi and as the analysis highlights in
Section 3, groundwater is being depleted at an unsustainable rate throughout the city.
Groundwater extraction for the Project will add additional stress on the aquifer. Based on the
water requirements at the Depot the HRB has drilled a deep well which will provide all of the
water requirements for the Depot. The well is an 8" well, with a 5" screen of 8 m long. The well
efficiency is about 1 m3/hr/m. The transmissibility is about 830 m3/day. With the installed pump,
the pumping rate is 513 m3/day and will, after treatment, be stored in a 624 m3 tank. This tank
will allow the Depot to store enough water for all uses and provide a 1 hour supply for fire
fighting needs. During operation, the total water demand at the depot for washing, maintenance

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and workers’ use is estimated to be 384 m3/day. The total effluent generated at the depot is
estimated to be 138 m3/day.

Table 5.3: Water supply requirements at the depot.

Daily consumption estimation


Designation
[liter]
Domestic Water Office staff water
200 * 200 = 40,000
consumption
Technical staff water
140 * 100 = 14,000
consumption
Sub-total 54 000

Industrial Water Train Washing 1500 * 4 * 15 = 90,000


Workshop 20,000
Track and Wayside 10,000
Gardening 30 000 * 1.5 = 45,000
Fire fighting 165,000
Sub-total 330,000

TOTAL 384.000
HRB Feasibility Study (2009)

334. To reduce the Project’s need for groundwater and to ensure that sufficient water will be
available for depot operation, the following measures shall be implemented:
i) Train wash water and rainwater shall be collected in underground storage tanks
for re-ycling.
ii) Install a backup well in addition to the existing well.
iii) If installed, the back up well shall be located far enough away from the existing
well to avoid interference.
iv) The wells shall be operated on a regular rotating basis to prevent the occurrence
of a prolonged drawdown cone at a particular spot and to allow a relatively even
drawdown of the local groundwater table. This scheme will also result to savings
on operational costs.

f. Surface Water

335. Surface Water: There are no anticipated adverse Impacts on surface water during
construction of the depot. Surface water is confined to irrigation ditches that surround the Depot
area which previously fed the market gardens. The GOV supplementary EIA carried out
sampling of this water source in 2008 and the results show that the concentrations of DO, COD
and coliform at the monitoring site are 1.44, 1.25 and 1.85 times higher than permissible limits.
These values could be expected from ditch water that could receive human waste and is
shallow and fairly stagnant.

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g. Drainage

336. Earthworks and other construction activities at the depot may cause alteration to
drainage patterns in the area and could cause localized flooding. The contractor shall implement
the following mitigation measures to address such impact:
i) Avoid placement of construction materials, waste storage areas or equipment in
or near drainage channels surrounding the Depot.
ii) Prohibit disposal of waste materials to drainage channels.
iii) In case existing drainage ditch is filled-up as required for the construction works,
provide alternative drainage for rainwater.
iv) Regularly inspect and maintain all drainage channels to keep these free of
obstructions.

h. Solid Waste

i. Construction

337. If not properly handled and disposed of, solid wastes pose as health and safety hazards
and are likely to cause nuisance to surrounding communities and the workforce. To avoid such
impacts, the contractor shall implement the following:
i) Provide garbage bins and facilities within the project site for temporary storage
of construction waste and domestic solid waste.
ii) Separate solid waste into hazardous, non-hazardous and reusable waste
streams and store temporarily on site in secure facilities with weatherproof
flooring and roofing, security fencing and access control and drainage/
wastewater collection systems
iii) Ensure that wastes are not haphazardly dumped within the project site and
adjacent areas
iv) Undertake regular collection and disposal of wastes to sites approved by local
authorities.

ii. Operation

338. The maintenance works as well as workers/employees at the Depot offices will generate
solid wastes. Mitigation measures are as follows:
i) Offices, workshops and other areas within the depot shall be provided with waste
collection bins or receptacles.
ii) Solid wastes shall be segregated into hazardous, non-hazardous and reusable
waste streams and stored temporarily on site in secure facilities with
weatherproof flooring and roofing, security fencing and access control and
drainage/wastewater collection systems.
iii) Garbage shall be regularly collected and shall be disposed consistent with local
regulations
iv) Wastes shall only be disposed to approved sites by local authorities.

i. Damage to Community Facilities

i. Construction

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339. Transport of materials, operation of construction equipment and various construction


activities may damage community utilities. The contractor shall implement the following
measures to address this impact:
i) The contractor shall immediately repair any damage caused by the Project to
community facilities such as water supply, power supply, communication facilities
and the like.
ii) Access roads damaged during transport of construction materials and other
project-related activities shall be reinstated upon completion of construction
works.

ii. Operation

340. Adverse impacts to community facilities are not anticipated during operation phase.

j. Traffic Concerns

i. Construction

341. Construction activities may cause traffic congestion along access roads due to transport
of materials and operation of other project-related vehicles. To minimize traffic disturbance, the
contractor shall undertake the following:

i) Before site works commence, a Traffic Management Plan for the construction
phase shall be prepared by the contractor and shall be approved by PSC. The
plan shall be designed to ensure that traffic congestion due to construction
activities and movement of construction vehicles, haulage trucks, and
equipment is minimized. The plan shall be prepared in consultation with local
traffic officials and people’s committees at the district and commune levels.The
plan shall identify traffic diversion and management, traffic schedules, traffic
arrangements showing all detours, necessary barricades, warning/advisory
signs, road signs, lighting, and other provisions to ensure that adequate and
safe access is provided to motorists in the affected areas.
ii) Post traffic advisory signs (to minimize traffic build-up) in coordination with local
authorities
iii) As much as possible, schedule delivery of construction materials and equipment
during non-peak hours.
iv) Regularly monitor traffic conditions along access roads to ensure that project
vehicles are not causing congestion.
ii. Operation

342. Adverse impacts to traffic flow are not anticipated during operation phase.

k. Health and Safety of Workers and the Public

i. Construction

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343. To ensure health and safety of workers, the following measures shall be implemented by
the contractor:

i) Prior to commencement of site works, the following plans shall be prepared by the
contractor and approved by the Project Supervision Consultant:
• Occupational and Community Health and Safety Plan consistent with
international standards (e.g., the World Bank Group’s Environment, Health and
Safety Guidelines of 2007) and Labor Code of Vietnam. The Plan shall
address health and safety hazards associated with construction activities (e.g.,
excavations, working at heights, etc.), establishment and operation of
construction/worker’s camps, use of heavy equipment, transport of materials
and other hazards associated with various construction activities.
• Emergency Response Plan to prevent, mitigate, respond to and recover from
emergency events that could occur due to project activities such as accidents,
spills of hazardous substances, fire, extreme weather events, and other crises.
ii) Appoint an environment, health and safety manager to look after implementation of
required environmental mitigation measures, and to ensure that health and safety
precautions are strictly implemented for the protection of workers and the general
public in the vicinity of construction areas
iii) Conduct orientation for construction workers regarding health and safety measures,
emergency response in case of accidents, fire, etc., and prevention of HIV/AIDS
and other related diseases
iv) Provide first aid facilities that are readily accessible by workers.
v) Provide fire fighting equipment at the work areas, as appropriate, and at
construction camps.
vi) Provide adequate drainage in workers camps to prevent water
logging/accumulation of stagnant water and formation of breeding sites for
mosquitoes.
vii) Provide adequate housing for all workers at the construction camps.
viii) Provide reliable supply of potable water
ix) Provide separate hygienic sanitation facilities/toilets and bathing areas with
sufficient water supply for male and female workers
x) Establish clean canteen/rest area.
xi) Ensure proper collection and disposal of solid wastes within the construction camps
consistent with local regulations.
xii) Provide fencing on all areas of excavation greater than 2 m deep.
xiii) Provide appropriate personnel safety equipment such as safety boots, helmets,
gloves, protective clothes, breathing mask, goggles, and ear protection
xiv) Ensure reversing signals are installed on all construction vehicles.
xv) Implement precautions to ensure that objects (e.g., equipment, tool, debris, pre-
cast sections, etc.) do not fall onto or hit construction workers.

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xvi) Implement fall prevention and protection measures whenever a worker is exposed
to the hazard of falling more than two meters, falling into operating machinery or
through an opening in a work surface. Based on a case-specific basis, fall
prevention/protection measures may include installation of guardrails with mid-rails
and toe boards at the edge of any fall hazard area, proper use of ladders and
scaffolds by trained employees, use of fall prevention devices, including safety belt
and lanyard travel limiting devices to prevent access to fall hazard, fall protection
devices such as full body harnesses, etc.
344. The following mitigation measures to ensure public safety shall be implemented by the
contractor:

i) Implement precautions to ensure that objects (e.g., equipment, tool, debris, pre-
cast sections, etc.) do not fall onto or hit people, vehicles and properties in
adjoining areas.
ii) Fencing of construction sites and regular patrols to restrict public access.
iii) Prior to excavation work, provide fencing on all sides of areas to be excavated.
iv) Provide warning signs at the periphery of the construction site.
v) Strictly impose speed limits along residential areas and where other sensitive
receptors such as schools, hospitals, and other populated areas are located.
vi) Educate drivers on safe driving practices to minimize accidents and to prevent spill
of hazardous substances and other construction materials during transport.
ii. Operation

345. To protect the health and safety of workers and general public during depot operations,
the following measures shall be implemented:

i) Prior to operation of the depot, HRB shall ensure that the following plans have been
developed and adequately resourced. HRB shall ensure that plan provisions are
strictly implemented throughout operation phase:

 Occupational Health and Safety Plan for all components of depot operation and
train staff in the implementation of such plan.

 Emergency Response Plan (e.g., in case of fire, extreme weather events, floods,
power outage, equipment breakdown, accidents, spills of hazardous substances,
etc.) covering all components of depot operation and train staff in the
implementation of such plan.

ii) The depot site will be fenced and access shall be restricted to authorized personnel
to avoid safety risks to the public.

l. Social Conflicts

346. The presence of construction camps may cause conflict with the surrounding
communities, these will be addressed by:

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i) Consider the location of construction camps away from communities in order to
avoid social conflict in using resources and basic amenities such as water supply.

ii) Maximize number of local people employed in construction works.

iii) Maximize goods and services sourced from local commercial enterprises.

3. Long-term Residual Effects

347. There are no long-term residual negative impacts predicted for the Depot site. There are
only positive socio-economic benefits to the local community from the project.

C. Viaduct Section

348. The viaduct section of the MRT3 runs from Nhon to Kim Ma (Thu Le Lake) a distance of
8 km. There will be two tender calls for construction of the viaduct: one is for construction of
piers, viaduct, special bridges, access Line to the Depot, ramps to the depot and underground
section; the second is for construction of the 8 elevated stations, structures, facilities and
plumbing.

349. There are 8 elevated stations (Figure 5.1) that will be constructed through the second
viaduct tender. In order to accommodate steps and escalators some buildings will be required to
allow for an adequate width of pavement. To date only 4 structures have been identified for
demolition at station 7. The design consultant has not completed the final DMS survey and
property right-of-way drawings so that the exact number structures cannot be identified. A
working easement of approximately 130 meters will be required at each station to accommodate
cranes and materials.

350. A casting yard will likely be an already established site used for concrete forming
activities. where all the pre-cast sections of the viaduct, pier columns and cross members will be
fabricated.

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104

Figure 5.1: Cross-section of the Elevated Stations

1. Pre-Construction Impacts and Mitigation

a. Land Acquisition and Resettlement

351. The concern on this section is the potential loss of households, understood currently to
be 4 at Station 7 but the number is likely to increase and 53 along the Access Line (section from
Nhon station into the Depot) and relocation of residents and loss of trees along Road 70. This
section of the Project is 450 m in length. Fifty-three households and 80 affected people require
relocation and compensation. Adequate compensation shall be made based on a Resettlement
Plan agreed by HPC and ADB.

b. UXO

352. Following the demolition of houses and properties bordering Road 70 and other areas
where land acquisition is necessary, a UXO survey will be conducted. HRB/PMU1 will engage
an authorized mines advisory group to identify if UXO is a potential threat to works in the project
area. HRB/PMU1 will commission UXO clearing as necessary and shall advise the contractor
that the site has been cleared prior to commencement of site works.

c. Tree Cutting

353. The Project will require clearing and loss of the mature trees along Thu le Lake. HRB
and the Hanoi Green and Park Company have investigated the trees within the Project corridor
and confirmed that the species are not valuable or rare. Although these trees are not considered
to have biodiversity value, trees along roadsides and in the median are large and mature
specimens that have value in terms of landscaping, shade and visual amenity.

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354. Sufficient right-of-way may be limited to plant and grow replacement trees lost to the
project. Nonetheless, HRB confirms that they have a 1:1 tree replacement policy and this will be
implemented for the Project. HRB is also willing to plant more trees should the landscape
opportunities exist.

d. Disruption to Community Utilities

355. Utility relocation poses only a short term concern to residents affected by a large scale
transportation project such as the MRT3. Interruptions to power and communication, disruption
of water supply, discoloration of water from re-located pipes and sewer interruptions are
expected. To minimize impacts, the contractor shall implement the following measures:

i) Water supply pipelines, power supply, communication lines and other utilities
shall be re-provisioned before construction works commence
ii) Provisions shall be made to preserve the operation of current facilities in
sufficient quantity and in agreement with the local community.
iii) Re-provisioning shall be undertaken in coordination with the utility company.
iv) Affected households and establishments shall be notified well in advance of such
disruption.

2. Construction and Operation Impacts and Mitigation

a. Air Quality

356. The principal air quality impacts of the Project are expected to occur in the immediate
vicinity of the transportation corridor. For the viaduct section the GOV EIA of 2006 conducted air
quality monitoring at 6 sites along the route. The GOV supplementary EIA of 2008 sampled only
at the transition area Voi Phuc

Table 5.4: Results of Air Quality Monitoring along the Viaduct Area (2006)

Hydrocarb
Monitoring TSP CO SO2 NO2
Sample Land Use on
Location (ìg/m3) (ìg/m3) (ìg/m3) (ìg/m3)
(ìg/m3)
Opposite
University of
Industry in Commercial
KK02 forecourt of / residential 150 720 220 240 300
small
restaurant
Along NR 32
5m
KK03 from road Commercial 124 660 160 150 260
boundary at / residential
residence

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106

Hydrocarb
Monitoring TSP CO SO2 NO2
Sample Land Use on
Location (ìg/m3) (ìg/m3) (ìg/m3) (ìg/m3)
(ìg/m3)
At intersection
of Commercial
KK04 159 690 200 120 280
NR 32 and / residential
national
Intersection
with Industrial /
KK05 154 540 200 90 150
Le Duc Tho residential
Road
Ha Noi
National
Education
KK06 University near 71 600 190 110 270
intersection facility
with 3rd Ring
R Cau
Near d
Giay
KK07 Commercial 215 680 200 120 170
Post Office on
Cau Giay
CEPT 2006

357. The results from 2006 can be summarized as follows: that most of the parameters fell
within the relevant TCVN criteria. In 2008 samples from within the city core indicated SO2
exceeded by 2 to 3 times the TCVN criteria and NO2 exceeded the criteria by 1.3 to 1.6.

i. Construction

358. During the construction phase, the potential exists for short-term negative air quality
impacts along the corridor. The two major sources of emissions possible from the construction
are: dust emissions from non-combustion sources and exhaust emissions from construction
vehicles and stationary combustion sources. Although the potential for localized air quality
impacts of these activities may be significant, it is important to note that they will be temporary
and localized.

359. On the viaduct section there should a minimum of dust generated. Only construction of
the pile cap for the piers and the ramps will involve the removal of approximately 5m x 5m of soil
= 50m3. This can be carried in one to ten truck loads and the dust should be contained.

360. It will be the cranes lifting the pre-cast sections of the pier and the viaduct that will cause
emissions. The bridging of the 2nd and 3rd Ring Roads with longer spans will require longer
duration times for these pieces of equipment to be in place. Obviously these emissions will add
cumulatively to the existing high levels of SO2 and NOx at these two major intersections.

361. Best management practices should be adopted during construction to minimize dust and
combustion exhaust emissions. Mitigation measures to be implemented by the contractor to
minimize impacts on air quality are listed below:

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(i) Before site works commence, a Dust Control Plan shall be prepared by the
contractor and shall be approved by project supervision consultant (PSC).
The plan shall provide details of mitigation measures, specific location and
schedule where such measures shall be implemented to minimize impacts to
sensitive receptors (residential areas, schools, hospitals, etc.) due to
construction works, sourcing and transport of construction materials, and
other project-related activities.
(ii) Wherever possible, use electrically-powered equipment rather than gas or
diesel-powered equipment
(iii) Position any stationary emission sources (e.g., portable diesel generators,
compressors, etc.) as far as is practical from sensitive receptors;
(iv) Use only vehicles and equipment that are registered and have necessary
permits.
(v) Burning of wastes generated at the construction sites, work camps and other
project-related activities shall be strictly prohibited.
(vi) Construction equipment and vehicles shall be well-maintained and shall meet
national TCVN emission standards.
(vii) Specify the use of clean fuels such as ultra-low sulphur diesel in dump trucks
and other heavy-duty diesel vehicles and/or equipment, in conjunction with
the use of particulate trap control devices, as well as catalytic converters, to
avoid excessive diesel emissions.
(viii) Keep stockpiles moist and cover vehicles with tarpaulin sheets or other
suitable materials to minimize dust emission and prevent spillage of
materials (e.g., soil, cement, stone, sand, aggregates, etc.).
(ix) Provide temporary covers (e.g., tarpaulins, grass, etc.) on long term materials
stockpiles.
(x) As much as possible, the casting yard for the Project will make use of already
established and licensed site(s) for concrete forming activities where all the
pre-cast sections of the viaduct, pier columns and cross members will be
fabricated.
(xi) Ensure that necessary environmental approvals are obtained for the
establishment and operation of a new casting yard,
(xii) Store excavated materials outside road reserve, but where there is no area,
spoils shall be loaded and transported immediately.
(xiii) Clean road surfaces of debris/spills from construction equipment and
vehicles.
(xiv) Undertake daily cleaning of paved routes around the pier construction sites.
(xv) Install temporary fencing or barriers around particularly dusty activities in
vicinity of sensitive receivers
(xvi) Ensure availability of water trucks on site and if the works surface and access
roads near sensitive receptors (i.e., residential areas, roadside tea and food

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stalls, schools, hospitals and other sensitive receptors) are dry and dusty,
spray water on the exposed surfaces to reduce dust emission.
(xvii) All construction equipment and machinery shall be fitted with emission control
equipment in full compliance with the national (TCVN) and local regulations.
(xviii) Fuel-efficient and well-maintained haulage trucks will be used to minimize
exhaust emissions. Smoke belching vehicles and equipment shall not be
allowed and shall be removed from the project.
(xix) Impose speed limits on construction vehicles to minimize road dust in areas
where sensitive receptors are located.
(xx) Undertake immediate repairs of any malfunctioning construction vehicles and
equipment.
(xxi) Discourage idling of engines
(xxii) Provide prior notification to the community on schedule of construction
activities
(xxiii) Implement 24 hour community complaints hotline

ii. Operation

362. There will be no negative impacts on air quality during the operational phase of the
Project. In fact, based on the number of personal vehicles and buses that will be removed from
the Ha Noi roads, there is a significant positive benefit.

e. Noise and Vibration

363. Noise: The objective of the baseline noise study, undertaken by GOV in 2006 and 2008
was to measure the existing ambient conditions at a number of representative sensitive sites
along the Project corridor. Noise data were collected at 7 sites along the proposed corridor to
document existing conditions at representative locations along the route (Table 5.5). The
measurements consisted of monitoring noise only during the day and evening hours, not the
continuous 48 hours as is standard procedure.

364. The results of the 2006 and 2008 monitoring indicate that the ambient noise levels
during the day and evening exceeds GOV standards as shown in Table 5.5.

Table 5.5: Noise Values Along The Viaduct Section (dB(A)

TCVN
Monitoring Monitoring Leq LAmax L50 5949:1998
Sample Land Use49
Location48 Period dB(A) dB(A) dB(A) Criteria
dB(A)
Opposite
University of Education
N02 Daytime 77.2 93.2 71.4 50
Industry in facility
f f

108
TCVN
Monitoring Monitoring Leq LAmax L50 5949:1998
Sample Land Use49
Location48 Period dB(A) dB(A) dB(A) Criteria
dB(A)

Evening 69.3 79.4 66.1 45

Along NR32 Residential


5m with Daytime 78.3 95.4 72.4 60
N03 from road some small
boundary at scale Evening 73.9 84.6 69.6 55
residence commercial
Intersection of Residential
N04 Daytime 74.9 92.3 69.1 60
NR with
32 and some small
National scale Evening 70.2 86.2 63.8 55
Railway commercial
Intersection Residential, Daytime 73.8 93.2 64.9 60
with small
N05
Le Duc Tho scale Evening 69.5 85.3 64.3 55
Road industrial
Ha Noi Daytime 71.2 83.9 70.2 50
National
N06 Educational
University near Evening 66.1 72.9 65.1 45
3rd
Near Cau Giay Daytime 74.5 86.2 71.3 70
Post Office on
N07 Commercial
Cau Giay Evening 69.9 80.7 65.4 70
Street
Source: CEPT, 2006

i. Construction

365. Noise impacts to the community will occur during construction of the viaduct. Viaduct
construction will involve pile driving for the pier construction and cranes to erect the piers and
viaduct components. Table 5.6 shows the expected construction noise levels to receivers away
from the work site. It indicates that 15 m from the work area, the noise levels are similar to the
daytime ambient conditions.

Table 5.6: Expected construction noise levels for the Viaduct section

Distance (m) 5m 10 m 15 m 20 m 25 m 30m 35 m


Construction of viaduct (elevated section from Station C1 to Station C3)

L Ap (dB) 88.5 82.5 78.9 76.4 74.5 72.9 71.6


HRB Feasibility Study (2009)

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366. Pile driving for the pier piles will be carried out using a churn-drill. This is a much quieter
machine than a diesel hammer driver and should significantly reduce noise levels to receivers in
the community Also, one section of the viaduct can be erected in one day, thereby reducing any
prolonged noise at sensitive receivers along the alignment.

367. Unobtrusive noise barriers can also be placed on the edge of the right-of-way should
construction monitoring indicate an impact to sensitive receivers. The preliminary design calls
for a noise shield to be incorporated into the viaduct, see Figure 5.1.

368. Construction activity and operation of cranes during construction of elevated stations will
create an increase in noise levels to receivers in the area, combined with existing traffic noise,
the levels may be extreme, well over 80dBA.

369. Every opportunity should be taken to make use of natural features on the edge of the
right-of-way or at the property line of the affected property to reduce noise impacts. Use of
dedicated noise barriers such as barrier fences, or retaining walls should be considered during
the detailed design stage, where warranted.

370. The following measures to attenuate noise shall be implemented by the contractor:

(i) Before site works commence, a Noise Control Plan shall be prepared by the
contractor and shall be approved by project supervision consultant (PSC). The plan
shall provide details of mitigation measures, specific location and schedule where
such measures shall be implemented to minimize impacts to sensitive receptors
(residential areas, schools, hospitals, etc.) due to construction works, sourcing and
transport of construction materials, and other project-related activities.

(ii) Erection of temporary walls around the elevated station sites and other
construction sites, as necessary. Especially near sensitive areas such as
schools, hospitals, houses, etc Temporary noise barriers (3-5 meter high) can
reduce noise level by 5-10 dB(A).

(iii) Truck drivers and equipment operators shall minimize the use of horns.

(iv) Position any stationary equipment that produce high noise levels (e.g., portable
diesel generators, compressors, etc.) as far as is practical from sensitive
receptors;

(v) All construction equipment and vehicles shall be well maintained, regularly
inspected for noise emissions, and shall be fitted with appropriate noise
suppression equipment consistent with applicable national and local
regulations.

(vi) Use only vehicles and equipment that are registered and have necessary
permits.

(vii) No noisy construction-related activities will be carried out during the night. Such
activities shall be restricted to daylight hours.

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(viii) Impose speed limits on construction vehicles to minimize noise emission along
areas where sensitive receptors are located (houses, schools, hospitals, etc.).

(ix) As much as possible, use quiet equipment and working method.

(x) Whenever possible, completely enclose noisy equipment which can reduce
noise level by 15-25 dB(A), restrict use of noisy equipment (e.g.15 min for every
consecutive 30 min period) and undertake sequential operation of equipment
with objective to reduce noise generated;

(xi) No noisy construction activities near schools during examination period.

(xii) Avoid noisy construction activities in vicinity of sensitive receivers during night
time or other sensitive periods (e.g. during school hours in vicinity of schools).

(xiii) Sheet piling at Thu Le Lake shall only to be carried out during daylight hours.

(xiv) Provide prior notification to the community on schedule of construction activities

(xv) Implement 24 hour community complaints hotline

ii. Operation

371. The noise from the MRT3 system will consist of both fixed and varying sources. The
varying source will be the passing of cars on the alignment, while fixed sources will include
noise at stations and noise from ventilation systems, power substations, etc.

372. In general, elevated alignments have less noise impacts than at grade alignments. In the
case of the elevated alignments, this is due to the sound being directed upwards and the
acoustic shielding offered by the alignment structure to receivers located below.

373. By examining the sound level duration as the train passes by a receiver provides a more
realistic aspect to the actual intensity of the noise. In Vancouver, Canada, the Skytrain was
assessed as to its pass-by noise. The train as it passes is an event lasting about 10 seconds,
with the maximum noise lasting between 1 and 2 seconds. Thus in an hour, one could expect
240 seconds of train noise, of which less than 48 seconds would be maximum noise. This
reduces the annoyance factor for receivers. Table 5.3.3 shows the expected unmitigated noise
levels at a distance from the viaduct.

374. Moreover, sound from the trains will diminish with increasing distance from the Project
right-of-way. Typically, equivalent sound levels will drop by 2-3 dBA from 15 m to 30 m and by
3-5 dBA more from 30 m to 60 m as shown in Table 5.7.

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Table 5.7: Forecast of operational stage train noise without mitigation

Distance (m) 10 20 30 50 70

Year 2020 78.3 76.7 73.1 72.3 70.0


3 cars
Year 2030 79.9 78.2 76.7 73.9 71.5
Noise Year 2020 76.9 73.5 74.4 72.2 70.2
(dB) 4 cars
Year 2030 76.7 73.3 74.2 72.0 69.9
5 cars Year 2020 73.1 73.8 72.9 71.1 69.4
Year 2030 76.8 73.6 74.7 72.9 71.2

375. Noise from Project activities in the vicinity of stations has tonal character. There is the
noise that the trains will make when accelerating and decelerating out of and into the stations.
There is also the noise from paging and door signals in the stations. However, in most areas
along the proposed route, the stations will be located in the vicinity of areas of high motor
vehicle traffic which will mask this tonal noise.

Figure 5.2: Noise shield attached to viaduct

376. The designers have committed to installing a noise shield on the viaduct, Figure 5.2.
Table 5.8 shows the expected noise levels with mitigation in place. Train noise with the noise
shield in place will produce less noise than ambient traffic levels..Compared to Table 5.7 there
is 20-30 dBA drop in noise level 10m from the operating MRT3 with mitigation in place. Given
the existing high ambient noise levels from the roadway (Table 5.9) the MRT3 trains will hardly
be heard. Moreover, the trains will only operate from 6:00 to 23:30 on a daily basis. Monitoring
early in the morning and at 22:00 hrs still show existing road noise will be louder than the MRT3
trains.

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Table 5.8: Expected train noise levels with the noise shield.

Distance (m) 10 20 30 50 70

Year 2020 49,8 47,7 47,6 47,5 47,5


3 cars
Year 2030 51,6 49,5 49,3 49,3 49,3

Year 2020 51,1 49,1 48,9 48,8 48,8


Noise
4 cars
(dB)
Year 2030 50,8 48,8 48,6 48,5 48,5

Year 2020 51,1 49,1 48,9 48,9 48,9


5 cars
Year 2030 53,2 51,3 51,1 51,0 51,0

Source HRB FS,2009 .

377. Noise attenuation measures to be implemented during operation phase are shown
below:

i) Installation of noise shield on the viaduct


ii) At the station platform, paging and bell signaling volume shall be adjusted to the
lowest level where it will not detract from their function.at
iii) Noise monitoring shall continue during operation phase to determine and install
suitable noise reduction measures (e.g., unobtrusive noise barriers on the edge
of the stations)

Vibration:

378. Vibration generated during construction and operation has the potential to cause
amenity and physical (structural) impacts at receivers. Construction of the viaduct will generate
intermittent vibration, which is defined as interrupted periods of impulsive vibration (e.g. pile
driving, excavation).

379. The GOV EIA (2006) and the supplementary EIA (2008) collected monitoring data on
vibration values along the Project corridor. Table 5.9 shows the results that ambient conditions
are well within the GOV standards.

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Table 5.9: Existing Vibration Measurements along the Viaduct Section

Environment quality parameters


(Average per day)

Sample
Vibration
Vibration speed TCVN 7210:2002
acceleration
Lv (dB)
Laeq(dB)
V1 49.2 39.7 Acceleration: 70 dB

V2 36.3 26.0
V4 41.6 31.3
V5 42.7 31.9
V6 46.7 42.7
V7 43.9 37.3
CEPT 2008

380. The following table estimates the level of vibration generated by construction equipment
working on the viaduct. Again, these indicate that vibration levels will likely not exceed the GOV
standards.

Table 5.10: Forecast of vibration levels caused by construction equipment

Distance (m) 5m 10m 15m 20m 25m 30m 35m

Construction of elevated stations


L Ap (dB) 52.9 46.9 43.4 40.9 38.9 37.3 36.0
Source HRB FS, 2009

i. Construction

381. Equipment working on the viaduct will be cranes and pile drivers. At each pier site four
1000 mm piles of +50m are required to anchor the piers. Piles can either be driven or churned
drilled. Driving H piles with a diesel hammer is exceedingly noisy and creates significant levels
of vibration to the surrounding area. Whereas churned drilled piles are significantly quieter and
causes lower vibrations. Tracked cranes will be used to lift pre-cast sections of the piers and
viaduct and will cause some vibration as they move along N32.

382. The selection of a churned drill pile method will significantly reduce noise and vibration
to the community along the route. Moreover, because construction will be staggered, and at
different stages of erection, noise and vibration will be intermittent and therefore less of
annoyance to residents along the route. Equipment will also not be operating at night and
monitoring at sensitive receiver sites will be carried out.

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i. Operation

383. Concerns have been raised that trains passing by will create vibration.

384. The specifications call for the installation of insulators/anti-vibration devices under the
rails thereby reducing noise and vibration. In addition the rails are fastened with resilient
fasteners and continuously welded. This further reduces vibration and noise. Experience in
other parts of the world where electric sky trains have been built exhibit minimum operating
vibration effects. The noise shield placed on the viaduct will also help in reducing low frequency
vibration effects.

f. Spoils Generation

385. Once the MRT3 is above ground at Thu Le Lake the alignment follows the centreline of
existing roads. Construction of the piers will require removing a 5m x 5m area of the median and
asphalt in the roadway. At each pier site, soil removal at 2-m deep within a 2 m x 5 m area will
be undertaken. It is estimated that 6,000 m3 of spoils will have to be disposed of from about 300
pier excavation sites.

386. According to HPC, there are disposal areas in Van Noi and Nguyen Khe communes in
Dong Anh district that could accommodate the excavation spoils for the entire MRT3
construction. The following measures shall be implemented by the contractor to minimize
impacts due to spoils generation:

i) Before site works commence, a Spoils Disposal Plan by the contractor and shall
be approved by PSC. The plan shall present off-site re-use (if suitable) of
excavation spoils and corresponding volume, identification of a suitable disposal
location/facility and corresponding capacity, designation of suitable transport
routes and schedule for spoil truck movements to minimize traffic
disruption/congestion, and environmental mitigation measures to address
impacts due to transport and disposal of spoils, Maps or design of the site(s)
shall be prepared and used to identify where protection measures are required
such as slope stabilization measures, silt fencing, ditching, dust control, cross
drains, etc.
ii) Spoil disposal will only be to DONRE and Department of Construction (DOC)
approved areas
iii) Trucks transporting spoils shall be tightly covered with tarpaulin or other suitable
materials to minimize dust emission and spills.
iv) Wheel washing shall be undertaken to remove mud so as to ensure that access
roads are kept clean.
v) Road surfaces shall be regularly cleaned of spilled spoils
vi) Spoil disposal shall not cause sedimentation and obstruction of flow of
watercourses, damage to agricultural land and densely vegetated areas.
vii) The spoils disposal site shall be located at least 50 m from surface water courses
and shall be protected from erosion by avoiding formation of steep slopes and
grassing.

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g. Use of Hazardous Substances

387. Potential contamination of surrounding areas and groundwater may occur due to spills of
fuel and other hazardous substances. These impacts will be addressed through implementation
of the following measures by the contractors:

i) Before site works commence, a Spill Management Plan shall be prepared by the
contractor and shall be approved by project supervision consultant (PSC). The
plan shall provide details of procedures, responsibilities, resources,
documentation and reporting requirements, training provisions for relevant staff ,
etc. to avoid spills of hazardous substances and to effectively respond to such
incidents, in case these occur.
ii) Store fuel and hazardous substances in paved areas with embankment. If spills
or leaks do occur, undertake immediate clean up.
iii) Ensure availability of spill clean up materials (e.g., absorbent pads, etc.)
specifically designed for petroleum products and other hazardous substances
where such materials are being stored.
iv) Train relevant construction personnel in handling of fuels and spill control
procedures.
v) Ensure all storage containers are in good condition with proper labeling.
vi) Regularly check containers for leakage and undertake necessary repair or
replacement.
vii) Store hazardous materials above flood level.
viii) Equipment maintenance areas shall be provided with drainage leading to an oil-
water separator that will be regularly skimmed of oil and maintained to ensure
efficiency. Discharge of oil contaminated water shall be prohibited.
ix) Store waste oil, used lubricant and other hazardous wastes in tightly sealed
containers to avoid contamination of soil and water resources. Transport and off-
site disposal of such wastes shall be consistent with national and local
regulations.

h. Water Resources

388. The line will use viaduct and bridge structures to cross over the rivers. Pier placement is
also designed to be outside of the river banks. However, in order to replace the two road lanes
along the Thu Le Lake for the transition section, the edge of the right-of-way shall encroach into
Thu Le Lake.

389. Groundwater. There are no groundwater concerns for the viaduct section.

390. Surface Water. The viaduct will traverse the Nhue and To Lich Rivers but no structures
will be constructed on the riparian area.

i. Construction

391. Excavation for pier placement may result in some small amounts of water, which will
have to be pumped out prior to the introduction of concrete piles. At the concrete casting yard,
alkaline water containing excessive amounts of rest cement will be generated.

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392. Measures to avoid sedimentation of Thu Le Lake and discharge of sediment-laden water
are as follows:

i) Installation of a sheet piled wall along Thu Le lake prior to filling.


ii) Sedimentation from filling materials behind the sheet piled wall shall be
prevented from entering into Thu Le Lake by silt curtains anchored to the ends of
the piled structure.
iii) Immediately restore damaged rip-rap along Thu Le Lake to minimize erosion
iv) Undertake regular inspection and maintenance of erosion and sediment controls
v) Prior to discharge, alkaline water from the casting yard shall be settled and
neutralized,
vi) Ensure that excavation spoils are not stockpiled or dumped near or into water
courses and drainage channels.
vii) To prevent clogging of canals, sediment-laden water from excavation for pier
placement shall be settled prior to discharge to the nearest storm drain.

ii. Operation

393. There are no expected impacts due to project design. Drainage from the viaduct will be
carried to the piers and drain internally to the city storm water system. The elevated stations
shall be provided with toilets and septic tanks to handle sewage generated by workers and
passengers.

i. Drainage/Flooding

394. Earthworks along the viaduct may cause clogging of drainage and localized flooding.
The contractor shall implement the following mitigation measures to address these impact:
i) Placement of construction materials, excavated spoils, equipment shall not block
flow of rainwater into canals/drainage structures.
ii) Prohibit disposal of waste materials to drainage channels.
iii) Regularly inspect and maintain all drainage channels in the vicinity of construction
sites to keep these free from obstructions.

j. Solid Waste

i. Construction

395. If not properly handled and disposed of, solid wastes pose as health and safety hazards
and are likely to cause nuisance to surrounding communities and the workforce. To avoid such
impacts, the contractor shall implement the following:
i) Provide garbage bins and facilities within the project site for temporary storage
of construction waste and domestic solid waste.
ii) Separate solid waste into hazardous, non-hazardous and reusable waste
streams and store temporarily on site in secure facilities with weatherproof
flooring and roofing, security fencing and access control and drainage/
wastewater collection systems.
iii) Ensure that wastes are not haphazardly dumped within the project site and
adjacent areas
iv) Undertake regular collection and disposal of wastes to sites approved by local

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authorities.

ii. Operation

396. The operation of elevated stations will generate solid wastes from workers/employees
and passengers. Mitigation measures are as follows:
i) Waste collection bins or receptacles shall be provided in various areas at the
elevated stations, such as offices and areas accessed by passengers.
ii) Garbage shall be regularly collected and shall be disposed consistent with local
regulations

k. Damage to Community Facilities

397. Transport of materials and spoils, operation of construction equipment and various
construction activities may damage community utilities. The contractor shall implement the
following measures to address this impact:
i) The contractor shall immediately repair any damage caused by the Project to
community facilities such as water supply, power supply, communication facilities
and the like.
ii) Access roads damaged during transport of construction materials and other
project-related activities shall be reinstated upon completion of construction
works.

l. Health and Safety of Workers and the Public

i. Construction

398. To ensure health and safety of workers, the following measures shall be implemented by
the contractor:

i) Prior to commencement of site works, the following plans shall be prepared by


the contractor and approved by the Project Supervision Consultant:
 Occupational and Community Health and Safety Plan consistent with
international standards (e.g., the World Bank Group’s Environment, Health
and Safety Guidelines of 2007) and Labor Code of Vietnam. The Plan shall
address health and safety hazards associated with construction activities
(e.g., working at heights, excavations, etc.) establishment and operation of
construction/worker’s camps, casting yard, use of heavy equipment, transport
of materials and other hazards associated with various construction activities.
 Emergency Response Plan to prevent, mitigate, respond to and recover from
emergency events that could occur due to project activities such as
accidents, spills of hazardous substances, fire, extreme weather events, and
other crises.
ii) Appoint an environment, health and safety manager to look after implementation
of required environmental mitigation measures, and to ensure that health and
safety precautions are strictly implemented for the protection of workers and the
general public in the vicinity of construction areas

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iii) Conduct orientation for construction workers regarding health and safety
measures, emergency response in case of accidents, fire, etc., and prevention of
HIV/AIDS and other related diseases
iv) Provide first aid facilities that are readily accessible by workers.
v) Provide fire fighting equipment at the work areas, as appropriate, and at
construction camps.
vi) Provide adequate drainage in workers camps to prevent water
logging/accumulation of stagnant water and formation of breeding sites for
mosquitoes.
vii) Provide adequate housing for all workers at the construction camps.
viii) Provide reliable supply of potable water.
ix) Provide separate hygienic sanitation facilities/toilets and bathing areas with
sufficient water supply for male and female workers
x) Establish clean canteen/rest area.
xi) Ensure proper collection and disposal of solid wastes within the construction
camps consistent with local regulations.
xii) Provide fencing on all areas of excavation greater than 2 m deep.
xiii) Provide appropriate personnel safety equipment such as safety boots, helmets,
gloves, protective clothes, breathing mask, goggles, and ear protection
xiv) Ensure reversing signals are installed on all construction vehicles.
xv) Implement precautions to ensure that objects (e.g., equipment, tool, debris, pre-
cast sections, etc.) do not fall onto or hit construction workers.
xvi) Implement fall prevention and protection measures whenever a worker is
exposed to the hazard of falling more than two meters, falling into operating
machinery or through an opening in a work surface. Based on a case-specific
basis, fall prevention/protection measures may include installation of guardrails
with mid-rails and toe boards at the edge of any fall hazard area, proper use of
ladders and scaffolds by trained employees, use of fall prevention devices,
including safety belt and lanyard travel limiting devices to prevent access to fall
hazard, fall protection devices such as full body harnesses, etc.
399. The following mitigation measures to ensure public safety shall be implemented by the
contractor:

i) Implement precautions to ensure that objects (e.g., equipment, tool, debris, pre-
cast sections, etc.) do not fall onto or hit people, vehicle, and properties in
adjoining areas.
ii) Fencing of construction sites and excavation sites and guarding such areas to
restrict public access.
iii) Prior to excavation work, provide fencing on all sides of areas to be excavated.
iv) Provide warning signs at the periphery of the construction site.

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v) Strictly impose speed limits on construction vehicles along residential areas and
where other sensitive receptors such as schools, hospitals, and other populated
areas are located.
vi) Educate drivers on safe driving practices to minimize accidents and to prevent
spill of hazardous substances and other construction materials during transport.
ii. Operation

400. To protect the health and safety of workers and general public during viaduct operations,
HRB shall ensure that the following plans have been developed and adequately resourced.
HRB shall ensure strict implementation of plan provisions throughout operation phase:

i) Occupational Health and Safety Plan for viaduct operation and train staff in the
implementation of such plan.
ii) Emergency Response Plan (e.g., in case of fire, extreme weather events, power
outage, equipment breakdown, accidents, etc.) covering operation of viaduct and
above-ground stations. HRB shall train staff in the implementation of such plan.

m. Traffic Concerns

i. Construction

401. Pier and viaduct construction will occur in the median of Kim Ma and N32 streets.
Excavation and cranes will require a working easement that will reduce the current 2 lanes of
traffic by one and half lanes. This will cause traffic jams and time delays to the road users.

402. The construction footprint for the elevated stations will cause major traffic concerns
because one to one and half road lanes will be occupied by cranes and equipment. Also, the
working area may alienate access to work sites, universities, schools, community facilities and
retail businesses. In addition, retail merchants will suffer economic losses if access id denied to
their establishments. The duration of this impact, however, will be short. It will likely take about
5-7 days to excavate, pile and pour the pile cap. This operation will be the most intensive
activity and occurring all along the alignment. The erection of the piers and viaduct will take one
day per section. In order to avoid traffic congestion and problems the erection will occur at night.
The movement of equipment along the alignment will reduce the length and degree of
disturbance and annoyance to local residents.

403. The following measures shall be implemented by the contractor to address impacts to
traffic flow and access to properties:

i) Before site works commence, a Traffic Management Plan for the construction
phase shall be prepared by the contractor and shall be approved by PSC. The
plan shall be designed to ensure that traffic congestion due to construction
activities and movement of construction vehicles, haulage trucks, and equipment
is minimized. The plan shall be prepared in consultation with local traffic officials
and people’s committees at the district and commune levels. The plan shall
identify traffic diversion and management, define routes for construction traffic

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from materials storage/parking areas to construction site and from construction
site to waste disposal locations, traffic schedules, traffic arrangements showing
all detours/lane diversions, modifications to signaling at intersections, necessary
barricades, warning/advisory signs, road signs, lighting, and other provisions to
ensure that adequate and safe access is provided to motorists in the affected
areas.
ii) Provide signs advising road users that construction is in progress and that the
road narrows to one lane using cones.
iii) Employ flag persons to control traffic at the station sites for safety reasons when
construction equipment is entering or leaving the work area.
iv) Lanes through the work site, created by rope or flagging, shall be developed to
minimize risks and injuries from falling objects.

v) As much as possible, lifting and placing of the pre-cast pier and viaduct sections
will be done at night to minimize traffic congestion.
vi) Post traffic advisory signs (to minimize traffic build-up) in coordination with local
authorities
vii) Provide road signs indicating the lane is closed 500 m before the worksite.
viii) Use traffic cones to direct traffic to move to the open lane.
ix) Provide sufficient lighting at night within and in the vicinity of construction sites.
x) Regularly monitor traffic conditions along access roads to ensure that project
vehicles are not causing congestion.
xi) Define and observe schedules for different types of construction traffic trips (e.g.,
transport of pre-cast sections, haulage of spoils, delivery of construction
materials, etc.).
xii) As much as possible, schedule delivery of construction materials and equipment
as well as transport of spoils during non-peak hours.
xiii) Avoid movements of noisy vehicles during night time in vicinity of sensitive
receivers.
xiv) Implement suitable safety measures to minimize risk of adverse interactions
between construction works and traffic flows through provision of temporary
signals or flag controls, adequate lighting, fencing, signage and road diversions.
xv) Ensure relocation of any affected public transport infrastructure (but stops,
shelters etc) prior to commencement of works
xvi) Provide advance notification to the community regarding changes to public
transport facilities or routes.
xvii) Schedule construction works to minimize extent of activity along linear
construction site at any one time
xviii) Comply with traffic regulations and avoid, where possible, roads with the highest
traffic volumes, high density of sensitive receivers or capacity constraints are not
used as access to and from the construction areas and spoils disposal sites.

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xix) Install temporary accesses to properties affected by disruption to their permanent


accesses.
xx) Reinstate good quality permanent accesses following completion of construction.
ii. Operation

404. There will be no traffic concerns once the pier and viaduct sections are installed.

n. Social Conflicts

405. The presence of construction camps may cause conflict with the surrounding
communities, these will be addressed by:

i) Consider the location of construction camps away from communities in order to


avoid social conflict in using resources and basic amenities such as water supply.

ii) Maximize number of local people employed in construction works.

iii) Maximize goods and services sourced from local commercial enterprises.

3. Long-term Residual Environmental Effects for the Viaduct Section

406. The loss of the parkland, the alienation of 4,000m2 of Thu Le Lake, and the long-term
growth period required for the replacement trees to mature warrants a long-term residual
negative impact.

407. There are positive socio-economic benefits to the residents, students and commercial
establishments in the local community from the project.

408. The construction of a metro line network will offer a wider choice of transport modes and
more equitable access to transport choices for passengers wishing to access employment,
education or commercial facilities.

D. Tunnel Section

409. The tunnel section extends from Kim Ma to Giang Vo to Cat Linh to Giang Van Minh to
Van Mieu to Quoc Tu Giam to Ha Noi Station and involves construction of a cut and cover
tunnel for 700 m from the transition area along Thu Le Lake before commencing the
underground tunnel at the Daewoo Hotel using a Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM). Two TBM’s are
proposed to bore side by side tunnels. The four underground stations will be constructed by cut
and cover, as described in Section 2. Construction of the tunnel section will be tendered as one
package in 2011.

1. Pre-Construction Impacts and Mitigation

410. A significant number of buildings will be required to facilitate construction of the


underground stations. Until the final survey is carried out and right-of-way acquisition drawings
are finalized, the exact number of structures and Affected Persons are unknown.

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411. The Feasibility Study (2009) identifies the following sites: parking area opposite the
Daewoo Hotel, Horizon Hotel Parking Lot (photo # 8 &9 Appendix 1) and the Friendship Palace
near the Ha Noi Railway station required for construction needs.

412. All of these sites are for temporary use of equipment, materials and assembling and
insertion of the TBM’s during construction. Therefore, a five to 7 year period or less is
anticipated for these sites to be alienated from normal use.

413. It is unclear whether HRB will retain ownership of these properties or return them to the
original owners. Should HRB retain some, then they should develop these to the highest and
best use: (Park/Ride facilities; office, commercial /retail establishments) and use the generated
income to offset project costs.

a. Land Acquisition and Resettlement

414. The number of structures required for the underground stations are still unknown, but is
expected to be significant at Station 11 (Van Mieu) and station 12 (Railway station). At stations
9 (Kim Ma) and 10 (Cat Linh ), removal of structures will only be required at only one side,
thereby reducing the impact and resettlement of the AP’s.

415. The draft Social and Poverty Analysis study surveyed residents and businesses in an
area, Nui Truc Street, in the tunnel section of the project. Along the metro line, most of the APs
are involved in business activities; on Nui Truc Street, all the surveyed HH conduct businesses
and derive their income solely from this sector. Retail businesses make up the majority of the
land use that will be affected.

i. Construction

416. The loss of businesses and residential facilities will create a significant adverse impact to
the people directly affected and for the community who rely on these businesses. Workers
employed in the businesses, but who do not reside in the affected structures, will be des-
enfranchised and unemployed. Compensation for the loss of the structures and resettlement
options shall be implemented based on the Resettlement Plan agreed by ADB and HPC.

ii. Operational Effects

417. There will be an opportunity for HRB to develop retail, and commercial properties on the
sites cleared for the stations. This is considered a long-term beneficial impact to the community.

b. Disruption to Community Utilities

418. Excavation works for the underground stations and tunnel portal may require relocation
of utilities. To minimize impacts due to disruption of services, the contractor shall implement the
following measures:

i) Water supply pipelines, power supply, communication facilities and other utilities
shall be re-provisioned before construction works commence

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ii) Provisions shall be made to preserve the operation of current facilities in


sufficient quantity and in agreement with the local community.
iii) Re-provisioning shall be undertaken in coordination with the utility company.
iv) Affected households and establishments shall be notified well in advance of such
disruption.

2. Construction Stage

a. Air Quality

419. Vehicle emissions including particulate matter, CO, SO2, NOx from movements and
operation of construction vehicles and equipment which are predominantly diesel fuelled will
occur at the stations. Such emissions can be effectively controlled through appropriate
environmental management measures. Table 5.11 shows the air quality parameters collected in
the tunnel area in 2008.

Table 5.11: Results of the air quality monitoring at 3 of the underground stations

Environment quality parameters


Samples
Dust CO SO2 NO2 HC NO
( g/m3) ( g/m3) ( g/m3) ( g/m3) ( g/m3) ( g/m3)
KK05
Voi Phuc 101 1007 285 278 701 235

KK06
155 1306 389 321 731 291
Cat Linh

KK07
114 802 299 134 367 116
Rail Sta
200 125
TCVN 10000 200
(average (average - -
5937-2005 (average 8h) (average 1h)
24h) 24h)
5.000
TCVN
- - - - (average -
5938-2005
24h)
CEPT 2008

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i. Construction

420. Dust and vehicle emissions will be created by construction of the cut and cover and
tunneling works. Dust emissions generally consist of large particles that settle out relatively
close to the source, whereas exhaust emissions generally consist of fine particles that can drift
further away from the source. The potential for dust emissions will occur wherever any of these
activities are taking place; the most likely points of impact include:

(i) at openings to tunnel boring sections;


(ii) at underground station sites where major excavation will occur, using cut-
and-cover tunneling;
(iii) fugitive dust from dump trucks; and
(iv) locations where excavation spoils are transferred from dump trucks to spoil
receiving site(s).
421. Combustion emission sources typically associated with this type of project include:

(i) diesel exhaust emissions from mobile sources, including earth-moving


equipment, and dump trucks;
(ii) exhaust from stationary combustion sources, including generators,
heaters, and possibly off-site construction and fabrication (including
concrete-casting facilities); and
(iii) exhaust from tunnel boring machines, either directly, in the case of diesel-
powered tunnel boring machines, or indirectly, in the case of electric
tunnel boring machines powered by diesel generators at the surface.
422. It is unclear whether a diesel powered TBM or an electric powered TBM will be used.
Without having details on the level of activity for each of these types of combustion emission
sources, it is not possible to provide a quantitative estimate of the total emissions that will be
generated. Although the potential air quality impacts from these activities can be significant, it is
important to note that they will be temporary and localized. Mitigation measures to be
implemented by the contractor to minimize impacts on air quality are listed below:

(i) Before site works commence, a Dust Control Plan shall be prepared by the
contractor and shall be approved by project supervision consultant (PSC).
The plan shall provide details of mitigation measures, specific location and
schedule where such measures shall be implemented to minimize impacts to
sensitive receptors (residential areas, schools, hospitals, etc.) due to
construction works, sourcing and transport of construction materials, and
other project-related activities.
(ii) Wherever possible, use grid rather than generator set electrical power for
construction equipment such as the tunnel boring machine and equipment to
be used during cut-and-cover tunnel excavations.
(iii) Position any stationary emission sources (e.g., portable diesel generators,
compressors, etc.) as far as is practical from sensitive receptors;

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(iv) Use only vehicles and equipment that are registered and have necessary
permits.
(v) Burning of wastes generated at the construction sites, work camps and other
project-related activities shall be strictly prohibited.
(vi) Construction equipment and vehicles shall be well-maintained and shall meet
national TCVN emission standards.
(vii) Specify the use of clean fuels such as ultra-low sulphur diesel in dump trucks
and other heavy-duty diesel vehicles and/or equipment, in conjunction with
the use of particulate trap control devices, as well as catalytic converters, to
avoid excessive diesel emissions.
(viii) Keep stockpiles moist and cover vehicles with tarpaulin sheets or other
suitable materials to minimize dust emission and prevent spillage of
materials (e.g., soil, cement, stone, sand, aggregates, etc.).
(ix) Provide temporary covers (e.g., tarpaulins, grass, etc.) on long term materials
stockpiles.
(x) Store excavated materials outside road reserve, but where there is no area,
spoils shall be loaded and transported immediately.
(xi) Provide truck-washing facilities to prevent truck-out of mud and dust onto city
streets.
(xii) As much as possible, the casting yard for the Project will make use of already
established and licensed site(s) for concrete forming activities where all the
pre-cast sections will be fabricated.
(xiii) Ensure that necessary environmental approvals are obtained for the
establishment and operation of a new casting yard,
(xiv) Daily cleaning of road surfaces of debris/spills from construction equipment,
haulage trucks and vehicles,
(xv) Install temporary fencing or barriers around particularly dusty activities in
vicinity of sensitive receivers
(xvi) Ensure availability of water trucks or other dust suppressants and appropriate
equipment for applying the suppressant (e.g., a tank tuck with spray bars) on
site and if the works surface and access roads near sensitive receptors (i.e.,
residential areas, roadside tea and food stalls, schools, hospitals and other
sensitive receptors) are dry and dusty, spray water on the exposed surfaces
to reduce dust emission.
(xvii) All construction equipment and machinery shall be fitted with emission control
equipment in full compliance with the national (TCVN) and local regulations.
(xviii) Fuel-efficient and well-maintained haulage trucks will be used to minimize
exhaust emissions. Smoke belching vehicles and equipment shall not be
allowed and shall be removed from the project.
(xix) Impose speed limits on construction vehicles to minimize road dust in areas
where sensitive receptors are located.

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(xx) Undertake immediate repairs of any malfunctioning construction vehicles and
equipment.
(xxi) Daily visual inspections to identify and address potential areas of dust and
odor emissions.
(xxii) Discourage idling of engines
(xxiii) Provide prior notification to the community on schedule of construction
activities
(xxiv) Implement 24 hour community complaints hotline
ii. Operational Effects

423. The only significant source of emissions attributable to the Project will be the generation
of electricity. The Project will displace diesel buses currently used along the route and is also
expected to displace passenger vehicles (motor bikes and cars), in addition to those already
displaced by bus service. The reduction in vehicle emissions that occurs as a result of rail line
operation will more than offset the emissions associated with generation of the system’s
electrical power supply.

424. Long-term air quality benefits will be realized from construction of the Project. Based on
the experience of the Canada Line project in Vancouver, a predicted savings of 16-21
Kilotonnes of GHG will result over a 12 year period (S. Hanna, Environmental Director).
Although no calculations have been carried out on the Project and the traffic mix, dominantly
motorcycles in Ha Noi, expected reductions should be close to the 16 kilotonne figure. The
reduction of air emissions will contribute to improvements in air quality, with corresponding
reductions in health impacts throughout Ha Noi City. Like other mass transit projects, the Project
will provide an alternative to the use of private motor vehicles.

b. Noise and Vibration

425. Noise: Noise data were collected at 3 sites (2006 and 2008 and shown Table 5.12 and
5.13) along the tunnel section to document existing conditions at representative locations along
the route. The measurements consisted of monitoring noise only during the day and evening
hours, not the continuous 48 hours as is standard procedure.

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Table 5.12: Noise monitoring for the Tunnel section (2006)

TCVN
Monitoring Monitoring Leq LAmax L50 5949:1998
Sample Land Use49
Location48 Period dB(A) dB(A) dB(A) Criteria
dB(A)

Daewoo Hotel on Daytime 73.8 85.3 70.6 60


NW corner of
N08 Hotel / residential
intersection Lieu
Giai / Kim Ma Evening 69.3 81.3 65.8 55

Intersection Cat Daytime 73.3 84.6 70.9 60


Residential with
Linh / Ton Duc
N09 some small scale
Thang near
commercial
Horison Hotel Evening 70.7 80.8 68.2 55

Gate of Ha Noi Residential with Daytime 70.1 80.6 67.0 60


N10 Railway Station in some small scale
Tran Quy Cap commercial Evening 67.2 77.5 63.4 55

CEPT 2006

Table 5.13: Noise Monitoring Data at 3 Tunnel Section stations (2008)

Sample Mean Value


location Leq LAmax L50 TCVN 5949-1998
N05 Daytime 70.9 84.0 68.4
Voi Phuc Nighttime 69.5 83.3 66.6
Daytime 74.3 86.5 72.0 Daytime: 60
N06
Nighttime: 55
Cat Linh Nighttime 70.1 83.6 67.7

N07 Daytime 70.9 82.4 69.6


Rail Sta Nighttime 68.0 78.9 66.0
CEPT 2008

426. The results indicate that the ambient noise levels during the day and evening exceed
GOV standards and that noise levels in 2008, at the same locales, have increased over the
2006 levels except at Voi Phuc.

i. Construction

427. Noise impacts to the community will occur during construction of the underground
stations. Heavy equipment involved with the excavation and backfill of the underground stations
will provide added noise (Table 5.14) to the already high existing ambient levels in the centre of
Ha Noi.

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Table 5.14: Forecasted noise from construction equipment

Distance (m) 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Excavation and backfill (construction of underground station)
L Ap (dB) 91,3 85,2 81,7 79,2 77,3 75,7 74,4
Source HRB FS, 2009

428. Most of the alignment will be underground or construction of the underground stations
shall take place on streets with significant existing traffic with high existing ambient noise levels.

429. Specific measures to attenuate noise are as follows:

(i) Before site works commence, a Noise Control Plan shall be prepared by
the contractor and shall be approved by project supervision consultant
(PSC). The plan shall provide details of mitigation measures, specific
location and schedule where such measures shall be implemented to
minimize impacts to sensitive receptors (residential areas, schools,
hospitals, etc.) due to construction works, sourcing and transport of
construction materials, and other project-related activities.
(ii) Erection of temporary walls around the underground station excavation
sites and tunnel portal. Temporary noise barriers (3-5 meter high) can
reduce noise level by 5-10 dB(A).
(iii) Truck drivers and equipment operators shall minimize the use of horns.
(iv) Position any stationary equipment that produce high noise levels (e.g.,
portable diesel generators, compressors, etc.) as far as is practical from
sensitive receptors;
(v) All construction equipment and vehicles shall be well maintained, regularly
inspected for noise emissions, and shall be fitted with appropriate noise
suppression equipment consistent with applicable national and local
regulations.
(vi) Use only vehicles and equipment that are registered and have necessary
permits.
(vii) No noisy construction-related activities will be carried out during the night.
Such activities shall be restricted to daylight hours.
(viii) Impose speed limits on construction vehicles to minimize noise emission
along areas where sensitive receptors are located (houses, schools,
hospitals, etc.).
(ix) As much as possible, use quiet equipment and working method.
(x) Whenever possible, completely enclose noisy equipment which can
reduce noise level by 15-25 dB(A), restrict use of noisy equipment (e.g.15
min for every consecutive 30 min period) and undertake sequential
operation of equipment with objective to reduce noise generated;

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(xi) No noisy construction activities near schools during examination period.


(xii) Avoid noisy construction activities in vicinity of sensitive receivers during
night time or other sensitive periods (e.g. during school hours in vicinity of
schools).
(xiii) Provide prior notification to the community on schedule of construction
activities
(xiv) Implement 24 hour community complaints hotline
ii. Operation

430. Where the MRT3 system is operating in a tunnel, noise should not be an issue. There
are, however, two possible exceptions and both of these would have a potential for limited local
effect. The first is noise from untreated tunnel ventilation systems. As these systems are fixed
entities, there should be no difficulty in designing adequate acoustical measures so that they do
not disturb the community where they surface.

431. The second tunnel noise issue is the “telegraphing” of a train arrival to a limited area
immediately outside of the tunnel. The rise of noise along the tunnel could draw attention to the
arrival of the train, and this “telegraphing” the noise could in itself is annoying to some listeners.
This effect should be limited to locations within 30m of the tunnel that have a direct line of sight
to the tunnel opening.

432. The following mitigation measures shall be implemented during operation phase:
i) Tunnel ventilation systems shall have suitable noise control measures
incorporated into their design to reduce mechanical noise to acceptable levels in
the surrounding community.
ii) Depending on the results of monitoring, installation of acoustical treatment to the
first few meters (i.e., < 15 m) of the tunnel portal shall be implemented as
necessary.

433. Vibration: Available data on vibration levels in the project area indicate that existing
ambient levels are within relevant TCVN criteria at monitoring locations, Table 5.15. Vibration
generation could be high during the initial excavation and soil removal at the entrance to the
tunnel on Kim Ma at the Daewoo Hotel area and at the underground stations.

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Table 5.15: Vibration monitoring in the tunnel section (2008)

Environment quality parameters


(Average per day)
Sample
Vibration
Vibration speed
acceleration
Lv (dB)
Laeq(dB)

V5
42.7 31.9 TCVN 7210:2002
Voi Phuc
Acceleration: 70 dB
V6
46.7 42.7
Cat Linh
V7
43.9 37.3
Rail Sta
CEPT 2008

468. Table 5.16 forecasts the expected vibration levels which may occur, but these are still
predicted to be within GOV standards.

Table 5.16: Forecasted levels of cumulative vibration by construction equipment

Forecast of vibration
by construction
5 10 15 20 25 30 35
equipment
Distance (m)

Construction of underground stations


L Ape (dB) 54.2 50.2 46.7 44.2 42.2 40.6 39.3

Source HRB FS, 2009


i. Construction

434. Excavation equipment and a steady movement of heavily loaded dump trucks will likely
be the cause of any vibration effects that may exceed ambient standards.

435. Vibration effects may be high during excavation at grade or down to depth of 5m
particularly for loaded dump trucks moving slowly up a ramp and then accelerating away from
the excavation site. The TBM’s will be operating at a depth of -15m+ and experience elsewhere
in the world on tunnel projects has indicated that no significant vibration impacts are expected
for businesses or residences.

436. Once the cut and cover tunnel area and the stations are excavated below 5 meters,
noise and vibration impacts should diminish.

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437. Using best management practices cited to alleviate air and noise pollution will also
reduce vibration effects. These are:

(i) Erection of temporary walls around the underground station excavation sites
and tunnel portal. Temporary noise barriers (3-5 meter high) can reduce
noise level by 5-10 dB(A).using daytime work schedules only,
(ii) All construction equipment and vehicles shall be well maintained.,
(iii) Diesel hammer piling shall be limited in favor of drill piling.
ii. Operation

438. No vibration impacts are expected once the MRT3 is in operation. Vibration from the
operation of the trains should be negligible due to the resilient fasteners, rubber dampeners
under the rail and the continuous welded rail. However, there may be a “rumble” noise from the
trains heard from the ventilation systems, but it will not be significant.

c. Land Subsidence

439. Land subsidence due to groundwater extraction has occurred in Ha Noi for more than a
decade and will continue into the future. The heavy pumping of Ngo Sy Lien well field, which
overlaps with the underground section, will have a direct impact on the construction site.

i. Construction

440. Settlement caused by tunneling, deep excavation, and dewatering will occur during the
construction stage, even with mitigation measures. Moreover, the variation of the geotechnical
properties of the clay layer could also present some problems during construction. The
combined impact on the buildings under or alongside the tunnels could also be a concern.

441. The TBM contractor shall implement a survey program to monitor the background
subsidence rate along the project line (see EMP Table 9.7). The monitoring data shall be used
to assess potential damage that the observed subsidence may cause to buildings under or
alongside the tunnels and to estimate the cumulative amount of regional subsidence during the
construction stage. Depending on the results of the assessment, suitable mitigation measures
shall be developed and implemented by the contractor to avoid or minimize damage to
properties. The contractor shall also take photographs of each individual structure within the
possible affected zone before the construction starts, to be used for assessing potential damage
due to subsidence.

ii. Operation

442. A small amount of settlement caused by construction may occur in the post-construction
stage. Regional subsidence will continue for years. The long-term effect on the structure is
difficult to predict. A long-term inspection program shall be carried out by HRB during the
operation stage to monitor the possible adverse effects on the Project structures.

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d. Spoils Generation

443. According to HPC, there are available areas in Van Noi and Nguyen Khe communes in
Dong Anh district that could accommodate the estimated 500,000m3 of spoils that will mainly
originate from tunnel construction..

i. Construction

444. The following measures shall be implemented by the contractor to minimize impacts due
to spoils generation:

i) Before site works commence, a Spoils Disposal Plan shall be prepared by the
contractor and shall be approved by PSC. The plan shall present off-site re-use
(if suitable) of excavation spoils and corresponding volume, identification of a
suitable disposal location/facility and corresponding capacity, designation of
suitable transport routes and schedule for spoil truck movements to minimize
traffic disruption/congestion, and environmental mitigation measures to address
impacts due to transport and disposal of spoils, Maps or design of the site(s)
shall be prepared and used to identify where protection measures are required
such as slope stabilization measures, silt fencing, ditching, dust control, cross
drains, etc. The SDP shall specify spoils dewatering procedures (and facilities),
as necessary, and shall describe in detail the mitigation measures to be
implemented to ensure that resulting wastewater from spoils dewatering is
adequately treated and disposed of to meet applicable TCVN standards and
requirements. Provisions for random testing of spoils shall be specified to
determine contamination levels (e.g., heavy metals) based on TCVN standards.
ii) Spoil disposal will only be to DONRE and DOC approved areas
iii) The capacity of disposal sites shall be adequate to accept the quantity of spoils
without alienating areas outside the site boundaries.
iv) Undertake random sampling of spoils from underground station excavations and
tunneling to determine presence of contaminants.
v) Disposal of contaminated spoils shall only be to disposal sites equipped and
licensed to handle such wastes.
vi) Determine water content of spoils to ascertain if spoils dewatering is necessary.
vii) Undertake necessary spoils dewatering and provide adequate treatment facilities
to ensure that resulting wastewater meets TCVN standards.
viii) Stockpiling of spoils shall not be undertaken due to the limited footprint of the
construction site. Spoils shall be trucked away immediately to disposal sites.
ix) Should any small stockpiles be developed, these shall be covered by plastic
sheeting
x) Trucks transporting spoils shall be tightly covered with tarpaulin or other suitable
materials to minimize dust emission and spills.
xi) Load-out areas shall be cleaned and watered to ensure no accumulated dust
originates that could be dispersed to surrounding areas.
xii) Wheel washing shall be undertaken to remove mud so as to ensure that access
roads are kept clean.
xiii) Road surfaces shall be regularly cleaned of spilled spoils.
xiv) The spoils disposal site shall be located at least 50 m from surface water courses
and shall be protected from erosion by avoiding formation of steep slopes and

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grassing.
xv) Spoil disposal shall not cause sedimentation and obstruction of flow of
watercourses, damage to agricultural land and densely vegetated areas.

ii. Operation

445. There should be no operational concerns affecting soil resources following construction.

e. Use of Hazardous Substances

446. Potential contamination of surrounding areas and groundwater may occur due to spills of
fuel and other hazardous substances. These impacts will be addressed through implementation
of the following measures by the contractors:

i) Before site works commence, a Spill Management Plan shall be prepared by the
contractor and shall be approved by project supervision consultant (PSC). The
plan shall provide details of procedures, responsibilities, resources,
documentation and reporting requirements, training provisions for relevant staff ,
etc. to avoid spills of hazardous substances and to effectively respond to such
incidents, in case these occur.
ii) Store fuel and hazardous substances in paved areas with embankment. If spills
or leaks do occur, undertake immediate clean up.
iii) Ensure availability of spill clean up materials (e.g., absorbent pads, etc.)
specifically designed for petroleum products and other hazardous substances
where such materials are being stored.
iv) Train relevant construction personnel in handling of fuels and spill control
procedures.
v) Ensure all storage containers are in good condition with proper labeling.
vi) Regularly check containers for leakage and undertake necessary repair or
replacement.
vii) Store hazardous materials above flood level.
viii) Equipment maintenance areas shall be provided with drainage leading to an oil-
water separator that will be regularly skimmed of oil and maintained to ensure
efficiency. Discharge of oil contaminated water shall be prohibited.
ix) Store waste oil, used lubricant and other hazardous wastes in tightly sealed
containers to avoid contamination of soil and water resources. Transport and off-
site disposal of such wastes shall be consistent with national and local
regulations.

f. Water Resources

447. Flooding. Minor flooding events are common in Ha Noi after heavy rain. Minor and
localized flood events occur throughout the rainy season but are most common in July and
August. Major flood events are relatively rare and are caused predominantly by elevated flows
in the Red River. Ha Noi is protected from such floods by a two-series dyke system.

i. Construction

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448. During construction, the following measures shall be implemented by the contractor to
avoid clogging of drainage and localized flooding.)
i) Placement of construction materials, excavated spoils, equipment shall not block
flow of rainwater into canals/drainage structures.
ii) Prohibit disposal of waste materials to drainage channels.
iii) Regularly inspect and maintain all drainage channels in the vicinity of
construction sites to keep these free from obstructions.

ii. Operation

449. The project area is subject to minor, temporary flood events after heavy rain. The
underground tunnel sections shall be provided with pumps to pump storm water. The concern
would be for the transition section along Thu Le Lake. Flood waters could enter the tunnel
section if it is not adequately protected. A sill designed to meet annual and maximum flood
height shall be constructed to protect the tunnel entrance from flood.

450. Groundwater. There are several concerns about the adverse effects of tunneling on
groundwater. These are:

(i) Underground structures will alter the groundwater flow pattern


(ii) Dewatering during the construction stage of the underground station may
cause changes to the groundwater flow pattern,
(iii) Tunnels will likely form an obstacle to groundwater flow in the upper aquifer.
Seepage into the tunnel will cause further drawdown of already lowed
groundwater table
(iv) Permanent impact on the shallow wells in the upper aquifer may occur in the
vicinity of the underground structures.
451. The hydrogeology study reviewed these concerns and concluded:

(i) The underground section will not be an obstacle to the groundwater flow
because it is far too small a structure to form a significant barrier;
(ii) Large scale dewatering at the underground section is not likely to occur
because the heavy pumping of the lower aquifer has reduced the
groundwater pressure to near the bottom of the structure (25 m bgs)
(iii) The underground structures, both tunnel and stations are basically “water-
tight”. Only a small amount of seepage is anticipated in the tunnel (0.5
liter/sec/km)
(iv) The upper aquifer consists of a series of lenses and thin layers of silty sand
with poor lateral extension and connection. Therefore, it only has a very
limited water-bearing capacity, and not many people rely on it for water
supply. They receive public water supply rather than have their own private
wells. Moreover, according to the borehole report, the upper aquifer does not
exist in the underground section.
452. The underground section runs through the Ngo Sy Lien well field. At least four of the
municipal wells are located right next to project line.

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i. Construction

453. Slurry and additives will be applied for tunneling and ground treatment. Those materials
could travel underground with groundwater flow or simply flow by excessive operation pressure.
If they reach the nearby wells, changes in water quality could occur. To address potential
impacts to groundwater quality, the following measures shall be implemented during tunneling:

(i) Non-toxic slurry and additives shall be used to minimize the impact of
potential pollution to the water wells.

(ii) Minimize the amount of slurry and additives applied to reduce the potential for
pollution.

(iii) Ensure that pressure applied to tunneling and ground treatment is controlled
to prevent excessive pressure that will drive the slurry out of the desired range
increasing the risk of damaging nearby wells and their water quality.

(iv) Cooperate with the water agency to shut down the nearby municipal wells
while tunneling or ground treatment is taking place.

(v) Undertake regular monitoring of water wells located within the range of
potential impact with reference to TCVN drinking water standards and
pollution indicators (of slurry). Baseline sampling shall also be undertaken
prior to start of tunneling.

ii. Operational Effects

454. No adverse impacts are anticipated during operation phase.

498 Surface Water. No surface water bodies occur within the tunnel section. No impacts are
anticipated.

g. Solid Waste

i. Construction

455. If not properly handled and disposed of, solid wastes pose as health and safety hazards
and are likely to cause nuisance to surrounding communities and the workforce. To avoid such
impacts, the contractor shall implement the following:
i) Provide garbage bins and facilities within the project site for temporary storage
of construction waste and domestic solid waste.
ii) Separate solid waste into hazardous, non-hazardous and reusable waste
streams and store temporarily on site in secure facilities with weatherproof
flooring and roofing, security fencing and access control and drainage/
wastewater collection systems.
iii) Ensure that wastes are not haphazardly dumped within the project site and

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adjacent areas
iv) Undertake regular collection and disposal of wastes to sites approved by local
authorities.

ii. Operation

456. The operation of underground stations will generate wastes from workers/employees
and passengers. Mitigation measures are as follows:
i) Waste collection bins or receptacles shall be provided in various areas at the
underground stations, such as offices and areas accessed by passengers.
ii) Garbage shall be regularly collected and shall be disposed consistent with local
regulations
iii) The underground stations shall be provided with toilets and septic tanks to
handle sewage generated by workers and passengers.

h. Damage to Community Facilities

457. Transport of materials and spoils, operation of construction equipment and various
construction activities may damage community utilities. The contractor shall implement the
following measures to address this impact:
(i) The contractor shall immediately repair any damage caused by the Project to
community facilities such as water supply, power supply, communication facilities
and the like.
(ii) Access roads damaged during transport of construction materials and other
project-related activities shall be reinstated upon completion of construction
works.

i. Health and Safety of Workers and the Public

i. Construction

458. To ensure health and safety of workers, the following measures shall be implemented by
the contractor:

i) Prior to commencement of site works, the following plans shall be prepared by


the contractor and approved by the Project Supervision Consultant:
 Occupational and Community Health and Safety Plan consistent with
international standards (e.g., the World Bank Group’s Environment, Health
and Safety Guidelines of 2007) and Labor Code of Vietnam. The Plan shall
address health and safety hazards associated with tunneling (working in
confined space and compressed air, etc.), working at heights, excavations,
establishment and operation of construction/worker’s camps, use of heavy
equipment, transport of materials and other hazards associated with various
construction activities.
 Emergency Response Plan to prevent, mitigate, respond to and recover from
emergency events that could occur due to project activities such as accidents
during tunneling (e.g., tunnel collapse, electrocution, etc.), release of toxic gas

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during tunneling, spills of hazardous substances, fire, floods, and other


crises.
ii) Appoint an environment, health and safety manager to look after implementation
of required environmental mitigation measures, and to ensure that health and
safety precautions are strictly implemented for the protection of workers and the
general public in the vicinity of construction areas.
iii) Conduct orientation for all workers on safety and environmental hygiene.
iv) Provide first aid facilities that are readily accessible by workers.
v) Provide fire fighting equipment at the work areas, where appropriate, and at
construction camps.
vi) Provide adequate drainage in workers camps to prevent water logging and
formation of breeding sites for mosquitoes.
vii) Provide potable water, hygienic sanitation facilities/toilets with sufficient water
supply
viii) Establish clean canteen/rest area.
ix) Provide fencing on all areas of excavation greater than 2 m deep.
x) Provide appropriate personnel safety equipment such as safety boots, helmets,
gloves, protective clothes, breathing mask, goggles, and ear protection
xi) Implement precautions to ensure that objects (e.g., equipment, tool, debris, pre-
cast sections, etc.) do not fall onto or hit construction workers.
xii) Implement fall prevention and protection measures whenever a worker is
exposed to the hazard of falling more than two meters, falling into operating
machinery or through an opening in a work surface. Based on a case-specific
basis, fall prevention/protection measures may include installation of guardrails
with mid-rails and toe boards at the edge of any fall hazard area, proper use of
ladders and scaffolds by trained employees, use of fall prevention devices,
including safety belt and lanyard travel limiting devices to prevent access to fall
hazard, fall protection devices such as full body harnesses, etc.
xiii) Provide sufficient lighting such as the tunnel areas, underground station
excavation sites as well as in other construction areas, as appropriate, to enable
safe equipment operation. Provide emergency lighting system of adequate
intensity that is automatically activated upon failure of the principal artificial light
source to ensure safe equipment operation, safe shut-down, evacuation, etc.
xiv) Ensure that sufficient fresh air is supplied at confined work spaces such as the
tunnel and underground station excavation sites. Re-circulation of contaminated
air is not acceptable. Air inlet filters shall be kept clean and free of dust and
microorganisms.
xv) Confined spaces (e.g., tunnel) shall be provided with safety measures for
venting, monitoring, and rescue operations, to the extent possible.
459. The following mitigation measures to ensure public safety shall be implemented by the
contractor:

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i) Implement precautions to ensure that objects (e.g., equipment, tool, debris, pre-
cast sections, etc.) do not fall onto or hit people, vehicle, and properties in
adjoining areas.
ii) Fencing of construction sites and excavation sites and guarding such areas to
restrict public access.
iii) Prior to excavation work, provide fencing on all sides of areas to be excavated.
iv) Provide warning signs at the periphery of the construction site.
v) Strictly impose speed limits on construction vehicles along residential areas and
where other sensitive receptors such as schools, hospitals, and other populated
areas are located.
vi) Educate drivers on safe driving practices to minimize accidents and to prevent
spill of hazardous substances and other construction materials during transport.
ii. Operation

460. Ventilation systems will be provided in the underground stations. Air compressors with
fans will be used to cool air, before injecting it into stations. Air will be filtered prior to exhaust to
the external environment. Under normal conditions the tunnel section of the route will be
ventilated by the piston effects of train movements. System to ensure circulation of fresh air to
meet both normal and emergency requirements and there will be provisions for sufficient
emergency exits.

461. Pumps will be installed in the tunnel and underground stations to pump storm water and
wastewater. Wastewater treatment systems will be installed at stations to treat sewage prior to
discharge to the city systems.

462. Communications systems (normal and emergency systems), fire protection, emergency
response and evacuation systems will be implemented throughout the Project (tunnel, viaduct
and depot). Back-up electricity and ventilation systems will be installed in the tunnel sections.
These systems, shall meet current European safety standards.

463. A central operations control centre for the project will be established at the Nhon depot
to coordinate project operation and emergency response procedures.

464. Safety and evacuation measures in case of fire and other accidents (e.g., derailment,
collision, etc.) shall be developed prior to operation.

465. To protect the health and safety of workers and general public during operation of
underground facilities, HRB shall ensure that the following plans have been developed and
adequately resourced. HRB shall ensure strict implementation of plan provisions throughout
operation phase:

i) Occupational Health and Safety Plan for tunnel facilities operation (rail and
stations) and train staff in the implementation of such plan.
ii) Emergency Response Plan (e.g., in case of fire, collision. Derailment, floods,
power outage, equipment breakdown, accidents, etc.) covering operation of

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underground rail and stations. HRB shall train staff in the implementation of such
plan.
j. Traffic Concerns

466. The cut and cover excavation at the transition zone, Kim Ma station (#9); Cat Linh
station (#10); Van Mieu (#11) and the Railway station (#12) will create traffic, transport and
accessibility impacts for 2-4 years.

i. Construction

467. Construction equipment will be active at the four underground stations and will impede
the flow of traffic, parking opportunities, and pedestrian mobility and access. The Van Mieu
station is to be constructed in a narrow road and the road will be closed off during the
construction. For three of the four stations, one half of the station width will be excavated first,
covered and then moved to the opposite side and commence excavation. This will allow one
side of the road to be open to traffic. Traffic control will be required to facilitate two-way
movement.

468. The work areas shall be isolated and shielded to minimize road encroachment, contain
dust and noise, and provide protection for pedestrians.

469. The following measures shall be implemented by the contractor to address impacts to
traffic flow and access to properties:

i) Before site works commence, a Traffic Management Plan for the construction
phase shall be prepared by the contractor and shall be approved by PSC. The
plan shall be designed to ensure that traffic congestion due to construction
activities and movement of construction vehicles, haulage trucks, and equipment
is minimized. The plan shall be prepared in consultation with local traffic officials
and people’s committees at the district and commune levels. The plan shall
identify traffic diversion and management, define routes for construction traffic
from materials storage/parking areas to construction site and from construction
site to waste disposal locations, traffic schedules, traffic arrangements showing
all detours/lane diversions, modifications to signaling at intersections, necessary
barricades, warning/advisory signs, road signs, lighting, and other provisions to
ensure that adequate and safe access is provided to motorists in the affected
areas.
ii) Locate construction support facilities such that generation of construction traffic
trip numbers and lengths are minimized.
iii) To allow one side of the road to be open to two-way traffic, excavation for the
underground stations (except for Van Mieu) shall be carried out first on one half
of the station width. After excavation is completed and covered, excavation shall
then commence at the opposite side.
iv) Provide signs advising road users that construction is in progress and that the
road narrows to one lane using cones.

140
v) Employ flag persons to control traffic at the station sites for safety reasons when
construction equipment is entering or leaving the work area.
vi) Lanes through the work site, created by rope or flagging, shall be developed to
minimize risks and injuries from falling objects.

vii) Post traffic advisory signs (to minimize traffic build-up) in coordination with local
authorities
viii) Provide road signs indicating the lane is closed 500 m before the worksite.
ix) Use traffic cones to direct traffic to move to the open lane.
x) Provide sufficient lighting at night within and in the vicinity of construction sites.
xi) Regularly monitor traffic conditions along access roads to ensure that project
vehicles are not causing congestion.
xii) Define and observe schedules for different types of construction traffic trips (e.g.,
transport of pre-cast sections, haulage of spoils, delivery of construction
materials, etc.).
xiii) As much as possible, schedule delivery of construction materials and equipment
as well as transport of spoils during non-peak hours.
xiv) Avoid movements of noisy vehicles during night time in vicinity of sensitive
receivers.
xv) Implement suitable safety measures to minimize risk of adverse interactions
between construction works and traffic flows through provision of temporary
signals or flag controls, adequate lighting, fencing, signage and road diversions.
xvi) Ensure relocation of any affected public transport infrastructure (but stops,
shelters etc) prior to commencement of works
xvii) Provide advance notification to the community regarding changes to public
transport facilities or routes.
xviii) Schedule construction works to minimize extent of activity along linear
construction site at any one time
xix) Comply with traffic regulations and avoid, where possible, roads with the highest
traffic volumes, high density of sensitive receivers or capacity constraints are not
used as access to and from the construction areas and spoils disposal sites.
xx) Install temporary accesses to properties affected by disruption to their permanent
accesses.
xxi) Reinstate good quality permanent accesses following completion of construction.
ii. Operation

470. There should be improved benefits for the Metro users, pedestrians and traffic flow.

k. Cultural and Heritage Resources

471. No identified sites of heritage significance will require removal or demolition as part of
the construction works and there will be no land acquisition of any heritage sites. Impacts on

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142

archaeological relics could occur in the tunnel section during underground station works.

472. Three known items of heritage significance could be affected by underground works: Cat
Linh Pagoda (Cat Linh Street); Bich Cau Temple (Cat Linh Street) and Temple of Literature &
Van Lake (Quoc Tu Giam); of these the Temple of Literature is the most significant in terms of
its cultural and heritage value. The sacred lake (Van Lake) near the Temple of Literature will
not be affected by construction works. The design consultants have relocated station No. 10 on
Cat Linh Street and station No11 further to the east which may avoid unearthing relics
associated with the Bich Cau Temple and the Temple of Literature.

i. Construction

473. The west bound tunnel centreline is projected to be under the sidewalk outside the
Temple gates. However, the zone of influence extends into the flower garden (Photo # Appendix
1). All structures are outside of the zone of influence. The concern will be that vibration during
the tunnel boring will create damage to the Temple structures and that post-construction
settlement may also damage the facilities.

474. The potential for impacts to occur exists predominantly in the vicinity of the proposed
station 10 (east of Cat Linh / Ton Duc Thang intersection) and at the Van Mieu station (11) east
of the Temple of Literature.

475. There could be as yet undiscovered archaeological relics associated with construction of
the other two stations and the tunnel portal at Kim Ma. According to DCI, relics are likely to be
located to a maximum depth of 5 to 6 m. As such, the use of deep tunneling methods (i.e. with
the top of the tunnel at a depth greater than 6 m) in areas known to likely contain archaeological
relics would minimize direct impacts. Surveys and excavation work would be carried out in
conjunction with and following the approval of DCI. The following ‘chance-find’ principles will be
implemented by the contractor throughout the construction works to account for any
undiscovered items identified during construction works:
i) Workers will be trained in the location of heritage zones within the construction
area and in the identification of potential items of heritage significance
ii) Should any potential items be located, the site supervisor will be immediately
contacted and work will be temporarily stopped in that area
iii) If the site supervisor determines that the item is of potential significance, an
officer from DCI will be invited to inspect the site and work will be stopped until
DCI has responded to this invitation
iv) Work will not re-commence in this location until agreement has been reached
between DCI and HRB as to any required mitigation measures, which may
include excavation and recovery of the item
v) A precautionary approach will adopted in the application of these procedures

476. At the Temple of Literature, prior to tunneling, the contractor shall undertake the
following:
i) Consult with managers of Temple of Literature and DCI prior to commencement
of construction to inform them of construction schedule and activities and
identify requirements for specific mitigation measures to minimize air, noise, or
traffic impacts in addition to those already required in the EMP.
ii) Establish a photographic record of the fence and gates, especially at ground

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level.
iii)To monitor settlement, install inclinometers along the fence, the gate and other
structures closest to the flower garden. These inclinometers shall be left in place
for 2 years after construction and regularly monitored.
iv) Install a vibration recording device and undertake continuous monitoring for the
period when the TBM is traversing the Temple of Literature.
v) Adjust tunneling speeds and periodicity should the vibration monitoring indicate
excessive vibrations.

477. Should the monitoring indicate that settlement has taken place based on photographic
record, inclinometer reading and depending on the severity, the following remedial measures
shall be applied, as appropriate:

(i) Fill the garden area with soil and re-level the ground;
(ii) Re-install the fence and supports;
(iii) Jack-up the building(s) and rebuild the base with cement forms or engineered
earth;
(iv) Repair cracks and re-plaster walls.
ii. Operational Effects

478. Metro access to the Cat Linh Pagoda and Temple of Literature will provide added
visitation to these important cultural sites.

l. Social Conflicts

479. The presence of construction camps may cause conflict with the surrounding
communities, these will be addressed by:

i) Consider the location of construction camps away from communities in order to


avoid social conflict in using resources and basic amenities such as water supply.

ii) Maximize number of local people employed in construction works.

iii) Maximize goods and services sourced from local commercial enterprises.

3. Long-term Residual Effects of the MRT3 on the Tunnel Section

480. There will be a positive long-term benefit in urban air quality, public health, safety, travel
time savings, and development of commercial and retail establishments at the station locales.

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VI. ALTERNATIVES

A. Introduction

481. Like other big cities in developing countries, Ha Noi is facing problems of
urbanization and the pressures of public service and poor basic infrastructure. The
current Ha Noi urban transport system cannot provide enough services to satisfy the
needs of industrialization and modernization of the city. The urban issues, such as traffic
jams and air pollution, have become serious, worsening the quality of life of the local
population and creating obstacles hindering the city’s development. A new form of public
transport is required.

B. Corridor Conditions

482. Currently, the east-west corridor is an important part of the Ha Noi transport
network. It is served by high frequency, well utilized public transport system in the form
of buses including the Route 32 bus, and carries large volumes of private vehicles.
Passengers along the east-west corridor have a range of origins and destinations with a
strong west to east movement pattern in the morning peak and a strong east to west
pattern in the evening peak as passengers travel from home to work / university and
work / university to home respectively. Trips to universities and employment along the
corridor are the most important origins and destinations for passengers travelling on the
bus network.

483. Despite its importance, available capacity on this corridor is low. Sections of the
road network are already operating above capacity and a relatively small shift from the
predominant mode of motorbikes to cars will ensure that capacity constraints are
exacerbated. In 2004, Xuan Thuy Street was nearing capacity in both directions, while
Kim Ma Street was above capacity in both directions during the afternoon and morning
peak hours. The future the number of trips per day and the number of passengers on
the east-west corridor is expected to increase in line with expected growth on the overall
Ha Noi transport network and expected growth in residential population and
development of new educational and employment facilities in the western districts of Ha
Noi. Such growth will arise from changing land use, particularly increased urbanization in
the west of Ha Noi, higher standards of living and disposable income, and population
growth.

484. Modeling on the Ha Noi transport network indicates that without implementation
of the urban rail system, growth in the number of car trips will be significant, decrease in
the modal share of motorbikes will be less and gains in public transport usage will be
more modest compared to the scenario if the urban rail network, including the project on
the east-west corridor, is developed.

C. Alternative Transport Modes

485. A range of alternative transport modes was considered as part of project


development as described below.

486. Road based systems such as buses, mini-buses and guided road based systems

144
were eliminated from further consideration because of their inability to meet estimated
passenger demand on the route and because of conflicts with existing traffic that would
arise from a mixed-circulation transport system.

487. Rapid bus transit systems that are being developed in other parts of Ha Noi were
not considered suitable in the project area because of the magnitude of road space
required to develop the facilities to support these systems.

488. Systems operating on protected or dedicated transport rights-of-way (i.e. partially


or fully removed from the traffic stream) were considered in more detail. Of these, three
systems: tramways, Light Rail Trains (LRT) and Metro systems were considered able to
meet projected passenger demands on the east-west corridor. The main difference
between these three systems relates to their capacity:

(i) Tramway = 2,000 to 10,000 passengers/hour/direction


(ii) LRT = 6,000 to 30,000 passengers/hour/direction
(iii) Metro = 20,000 to 60,000 passengers/hour/direction
489. The higher capacity of the Metro system relates to the higher frequency of
service that is possible and the larger number of passengers that can be accommodated
in each car.

490. An evaluation was carried out against a range of criteria including technology;
accessibility and comfort; constraints associated with construction; investment costs;
flexibility into the future; ease of maintenance and robustness/design life.

491. The Metro system was selected as the overall best option because of its greater
flexibility into the future (i.e. ability to increase capacities of system); its longer design
life; energy efficiency; high levels of previous experience in implementation; integration
with future transport planning and a lower investment cost when compared to the
capacity provided by the system.

D. Alternatives within the Project

492. Between Nhon and Cau Giay the alignment traversing NR 32 was selected as
the preferred option. Three other route options and three route alignments were
examined and rejected due to significant land acquisition, disruption of residential
development and resettlement impacts.

493. Prime Ministerial Decision 173/TTg-CN in February 2005 relocated the eastern
terminus to the Ha Noi Railway Station (HRS), thus reducing the length of the line by 2.5
km and requiring the eastern terminus of the line to be underground.

494. Following selection of the route alignment, four line placement options were
considered

(i) Option V1A: Line located on elevated viaduct from Nhon terminus to the
Swedish Embassy on Kim Ma, and then in an underground tunnel to the

145
Ha Noi Railway station using a Metro type rail system on a dedicated
route.
(ii) Option V1B: Line located at-grade from Nhon terminus to 3rd Ring Road,
then on an elevated viaduct to the Swedish Embassy on Kim Ma, and
then in an underground tunnel to the Ha Noi Railway station using a
tramway system on a shared route for the at-grade sections.
(iii) Option V1C: Same as for Option V1B, but using a Metro system on a
dedicated route.
(iv) Option V2: Line located at-grade from Nhon to the Swedish Embassy on
Kim Ma, and then in an underground tunnel to the Ha Noi Railway station
using a tramway system on a shared route for the at-grade sections.
(v) Options V1B and V2 involved a tramway system operating on substantial
lengths of at grade route involving mixed circulation with the existing traffic
stream. These options were eliminated from further consideration due to
congestion and performance issues associated with a mixed circulation
tramway system.
(vi) Option V1C was discounted from further consideration because even
though it involved a system operating on a partially dedicated route,
significant changes to traffic management particularly at intersections and
pedestrian crossings would have been required and operating efficiencies
and travel times would have been lower than Option V1A.
(vii) Option V1A was therefore selected as the preferred option.
E. Do-Nothing or Do-Minimum Option

495. Without implementation of the project, significant growth in private vehicle


numbers will continue to overload the road network, and existing public transport
systems will reach their practical capacity limits. Opportunities to facilitate a modal shift
from private vehicles to public transport would be reduced. Traffic congestion and road
safety would continue to worsen resulting in social and economic impacts as travel
speeds on the important east-west corridor decrease with a corresponding increase in
travel times. The do-nothing or do-minimum option would result in the continued
deterioration of the urban environment, particularly in terms of air quality and acoustic
quality.

Project Justification

496. Congestion constrains the long-term attractiveness and potential impact of the
regular bus service. The Project, avoiding congestion problems, appear to be an
excellent alternative for public transport. The construction of the Project will offer a more
equitable access to transport choices for passengers wishing to access employment,
education or commercial facilities.

497. Development of a new high capacity, high frequency public transport system on
the east-west corridor has the potential to cater for existing and future passenger demand
and will relieve congestion on the road corridor and the existing public transport network.
In addition, this form of public transport will significantly benefit the environment. The

146
removal of cars, buses and motor bikes in favour of this mode of transport will reduce
GHG and ameliorate negative climate change conditions.

498. The project will therefore be of benefit to the population in the project area and to
the western area of Ha Noi.

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VII. INFORMATION DISCLOSURE, CONSULTATION AND PARTICIPATION

A. Introduction

499. Public involvement is an iterative process and continuity of effort is an important


part of due diligence for any major project. Therefore, this section presents the public
involvement program for the project in three parts: one, the work carried out until 2007
and documented in the IEE; two, the efforts reported in the ADB Draft Poverty and
Social Analysis and the GOV Supplementary EIA 2009 and; three, consultation carried
out under this EIA where documented, the anticipated program planned for pre-
construction, construction and operational stages of the Project.

1. Public Consultations (2006-2007)

500. There is a high level of awareness amongst the general community in relation to
the concept of an east-west urban rail line along Kim Ma to the Ha Noi Railway Station.
Information on the project has been publicized in local newspapers and television
reports.

501. During preparation of the GOV EIA (2007), a series of public consultation
events were undertaken to meet GOV legislative requirements for EIA preparation. While
these events were limited in their scope, they provide an initial overview of the types of
issues identified by the local community as requiring detailed consideration in the
environmental assessment process. These issues are described in Table 7.1.

Table 7.1: Consultation Activities Undertaken as part of GOV EIA


Event Date Participants Arranged By

Households survey by 8 June – 12 June 2006 100 out of 193 GOV EIA Consultants
questionnaires: households along the (CEPT)
- to gather information route to be relocated .
on their income and The households were
living conditions drawn from three
- to gather information affected groups:
about existing (i) farming
transport conditions households;
and environmental (ii) business
status in the local households;
area;
- to get their
(iii) households living
in the land
resettlement
proposed for rail
preference;
stations and
- to get their opinions
project electricity
about whether the
stations
project should go
ahead
Consultation with 21 November -18 District PCs: Hoan GOV EIA Consultants
representatives of PCs December 2006 Kiem, Cau Giay (CEPT)/HRB
and Fatherland Fronts
of communes and wards District FFs: Dong Da,
where project located by Ba Dinh, Cau Giay, Tu
correspondence Liem

District Division of

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Event Date Participants Arranged By

Environment: Ba Dinh

PC &FF of
wards/communes:
Tran Hung Dao, Cua
Nam, Van Mieu, Quoc Tu
Giam, Cat Linh, Van
Chuong, Giang Vo, Kim
Ma, Ngoc Khanh, Quan
Hoa, Dich Vong, Dich
Vong Hau, Mai Dich,
Cau Dien, Phu Dien,
Minh Khai, Tay Tuu.

a. Summary of Outcomes of Public Involvement Activities

502. Table 7.2 contains a summary of the outcomes of consultation activities


carried out and identifies where the issues have been addressed in the IEE.

Table 7.2: Summary of Outcomes of Consultation Activities

Issue Category Specific Issues Raised by Whom Reference to Discussion


Raised in 2007 IEE
General opinions Consent for the 97/100 surveyed Noted
construction to go households
ahead

Agreement with main All PCs and FFs Noted


content of the project participants Tran Hung
Dao Ward FF
The number of, Cat Linh Ward FF Noted
distance between, and
the location of, stations
is reasonable
Tunnel construction for Cat Linh Ward FF Noted
the section from Cat
Linh to Ha Noi Railway
Station is justifiable
Visual amenity of the Tran Hung Dao Ward Visual amenity and
structure should be paid FF, Ba Dinh Ward FF landscape values
due attention discussed in Section V.C.5
The construction should Tran Hung Dao Ward Project implementation
be completed as soon PC, Ba Dinh Ward FF, schedule presented in
as possible and to Giang Vo Ward FF, Section II.H
schedule Kim Ma Ward PC, Dich
Vong Hau Ward PC,
Dich Vong Hau Ward
FF
Wastefulness and Hoan Kiem District PC Noted
corruption during
project
implementations should
be eliminated
Economic efficiency of Ngoc Khanh Ward PC Results of preliminary

149
Issue Category Specific Issues Raised by Whom Reference to Discussion
Raised in 2007 IEE
the project should be economic analysis
carefully considered presented in Section II.G
Information disclosure Van Mieu Ward FF, Public involvement activities
and public awareness Dich Vong Ward FF discussed in Section VII.C
should be promoted,
particularly for
population in directly
affected areas.
Design issues It is desirable that the Cau Giay Ward FF Project alternatives are
entire line be discussed in Section II.C
constructed
underground
Shorten the route length Giang Vo Ward FF Project alternatives are
if possible discussed in Section II.C
Station 5 and Station 6 Mai Dich Ward PC This issue will be
are located too close to investigated during detailed
each other design,
It is desirable to reduce Van Mieu Ward FF This issue will be
the route bend between investigated during detailed
Station 12 and Station design,
13
General environmental Potential impacts should Van Mieu Ward FF Potential impacts discussed in
comments be Sections IV and V.
discussed in greater
details
Mitigation measures Tran Hung Dao Ward FF, Proposed mitigation
should be fully developed Quan Hoa Ward PC principles discussed in
Sections IV and VI.

Environmental Tran Hung Dao Ward


management and FF, Van Chuong Ward
Responsibilities for EMP
mitigation measures FF, Cua Nam Ward FF,
implementation discussed
should be duly Van Chuong Ward FF
in Section VI.D
implemented

Issues during Pre- Borders for land 100/100 surveyed Issue to be addressed in
construction Phase acquisition purpose households Project RP
should be delimited as
early as possible to
minimize residents’
anxiety
Land acquisition and 100/100 surveyed Land acquisition and
resettlement issues households resettlement issues
should be addressed Ngoc Khanh Ward discussed in Section
adequately PC, Mai Dich Ward V.C.3 and will be further
PC, Minh Khai addressed in Project
Commune FF RP
Issues during Construction Safety of construction Hoan Kiem District PC, Health and safety assurance
Phase activities should be Giang Vo Ward FF during construction discussed
ensured in Section VI.
Safety issue for the Cua Nam Ward PC, Van Land stability and
surrounding properties and Mieu Ward FF, Giang Vo subsidence discussed in
structures, including land Ward FF Section VI.
subsidence, should be
carefully addressed
Effective anti-flooding and Cat Linh Ward FF Anti-flooding and drainage
drainage measures should measures discussed in
be in place Section VI.
Dust generation should be Minh Khai Commune Dust control discussed in

150
Issue Category Specific Issues Raised by Whom Reference to Discussion
Raised in 2007 IEE
minimized FF Section VI.
Noise and vibration should Ngoc Khanh Ward PC, Noise and vibration control
be minimized Minh Khai Commune discussed in Section VI.
FF
Solid waste management Ngoc Khanh Ward PC Solid waste management
should be paid due discussed in Section VI.
attention
Impacts on the Dich Vong Ward PC Disruption to commercial
commercial activities of activities discussed in
population along the route Section IV.
should be assessed
Security and social order Dich Vong Ward PC Principles to minimize
associated with workers disruption to community
presence should be paid structure discussed in
due attention Section VI.
Issues during Operation Passengers safety must be Mai Dich Ward FF Health and safety of project
Phase guaranteed users discussed in Section
VI.
Solid waste management Cau Giay Ward PC Solid waste management
should be paid due principles discussed in
attention Section VI.
Wastewater Cau Giay Ward PC, Wastewater treatment
management should Minh, Khai discussed in Section VI.
be paid due attention Commune PC

Water drainage for the Ngoc Khanh Ward PC, Flooding and drainage
route should be effective Minh Khai Commune issues discussed in IEE
PC Section VI.
Noise should be Mai Dich Ward FF, Cau Noise control discussed in
minimized Dien Commune FF, Phu IEE Section VI.
Dien Commune FF

b. Consultation with GOV Authorities during IEE Preparation

503. In addition to the public consultation activities described in the preceding


sections, discussions with GOV authorities were carried out throughout the IEE
preparation.

Table 7.3: Consultation Outcomes with GOV Authorities


Authority Date of Name of Officer(s) Key Outcomes of Consultation
Consultation
Department of 19 July 2007 Mr Hoang Minh Overall guidance on appropriate criteria for noise
Environment, Dao Director, and vibration control is found in the Minister’s
MONRE Department of approval decision for the GOV EIA and HRB
Environment must follow that decision during construction and
operation
Ms Tran Thi Hanh
Officer, Department Recognize in practice that because of high
of Environment and growing existing ambient noise levels
difficult to meet ambient criteria contained in
TCVN 5949:1998 and recommend that HRB
adopts an approach to ensure noise levels
generated during construction do not exceed
existing ambient noise levels as far as possible

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Authority Date of Name of Officer(s) Key Outcomes of Consultation
Consultation
In terms of operation stage noise control,
recognize practical difficulties in meeting TCVN
5949:1998 ambient criteria and ask that HRB
makes recommendations to HPC on how to
control operational stage noise levels and
proposed allowable noise levels; HPC and
MONRE can then formally consult on this issue
to develop project specific approach

Advise that recommendations are also made


from HRB to HPC on proposed approach to
vibration control during construction and
operation so that HPC and MONRE can formally
discuss project specific approach to this issue

Advised that in 2009 / 2010 all TCVN noise


standards will be revised

Ha Noi Department 19 June, Mr Dang Duong Confirmed that MONRE is the approval agency
of Natural 2007 Binh Director for the project and that approval was issued 1
Resources, June 2007
Environment and Hydro-
Land Management meteorological Land acquisition and resettlement issues need to
and be carefully considered in assessment
Environmental
Management Integration will be required between a number
Division of departments of the HPC during project
development and implementation
Mr Ngo Thai Nam
Deputy Director Flood issues during construction and operation
Environmental should be considered
Management
Division Traffic management during construction is a
major issue and

requires consultation with TUPWS; there will


need to be a detailed traffic management plan
developed which will be implemented by
TUPWS and the local police

During construction DONRE will carry out


environmental monitoring and report to VEPA

Dust generation during construction is a major


concern; recent monitoring has shown highly
elevated levels of dust throughout

Ha Noi and in the project area

There needs to be a strong environmental


management and monitoring system and clear
requirements for the contractor to control dust
and other pollutants

DONRE requires institutional strengthening in


terms of its environmental monitoring
capabilities

152
Authority Date of Name of Officer(s) Key Outcomes of Consultation
Consultation
Communication with local community will be very
important during construction; need to avoid
public discontent with project impacts and be
aware that complaints from the community are
common for construction projects in Ha Noi

Reuse of spoil should be considered

Portable toilets required on construction site for


workers

Project may affect upper groundwater layer


and need to consider implications of this
although note that municipal groundwater
supply unlikely to be affected; DONRE has data
on groundwater in 90 boreholes throughout Ha
Noi

Need to consider operation stage noise and


vibration controls

Project should be accessible for disabled


people

Confirmed role as managers of heritage relics in


the project area

Temple of Literature is considered to be the


most important heritage item in the project area
and has national significance;

DCI hopes to nominate the site for World


Heritage listing in the near future

Ha Noi Department 21 June, Mr Nguyen Duc Known Temple of Literature complex is


of Culture and 2007 Hoa Deputy bordered by brick wall and covers approximately
2
Information Director of the 50,000m ; when excavations have been carried
DCI out within this area archaeological relics have
been found to a depth of 5 to 6 m
Mr Dang Kim
Ngoc Director of No studies have been carried out outside the
the Temple walled complex but DCI considered it likely that
of Literature archaeological relics could exist to depth of 5 to
Management 6m
Board
Other relics in the project area include Mai Dich
pavilion, Cat Linh pagoda, Bich Cau temple

Three of these items, Temple of Literature, Cat


Linh Pagoda and Bich Cau temple, will
potentially be affected by underground
tunnelling works; impacts may be significant as
structures are mostly made of wood and bricks

Concerned about vibration impact on structures


during construction; supports for lakes in the
Temple of Literature complex are constructed of

153
Authority Date of Name of Officer(s) Key Outcomes of Consultation
Consultation
bricks and may be adversely affected

Concerned about disturbance of as yet


unidentified underground items during
construction period

Concerned about effects on tourism activities


at Temple of

Literature which attracts 800,000 to 900,000


visitors each year

Station should not be located too close to


main entrance of

Temple of Literature because of amenity


effects during construction and need to maintain
links between heritage complex and Van Lake
opposite

Concerned about long term operational effects


from train induced vibration

Short term impacts may occur in terms of dust,


noise and traffic but can be managed

Impacts from shallow tunnelling likely to be


greater than those from deep tunnelling;
recommend if possible that deep tunnelling
methods be used in vicinity of Temple of
Literature that avoid disturbance to a level of
approximately 6m

According to Vietnamese regulations text


excavations will be required prior to the
commencement of construction to determine
the likelihood of encountering archaeological
relics; such relics can then be removed and
preserved

DCI staff may be able to take part on excavation


work as cultural consultants

Request further information on the project to allow


more detailed analysis to be carried out

In general supports project but requires


management of construction stage impacts;
concerned about effects of shallow tunnelling on
groundwater and municipal water supply

TUPWS requests to be involved in development


of detailed construction traffic management
plans for the project and requests that once the
construction contractor has been selected the
draft management plan is provided to them for
review and discussion

154
Authority Date of Name of Officer(s) Key Outcomes of Consultation
Consultation
Ha Noi Department of 5 July 2007 Mr Le Huy Maps exist showing the presence of UXO in the
Transport Urban Public Hoang Manager Ha Noi urban area; HRB needs to make a
Works and Services Planning and formal request to TUPWS to access this data
(TUPWS) Investment
Department Project will involve a large amount of waste spoil –
TUPWS confirms that the Lam Du dumpsite is
now closed and can therefore not be used to
accept waste from the project

To date there is no alternative dump site in Ha


Noi where construction waste could be
disposed – Nam Son is nearing capacity and
primarily accepts municipal waste and is too far
from the project site (68 km); TUPWS and others
are currently working to identify alternative site

Supports proposal to reuse as much spoil as


possible but notes some material will
probably require disposal; HRB should initiate
discussions with districts and communes where
filling of low land is being carried out to identify
possible reuse sites

TUPWS is responsible for water and sewer


services and will need to provide their
agreement to management of these services
during construction; other service providers
(telecommunications and electricity) need to be
contacted separately

TUPWS is responsible for tree planting and


requirements to remove trees during
construction should be discussed with them
and the appropriate approvals obtained

2. Public involvement (2008 to 2010)

2008 Poverty and Social Analysis Results

504. The ADB Draft Poverty and Social Analysis Study (2008) carried out
surveys that, although providing important data on the socio-community profile of
the project corridor, can be considered a component of project public consultation.
The study carried out the following:

 Meetings with stakeholders (district and commune people’s committees,


Ha Noi People’s Committee, local organizations such as women’s unions,
commune health centers, Department of Labour, Invalids and Social
Affairs (DOLISA), Central Women’s Union); meeting with Ha Noi bus
company representative;
 Meetings with affected persons and site visits;

155
 Preparation and implementation of a survey among affected persons
(household questionnaire).
505. A socioeconomic survey (SES) was conducted among 493 APs in all the
project components. Results from the SES, highlighted in Table 7.4, show that,
among affected persons, the motorbike is by far the most used means of transport,
especially for men. However, public transport is used by, respectively, 59.5% of
students and children, 12.2% of women and 5.5% of men. This confirms that
students are the ones who use mainly public transport. However, more than twice
as many women as men use public transport.

Table 7.4: Means of Transport Used by APs to Go to Ha Noi Center

Surveyed To go to Ha Noi center, what type of transport do you use?


persons Motorbike Bicycle Public transport Other
persons % persons % persons % persons %
Men 182 168 92.3 3 1.6 10 5.5 1 0.5
Women 180 145 80.6 13 7.2 22 12.2 0 0.0
Students/ 131 78 59.5
10 7.6 43 32.8 0 0.0
Children
Total 493 323 65.5 59 12.0 110 22.3 1 0.2
Source: SES, 2008

506. More and more people, in the project area, experience traffic problems
when they go to Ha Noi. Table 7.5 indicates that the main problems are
congestion, followed by the environment (air quality problems) and safety.
Congestion is experienced by users of all means of transport. However, air
pollution and safety hazards increase with the use of motorbikes. In addition,
during the rainy season, the use of motorbikes is even worse.

Table 7.5: Problems Met by APs Commuting to Ha Noi Center

What kind of problems do you currently encounter


Surveyed
when going to Ha Noi center?
HH
Loss of time in
Air pollution Risk of accident
traffic
HH % HH % HH %
Total 181 90 49.7 61 33.7 30 16.6
Source SES, 2008

507. People want to use public transportation; however, problems of congestion


and crowded buses are hampering this means of transport.

a. Willingness to Pay

508. In the feasibility study, it is indicated that the price of a metro ticket will be
the same as a current bus ticket (3000 VND). If this is the case, it would be normal
for 95% of the people interviewed to be willing to pay to use the metro.It is likely
that, if the price remains the same, the use of the metro will be favoured by the

156
population due to the reasons explained above. If the entire population can afford
the price of a ticket, the metro will be a very advantageous transport alternative for
the population located in the western suburbs of Ha Noi to reach Ha Noi Center as
evidenced in Table 7.6.

Table 7.6: Willingness to Pay for the Metro

Are you willing to pay for the metro (same


Surveyed HH price as the bus)?
Yes No
HH % HH %
Total 181 172 95.0 9 5.0
Source SES, 2007

B. GOV Supplementary EIA

509. In the 2009 GOV Supplementary EIA a public consultation program was
conducted in 50 households, using a questionnaire, in the three areas (1. Voi
Phuc, 2. Swedish Embassy to Cat Linh Street; and, 3. Railway station on Tran
Hung Dao Street) covered by the tunnel section of the project). The results are
provided in the following tables:

Table 7.7: General Description of the interviewed households

Average Average number


Number of
Total of people household of employee per
employee
size households
50 237 5 121 2

Table 7.7: Occupation of the interviewed households

Worker and Service Craft and Average of household


Total of
official of and related trader Retired income
household
State vendors workers (million/month/person
50 28 44 0 44 1.97

Table 7.8: Water use

Total of household Piped water Well-water River water


50 50 0 0
100% 100% 0% 0%

Table 7.9: Housing Condition of the interviewed households

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Total of household Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4
50 0 4 30 16
100% 0% 8% 60% 32%

Table 7.10: Proportion of households having land-use certificate

Total of Title-deed Non title-deed


household Amount % to Total Amount % to Total
50 47 94% 3 6%

Table 7.11: Opinion about living environment

Situation Type of polluted environment


Total of Awful Low Near market
Dust and
household Yes No Noise water and and coach
waste
quality dam stations
50 50 0 44 33 15 2 2

Table 7.12: Choose style of resettlement

Total of Temporary and turn


Centralized Himself
household back
50 30 9 11
100% 60% 18% 22%

Table 7.13: Comment for support action on compensation

Total of Ideas
household Agreement Against Non- comment
50 1 0 49
100% 2% 0% 98%

Table 7.14: Opinion about the Project

Total of Ideas
household Agreement Against Non- comment
50 37 0 13
100% 74% 0% 26%

510. Other than provide the tables the GOV Supplementary EIA did not provide
analysis or comment on the results of the questionnaire.

158
C. EIA Consultation 2010

511. This EIA, carried out under a “Due Diligence” assessment, had a limited time
frame, 60 days, within which to address the environmental issues of the project. The
requirement to carry out additional consultation was initiated through HRB in mid March,
2010. Based on the time to draft letters and send them to the respective districts it is
normal for a period of 45 days ( pers communication, Mr. Lam, HRB) to receive a
meeting time and location that encompasses all levels of affected stakeholders in the
project.

512. Nevertheless, a letter, a 3 page project information write-up along with an 18


slide power point presentation was prepared, translated into Vietnamese, and sent to
HRB for approval and distribution to district officials. Information included project details
(location, components, implementation schedule), anticipated environmental impacts
and proposed mitigation measures.

513. HRB, requested the district officials to convene stakeholders (affected


households, local officials, etc.) for consultation and two public meetings were held on
22 and 24 April 2010. A third meeting was proposed to take place with Ba Dinh District,
but could not proceed due to the unavailability of officials to arrange the meeting within
the time frame for submitting the draft of this document.

514. The first meeting involved 36 representatives from the Ba Dinh District that is
traversed by the tunnel section; the second meeting with 49 representatives was in the
Cau Giay District which is in the viaduct section.

515. The meetings were held at the People's Committee offices, design drawings
were posted for review and the sessions were chaired by the HRB. Systra consultants
provided a power point presentation on the project design and construction. The
environmental presentation was next followed with a question and answer session. Each
participant was provided with project information sheet and a sheet to write comments.

516. The following are the results and documentation of the oral and written
comments.

Table 7.15 Ba Dinh District Meeting


Number of participants and groups Total 36 participants in which, local residents
represented: (21), commune and village officials (15)
Date of consultation: 22 April 2010
Venue: Meeting hall in Ba Dinh district
Environmental issues raised - Dust and noise during construction and
operation phases could impact on local
residents living along the alignment;

During construction phase:


- People worry on relocation of their houses
and buildings and if they will be properly
relocated;
- Traffic jam may result due to construction
works along the road alignment. This problem

159
should be solved by: (i) proper construction
methods; (ii) close coordination among
agencies such as police in charge of traffic,
Department of Transport and people’s
committee at district and commune levels for
traffic diversion to reduce traffic jam;
- Vibration and soil foundation resettlement in
both tunnel and viaduct section might happen
and affect local intrastructure (houses,
buildings and other public infrastructure) along
the existing road. Proposed mitigation
measures are: (i) conduct a survey of existing
infrastructure condition before construction by
photograph taken; (ii) proper compensation to
affected house and other buildings should be
considered by contractors and other relevant
agencies;

Table 7.16 Cau Giay Meeting


Number of participants and groups Total 49 participants in which, local residents
represented: (30), commune and village officials (19)
Date of consultation: 24 April 2010
Venue: Meeting hall in Dich Vong commune – Cau
Giay district
Environmental issues raised – Traffic jam might increase at construction site
on the existing road. Construction activities
along the road might reduce bussiness of local
residents who are living along the road (Xuan
Thuy, Cau Giay roads). There should be: (i)
proper construction methods; (ii) close
coordination among agencies such as police in
charge of traffic, Department of Transport and
people’s committee at district and commune
levels for traffic divergence to reduce traffic
jam;
- Waste water generation during construction
activities might spread out on the existing road
surface and affect local environment and local
residents as well as travellers. Mitigation
measures for controling this type of waste
water should be mentioned in tender document
for contractors;
- Construction activities might cause some
other disorder in the local residents by
appearance of workers. Information of
construction’s implementation such as working
progress, workers’s profiles, etc. should be
disclosed to local authorities within district;
- Project implementation agencies should try to
speed up construction work progress, to
reduce potential impacts;

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D. Project Implementation Stage

517. During project pre-construction, construction and operation, public involvement


activities will continue under direction of HRB. HRB’s commitment to ensure public
involvement in the project implementation phase are shown in Table 7.17.

Table 7.17: Framework for Public Involvement and Disclosure during Pre-
construction, Construction and Operation

Activity Purpose Participants


Newsletter / Fact To broadly disseminate project Residents and businesses in
Sheets information to a wide audience. project area
Newsletters / Fact Sheets
will be distributed to residences and
businesses in the project area and
on community noticeboards.

Mass media To broadly disseminate project Throughout project area and


communications information to a wide audience. more broadly throughout Ha Noi.
Mass media tools would include
loudspeakers, radio, newspaper
and television.

Open public To provide stakeholders an By open invitation to community


meetings opportunity to seek more detailed members and by invitation to
information on the project and provide key stakeholders such as ward
direct feedback to the project team. and district officials, GOV
agencies, NGOs etc.
Focus groups To allow detailed and focused Community members, GOV
discussion on addressing project- authorities and other
related issues such as water use, stakeholders formed into
land use and business changes, use interest groups to address
of system by different passenger specific issues – examples of
groups and amenity effects during issues around which focus
construction groups may be developed
include heritage issues,
business operators, road user /
public transport user and
operator groups, residents etc.
Stakeholder To allow discussion and GOV agencies, project
meetings information gathering on consultants, NGOs etc.
specific issues relevant to
environmental issues related to the
project

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VIII. GRIEVANCE REDRESS MECHANISM

518. Through establishment of a grievance redress mechanism (GRM), HRB shall


promptly address affected people’s concerns, complaints, and grievances about the
Project’s environmental performance at no cost to the complainant and without
retribution. The GRM shall make use of the existing legal procedures of GOV.

519. HRB shall make public the existence of this GRM through public awareness
campaigns. HRB shall also set-up a 24-hour hotline for complaints and the hotline shall
be publicized through the media. Names and contact numbers of representatives of
HRB, and contractors tasked to receive complaints shall be placed on the notice boards
outside the construction site. Locally affected people may express grievances through
the ward or district committees and these would be referred to HRB through the usual
channels in those committees.

A. Legal Guidelines on Grievance Redress in the Environmental Field

520. Chapter XIV in the Law on Environmental Protection (LEP) passed by the
National Assembly on 29 November 2005 gives detailed guidelines on inspection and
resolution of grievances in cases of environmental damages or risks caused by projects
or companies. Some clauses that relate directly to grievance redress in the
environmental field are listed below.

(i) Clause 127 states that:


a) Individuals or contractors that cause environmental pollution or damage to
communities, should compensate and restore the environment following the
LEP and other relevant laws.
b) Head of organization or implementing agency, governmental officers, who
covered-up violation of the LEP, causing environmental pollution or
damage, shall be punished and shall be responsible for compensation
according to the relevant laws.
(ii) Clause 128 provides the following general guidelines on a grievance redress
mechanism:
a) Organizations or individuals have the right to complain to governmental
authorities or to courts on any actions violating the LEP and/or adversely
affecting their legal rights or benefits.
b) Citizens have rights to accuse the government authorities under the LEP
for:
 Actions causing environmental pollution, degradation or environmental
risks.
 Actions violating rights and/or benefits of the State, communities,
citizens, organizations and individuals.
c) Upon receipt of complaints or letters/petitions, concerned government
agencies are responsible for review and resolution of the issues raised
according to the legal guidelines in the LEP.

162
B. GRM to be Applied to the Project

521. The LEP (2005) details legal guidelines on the compensation for damages
caused by the Project. The scope and mechanisms for compensation and resolution of
damages in the environmental field through the following clauses:

(ii) Clause 130 provides identification of damages caused by environmental


pollution and degradation:
a) Degradation of functions and properties of the environment.
b) Damages to health, life of people and legal profits of
organizations/individuals caused by environmental degradation.
(iii) Clause 131 provides scope on determining damages/loss caused by
environmental pollution or degradation, applicable provisions to the Project are
as follows:
a) Loss of environmental functions and useful properties are divided into 3
levels:
 Slight degradation
 Serious degradation
 Very serious degradation
b) Determination of degraded environmental components includes:
 Determination of number of the degraded environmental components,
types of ecosystems and affected species.
 Damage levels of each environmental component, ecosystem and
species.
 Calculation of environmental damages is as follows:
- Calculation of direct and long-term damage due to environmental
degradation.
- Calculation of expenditures for environmental restoration.
- Calculation of budget for mitigation or removal of the pollution
sources.
c) Determination of environmental damages is implemented by an
independent entity (third party) or thorugh coordination between the project
(HRB/contractor) and affected sides.
(iv) Clause 132 provides for appraisal of environmental damage or functional
degradation through the following requirements:
a) Appraisal of environmental damages of the environment are implemented
according to requests of complainants or agencies responsible for
grievance resolution

163
b) Basis of appraisal of environmental damages are: letters of complainants,
information, documentation, evidence related to damage compensation.
c) Selection of an appraising body should be mutually agreed to by the
compensating and the grieving sides. In case of no mutual agreement, the
agency responsible (e.g., People’s Committee at district or commune level,
DONRE) for resolution of grievance will arbitrate.
(v) Clause 133 provides for the resolution of the complaint on environmental
damages through the following three options:
a) Self – negotiation between related sides
b) Request arbitrator to mediate and resolve
c) Request court to resolve
522. Based on the above legal guidelines for providing compensation for
environmental damages, the Project is subject to claims for all adverse impacts caused
by project activities that damage the environmental quality or natural resources. The
project implementing agency or their contractors will be responsible for compensation for
damages and restoration costs of the environment.

C. GRM Stakeholders

523. In this GRM the following stakeholders are identified as follows:

(i) Community includes people of different groups who may be positively or


negatively affected by the project during the pre-construction, construction and
operation stages.
(ii) Project affected people (PAPs): people who may be negatively affected by
environmental impacts generated by the project activities in the pre-construction,
construction and operation stages.
(iii) Complainant: an individual or group of people with an environmental issue,
concern, problem, complaint or claim that he, she or they want addressed and/or
resolved.
(iv) Governmental authorities: governmental agencies responsible in state
management on natural resources, environment, security and justice in the
project’ provinces or at the central level. In this project, relevant agencies in
resolution of grievances in environmental performance include:
a) People’s Committees (PCs) of communes, districts and provinces/city, Ha
Noi Functional agencies of the PCs at commune level such as Section of
Economy, Section of Natural Resources and Environment; Section of
Agriculture- Forestry-Fishery; Section of Security, Resettlement Teams,
etc.
b) Functional agencies of the PCs at district level: Division of Natural
Resources and Environment; Division of Economy; District’s Police;
Division of Agriculture- Forestry – Fishery, Division of Labor – Invalid and
Society; District’s Resettlement Committees.

164
c) Functional agencies of Province’s PCs: Departments of Natural
Resources and Environment (DONRE); Justice (DOJ), Agriculture and
Rural Development (DARD), Labor- Invalid and Society (DOLIS);
Departments of Public Security (DPS), Department of Planning and
Investment (DPI).
d) Relevant ministries: Natural Resources and Environment (MONRE),
Transport (MOT), Justice (MOJ), Labor- Invalids and Society (MOLIS)
and Planning and Investment (MPI).
(v) Social - Political Organizations: Public organization in all communes, districts in
the project area. The most relevant to this project are: Fatherland Front
Committees (FFCs), Women’s Associations, Veterans’ Associations, Youth
Associations, Associations of Farmers.
(vi) Social – Professional Organizations: include non-government organizations
(NGOs). The most relevant for this project are Vietnam Union of the Sciences and
Technology Associations (VUSTA), Vietnam Association for Conservation and
Environment (VACNE), Vietnam Association for Environmental Impact
Assessment (VAFEIA), Vietnam Association of Biology, Vietnam Association of
Construction etc.
(vii) Project Implementing agency: in this project is the Ha Noi Railway Board (HRB)
and/or its representative: the Project Management Unit 1 (PMU1) who is
responsible for day to day management of the project.
(viii) Contractor: who has signed contract with HRB to implement any part of the
project in the pre-construction and construction stages.
(ix) Third party: one or some governmental units or independent units who have
functions to evaluate damages caused by the project to the PAHs and it is invited
by the complainants or local PCs/local socio-political associations to resolve the
claims in cases that the project implementing agency or contractors and
complainants cannot resolve the grievances. In this project the third party may be
the local Meditative Committee (Ban Hoa Giai in Vietnamese) (first step) or local
and central courts (final step).

D. Steps in Grievance Redress Related to Environmental Impacts for the


Project

524. The GRM described below have been developed based on GOV’s legal
guidelines. The GRM shall be publicized by HRB to ensure that local residents and other
stakeholders aware of its existence. Information dissemination shall be through the
public consultation program identified in the EMP.

525. HRB shall publicize the names and contact details of representatives from HRB,
and contractors to whom complaints can be lodged.

1. Prepare a complaint

526. Based on the legal guidelines any individual, household or organization


(business unit, production unit, governmentor private office, etc.) can complain to HRB

165
or its contractors, if her/his or their properties/ life/ business/health or public environment
has been damaged or adversely affected by project activities due to noise or dust
pollution, strong vibration that caused damages to housing and other structures, etc..
Claims can be initiated as follows:

(i) Verbal: direct expression of their complaint to representatives of the


contractor or HRB through face-to-face meetings. Verbal witness of
village representatives and neighbors is important under this process.
(ii) Written form: express their complaint to the contractor of project
implementing agency (HRB) in a written form. In this case witness and
confirmation of their neighbors and representatives of commune’s PC or
FFC is not compulsory but important for further resolution by HRB or its
contractors.
(iii) Use public media: the complainant can provide evidence of impact
caused by the project activities to a local or central newspaper or TV and
to ask the media for support.
527. To obtain a fast resolution of complaints, the complainant may ask local village/
commune officers (PC , FFC or Police) to prepare a Minute (lập biên bản in Vietnamese)
with recording evidences of damages caused by the project activities. The signature of
three groups are required: HRB or the contractor who is responsible for the damage, the
complainant and a representative of local PC or FFC or witnesses.

2. Receive and register a complaint

528. The complainant can directly submit their claims to representatives of the
contractor and/or HRB (in case of verbal complaint) or send their grievance letter to
offices of HRB and/or contractor and a copy to the local commune PC (in case
grievance is in written form). If the complainant does not know how to send their letter
they can ask the local PC, FFC or the media to help them send their letter to the
contractor and/or HRB.

529. Once a complaint has been received, it shall be registered by HRB/contractor


and local PC. Within 2 weeks a reply in written form from HRB/contractor should be sent
back to the complainant with a copy to the local PC. The reply letter shall include the
following information:

(i) Registration of the complaint by HRB/contractor;


(ii) Proposal by HRB/contractor on how they plan to assess the damage;
(iii) Schedule to carry out damage assessment, negotiation and
resolution.

3. Assess the eligibility and validity of the complaint

530. It is the responsibility of the project owner/contractor to:

i) Determine whether a complaint is eligible (if it is due to the project) or


ineligible (if it is not project-related). This step is important because in
some cases the damage may not be due to the project.

166
ii) Determine who will conduct the damage assessment. Depending on
the complaint, some outside agencies may be asked to assist the
project implementing agency in assessing the impacts and damages.
These outside agencies maybe an environmental monitoring unit or
an economic evaluation unit through MONRE. According to the Law,
assessment unit should be mutually agreed to by both sides (the
complainant and HRB or its contractor).

4. Assess the damages caused by the project activities

531. If the complaint is related to the project activities, representatives of


HRB/contractor, with the selected assessment unit, shall visit the complainant and the
site. The assessment shall be implemented with the participation of the complainant and
witnesses from the commune’s PC or FFC The results of the assessment shall be
agreed to by the complainant and shall be signed off by the complainant, representatives
of project implementing agency/contractor, assessment unit and communes’ PC.

532. If one side is not satisfied with the assessment results then they can propose
another method or other assessment units to come in and re-assess the impacts until
the assessment is satisfactory to both sides. If the complainant requests, the local PC
may help them find a suitable assessment unit.

5. Select grievance resolution approaches and resolution of the


complaint

533. Depending on the claims of the complainant and degree of adverse impact,
HRB/contractor may select a reasonable way to resolve the complaint. Some common
ways suggested below.

i) The complainant proposes a solution, based on self-evaluation of their


damages.
ii) HRB/contractor proposes a solution, based on the legal regulation and
their assessment of the damages.
iii) The complainant and HRB/contractor negotiate.
iv) Both sides defer to a third party (local mediation committee – Ban Hoà
giải in Vietnamese) or to concerned government agencies with
environmental management units. In case of failure in finding a solution,
by these bodies, both sides may request a court to decide.
6. Resolution of damages caused by project activities and response to
all parties involved

534. After obtaining agreement of the complainant and the representatives of


HRB/contractor on the degree of damages related to environmental impacts of the
project, HRB or its contractor will immediately implement compensation to the
complainant. The compensation may be in the form of money and/or property provision
by (land, construction materials, house, apartment etc.), depending on the negotiation
between both sides or by decision of the courts. Compensation also includes restoration
of the damaged environment or properties caused by project activities, if the complainant

167
requires (re-construct damaged house or road, etc.).

535. The compensation, when implemented, shall be witnessed by representatives of


the local communes’ PC.

536. Documentation or recording the results of the grievance redress shall be


prepared and signed by the complainant, representatives of the project implementing
agency/contractor and local PC. A summary of this documentation shall be provided to
all the relevant parties: i.e., local PC, complainant, HRB/contractor as well as the media
and court, in case they are involved in the resolution.

537. In case the complainant is not satisfied with the resolution and/or compensation
proposed by HRB/contractor, he/she can implement the following:

i) Re-calculate the loss or provide more evidence of the damages.


ii) Refer to a third party (mediator, lawyers to find other approach).

7. Monitoring of GRM

538. To ensure that compensation of damages are properly implemented, this shall be
monitored by the following agencies where a particular complaint has been filed:

i) Commune’ PCs
ii) Fatherland Front Committee (FFCs)
539. To achieve better results in grievance redress monitoring, the above agencies
may invite other government agencies, e.g the Provincial DONRE and Environmental
Police or DOJ (in complicated cases) to participate in the monitoring.

168
IX. ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN

540. The goal of an environmental management plan (EMP) is to ensure that the
mitigation and monitoring requirements, as specified in Section V are carried out in the
pre-construction, construction and operation phases of the Project. This EMP outlines
mitigation and monitoring requirements that will ensure compliance with the GOV
environmental laws and regulations and comply with the Safeguards Policy of the ADB.

541. Based on the project tendering program, the EMP details the measures to
ameliorate construction-related negative impacts during pre-construction, construction
and operation at the depot, viaduct and tunnel sections.

542. This section documents the environmental management plan (EMP) for the
project and contains the following components:

i) Environmental mitigation plan


ii) Environmental monitoring plan
iii) Compliance monitoring
iv) Effects monitoring
v) Responsibilities and authorities for EMP implementation
vi) Suggested EMP reporting and reviewing mechanisms
vii) Anticipated budget requirements for EMP implementation
viii) Institutional and capacity building recommendations

169
A. Environmental Mitigation Plans

Table 9.1: Environmental Mitigation Plan for the Depot


Environmental Proposed Mitigation Measures Estimated Responsibility
Aspect/Concern Cost Implementation Monitoring
Pre-Construction
1. Disclosure of project Prior to start of site works. local residents and establishments, local authorities $335/ HRB HPC, AFD, ADB,
information and other stakeholders who are likely to be affected by the project shall be commune Project EIB, DONRE,
informed on the construction schedule and activities, potential environmental Supervision MONRE
impacts and mitigation measures through public meetings at each commune. Consultant
(PSC), Project
Management
Support
Consultant
(PMSC)
2. Lack of mechanism to Prior to start of site works, HRB shall undertake the following: HRB, PSC/PMSC HPC, AFD, ADB,
resolve environmental a) establish a grievance redress mechanism (GRM), as described in the EIA EIB, DONRE,
complaints due to project MONRE
implementation b) through public awareness campaigns, make public the existence of the
GRM
c) set-up and publicize a 24-hour hotline for complaints
d) ensure that names and contact numbers of representatives of HRB and
contractors are placed on the notice boards outside the construction site

3. Preparation and Prior to start of site works, environmental management action plans in the form Part of Preparation: HRB/PMU, PSC,
implementation of of the following specific management plans shall be prepared by the contractor contractor’s Contractor PMSC
environmental and shall be submitted to the project supervision consultant for approval: bid cost
management action plans a) Dust Control Plan. The plan shall provide details of mitigation measures, Approval:
specific location and schedule where such measures shall be PSC
implemented to minimize impacts to sensitive receptors (residential
areas, schools, hospitals, etc.) due to construction works, sourcing and
transport of construction materials, and other project-related activities.
b) Noise Control Plan. The plan shall provide details of mitigation
measures, specific location and schedule where such measures shall be
implemented to minimize impacts to sensitive receptors (residential
areas, schools, hospitals, etc.) due to construction works, sourcing and

170
Table 9.1: Environmental Mitigation Plan for the Depot
Environmental Proposed Mitigation Measures Estimated Responsibility
Aspect/Concern Cost Implementation Monitoring
transport of construction materials, and other project-related activities.
c) Spill Management Plan. The plan shall provide details of procedures,
responsibilities, resources, documentation and reporting requirements,
training provisions for relevant staff , etc. to avoid spills of hazardous
substances and to effectively respond to such incidents, in case these
occur.
d) Traffic Management Plan. The plan shall be designed to ensure that
traffic congestion due to construction activities and movement of
construction vehicles, haulage trucks, and equipment is minimized. The
plan shall be prepared in consultation with local traffic officials and
people’s committees at the district and commune levels. The shall identify
traffic diversion and management, traffic schedules, traffic arrangements
showing all detours, necessary barricades, warning/advisory signs, road
signs, lighting, and other provisions to ensure that adequate and safe
access is provided to motorists in the affected areas.
e) Occupational and Community Health and Safety Plan consistent with
international standards (e.g., the World Bank Group’s Environment,
Health and Safety Guidelines of 2007) and Labor Code of Vietnam. The
Plan shall address health and safety hazards associated with
construction activities (e.g., excavations, working at heights, etc.),
establishment and operation of construction/worker’s camps, use of
heavy equipment, transport of materials and other hazards associated
with various construction activities.
f) Emergency Response Plan to prevent, mitigate, respond to and recover
from emergency events that could occur due to project activities such as
accidents, spills of hazardous substances, fire, extreme weather events,
and other crises.
Construction
1. Air quality impacts due to a) Strictly implement approved Dust Control Plan Part of Contractor HRB/PMU, PSC,
gaseous and dust b) Consider paving Road 70 contractor’s PMSC
emissions bid cost
c) Wherever possible, use electrically-powered equipment rather than gas or
diesel-powered equipment
d) Position any stationary emission sources (e.g., portable diesel generators,

171
Table 9.1: Environmental Mitigation Plan for the Depot
Environmental Proposed Mitigation Measures Estimated Responsibility
Aspect/Concern Cost Implementation Monitoring
compressors, etc.) as far as is practical from sensitive receptors;
e) Use only vehicles and equipment that are registered and have necessary
permits.
f) Burning of wastes generated at the construction sites, work camps and other
project-related activities shall be strictly prohibited.
g) Construction equipment and vehicles shall be well-maintained and shall meet
national TCVN emission standards.
h) Specify the use of clean fuels such as ultra-low sulphur diesel in dump trucks
and other heavy-duty diesel vehicles and/or equipment, in conjunction with
the use of particulate trap control devices, as well as catalytic converters, to
avoid excessive diesel emissions.
i) Keep stockpiles moist and cover vehicles with tarpaulin sheets or other
suitable materials to minimize dust emission and prevent spillage of
materials (e.g., soil, cement, stone, sand, aggregates, etc.).
j) Provide temporary covers (e.g., tarpaulins, grass, etc.) on long term
materials stockpiles.
k) Concrete mixing areas at the Depot site shall be located at least 100 m from
the nearest residential area.
l) Clean road surfaces of debris/spills from construction equipment and
vehicles.
m) Install temporary fencing or barriers around particularly dusty activities in
vicinity of sensitive receivers
n) Ensure availability of water trucks on site and if the works surface and
access roads near sensitive receptors (i.e., residential areas, roadside tea
and food stalls, schools, hospitals and other sensitive receptors) are dry and
dusty, spray water on the exposed surfaces to reduce dust emission.
o) All construction equipment and machinery shall be fitted with emission
control equipment in full compliance with the national (TCVN) and local
regulations.
p) Fuel-efficient and well-maintained haulage trucks will be used to minimize
exhaust emissions. Smoke belching vehicles and equipment shall not be
allowed and shall be removed from the project.

172
Table 9.1: Environmental Mitigation Plan for the Depot
Environmental Proposed Mitigation Measures Estimated Responsibility
Aspect/Concern Cost Implementation Monitoring
q) Impose speed limits on construction vehicles to minimize road dust in areas
where sensitive receptors are located.
r) Locations for stockpiling material at the depot area will be at least 100 m
from the nearest residential sensitive receivers.
s) Undertake immediate repairs of any malfunctioning construction vehicles and
equipment.
t) Discourage idling of engines
u) Provide prior notification to the community on schedule of construction
activities
v) Implement 24 hour community complaints hotline
2. Noise impacts due to a) Strictly implement of Noise Control Plan Part of Contractor HRB/PMU, PSC,
operation of construction b) All construction equipment and vehicles shall be well maintained, regularly contractor’s PMSC
equipment/ vehicles and inspected for noise emissions, and shall be fitted with appropriate noise bid cost
various construction suppression equipment consistent with applicable national and local
activities regulations.
c) Use only vehicles and equipment that are registered and have necessary
permits.
d) No noisy construction-related activities (e.g., transport of materials along
residential areas and other sensitive receptors, piling, etc.) will be carried out
during the night. Such activities shall be restricted to daylight hours.
e) Truck drivers and equipment operators shall minimize the use of horns.
f) Impose speed limits on construction vehicles to minimize noise emission
along areas where sensitive receptors are located (houses, schools,
hospitals, etc.).
g) Provide temporary noise barriers (3-5 meter high barrier can reduce 5-10
dB(A), as necessary, if depot works will generate high noise levels that could
disturb nearby households and other sensitive receptors.
h) As much as possible, use quiet equipment and working method.
i) Whenever possible, completely enclose noisy equipment which can reduce
noise level by 15-25 dB(A), restrict use of noisy equipment (e.g.15 min for
every consecutive 30 min period) and undertake sequential operation of
equipment with objective to reduce noise generated;

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Aspect/Concern Cost Implementation Monitoring
j) No noisy construction activities near schools during examination period.
k) Avoid noisy construction activities in vicinity of sensitive receivers during
night time or other sensitive periods (e.g. during school hours in vicinity of
schools)
l) Provide prior notification to the community on schedule of construction
activities
4. Potential contamination of a) Strict implementation of Spill Management Plan Part of Contractor HRB/PMU, PSC,
groundwater due to spills b) Store fuel and hazardous substances in paved areas with embankment. If contractor’s PMSC
of fuel and other spills or leaks do occur, undertake immediate clean up. bid cost
hazardous substances.
c) Ensure availability of spill clean up materials (e.g., absorbent pads, etc.)
specifically designed for petroleum products and other hazardous substances
where such materials are being stored.
d) Train relevant construction personnel in handling of fuels and spill control
procedures.
e) Ensure all storage containers are in good condition with proper labeling.
f) Regularly check containers for leakage and undertake necessary repair or
replacement.
g) Store hazardous materials above flood level.
h) Equipment maintenance areas shall be provided with drainage leading to an
oil-water separator that will be regularly skimmed of oil and maintained to
ensure efficiency. Discharge of oil contaminated water shall be prohibited.
i) Store waste oil, used lubricant and other hazardous wastes in tightly sealed
containers to avoid contamination of soil and water resources. Transport and
off-site disposal of such wastes shall be consistent with national and local
regulations.
j) Should HRB decide to install a back-up well for reliable water supply, this shall
be designed and constructed such that surface pollution is prevented from
percolating downward along the annular space between the borehole and the
well casing.
5. Drainage obstruction/ a) Avoid placement of construction materials, waste storage areas or equipment Part of Contractor HRB/PMU, PSC,
flooding in or near drainage channels surrounding the Depot. contractor’s PMSC
b) Prohibit disposal of waste materials to drainage channels. bid cost

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Aspect/Concern Cost Implementation Monitoring
c) In case existing drainage ditch is filled-up as required for the construction
works, provide alternative drainage for rainwater.
d) Regularly inspect and maintain all drainage channels to keep these free of
obstructions.
6. Generation of solid wastes a) Provide garbage bins and facilities within the project site for temporary Part of Contractor HRB/PMU, PSC,
storage of construction waste and domestic solid waste. contractor’s PMSC
b) Separate solid waste into hazardous, non-hazardous and reusable waste bid cost
streams and store temporarily on site in secure facilities with weatherproof
flooring and roofing, security fencing and access control and drainage/
wastewater collection systems
c) Ensure that wastes are not haphazardly dumped within the project site and
adjacent areas
d) Undertake regular collection and disposal of wastes to sites approved by local
authorities.
7. Damage to community a) Immediately repair any damage caused by the Project to community facilities Part of Contractor HRB/PMU, PSC,
facilities such as water supply, power supply, communication facilities and the like. contractor’s PMSC
b) Access roads damaged during transport of construction materials and other bid cost
project-related activities shall be reinstated upon completion of construction
works.
8. Traffic build-up along a) Strictly implement approved Traffic Management Plan Part of Contractor HRB/PMU, PSC,
access road to the depot b) Post traffic advisory signs (to minimize traffic build-up) in coordination with contractor’s PMSC
local authorities bid cost
c) As much as possible, schedule delivery of construction materials and
equipment during non-peak hours.
d) Regularly monitor traffic conditions along access roads to ensure that project
vehicles are not causing congestion.

9. Hazards to health and a) Strictly implement approved Occupational and Community Health and Safety Part of Contractor HRB/PMU, PSC,
safety of workers and the Plan, and approved Emergency Response Plan contractor’s PMSC
public due to construction b) Appoint an environment, health and safety manager to look after bid cost
works implementation of required environmental mitigation measures, and to ensure
that health and safety precautions are strictly implemented for the protection of

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Table 9.1: Environmental Mitigation Plan for the Depot
Environmental Proposed Mitigation Measures Estimated Responsibility
Aspect/Concern Cost Implementation Monitoring
workers and the general public in the vicinity of construction areas
c) Conduct orientation for construction workers regarding health and safety
measures, emergency response in case of accidents, fire, etc., and prevention
of HIV/AIDS and other related diseases
d) Provide first aid facilities that are readily accessible by workers.
e) Provide fire fighting equipment at the work areas, as appropriate, and at
construction camps.
f) Provide adequate drainage in workers camps to prevent water
logging/accumulation of stagnant water and formation of breeding sites for
mosquitoes.
g) Provide adequate housing for all workers at the construction camps.
h) Provide reliable supply of potable water
i) Provide separate hygienic sanitation facilities/toilets and bathing areas with
sufficient water supply for male and female workers
j) Establish clean canteen/rest area.
k) Ensure proper collection and disposal of solid wastes within the construction
camps consistent with local regulations.
l) Provide fencing on all areas of excavation greater than 2 m deep.
m) Provide appropriate personnel safety equipment such as safety boots,
helmets, gloves, protective clothes, breathing mask, goggles, and ear
protection
n) Ensure reversing signals are installed on all construction vehicles.
o) Implement precautions to ensure that objects (e.g., equipment, tool, debris,
pre-cast sections, etc.) do not fall onto or hit construction workers.
p) Implement fall prevention and protection measures whenever a worker is
exposed to the hazard of falling more than two meters, falling into operating
machinery or through an opening in a work surface. Based on a case-specific
basis, fall prevention/protection measures may include installation of
guardrails with mid-rails and toe boards at the edge of any fall hazard area,
proper use of ladders and scaffolds by trained employees, use of fall
prevention devices, including safety belt and lanyard travel limiting devices to
prevent access to fall hazard, fall protection devices such as full body

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Aspect/Concern Cost Implementation Monitoring
harnesses, etc.
10. Social conflicts due to a) Consider the location of construction camps away from communities in order Part of Contractor HRB/PMU, PSC,
presence of workers to avoid social conflict in using resources and basic amenities such as water contractor’s PMSC
supply. bid cost
b) Maximize number of local people employed in construction works.
c) Maximize goods and services sourced from local commercial enterprises.
Operation
1. Air quality impacts due to a) The wastewater treatment facility shall be properly maintained to avoid or Part of HRB/Operator DONRE
waste generation minimize emission of foul odor operational
b) Solid wastes shall be regularly removed from the depot area to disposal cost
sites approved by local authorities
c) Burning of waste materials shall be prohibited and idling of vehicles shall
be minimized
2. Noise emission and a) Grinding and other maintenance activities that will generate high noise Part of HRB/Operator DONRE
vibration from rolling stock levels will be undertaken inside the maintenance sheds operational
and maintenance activities b) Insulators/anti-vibration devices will be installed under the rails thereby cost
reducing noise and vibration
c) The rails are fastened with resilient fasteners and continuously welded
further reduces vibration and noise.
d) Noise monitoring will continue during operation to determine and provide
noise abatement measures, as necessary.
3. Wastewater generation a) Wastewater shall be treated at the depot’s industrial treatment plant to Part of HRB/Operator DONRE
and potential ensure that relevant TCVN standards and requirements are met. operational
contamination groundwater b) In the vehicle washing, maintenance area and wheel lathe pits, drains cost
supply shall be linked to the industrial water treatment plant.
c) Drainage emanating from the depot workshops will be equipped with oil
interceptors.
d) Office buildings shall be provided with toilets and septic tanks to handle
domestic sewage.
e) The sewer system will be designed to prevent leakage or overflow of
waste water that could contaminate the surrounding areas.

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Aspect/Concern Cost Implementation Monitoring
f) All hazardous and potentially contaminating materials (chemicals, fuels,
oils, etc.) shall be stored in facilities with weatherproof flooring and
roofing, security fencing and access control and drainage/wastewater
collection systems.
g) A groundwater quality monitoring program shall be implemented to
ensure that groundwater for domestic purposes are adequately treated to
meet applicable TCVN standards (based on the monitoring results).
4. Water supply reliability a) Train wash water and rainwater shall be collected in underground storage Part of HRB/Operator DONRE
tanks for recycling. operational
b) Considering installation of a back-up well in addition to the existing well. cost
c) If installed, the back up well shall be located far enough away from the
existing well to avoid interference.
d) The wells shall be operated on a regular rotating basis to prevent the
occurrence of a prolonged drawdown cone at a particular spot and to
allow a relatively even drawdown of the local groundwater table. This
scheme will also result to savings on operational costs.
5. Solid waste generation a) Offices, workshops and other areas within the depot shall be provided Part of HRB/Operator DONRE
with waste collection bins or receptacles. operational
b) Solid wastes shall be segregated into hazardous, non-hazardous and cost
reusable waste streams and stored temporarily on site in secure facilities
with weatherproof flooring and roofing, security fencing and access
control and drainage/wastewater collection systems.
c) Garbage shall be regularly collected and shall be disposed consistent
with local regulations
e) Wastes shall only be disposed to approved sites by local authorities.
6. Hazards to health and a) Prior to operation of the depot, HRB shall ensure that the following plans Part of HRB/Operator DONRE
safety of workers and the have been developed and adequately resourced. HRB shall ensure that operational
public due to depot plan provisions are strictly implemented throughout operation phase: cost
operation  Occupational Health and Safety Plan for all components of depot
operation and train staff in the implementation of such plan.
 Emergency Response Plan (e.g., in case of fire, extreme weather
events, floods, power outage, equipment breakdown, accidents, spills

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Aspect/Concern Cost Implementation Monitoring
of hazardous substances, etc.) covering all components of depot
operation and train staff in the implementation of such plan.
d) The depot site will be fenced and access shall be restricted to authorized
personnel to avoid safety risks to the public.

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Table 9.2: Environmental Mitigation Plan for the Viaduct
Environmental Proposed Mitigation Measures Estimated Responsibility
Aspect/Concern Cost Implementation Monitoring
Pre-Construction
1. Disclosure of project Prior to start of site works. local residents and establishments, local $335/ HRB, Project HPC, AFD, ADB,
information authorities and other stakeholders who are likely to be affected by the project commune Supervision EIB, DONRE,
shall be informed on the construction schedule and activities, potential Consultant MONRE
environmental impacts and mitigation measures through public meetings at (PSC), Project
each commune. Management
Support
Consultant
(PMSC)
2. Unexploded ordnance a) Engage an authorized mines advisory group to identify if UXO is a Part of HRB, PSC/PMSC HPC, AFD, ADB,
(UXO) potential threat to works in the project area. Project cost EIB, DONRE,
b) Commission UXO clearing as necessary. MONRE
c) Advise the contractor that the site has been cleared prior to
commencement of site works.
3. Cutting of boulevard trees Implement 1:1 tree replacement policy in areas where landscape Part of HRB HPC, AFD, ADB,
along Thu Le Lake and opportunities exist (e.g., depot areas, areas identified by Ha Noi park Project Cost EIB, DONRE,
Highway 32 authority) MONRE
4. Lack of mechanism to Prior to start of site works, HRB shall undertake the following: HRB HPC, AFD, ADB,
resolve environmental a) establish a grievance redress mechanism (GRM), as described in the EIB, DONRE,
complaints due to project EIA MONRE
implementation b) through public awareness campaigns, make public the existence of
the GRM
c) set-up and publicize a 24-hour hotline for complaints
d) ensure that names and contact numbers of representatives of HRB
and contractors are placed on the notice boards outside the
construction site

5. Disruption to community a) Water supply pipelines, power supply, communication lines and other Part of Contractor HRB/PMU, PSC,
services due to relocation utilities shall be re-provisioned before construction works commence contractor’s PMSC
of facilities (e.g., water b) Provisions shall be made to preserve the operation of current facilities bid cost
supply) in sufficient quantity and in agreement with the local community.
c) Re-provisioning shall be undertaken in coordination with the utility
company.
d) Affected households and establishments shall be notified well in

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Aspect/Concern Cost Implementation Monitoring
advance of such disruption.
6. Preparation and Prior to start of site works, environmental management action plans in the Part of Preparation: HRB/PMU, PSC,
implementation of form of the following specific management plans shall be prepared by the contractor’s Contractor PMSC, DONRE
environmental contractor and shall be submitted to the project supervision consultant for bid cost
management action plans approval: Approval:
a) Dust Control Plan. The plan shall provide details of mitigation PSC
measures, specific location and schedule where such measures shall
be implemented to minimize impacts to sensitive receptors (residential
areas, schools, hospitals, etc.) due to construction works, sourcing and
transport of construction materials, and other project-related activities.
b) Noise Control Plan. The plan shall provide details of mitigation
measures, specific location and schedule where such measures shall
be implemented to minimize impacts to sensitive receptors (residential
areas, schools, hospitals, etc.) due to construction works, sourcing and
transport of construction materials, and other project-related activities.
c) Spoils Disposal Plan. The plan shall present off-site re-use (if
suitable) of excavation spoils and corresponding volume, identification
of a suitable disposal location/facility and corresponding capacity,
designation of suitable transport routes and schedule for spoil truck
movements to minimize traffic disruption/congestion, and
environmental mitigation measures to address impacts due to
transport and disposal of spoils. Maps or design of the site(s) shall be
prepared and used to identify where protection measures are required
such as slope stabilization measures, silt fencing, ditching, dust
control, cross drains, etc.
d) Spill Management Plan. The plan shall provide details of procedures,
responsibilities, resources, documentation and reporting requirements,
training provisions for relevant staff , etc. to avoid spills of hazardous
substances and to effectively respond to such incidents, in case these
occur.
e) Traffic Management Plan. The plan shall be designed to ensure that
traffic congestion due to construction activities and movement of
construction vehicles, haulage trucks, and equipment is minimized.
The plan shall be prepared in consultation with local traffic officials and
people’s committees at the district and commune levels. The plan shall

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Table 9.2: Environmental Mitigation Plan for the Viaduct
Environmental Proposed Mitigation Measures Estimated Responsibility
Aspect/Concern Cost Implementation Monitoring
identify traffic diversion and management, define routes for
construction traffic from materials storage/parking areas to
construction site and from construction site to waste disposal locations,
traffic schedules, traffic arrangements showing all detours/lane
diversions, modifications to signaling at intersections, necessary
barricades, warning/advisory signs, road signs, lighting, and other
provisions to ensure that adequate and safe access is provided to
motorists in the affected areas.
f) Occupational and Community Health and Safety Plan consistent
with international standards (e.g., the World Bank Group’s
Environment, Health and Safety Guidelines of 2007) and Labor Code
of Vietnam. The Plan shall address health and safety hazards
associated with construction activities (e.g., working at heights,
excavations, etc.) establishment and operation of construction/worker’s
camps, casting yard, use of heavy equipment, transport of materials
and other hazards associated with various construction activities.
g) Emergency Response Plan to prevent, mitigate, respond to and
recover from emergency events that could occur due to project
activities such as accidents, spills of hazardous substances, fire,
extreme weather events, and other crises.
Construction
1. Air quality impacts due to a) Strictly implement approved Dust Control Plan Part of Contractor HRB/PMU, PSC,
gaseous and dust b) Wherever possible, use electrically-powered equipment rather than contractor’s PMSC
emissions gas or diesel-powered equipment bid cost
c) Position any stationary emission sources (e.g., portable diesel
generators, compressors, etc.) as far as is practical from sensitive
receptors;
d) Use only vehicles and equipment that are registered and have
necessary permits.
e) Burning of wastes generated at the construction sites, work camps and
other project-related activities shall be strictly prohibited.
f) Construction equipment and vehicles shall be well-maintained and
shall meet national TCVN emission standards.
g) Specify the use of clean fuels such as ultra-low sulphur diesel in dump
trucks and other heavy-duty diesel vehicles and/or equipment, in

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Environmental Proposed Mitigation Measures Estimated Responsibility
Aspect/Concern Cost Implementation Monitoring
conjunction with the use of particulate trap control devices, as well as
catalytic converters, to avoid excessive diesel emissions.
h) Keep stockpiles moist and cover vehicles with tarpaulin sheets or other
suitable materials to minimize dust emission and prevent spillage of
materials (e.g., soil, cement, stone, sand, aggregates, etc.).
i) Provide temporary covers (e.g., tarpaulins, grass, etc.) on long term
materials stockpiles.
j) As much as possible, the casting yard for the Project will make use of
already established and licensed site(s) for concrete forming activities
where all the pre-cast sections of the viaduct, pier columns and cross
members will be fabricated.
k) Ensure that necessary environmental approvals are obtained for the
establishment and operation of a new casting yard,
l) Store excavated materials outside road reserve, but where there is no
area, spoils shall be loaded and transported immediately.
m) Clean road surfaces of debris/spills from construction equipment and
vehicles.
n) Undertake daily cleaning of paved routes around the pier construction
sites.
o) Install temporary fencing or barriers around particularly dusty activities
in vicinity of sensitive receivers
p) Ensure availability of water trucks on site and if the works surface and
access roads near sensitive receptors (i.e., residential areas, roadside
tea and food stalls, schools, hospitals and other sensitive receptors)
are dry and dusty, spray water on the exposed surfaces to reduce dust
emission.
q) All construction equipment and machinery shall be fitted with emission
control equipment in full compliance with the national (TCVN) and local
regulations.
r) Fuel-efficient and well-maintained haulage trucks will be used to
minimize exhaust emissions. Smoke belching vehicles and equipment
shall not be allowed and shall be removed from the project.
s) Impose speed limits on construction vehicles to minimize road dust in
areas where sensitive receptors are located.
t) Undertake immediate repairs of any malfunctioning construction
vehicles and equipment.

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Table 9.2: Environmental Mitigation Plan for the Viaduct
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Aspect/Concern Cost Implementation Monitoring
u) Discourage idling of engines
v) Provide prior notification to the community on schedule of construction
activities
w) Implement 24 hour community complaints hotline
2. Noise and vibration a) Strictly implement approved Noise Control Plan Part of Contractor HRB/PMU, PSC,
impacts due to operation b) Erection of temporary walls around the elevated station sites and contractor’s PMSC
of construction other construction sites, as necessary. Especially near sensitive areas bid cost
equipment/ vehicles and such as schools, hospitals, houses, etc. Temporary noise barriers (3-5
various construction meter high) can reduce noise level by 5-10 dB(A).
activities c) Use of churned drill pile method will has significantly lower noise and
vibration emission levels that diesel hammer piles
d) Truck drivers and equipment operators shall minimize the use of
horns.
e) Position any stationary equipment that produce high noise levels (e.g.,
portable diesel generators, compressors, etc.) as far as is practical
from sensitive receptors;
f) All construction equipment and vehicles shall be well maintained,
regularly inspected for noise emissions, and shall be fitted with
appropriate noise suppression equipment consistent with applicable
national and local regulations.
g) Use only vehicles and equipment that are registered and have
necessary permits.
h) No noisy construction-related activities will be carried out during the
night. Such activities shall be restricted to daylight hours.
i) Impose speed limits on construction vehicles to minimize noise
emission along areas where sensitive receptors are located (houses,
schools, hospitals, etc.)
j) As much as possible, use quiet equipment and working method.
k) Whenever possible, completely enclose noisy equipment which can
reduce noise level by 15-25 dB(A), restrict use of noisy equipment
(e.g.15 min for every consecutive 30 min period) and undertake
sequential operation of equipment with objective to reduce noise
generated;
l) No noisy construction activities near schools during examination
period.
m) Avoid noisy construction activities in vicinity of sensitive receivers

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Table 9.2: Environmental Mitigation Plan for the Viaduct
Environmental Proposed Mitigation Measures Estimated Responsibility
Aspect/Concern Cost Implementation Monitoring
during night time or other sensitive periods (e.g. during school hours in
vicinity of schools).
n) Sheet piling at Thu Le Lake shall only to be carried out during daylight
hours.
o) Provide prior notification to the community on schedule of construction
activities
p) Implement 24 hour community complaints hotline
3. Spoils generation from a) Strictly implement approved Spoils Disposal Plan Part of Contractor HRB/PMU, PSC,
pier excavation works b) Spoil disposal will only be to DONRE and DOC approved areas contractor’s PMSC
c) Trucks transporting spoils shall be tightly covered with tarpaulin or bid cost
other suitable materials to minimize dust emission and spills.
d) Wheel washing shall be undertaken to remove mud so as to ensure
that access roads are kept clean.
e) Road surfaces shall be regularly cleaned of spilled spoils
f) Spoil disposal shall not cause sedimentation and obstruction of flow of
watercourses, damage to agricultural land and densely vegetated
areas.
g) The spoils disposal site shall be located at least 50 m from surface
water courses and shall be protected from erosion by avoiding
formation of steep slopes and grassing.
4. Polution due to spills of a) Strictly implement approved Spills Management Plan Part of Contractor HRB/PMU, PSC,
fuel and other hazardous b) Store fuel and hazardous substances in paved areas with contractor’s PMSC
substances. embankment. If spills or leaks do occur, undertake immediate clean bid cost
up.
c) Ensure availability of spill clean up materials (e.g., absorbent pads,
etc.) specifically designed for petroleum products and other hazardous
substances where such materials are being stored.
d) Train relevant construction personnel in handling of fuels and spill
control procedures.
e) Ensure all storage containers are in good condition with proper
labeling.
f) Regularly check containers for leakage and undertake necessary
repair or replacement.
g) Store hazardous materials above flood level.
h) Equipment maintenance areas shall be provided with drainage leading
to an oil-water separator that will be regularly skimmed of oil and

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Table 9.2: Environmental Mitigation Plan for the Viaduct
Environmental Proposed Mitigation Measures Estimated Responsibility
Aspect/Concern Cost Implementation Monitoring
maintained to ensure efficiency. Discharge of oil contaminated water
shall be prohibited.
i) Store waste oil, used lubricant and other hazardous wastes in tightly
sealed containers to avoid contamination of soil and water resources.
Transport and off-site disposal of such wastes shall be consistent with
national and local regulations.
5. Sedimentation of Thu Le a) Installation of a sheet piled wall along Thu Le lake prior to filling. Part of Contractor HRB/PMU, PSC,
Lake and generation of b) edimentation from filling materials behind the sheet piled wall shall be contractor’s PMSC
sediment-laden prevented from entering into Thu Le Lake by silt curtains anchored to bid cost
wastewater from pier the ends of the piled structure.
excavations c) Immediately restore damaged rip-rap along Thu Le Lake to minimize
erosion
d) Undertake regular inspection and maintenance of erosion and
sediment controls
e) Prior to discharge, alkaline water from the casting yard shall be settled
and neutralized,
f) Ensure that excavation spoils are not stockpiled or dumped near or
into water courses and drainage channels.
g) To prevent clogging of canals, sediment-laden water from excavation
for pier placement shall be settled prior to discharge to the nearest
storm drain.
6. Drainage obstruction/ a) Placement of construction materials, excavated spoils, equipment shall Part of Contractor HRB/PMU, PSC,
flooding not block flow of rainwater into canals/drainage structures. contractor’s PMSC
b) Prohibit disposal of waste materials to drainage channels. bid cost
c) Regularly inspect and maintain all drainage channels to keep these
free of obstructions.
7. Generation of solid a) Provide garbage bins and facilities within the project site for temporary Part of Contractor HRB/PMU, PSC,
wastes storage of construction waste and domestic solid waste. contractor’s PMSC
b) Separate solid waste into hazardous, non-hazardous and reusable bid cost
waste streams and store temporarily on site in secure facilities with
weatherproof flooring and roofing, security fencing and access control
and drainage/ wastewater collection systems.
c) Ensure that wastes are not haphazardly dumped within the project site
and adjacent areas
d) Undertake regular collection and disposal of wastes to sites approved
by local authorities.

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Table 9.2: Environmental Mitigation Plan for the Viaduct
Environmental Proposed Mitigation Measures Estimated Responsibility
Aspect/Concern Cost Implementation Monitoring
8. Damage to community a) Immediately repair any damage caused by the Project to community Part of Contractor HRB/PMU, PSC,
facilities facilities such as water supply, power supply, communication facilities contractor’s PMSC
and the like. bid cost
b) Access roads damaged during transport of construction materials and
other project-related activities shall be reinstated upon completion of
construction works.
9. Traffic congestion and a) Strictly implement approved Traffic Management Plan Part of Contractor HRB/PMU, PSC,
access problems b) Provide signs advising road users that construction is in progress and contractor’s PMSC
that the road narrows to one lane using cones. bid cost
c) Employ flag persons to control traffic at the station sites for safety
reasons when construction equipment is entering or leaving the work
area.
d) Lanes through the work site, created by rope or flagging, shall be
developed to minimize risks and injuries from falling objects.
e) As much as possible, lifting and placing of the pre-cast pier and
viaduct sections will be done at night to minimize traffic congestion.
f) Post traffic advisory signs (to minimize traffic build-up) in coordination
with local authorities
g) Provide road signs indicating the lane is closed 500 m before the
worksite.
h) Use traffic cones to direct traffic to move to the open lane.
i) Provide sufficient lighting at night within and in the vicinity of
construction sites.
j) Regularly monitor traffic conditions along access roads to ensure that
project vehicles are not causing congestion.
k) Define and observe schedules for different types of construction traffic
trips (e.g., transport of pre-cast sections, haulage of spoils, delivery of
construction materials, etc.).
l) As much as possible, schedule delivery of construction materials and
equipment as well as transport of spoils during non-peak hours.
m) Avoid movements of noisy vehicles during night time in vicinity of
sensitive receivers.
n) Implement suitable safety measures to minimize risk of adverse
interactions between construction works and traffic flows through
provision of temporary signals or flag controls, adequate lighting,
fencing, signage and road diversions.

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Table 9.2: Environmental Mitigation Plan for the Viaduct
Environmental Proposed Mitigation Measures Estimated Responsibility
Aspect/Concern Cost Implementation Monitoring
o) Ensure relocation of any affected public transport infrastructure (but
stops, shelters etc) prior to commencement of works
p) Provide advance notification to the community regarding changes to
public transport facilities or routes.
q) Schedule construction works to minimize extent of activity along linear
construction site at any one time
r) Comply with traffic regulations and avoid, where possible, roads with
the highest traffic volumes, high density of sensitive receivers or
capacity constraints are not used as access to and from the
construction areas and spoils disposal sites.
s) Install temporary accesses to properties affected by disruption to their
permanent accesses.
t) Reinstate good quality permanent accesses following completion of
construction.
10. Hazards to health and a) Strictly implement approved Occupational and Community Health and Part of Contractor HRB/PMU, PSC,
safety of workers and the Safety Plan, and approved Emergency Response Plan contractor’s PMSC
public due to construction b) Appoint an environment, health and safety manager to look after bid cost
works implementation of required environmental mitigation measures, and to
ensure that health and safety precautions are strictly implemented for
the protection of workers and the general public in the vicinity of
construction areas
c) Conduct orientation for construction workers regarding health and
safety measures, emergency response in case of accidents, fire, etc.,
and prevention of HIV/AIDS and other related diseases
d) Provide first aid facilities that are readily accessible by workers.
e) Provide fire fighting equipment at the work areas, as appropriate, and
at construction camps.
f) Provide adequate drainage in workers camps to prevent water
logging/accumulation of stagnant water and formation of breeding sites
for mosquitoes.
g) Provide adequate housing for all workers at the construction camps.
h) Provide reliable supply of potable water.
i) Provide separate hygienic sanitation facilities/toilets and bathing areas
with sufficient water supply for male and female workers
j) Establish clean canteen/rest area.
k) Ensure proper collection and disposal of solid wastes within the

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Table 9.2: Environmental Mitigation Plan for the Viaduct
Environmental Proposed Mitigation Measures Estimated Responsibility
Aspect/Concern Cost Implementation Monitoring
construction camps consistent with local regulations.
l) Provide fencing on all areas of excavation greater than 2 m deep.
m) Provide appropriate personnel safety equipment such as safety boots,
helmets, gloves, protective clothes, breathing mask, goggles, and ear
protection
n) Ensure reversing signals are installed on all construction vehicles.
o) Implement precautions to ensure that objects (e.g., equipment, tool,
debris, pre-cast sections, etc.) do not fall onto or hit construction
workers.
p) Implement fall prevention and protection measures whenever a worker
is exposed to the hazard of falling more than two meters, falling into
operating machinery or through an opening in a work surface. Based
on a case-specific basis, fall prevention/protection measures may
include installation of guardrails with mid-rails and toe boards at the
edge of any fall hazard area, proper use of ladders and scaffolds by
trained employees, use of fall prevention devices, including safety belt
and lanyard travel limiting devices to prevent access to fall hazard, fall
protection devices such as full body harnesses, etc.
q) Implement precautions to ensure that objects (e.g., equipment, tool,
debris, pre-cast sections, etc.) do not fall onto or hit people, vehicle,
and properties in adjoining areas.
r) Fencing of construction sites and excavation sites and guarding such
areas to restrict public access.
s) Prior to excavation work, provide fencing on all sides of areas to be
excavated.
t) Provide warning signs at the periphery of the construction site.
u) Strictly impose speed limits on construction vehicles along residential
areas and where other sensitive receptors such as schools, hospitals,
and other populated areas are located.
v) Educate drivers on safe driving practices to minimize accidents and to
prevent spill of hazardous substances and other construction materials
during transport.
11. Social conflicts due to a) Consider the location of construction camps away from communities in Part of Contractor HRB/PMU, PSC,
presence of workers order to avoid social conflict in using resources and basic amenities such contractor’s PMSC
as water supply. bid cost
b) Maximize number of local people employed in construction works.

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Table 9.2: Environmental Mitigation Plan for the Viaduct
Environmental Proposed Mitigation Measures Estimated Responsibility
Aspect/Concern Cost Implementation Monitoring
c) Maximize goods and services sourced from local commercial enterprises.
Operation
1. Noise emission and a) Installation of noise shield on the viaduct Part of HRB/Operator DONRE
vibration from rolling stock b) At the station platform, paging and bell signaling volume shall be operational
and operation of elevated adjusted to the lowest level where it will not detract from their function. cost
stations c) Noise monitoring shall continue during operation phase to determine
and install suitable noise reduction measures (e.g., unobtrusive noise
barriers on the edge of the stations)
d) Insulators/anti-vibration devices will be installed under the rails thereby
reducing noise and vibration
e) The rails are fastened with resilient fasteners and continuously welded
further reduces vibration and noise.
7. Waste generation a) Waste collection bins or receptacles shall be provided in various areas Part of HRB/Operator DONRE
at the elevated stations, such as offices and areas accessed by operational
passengers. cost
b) Garbage shall be regularly collected and shall be disposed consistent
with local regulations.
c) The elevated stations shall be provided with toilets and septic tanks to
handle sewage generated by employees and passengers.
8. Hazards to health and Prior to operation of the Project, HRB shall ensure that the following plans Part of HRB/Operator DONRE
safety of workers and the have been developed and adequately resourced. HRB shall ensure strict operational
public due to operation of implementation of plan provisions throughout operation phase: cost
viaduct facilities  Occupational Health and Safety Plan for viaduct operation and train staff
in the implementation of such plan.
 Emergency Response Plan (e.g., in case of fire, extreme weather events,
power outage, equipment breakdown, accidents, etc.) covering operation
of viaduct and above-ground stations. HRB shall train staff in the
implementation of such plan.

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Table 9.3: Environmental Mitigation Plan for the Tunnel
Environmental Proposed Mitigation Measures Estimated Responsibility
Aspect/Concern Cost Implementation Monitoring
Pre-Construction
1. Disclosure of project Prior to start of site works. local residents and establishments, local $335/ HRB HPC, AFD, ADB,
information authorities and other stakeholders who are likely to be affected by the project commune Project EIB, DONRE,
shall be informed on the construction schedule and activities, potential Supervision MONRE
environmental impacts and mitigation measures through public meetings at Consultant
each commune. (PSC), Project
Management
Support
Consultant
(PMSC)
2. Lack of mechanism to Prior to start of site works, HRB shall undertake the following: HRB, PSC/PMSC HPC, AFD, ADB,
resolve environmental a) establish a grievance redress mechanism (GRM), as described in the EIB, DONRE,
complaints due to project EIA MONRE
implementation b) through public awareness campaigns, make public the existence of the
GRM
c) set-up and publicize a 24-hour hotline for complaints
d) ensure that names and contact numbers of representatives of HRB and
contractors are placed on the notice boards outside the construction
site

3. Disruption to community a) Water supply pipelines, power supply, communication lines and other Part of Contractor HRB/PMU, PSC,
services due to relocation utilities shall be re-provisioned before construction works commence contractor’s PMSC
of facilities (e.g., water b) Provisions shall be made to preserve the operation of current facilities bid cost
supply) in sufficient quantity and in agreement with the local community.
c) Re-provisioning shall be undertaken in coordination with the utility
company.
d) Affected households and establishments shall be notified well in
advance of such disruption.
4. Land Subsidence a) The tunnel boring machine (TBM) contractor shall implement a survey Part of Contractor HRB/PMU, PSC,
program to monitor the background subsidence rate along the project contractor’s PMSC
line (see EMP Table 9.7). The monitoring data shall be used to assess bid cost
potential damage that the observed subsidence may cause to
buildings under or alongside the tunnels and to estimate the

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Table 9.3: Environmental Mitigation Plan for the Tunnel
Environmental Proposed Mitigation Measures Estimated Responsibility
Aspect/Concern Cost Implementation Monitoring
cumulative amount of regional subsidence during the construction
stage.
b) Take photographs of each structure within the possible affected zone
before the construction starts, to be used for assessing potential
damage due to subsidence.
c) Depending on the results of the assessment, suitable mitigation
measures shall be developed and implemented by the contractor to
avoid or minimize damage to properties.
5. Preparation and Prior to start of site works, environmental management action plans in the Part of Preparation: HRB/PMU, PSC,
implementation of form of the following specific management plans shall be prepared by the contractor’s Contractor PMSC, DONRE
environmental contractor and shall be submitted to the project supervision consultant for bid cost
management action plans approval: Approval:
a) Dust Control Plan. The plan shall provide details of mitigation PSC
measures, specific location and schedule where such measures shall
be implemented to minimize impacts to sensitive receptors (residential
areas, schools, hospitals, etc.) due to construction works, sourcing and
transport of construction materials, and other project-related activities.
b) Noise Control Plan. The plan shall provide details of mitigation
measures, specific location and schedule where such measures shall
be implemented to minimize impacts to sensitive receptors (residential
areas, schools, hospitals, etc.) due to construction works, sourcing and
transport of construction materials, and other project-related activities.
c) Spoils Disposal Plan. The plan shall present off-site re-use (if suitable)
of excavation spoils and corresponding volume, identification of a
suitable disposal location/facility and corresponding capacity,
designation of suitable transport routes and schedule for spoil truck
movements to minimize traffic disruption/congestion, and
environmental mitigation measures to address impacts due to transport
and disposal of spoils, Maps or design of the site(s) shall be prepared
and used to identify where protection measures are required such as
slope stabilization measures, silt fencing, ditching, dust control, cross
drains, etc. The SDP shall specify spoils dewatering procedures (and
facilities), as necessary, and shall describe in detail the mitigation
measures to be implemented to ensure that resulting wastewater from
spoils dewatering is adequately treated and disposed of to meet

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Table 9.3: Environmental Mitigation Plan for the Tunnel
Environmental Proposed Mitigation Measures Estimated Responsibility
Aspect/Concern Cost Implementation Monitoring
applicable TCVN standards and requirements. Provisions for random
testing of spoils shall be specified to determine contamination levels
(e.g., heavy metals) based on TCVN standards.
d) Spill Management Plan. The plan shall provide details of procedures,
responsibilities, resources, documentation and reporting requirements,
training provisions for relevant staff , etc. to avoid spills of hazardous
substances and to effectively respond to such incidents, in case these
occur.
e) Traffic Management Plan. The plan shall be designed to ensure that
traffic congestion due to construction activities and movement of
construction vehicles, haulage trucks, and equipment is minimized. The
plan shall be prepared in consultation with local traffic officials and
people’s committees at the district and commune levels. The plan shall
identify traffic diversion and management, define routes for construction
traffic from materials storage/parking areas to construction site and from
construction site to waste disposal locations, traffic schedules, traffic
arrangements showing all detours/lane diversions, modifications to
signaling at intersections, necessary barricades, warning/advisory
signs, road signs, lighting, and other provisions to ensure that adequate
and safe access is provided to motorists in the affected areas.
f) Occupational and Community Health and Safety Plan consistent
with international standards (e.g., the World Bank Group’s Environment,
Health and Safety Guidelines of 2007) and Labor Code of Vietnam.
The Plan shall address health and safety hazards associated with
tunneling (working in confined space and compressed air, etc.), working
at heights, excavations, establishment and operation of
construction/worker’s camps, use of heavy equipment, transport of
materials and other hazards associated with various construction
activities.
g) Emergency Response Plan to prevent, mitigate, respond to and
recover from emergency events that could occur due to project activities
such as accidents during tunneling (e.g., tunnel collapse, electrocution,
etc.), release of toxic gas during tunneling, spills of hazardous
substances, fire, floods, and other crises.

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Table 9.3: Environmental Mitigation Plan for the Tunnel
Environmental Proposed Mitigation Measures Estimated Responsibility
Aspect/Concern Cost Implementation Monitoring
Construction
1. Air quality impacts due to a) Strictly implement approved Dust Control Plan Part of Contractor HRB/PMU, PSC,
gaseous and dust b) Wherever possible, use grid rather than generator set electrical power contractor’s PMSC
emissions for construction equipment such as the tunnel boring machine and bid cost
equipment to be used during cut-and-cover tunnel excavations.
c) Position any stationary emission sources (e.g., portable diesel
generators, compressors, etc.) as far as is practical from sensitive
receptors;
d) Use only vehicles and equipment that are registered and have
necessary permits.
e) Burning of wastes generated at the construction sites, work camps and
other project-related activities shall be strictly prohibited.
f) Construction equipment and vehicles shall be well-maintained and shall
meet national TCVN emission standards.
g) Specify the use of clean fuels such as ultra-low sulphur diesel in dump
trucks and other heavy-duty diesel vehicles and/or equipment, in
conjunction with the use of particulate trap control devices, as well as
catalytic converters, to avoid excessive diesel emissions.
h) Keep stockpiles moist and cover vehicles with tarpaulin sheets or other
suitable materials to minimize dust emission and prevent spillage of
materials (e.g., soil, cement, stone, sand, aggregates, etc.).
i) Provide temporary covers (e.g., tarpaulins, grass, etc.) on long term
materials stockpiles.
j) Store excavated materials outside road reserve, but where there is no
area, spoils shall be loaded and transported immediately.
k) Provide truck-washing facilities to prevent truck-out of mud and dust
onto city streets.
l) As much as possible, the casting yard for the Project will make use of
already established and licensed site(s) for concrete forming activities
where all the pre-cast sections will be fabricated.
m) Ensure that necessary environmental approvals are obtained for the
establishment and operation of a new casting yard,
n) Daily cleaning of road surfaces of debris/spills from construction
equipment, haulage trucks and vehicles,
o) Install temporary fencing or barriers around particularly dusty activities
in vicinity of sensitive receivers

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Table 9.3: Environmental Mitigation Plan for the Tunnel
Environmental Proposed Mitigation Measures Estimated Responsibility
Aspect/Concern Cost Implementation Monitoring
p) Ensure availability of water trucks or other dust suppressants and
appropriate equipment for applying the suppressant (e.g., a tank tuck
with spray bars) on site and if the works surface and access roads near
sensitive receptors (i.e., residential areas, roadside tea and food stalls,
schools, hospitals and other sensitive receptors) are dry and dusty,
spray water on the exposed surfaces to reduce dust emission.
q) All construction equipment and machinery shall be fitted with emission
control equipment in full compliance with the national (TCVN) and local
regulations.
r) Fuel-efficient and well-maintained haulage trucks will be used to
minimize exhaust emissions. Smoke belching vehicles and equipment
shall not be allowed and shall be removed from the project.
s) Impose speed limits on construction vehicles to minimize road dust in
areas where sensitive receptors are located.
t) Undertake immediate repairs of any malfunctioning construction
vehicles and equipment.
u) Daily visual inspections to identify and address potential areas of dust
and odor emissions.
v) Discourage idling of engines
w) Provide prior notification to the community on schedule of construction
activities
x) Implement 24 hour community complaints hotline
2. Noise and vibration a) Strictly implement approved Noise Control Plan Part of Contractor HRB/PMU, PSC,
impacts due to operation b) Erection of temporary walls around the underground station contractor’s PMSC
of construction excavation sites and tunnel portal. Temporary noise barriers (3-5 bid cost
equipment/ vehicles and meter high) can reduce noise level by 5-10 dB(A).
various construction c) Diesel hammer piling shall be limited in favor of drill piling.
activities d) Truck drivers and equipment operators shall minimize the use of
horns.
e) Position any stationary equipment that produce high noise levels (e.g.,
portable diesel generators, compressors, etc.) as far as is practical
from sensitive receptors;
f) All construction equipment and vehicles shall be well maintained,
regularly inspected for noise emissions, and shall be fitted with
appropriate noise suppression equipment consistent with applicable
national and local regulations.

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Table 9.3: Environmental Mitigation Plan for the Tunnel
Environmental Proposed Mitigation Measures Estimated Responsibility
Aspect/Concern Cost Implementation Monitoring
g) Use only vehicles and equipment that are registered and have
necessary permits.
h) No noisy construction-related activities will be carried out during the
night. Such activities shall be restricted to daylight hours.
i) Impose speed limits on construction vehicles to minimize noise
emission along areas where sensitive receptors are located (houses,
schools, hospitals, etc.).
j) As much as possible, use quiet equipment and working method.
k) Whenever possible, completely enclose noisy equipment which can
reduce noise level by 15-25 dB(A), restrict use of noisy equipment
(e.g.15 min for every consecutive 30 min period) and undertake
sequential operation of equipment with objective to reduce noise
generated;
l) No noisy construction activities near schools during examination
period.
m) Avoid noisy construction activities in vicinity of sensitive receivers
during night time or other sensitive periods (e.g. during school hours in
vicinity of schools).
n) Provide prior notification to the community on schedule of construction
activities
o) Implement 24 hour community complaints hotline
3. Spoils generation from a) Strictly implement approved Spoils Disposal Plan Part of Contractor HRB/PMU, PSC,
tunneling and excavation b) Spoil disposal will only be to DONRE and DOC approved areas contractor’s PMSC
works at underground c) The capacity of disposal sites shall be adequate to accept the quantity bid cost
station sites of spoils without alienating areas outside the site boundaries.
d) Undertake random sampling of spoils from underground station
excavations and tunneling to determine presence of contaminants.
e) Disposal of contaminated spoils shall only be to disposal sites
equipped and licensed to handle such wastes.
f) Determine water content of spoils to ascertain if spoils dewatering is
necessary.
g) Undertake necessary spoils dewatering and provide adequate
treatment facilities to ensure that resulting wastewater meets TCVN
standards.
h) Stockpiling of spoils shall not be undertaken due to the limited footprint
of the construction site. Spoils shall be trucked away immediately to

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Table 9.3: Environmental Mitigation Plan for the Tunnel
Environmental Proposed Mitigation Measures Estimated Responsibility
Aspect/Concern Cost Implementation Monitoring
disposal sites.
i) Should any small stockpiles be developed, these shall be covered by
plastic sheeting
j) Trucks transporting spoils shall be tightly covered with tarpaulin or
other suitable materials to minimize dust emission and spills.
k) Load-out areas shall be cleaned and watered to ensure no
accumulated dust originates that could be dispersed to surrounding
areas.
l) Wheel washing shall be undertaken to remove mud so as to ensure
that access roads are kept clean.
m) Road surfaces shall be regularly cleaned of spilled spoils.
n) The spoils disposal site shall be located at least 50 m from surface
water courses and shall be protected from erosion by avoiding
formation of steep slopes and grassing.
o) Spoil disposal shall not cause sedimentation and obstruction of flow of
watercourses, damage to agricultural land and densely vegetated
areas.
4. Polution due to spills of a) Strictly implement approved Spills Management Plan Part of Contractor HRB/PMU, PSC,
fuel and other hazardous b) Store fuel and hazardous substances in paved areas with contractor’s PMSC
substances. embankment. If spills or leaks do occur, undertake immediate clean bid cost
up.
c) Ensure availability of spill clean up materials (e.g., absorbent pads,
etc.) specifically designed for petroleum products and other hazardous
substances where such materials are being stored.
d) Train relevant construction personnel in handling of fuels and spill
control procedures.
e) Ensure all storage containers are in good condition with proper
labeling.
f) Regularly check containers for leakage and undertake necessary
repair or replacement.
g) Store hazardous materials above flood level.
h) Equipment maintenance areas shall be provided with drainage leading
to an oil-water separator that will be regularly skimmed of oil and
maintained to ensure efficiency. Discharge of oil contaminated water
shall be prohibited.
i) Store waste oil, used lubricant and other hazardous wastes in tightly

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Table 9.3: Environmental Mitigation Plan for the Tunnel
Environmental Proposed Mitigation Measures Estimated Responsibility
Aspect/Concern Cost Implementation Monitoring
sealed containers to avoid contamination of soil and water resources.
Transport and off-site disposal of such wastes shall be consistent with
national and local regulations.
5. Drainage obstruction/ a) Placement of construction materials, excavated spoils, equipment shall Part of Contractor HRB/PMU, PSC,
flooding not block flow of rainwater into canals/drainage structures. contractor’s PMSC
b) Prohibit disposal of waste materials to drainage channels. bid cost
c) Regularly inspect and maintain all drainage channels to keep these
free of obstructions.
6. Potential contamination of a) Non-toxic slurry and additives shall be used to minimize the impact of Part of Contractor HRB/PMU, PSC,
groundwater due to potential pollution to the water wells. contractor’s PMSC
tunneling b) Minimize the amount of slurry and additives applied to reduce the bid cost
potential for pollution.
c) Ensure that pressure applied to tunneling and ground treatment is
controlled to prevent excessive pressure that will drive the slurry out
of the desired range increasing the risk of damaging nearby wells
and their water quality.
d) Cooperate with the water agency to shut down the nearby municipal
wells while tunneling or ground treatment is taking place.
e) Undertake regular monitoring of water wells located within the range
of potential impact with reference to TCVN drinking water standards
and pollution indicators (of slurry). Baseline sampling shall also be
undertaken prior to start of tunneling.
7. Generation of solid a) Provide garbage bins and facilities within the project site for Part of Contractor HRB/PMU, PSC,
wastes temporary storage of construction waste and domestic solid waste. contractor’s PMSC
b) Separate solid waste into hazardous, non-hazardous and reusable bid cost
waste streams and store temporarily on site in secure facilities with
weatherproof flooring and roofing, security fencing and access control
and drainage/ wastewater collection systems.
c) Ensure that wastes are not haphazardly dumped within the project
site and adjacent areas
d) Undertake regular collection and disposal of wastes to sites approved
by local authorities.
8. Damage to community a) Immediately repair any damage caused by the Project to community Part of Contractor HRB/PMU, PSC,
facilities facilities such as water supply, power supply, communication facilities contractor’s PMSC
and the like. bid cost
b) Access roads damaged during transport of construction materials and

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Table 9.3: Environmental Mitigation Plan for the Tunnel
Environmental Proposed Mitigation Measures Estimated Responsibility
Aspect/Concern Cost Implementation Monitoring
other project-related activities shall be reinstated upon completion of
construction works.
6. Land Subsidence Depending on the results of the land subsidence monitoring conducted by the Part of Contractor HRB/PMU, PSC,
TBM contractor, suitable mitigation measures shall be developed and contractor’s PMSC
implemented by to avoid or minimize damage to properties. bid cost
9. Traffic congestion and a) Strictly implement approved Traffic Management Plan Part of Contractor HRB/PMU, PSC,
access problems b) Locate construction support facilities such that generation of contractor’s PMSC
construction traffic trip numbers and lengths are minimized. bid cost
c) To allow one side of the road to be open to two-way traffic,
excavation for the underground stations (except for Van Mieu) shall
be carried out first on one half of the station width. After excavation is
completed and covered, excavation shall then commence at the
opposite side.
d) Provide signs advising road users that construction is in progress and
that the road narrows to one lane using cones.
e) Employ flag persons to control traffic at the station sites for safety
reasons when construction equipment is entering or leaving the work
area.
f) Lanes through the work site, created by rope or flagging, shall be
developed to minimize risks and injuries from falling objects.
g) Post traffic advisory signs (to minimize traffic build-up) in coordination
with local authorities
h) Provide road signs indicating the lane is closed 500 m before the
worksite.
i) Use traffic cones to direct traffic to move to the open lane.
j) Provide sufficient lighting at night within and in the vicinity of
construction sites.
k) Regularly monitor traffic conditions along access roads to ensure that
project vehicles are not causing congestion.
l) Define and observe schedules for different types of construction
traffic trips (e.g., transport of pre-cast sections, haulage of spoils,
delivery of construction materials, etc.).
m) As much as possible, schedule delivery of construction materials and
equipment as well as transport of spoils during non-peak hours.
n) Avoid movements of noisy vehicles during night time in vicinity of
sensitive receivers.

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Table 9.3: Environmental Mitigation Plan for the Tunnel
Environmental Proposed Mitigation Measures Estimated Responsibility
Aspect/Concern Cost Implementation Monitoring
o) Implement suitable safety measures to minimize risk of adverse
interactions between construction works and traffic flows through
provision of temporary signals or flag controls, adequate lighting,
fencing, signage and road diversions.
p) Ensure relocation of any affected public transport infrastructure (but
stops, shelters etc) prior to commencement of works
q) Provide advance notification to the community regarding changes to
public transport facilities or routes.
r) Schedule construction works to minimize extent of activity along
linear construction site at any one time
s) Comply with traffic regulations and avoid, where possible, roads with
the highest traffic volumes, high density of sensitive receivers or
capacity constraints are not used as access to and from the
construction areas and spoils disposal sites.
t) Install temporary accesses to properties affected by disruption to their
permanent accesses.
u) Reinstate good quality permanent accesses following completion of
construction.
v)
10. Hazards to health and a) Strictly implement approved Occupational and Community Health and Part of Contractor HRB/PMU, PSC,
safety of workers and the Safety Plan, and approved Emergency Response Plan contractor’s PMSC
public due to construction b) Appoint an environment, health and safety manager to look after bid cost
works implementation of required environmental mitigation measures, and
to ensure that health and safety precautions are strictly implemented
for the protection of workers and the general public in the vicinity of
construction areas.
c) Conduct orientation for all workers on safety and environmental
hygiene.
d) Provide first aid facilities that are readily accessible by workers.
e) Provide fire fighting equipment at the work areas, where appropriate,
and at construction camps.
f) Provide adequate drainage in workers camps to prevent water
logging and formation of breeding sites for mosquitoes.
g) Provide potable water, hygienic sanitation facilities/toilets with
sufficient water supply
h) Establish clean canteen/rest area.

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Table 9.3: Environmental Mitigation Plan for the Tunnel
Environmental Proposed Mitigation Measures Estimated Responsibility
Aspect/Concern Cost Implementation Monitoring
i) Provide fencing on all areas of excavation greater than 2 m deep.
j) Provide appropriate personnel safety equipment such as safety
boots, helmets, gloves, protective clothes, breathing mask, goggles,
and ear protection
k) Implement precautions to ensure that objects (e.g., equipment, tool,
debris, pre-cast sections, etc.) do not fall onto or hit construction
workers.
l) Implement fall prevention and protection measures whenever a
worker is exposed to the hazard of falling more than two meters,
falling into operating machinery or through an opening in a work
surface. Based on a case-specific basis, fall prevention/protection
measures may include installation of guardrails with mid-rails and toe
boards at the edge of any fall hazard area, proper use of ladders and
scaffolds by trained employees, use of fall prevention devices,
including safety belt and lanyard travel limiting devices to prevent
access to fall hazard, fall protection devices such as full body
harnesses, etc.
m) Provide sufficient lighting such as the tunnel areas, underground
station excavation sites as well as in other construction areas, as
appropriate, to enable safe equipment operation. Provide emergency
lighting system of adequate intensity that is automatically activated
upon failure of the principal artificial light source to ensure safe
equipment operation, safe shut-down, evacuation, etc.
n) Ensure that sufficient fresh air is supplied at confined work spaces
such as the tunnel and underground station excavation sites. Re-
circulation of contaminated air is not acceptable. Air inlet filters shall
be kept clean and free of dust and microorganisms.
o) Confined spaces (e.g., tunnel) shall be provided with safety measures
for venting, monitoring, and rescue operations, to the extent possible.
p) Implement precautions to ensure that objects (e.g., equipment, tool,
debris, pre-cast sections, etc.) do not fall onto or hit people, vehicle,
and properties in adjoining areas.
q) Fencing of construction sites and excavation sites and guarding such
areas to restrict public access.
r) Prior to excavation work, provide fencing on all sides of areas to be
excavated.

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Table 9.3: Environmental Mitigation Plan for the Tunnel
Environmental Proposed Mitigation Measures Estimated Responsibility
Aspect/Concern Cost Implementation Monitoring
s) Provide warning signs at the periphery of the construction site.
t) Strictly impose speed limits on construction vehicles along residential
areas and where other sensitive receptors such as schools, hospitals,
and other populated areas are located.
u) Educate drivers on safe driving practices to minimize accidents and
to prevent spill of hazardous substances and other construction
materials during transport.
11. Potential damage to The following ‘chance-find’ principles will be implemented by the contractor Part of Contractor HRB/PMU, PSC,
undiscovered throughout the construction works to account for any undiscovered items contractor’s PMSC, DCI
archaeological relics identified during construction works: bid cost
a) Workers will be trained in the location of heritage zones within the
construction area and in the identification of potential items of heritage
significance
b) Should any potential items be located, the site supervisor will be
immediately contacted and work will be temporarily stopped in that area
c) If the site supervisor determines that the item is of potential significance,
an officer from the Depatment of Culture and Information (DCI) will be
invited to inspect the site and work will be stopped until DCI has
responded to this invitation
d) Work will not re-commence in this location until agreement has been
reached between DCI and HRB as to any required mitigation measures,
which may include excavation and recovery of the item
e) A precautionary approach will adopted in the application of these
procedures
12. Potential damage to the a) Consult with managers of Temple of Literature and DCI prior to Part of Contractor HRB/PMU, PSC,
Temple of Literature commencement of construction to inform them of construction schedule contractor’s PMSC, DCI,
and activities and identify requirements for specific mitigation measures bid cost Management of
to minimize air, noise, or traffic impacts in addition to those already Temple of
required in the EMP. Literature
b) Establish a photographic record of the fence and gates, especially at
ground level.
c) To monitor settlement, install inclinometers along the fence, the gate and
other structures closest to the flower garden. These inclinometers shall
be left in place for 2 years after construction and regularly monitored.
d) Install a vibration recording device and undertake continuous monitoring

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Table 9.3: Environmental Mitigation Plan for the Tunnel
Environmental Proposed Mitigation Measures Estimated Responsibility
Aspect/Concern Cost Implementation Monitoring
for the period when the TBM is traversing the Temple of Literature.
e) Adjust tunneling speeds and periodicity should the vibration monitoring
indicate excessive vibrations.
f) Should the monitoring indicate that settlement has taken place based on
photographic record, inclinometer reading and depending on the
severity, the following remedial measures shall be applied, as
appropriate:
i. Fill the garden area with soil and re-level the ground;
ii. Re-install the fence and supports;
iii. Jack-up the building(s) and rebuild the base with cement forms or
engineered earth;
iv. Repair cracks and re-plaster walls.

13. Social conflicts due to a) Consider the location of construction camps away from communities in Part of Contractor HRB/PMU, PSC,
presence of workers order to avoid social conflict in using resources and basic amenities such contractor’s PMSC
as water supply. bid cost
b) Maximize number of local people employed in construction works.
c) Maximize goods and services sourced from local commercial
enterprises.
Operation
2. Noise emission from tunnel a) Tunnel ventilation systems shall have suitable noise control measures Part of HRB/Operator DONRE
operation incorporated into their design to reduce mechanical noise to operational
acceptable levels in the surrounding community. cost
b) Depending on the results of noise monitoring, installation of acoustical
treatment to the first few meters (i.e., < 15 m) of the tunnel portal shall
be implemented as necessary.
3. Waste generation a) Waste collection bins or receptacles shall be provided in various areas Part of HRB/Operator DONRE
at the undergroundd stations, such as offices and areas accessed by operational
passengers. cost
b) Garbage shall be regularly collected and shall be disposed consistent
with local regulations
c) The underground stations shall be provided with toilets and septic
tanks to handle sewage generated by workers and passengers.

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Table 9.3: Environmental Mitigation Plan for the Tunnel
Environmental Proposed Mitigation Measures Estimated Responsibility
Aspect/Concern Cost Implementation Monitoring
4. Hazards to health and a) Prior to operation of the Project, HRB shall ensure that the following Part of HRB/Operator DONRE
safety of workers and the plans have been developed and adequately resourced. HRB shall operational
public due to operation of ensure strict implementation of plan provisions throughout operation cost
viaduct facilities phase:
 Occupational Health and Safety Plan for tunnel facilities operation
(rail and stations) and train staff in the implementation of such
plan.
 Emergency Response Plan (e.g., in case of fire, collision.
Derailment, floods, power outage, equipment breakdown,
accidents, etc.) covering operation of underground rail and
stations. HRB shall train staff in the implementation of such plan.
b) Ventilation systems will be provided in the underground stations.
c) Air compressors with fans will be used to cool air, before injecting it
into stations.
d) Air will be filtered prior to exhaust to the external environment.
e) Under normal conditions the tunnel section of the route will be
ventilated by the piston effects of train movements. The system shall
ensure circulation of fresh air to meet both normal and emergency
requirements.
f) There will be provisions for sufficient emergency exits.
g) Pumps will be installed in the tunnel and underground stations to pump
storm water and wastewater. Wastewater treatment systems will be
installed at stations to treat sewage prior to discharge to the city
systems.
h) Communications systems (normal and emergency systems), fire
protection, emergency response and evacuation systems will be
implemented throughout the Project (tunnel, viaduct and depot).
i) Back-up electricity and ventilation systems will be installed in the
tunnel sections. These systems, shall meet current European safety
standards.
j) A central operations control centre for the project will be established at
the Nhon depot to coordinate project operation and emergency
response procedures.
k) Safety and evacuation measures in case of fire and other accidents
(e.g., derailment, collision, etc.) shall be developed prior to operation.

204
B. Environmental Monitoring Plans

Table 9.4: Environmental Effects Monitoring Plan – Depot

Aspects/Parameters to be Location Means of Monitoring Frequency Implementation Estimated Cost


Monitored
Responsibility (Analytical cost
only)

Pre-construction/Site Preparation Phase

Ambient air quality compared to 2 sites: Analytical methods outlined in once before site Project Supervision $200
criteria in TCVN 5937-2005 TCVN standards for air quality works Consultant (PSC)
1- by the University monitoring
Particulates PM10, PM2.5, NO2, of Industry
SO2, CO and petroleum
hydrocarbon (HC) 2- Road N70

Ambient groundwater quality in One Depot site well Analytical methods outlined in once before site PSC $100
existing well - heavy metals (As, TCVN standards for surface works
Cr, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Hg, Fe, water quality monitoring
Mn, Se), SVOC, VOC, TPH and
coliforms compared to criteria in
TCVN 5944-1995

Day time and night time noise 2 sites: Analytical methods outlined in once before site PSC $20
levels dB(A) compared to criteria TCVN standards for ambient works
in TCVN 5949-1999 and 1- by the University noise level monitoring
vibration levels TCVN 6962-2001 of Industry
and 7210-2002 2- Road N70

Construction Phase

Ambient air quality compared to 2 sites: Analytical methods outlined in 20 sampling PSC $4,000
criteria in TCVN 5937-2005 TCVN standards for air quality events over 5 years
1- by the University monitoring (quarterly) and in
of Industry response to
2- Road N70 complaints

Ambient groundwater quality in Depot site well Analytical methods outlined in 20 sampling PSC $ 2,000
existing well - heavy metals (As, TCVN standards for surface events over 5 years

205
Table 9.4: Environmental Effects Monitoring Plan – Depot

Aspects/Parameters to be Location Means of Monitoring Frequency Implementation Estimated Cost


Monitored
Responsibility (Analytical cost
only)
Cr, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Hg, Fe, water quality monitoring (quarterly) and in
Mn, Se), SVOC, VOC, TPH and response to
coliforms compared to criteria in complaints
TCVN 5944-1995

Day time and night time noise 2 sites: Analytical methods outlined in 20 sampling PSC $400
and vibration levels dB(A) TCVN standards for ambient events over 5 years
compared to criteria in TCVN 1- by the University noise level monitoring (quarterly) and in
5949-1999 and vibration levels of Industry response to
TCVN 6962-2001 and 7210- 2- Road N70 complaints
2002

Operation Phase (first year)

Ambient air quality compared to 2 sites: Analytical methods outlined in Quarterly and in HRB/Operator $1,000
criteria in TCVN 5937-2005 TCVN standards for air quality other sites in
1- by the University monitoring response to
of Industry complaints
2- Road N70

Day time and night time noise 2 sites: Analytical methods outlined in Quarterly and in HRB/Operator $100
and vibration levels dB(A) TCVN standards for ambient other sites in
compared to criteria in TCVN 1- by the University noise level monitoring response to
5949-1999 and vibration levels of Industry complaints
TCVN 6962-2001 and 7210- 2- Road N70
2002

Ambient groundwater quality in Depot well Analytical methods outlined in Quarterly HRB/Operator $400
existing well - heavy metals (As, TCVN standards for surface
Cr, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Hg, Fe, water quality monitoring
Mn, Se), SVOC, VOC, TPH and
coliforms compared to criteria in
TCVN 5944-1995

206
Table 9.5: Environmental Effects Monitoring Plan – Viaduct

Aspects/Parameters to be Location Means of Monitoring Frequency Implementation Estimated Cost


Monitored
Responsibility (Analytical cost
only)

Pre-construction/Site Preparation Phase

Ambient air quality compared to 5 sites: Analytical methods outlined in once before site PSC $500
criteria in TCVN 5937-2005 TCVN standards for air quality works
Along NR 32 5m from monitoring
road; At intersection
of NR 32 and national
railway; Intersection
with Le Duc Tho
Road; - Ha Noi
National University
near intersection with
3rd Ring Road; 2nd
Ring Rd

Day time and night time noise 5 sites: Analytical methods outlined in once before site PSC $50
levels dB(A) compared to criteria TCVN standards for ambient works
in TCVN 5949-1999 and Along NR 32 5m from noise level monitoring
vibration levels compared to road; At intersection
TCVN 6962-2001 and 7210- of NR 32 and national
2002 railway; Intersection
with Le Duc Tho
Road; - Ha Noi
National University
near intersection with
3rd Ring Road; 2nd
Ring Rd

207
Table 9.5: Environmental Effects Monitoring Plan – Viaduct

Aspects/Parameters to be Location Means of Monitoring Frequency Implementation Estimated Cost


Monitored
Responsibility (Analytical cost
only)

Construction Phase

Ambient air quality compared to 5 sites: Analytical methods outlined in 20 sampling events PSC $10,000
criteria in TCVN 5937-2005 TCVN standards for air quality over 5 years
Along NR 32 5m from monitoring (quarterly) and in
road; At intersection response to
of NR 32 and national complaints
railway; Intersection
with Le Duc Tho
Road; - Ha Noi
National University
near intersection with
nd
3rd Ring Road; 2
Ring Rd

Day time and night time noise 5 sites: Analytical methods outlined in 20 sampling events PSC $1,000
levels dB(A) compared to criteria TCVN standards for ambient over 5 years
in TCVN 5949-1999 and Along NR 32 5m from noise level monitoring (quarterly) and in
vibration levels compared to road; At intersection response to
TCVN 6962-2001 and 7210- of NR 32 and national complaints
2002 railway; Intersection
with Le Duc Tho
Road; - Ha Noi
National University
near intersection with
nd
3rd Ring Road; 2
Ring Rd

208
Table 9.5: Environmental Effects Monitoring Plan – Viaduct

Aspects/Parameters to be Location Means of Monitoring Frequency Implementation Estimated Cost


Monitored
Responsibility (Analytical cost
only)

Operational Phase (first year)

Ambient air quality compared to 5 sites: Analytical methods outlined in Quarterly and in HRB/Operator $2,000
criteria in TCVN 5937-2005 TCVN standards for air quality response to
Along NR 32 5m from monitoring complaints
road; At intersection
of NR 32 and national
railway; Intersection
with Le Duc Tho
Road; - Ha Noi
National University
near intersection with
nd
3rd Ring Road; 2
Ring Rd

Day time and night time noise 5 sites: Analytical methods outlined in Quarterly and in HRB/Operator $200
levels dB(A) compared to criteria TCVN standards for ambient response to
in TCVN 5949-1999 and Along NR 32 5m from noise level monitoring complaints
vibration levels compared to road; At intersection
TCVN 6962-2001 and 7210- of NR 32 and national
2002 railway; Intersection
with Le Duc Tho
Road; - Ha Noi
National University
near intersection with
nd
3rd Ring Road; 2
Ring Rd

209
Table 9.6 Environmental Effects Monitoring Plan for the Tunnel Section

Aspects/Parameters to be Location Means of Monitoring Frequency Implementation Estimated Cost


Monitored
Responsibility (Analytical cost
only)

Pre-construction/Site Preparation Phase

Ambient air quality compared to 4 sites: Near Cau Analytical methods outlined in once before site PSC $400
criteria in TCVN 5937-2005 Giay Post Office; TCVN standards for air quality works
Daewoo Hotel Lieu monitoring
Giai / Kim Ma; Cat
Linh near Horison
Hotel; Gate of Ha Noi
Railway Station

Day time and night time noise 4 sites: Near Cau Analytical methods outlined in once before site PSC $40
levels dB(A) compared to criteria Giay Post Office; TCVN standards for ambient works
in TCVN 5949-1999 and Daewoo Hotel Lieu noise level monitoring
vibration levels compared to Giai / Kim Ma; Cat
TCVN 6962-2001 and 7210- Linh near Horison
2002 Hotel; Gate of Ha Noi
Railway Station

Ambient groundwater quality in Selected water wells Analytical methods outlined in once before site PSC $5,000
existing wells - heavy metals in the potential impact TCVN standards for surface works
(As, Cr, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Hg, zone of tunnelling water quality monitoring
Fe, Mn, Se), SVOC, VOC, TPH works.
and coliforms compared to
criteria in TCVN 5944-1995 and
indicators of presence of
chemicals used for tunneling

Construction Phase

Ambient air quality compared to 4 sites: Near Cau Analytical methods outlined in 20 sampling events PSC $8,000
criteria in TCVN 5937-2005 Giay Post Office; TCVN standards for air quality over 5 years
Daewoo Hotel Lieu monitoring (quarterly) and in
Giai / Kim Ma; Cat response to
Linh near Horison

210
Table 9.6 Environmental Effects Monitoring Plan for the Tunnel Section

Aspects/Parameters to be Location Means of Monitoring Frequency Implementation Estimated Cost


Monitored
Responsibility (Analytical cost
only)
Hotel; Gate of Ha Noi complaints
Railway Station

Day time and night time noise 4 sites: Near Cau Analytical methods outlined in 20 sampling events PSC $800
levels dB(A) compared to criteria Giay Post Office; TCVN standards for ambient over 5 years
in TCVN 5949-1999 and Daewoo Hotel Lieu noise level monitoring (quarterly) and in
vibration compared to TCVN Giai / Kim Ma; Cat response to
6962-2001 and 7210-2002 Linh near Horison complaints
Hotel; Gate of Ha Noi
Railway Station

Soil/Spoil excavation compared At excavation and Analytical methods outlined in 5 random samples PSC $1,000
to criteria in TCVN 7209 for tunnelling sites TCVN standards for soil quality taken at
heavy metals and other monitoring underground
contaminants station excavation
sites and tunnelling
areas

Ambient groundwater quality in Selected water wells Analytical methods outlined in monthly in areas PSC $10,000
existing wells - heavy metals in the potential impact TCVN standards for surface where tunnelling is
(As, Cr, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Hg, zone. water quality monitoring on-going and in
Fe, Mn, Se), SVOC, VOC, TPH response to
and coliforms compared to complaints
criteria in TCVN 5944-1995 and
indicators of presence of
chemicals used for tunneling

Traffic and accessibility Tunnel portal-Kim Ma Traffic observation to address Weekly – morning Contractor/PSC
congestion issues. and afternoon peak
Stations 9, 10, 11, 12 hour

Potential presence of At each excavation Observations/site inspection Daily until the Contractor/PSC
undiscovered archaeological site until a depth of during excavation works in excavation depth of
relics 6m vicinity of the stations and 6 m is reached
tunnel entrance

211
Table 9.6 Environmental Effects Monitoring Plan for the Tunnel Section

Aspects/Parameters to be Location Means of Monitoring Frequency Implementation Estimated Cost


Monitored
Responsibility (Analytical cost
only)

Operation Phase

Day time and night time noise 1 location, tunnel Analytical methods outlined in Quarterly and in HRB/Operator $40
and vibration levels dB(A) portal on Kim Ma TCVN standards for ambient response to
compared to criteria in TCVN noise level monitoring complaints
5949-1999 and TCVN 6962-
2001 and 7210-2002

Land subsidence and settlement Ground benchmarks Compare the allowed design Once a year for HRB/Operator $6,000
every 0.5 km criteria of movement with the both ground
accumulated movement surface and piles.

212
Table 9.7: Environmental Effects - Land Subsidence and Settlement Monitoring at the Underground Section (Pre-
Construction and Construction Stages)

1. Responsibility for Implementation Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) contractor


2. Monitoring objective Prevent damages to the neighbouring buildings caused by construction induced settlement.
3. Environmental Parameters 1. Amount of land subsidence and settlement.
2. Integrity of the neighbouring buildings
4. Survey Schedule Pre-construction: twice for the designated benchmark.
Construction: monthly
5. Sampling Locations 1. Survey benchmarks. About one for every km for land subsidence.
2. Within the range of potential impact zone, Survey benchmarks should installed at different distances
from the center line. A couple of transverse survey lines across the tunnel is recommended.
3. Several inspection points at the selected buildings.
6. Instruments Benchmarks, settlement reference points, inclinometers in earth, crack gauge and tiltmeter (for
buildings), observation wells or piezometers for deep excavation.
7. Data quality objectives Follow the guidance for survey accuracy requirement.
8. Determination of impact Compare the allowed design criteria of settlement with the accumulated amount of settlement. Any
significance time, should the neighbouring buildings damaged, action of remediation must take place immediately.
9. Guidance on reporting Results recorded in the monthly report to HRB and included in semi-annual reports to ADB
10. Guidance on QA/QC Follow the guidance for survey accuracy requirement.
11. Budget Pre-construction $6,000
Construction $60,000

TOTAL $66,000

213
214

C. Responsibilities for EMP Implementation

Table 9.8: Table highlighting key donors, project implementers, and agencies

Organization EMP Responsibility

HPC  Project owner with overall responsibility for project construction and
operation
 Ensure that sufficient funds are available to properly implement the
EMP
 Ensure that EMP provisions are implemented for the entire Project
regardless of financing source.
 Ensure that Project implementation complies with the GOV and ADB's
environmental policy principles and requirements
 Submit semi-annual monitoring reports on EMP implementation to
ADB and MONRE
 Engage external expert(s) to undertake annual independent
verification of monitoring information submitted to ADB and to
determine if various EMP provisions are being implemented in
thorough and timely manner and in accordance with budget identified
within the EMP.
 Submit annual external environmental monitoring reports to ADB
HRB/PMU  Project implementing agency with designated overall responsibility for
project construction and operation including environmental
performance
 Allocation of adequate financial and human resources to fulfil
environmental commitments during project construction and operation
 Establish a grievance redress mechanism as described in the EIA
 Establish an Environmental Management Unit (EMU) staffed by
qualified and experienced environmental officer and occupational
health and safety officer
 Ensure that tender and contract documents include the EMP
 Liaison with Department of Defence and Vietnamese Army on UXO
issues
 Ensure that EMP provisions are strictly implemented during pre-
construction, construction and operation phases of the project
 Undertake monitoring of the implementation of the EMP (mitigation
and monitoring measures) with assistance from PSC
Project Supervision  Undertake environmental effects monitoring during pre-construction
Consultant (PSC) and construction phases for depot, viaduct and tunnel components
 Undertake environmental training for EMU, HRB/PMU staff as required
in the EMP
 Monitor the environmental performance of contractors in terms of
implementation of mitigation measures for pre-construction and
construction phase as specified in the EMP
 Monitor over-all implementation of various EMP provisions
 Review and approve the specific environmental management plans
(e.g., Spoils Disposal Plan, Dust Control Plan, Noise Control Plan,
etc.) to be prepared by contractors as specified in the EMP
 Prepare monthly environmental monitoring reports on EMP
implementation

214
Organization EMP Responsibility

Project Management  Ensure that the PSC id implementing its responsibilities specified in
Support Consultant (PMSC) the EMP such as conduct of environmental effects monitoring;
monitoring of environmental performance of contractors;
implementation of envitonmental training for EMU, HRB/PMU staff;
review and approval of specific environmental management plans
prepared by contractors prior to commencement of site works, over-all
monitoring of EMP implementation; and preparation of monthly
environmental monitoring reports for submission to HRB
 Assist HRB/PMU/EMU in preparing semi-annual environmental
monitoring reports for submission to ADB. The semi-annual reports
shall be based on the monthly reports prepared by the PSC as well as
PMSC’s own observations/inspections to assess progress of EMP
implementation during pre-construction an dconstruction phases.
Contractor  Appoint and environment, health and safety officer to oversee timely
and proper implementation of mitigation and monitoring measures
specified in the EMP
 Implement and provide sufficient funding and human resources for
proper and timely implementation of required mitigation measures in
the EMP for pre-construction and construction phases
 Prior to start of site works, prepare environmental management action
plans in the form of specific management plans (Dust and Noise
Control Plan, Spoils Disposal Plan, Traffic Management Plan, etc.)
specified in the EMP. Such plans shall be submitted to the PSC for
approval.
 Undertake land subsidence and settlement monitoring program
specified in the EMP during the pre-construction and construction
phase (TBM contractor only) and submit monthly reports to PSC and
HRB/PMU/EMU
External Expert  Undertake independent annual reviews to verify the monitoring
information submitted by HPC/HRB to ADB on the implementation of
the environmental management plan (EMP). The external expert shall
also assess if various EMP provisions are being implemented as
required.
 Review and verify the accuracy, breadth, depth, and relevance of
information provided by HRB to ADB with regard to EMP
implementation
 Determine if EMP provisions (mitigation, monitoring, reporting, etc.)
are being conducted in thorough and timely manner and in accordance
with budget identified within the EMP.
 Submit environmental monitoring report to ADB and HPC.
MONRE  Approval of GOV EIA in accordance with Law on Environment
Protection 2005
 Environmental monitoring and supervision during construction and
operation
Ha Noi DONRE  Monitoring environmental performance of project throughout
construction and operation
 Participate in resolution of community complaints on environmental
impacts of the project during construction and operation
Ha Noi TUPWS  Responsible for issues associated with traffic management, water and
sanitation services, and spoils disposal
 Ongoing liaison with HRB, PMU and Construction Contractor during
project construction

215
Organization EMP Responsibility

Ha Noi DCI  Participate in consultations in relation to heritage issues throughout


project construction and operation
 Participate in survey and excavation work and development of suitable
mitigation measures for identified relics
Ha Noi Department of  Provision of information on UXO risk in project area
Defence /  Implementation of UXO site survey and clearance works prior to
Vietnamese Army commencement of construction
Local authorities and police  Provide assistance to TUPWS and construction contractor in
implementation and enforcement of construction traffic management
measures
Source: HRB and IEE Consultant Team

D. EMP Reporting

543. Following are the report preparation and submission requirements regarding EMP
implementation

(i) Monthly environmental monitoring reports on environmental performance of


contractors: from PSC to HRB/PMU/EMU
(ii) Monthly reports on the results of Land Subsidence and Settlement Monitoring
Program: from TBM contractor to PSC
(iii) Quarterly reports on results of environmental effects monitoring and
compilation of results of Land Subsidence and Settlement Monitoring
Program: from PSC to HRB/PMU/EMU
(iv) Semi-annual reports compiling the results of environmental effects monitoring,
environmental performance monitoring as well as Land Subsidence and
Settlement Monitoring Program: from HPC/HRB (with assistance from PMSC)
to ADB
(v) Annual reports of external environmental monitoring consultant: from external
expert to ADB and HPC/HRB
E. Budget for EMP Implementation

544. An important part of EMP development is the preparation of a realistic budget,


identification of adequate financial resources and commitment from stakeholders to EMP
implementation. Marginal costs for environmental mitigation measures are as follows:

(i) Costs for institutional strengthening activities


(ii) Costs for engagement of consultants including the external environmental
monitoring expert
(iii) Costs for public involvement activities during project implementation

1. Cost for Community Monitoring System (Community Environment


Monitoring Board)

545. According to Vietnamese regulations, the participation in a community monitoring


system will be primarily a voluntary one without any assistance costs. Community monitoring

216
organizations will receive assistance from the PMU/EMU through capacity building programs
and be provided with necessary documents, papers and forms to understand the construction
works.

2. Cost for Environmental Effects Monitoring

546. The PSC will engage an environmental effects monitoring contractor (e.g., Government
accredited laboratory) to undertake field sampling and analysis based on the schedule
specified in the Tables 9.4 to 9.6 for air quality, noise, vibration, and groundwater quality during
the pre-construction and construction stage of the project. During operation phase, HRB or the
Project operator shall continue to engage an environmental effects monitoring contractor to
carry out the EMP requirements.

547. A specific monitoring for land subsidence and settlement shall be implemented by the
TBM contractor.The proposed monitoring program is shown in Table 9.7. The summary of
environmental effects monitoring costs are shown below:

Table 9.9 Cost estimation for Environmental Effects Monitoring


Monitoring Program Pre-construction Construction Operation (1st year)
1. Environmental Effects
 Depot $320 $6,400 $1,500
 Viaduct $550 $11,000 $2,200
 Tunnel $5440 $19,800 $6,050
2. Land Subsidence and $6,000 $66,000 Included in
Settlement environmental effects
monitoring cost for the
tunnel component
Sub-total $12,310 $103,200 $9,750
Total $125,260

3. Cost for External Environmental Monitoring Expert

548. As required by ADB’s Safeguard Policy Statement 2009, HRB engage and retain an
external environmental monitoring expert given that the Project has been classified by ADB
as environment category A. Such expert shall undertake independent periodic reviews to
verify the monitoring information submitted by HRB to ADB on the implementation of the
environmental management plan (EMP). The external expert shall also assess if various
EMP provisions are being implemented as required. Appendix 3 presents the terms of
reference for the external expert while the table below provides the estimated cost for
engaging such expert.

Table 9.10 Cost estimation for External Expert


Item Rate ($) Unit Qty Total ($)
1. International
(i) Remuneration 15,000 Person-month 6 90,000
(ii) Airfare 2,000 Round-trip 6 12,000
(iii) Per diem 200 day 180 36,000
2. Expenses
(i) Local transportation 500 Monitoring period 6 3,000
(ii) Interpreter 100 day 60 6,000
(iii) Report preparation 200 Monitoring period 6 1,200
(materials)
(iv) Contingency 2,500
150,700

217
4. Cost for Environmental Training

549. Cost estimation for implementation of capacity building and training for EMU and
HRB/PMU staff is presented in the following table. This training is based on 2 months of training
by international and national environment specialists in the areas of developing an EMP, audit
training and reporting. The training shall be implemented by the Project Supervision
Consultant.

Table 9.11 Cost estimation for training


Items Unit Cost ($)
1. Remuneration and per diem - International 2 person-months 40,000
Environmental Specialist
2. Remuneration and per diem - National 2 person-months 10,000
Environmental Specialist
3. Travel - International Environmental Specialist/ 1 round trip 3,000
Team Leader
4. Expenses (training materials, venue, lump sum 2,000
communication, local transportation, meals for
participants, etc.)
Total 55,000

5. Cost for Public Disclosure

550. Local residents and establishment, local authorities and other stakeholders who are
likely to be affected by the project will have to be informed of the construction plan,
environmental impacts and their mitigation measures.

551. The task of public disclosure will occur right before construction starts. Cost for public
disclosure will consist of: (i) cost for holding a meeting in each commune, initially estimated as
$500; and (ii) cost for document and photos supporting public disclosure is estimated at $200.
Total cost for this item for 17 communes estimated as: $335/each commune x 17 communes =
$5,695.

6. Cost and Source of EMP Implementation

552. Sources of funding for the EMP are as follows:

(i) HRB shall fund the following:


a. external environmental monitoring expert (Chapter IX, Section E.3)
b. some of the environmental mitigation measures for the pre-construction and
operation phases as specified in Tables 9.1 to 9.3
c. environmental effects monitoring program in Tables 9.4 to 9.6 for the
operation of the depot, viaduct and tunnel components
d. cost of the public disclosure program during project implementation stage
(Chapter IX, Section E.5)

(ii) PSC shall fund the following:


a. environmental effects monitoring program presented in Tables 9.4 to 9.6 for
the pre-construction and construction phase of the depot, viaduct and tunnel
components.

218
b. environmental training (Chapter IX, Section F.11) for EMU and relevant
HRB/PMU staff

(iii) The tunneling contractor (TBM) shall provide funding and shall implement the
monitoring program for land subsidence and settlement presented in Table 9.7

(iv) The contractors for the depot, viaduct and tunnel shall provide funding for
implementation of mitigation measures, preparation and implementation of
specific management plans (e.g., Spoils Management Plan, etc.),
orientation/training of workers on health and safety issues, etc. during pre-
construction and construction phases as specified in Tables 9.1 to 9.3

553. The estimated cost for EMP implementation is presented below.

Table 9.12: EMP Budget Estimate


Item Funding Source Cost ($)
Environmental Monitoring $269,960
1. Environmental effects monitoring cost PSC: pre-construction and 53,260
for geophysical aspects: air quality, construction
noise, vibration, groundwater, etc.
(Tables 9.4 to 9.6) HRB: pre-construction
operation
2. Hydrogeological monitoring: land Tunneling contractor 66,000
subsidence and settlement (Table 9.7)
3. External monitoring (Chapter IX, Section HRB 150,700
E.3 and Appendix 3)
4. Monitoring of EMP implementation PSC Included in PSC cost
Capacity Building $248,000
5. EMU budget for 7 years HRB 193,000
6. Environmental training of EMU, PSC 55,000
HRB/PMU staff
Public Disclosure HRB 5,695
TOTAL $523,655

219
F. Institutional Strengthening and Capacity Building in the Ha Noi Railway Board
(HRB)

1. Introduction

554. The Government of Vietnam, Ha Noi People’s Committee and many sponsors share
common concerns about the sustainability of the project. To ensure the sustainable
development of the first urban metro – MRT3 line in Ha Noi, the following programs have been
initiated:

(i) HRB Urban Capacity Building Program financed by AFD (Agence Française
de Développement) - 0.5 million Euros.
(ii) Program to support the urban and environmental integration of the pilot
metro / Light Rail Transit line from Nhon to Ha Noi Train Station financed by
FFEM (Fonds Français pour l'Environnement Mondial) - 1.27 million Euros
555. At present, HRB needs assistance in implementing this leading sophisticated project
and in establishing an Operator in charge of the management of the pilot metro line. Moreover,
HRB will also require further assistance to fully support city authorities in implementing,
developing and operating the urban rail line system in Ha Noi.

556. The new pilot metro line will bring long term changes in Ha Noi’s landscapes. It is
therefore necessary to (i) ensure that the integration of the line into the urban environment will
be implemented at the lowest environmental and social cost, (ii) facilitate long-term
management of the line in particular and public transport in general. This means that mitigation
measures will be undertaken in order to reduce environmental and social impacts, and that the
integration of the line into existing and planned public transport system. The sustainability of
the management of the pilot metro line will depend on the establishment of both a well
structured and competent Operator and effective Public Transport Authority.

2. Environmental monitoring along the pilot metro line:

557. The Coordinator will assist HRB in preparing the technical design, terms of reference
and bidding documents to select experts and to procure measuring devices and equipment;
assist HRB in completing contracts, in monitoring the progress of the implementation of this
component and the results of the working group dedicated to this component.

558. HRB is expected to provide relevant contribution such as counterpart staff to work with
the Coordinator, the experts recruited as part of the implementation of the AFD and FFEM
programs mentioned above.

3. Background

559. The HRB was formed in 2001, as an independent department of the Government of Viet
Nam reporting to the Ha Noi People’s Committee to undertake construction and operation of
MRT3 and for Line 2 (Japanese Line).

4. Lack of Environmental Management Capacity

560. HRB, as currently constituted, has only one environmental specialist. Moreover it does
not have any capacity to deal with the requirements of the Environmental Management Plan
(EMP) proposed for the construction of the Project, including the mitigation of various
environmental impacts identified.

220
561. In summary, gaps and deficiencies within HRB are:

(i) Limited experience in environmental management.


(ii) Lack of specific technical skills in environmental mitigation management or
EMP implementation
(iii) Lack of skills in Resettlement Plan (RP) and land acquisition.
(iv) Insufficient inter-agency linkages needed to implement and carry out cross-
agency mitigative measures
(v) Limited experience in environmental monitoring; and,
(vi) Auditing functions and reporting.
562. These deficiencies highlight the need to build institutional capacity in HRB to ensure
proper implementation of the EMP thorugh the development and staffing of an Environmental
Management Unit (EMU).

5. Rationale for an Environmental Management Unit (EMU)

563. HRB shall establish an EMU to oversee implementation of EMP requirements for the
entire project with assistance from the Project Supervision Consultant. Funding for EMU
operation shall be provided from own funds of HRB.

6. Structure and Staffing

564. The EMU would be under the direction of the Project Management Unit (PMU) within
HRB. During pre-construction and construction, the EMU shall be supported by the Project
Supervision Consultant (PSC) and the Project Management Support Consultant (PMSC).
Following the completion of project construction, it is anticipated that the EMU would become a
permanent group in HRB. The EMU, shall be initially staffed by the following personnel,
additional staff should be hired as necessary:

a. environmental officer to ensure proper and timely implementation of EMP provisions in


terms of mitigation measures, monitoring, reporting and environmental management
capacity building activities
b. occupational health and safety officer to ensure implementation and monitoring of
health and safety plan and training/orientation of workers during the construction and
operation phases of the project. The OHS officer shall also monitor and report accidents
and safety concerns and shall prepare and implement necessary corrective actions
7. Operational Mandate

565. With assistance from PSC and PMSC, the EMU would act as an implementing cell, and
undertake monitoring and reporting activities to meet EMP commitments of HRB as required in
this EIA. The EMU would also be charged in ensuring that mitigating measures for various
project phases are properly implemented.

566. The EMU must, from the time it is activated, develop four key attributes needed to
manage environmental assessments, namely:

(i) To demonstrate technical competence in environmental impact management;


(ii) To implement and manage mitigative measures such as those defined in the
EMP;

221
(iii) To be able to undertake compliance monitoring of contractors and the
evaluation of mitigative measures; and,
(iv) To undertake community consultation, grievance management and reporting.

567. As the EMU develops, its function should include the development of environmental
assessment and associated plans such as EMPs

568. The EMU, working with the PMU Vice-Director, will oversee the implementation of the
EMP. Before the start of construction the EMU staff will undergo training in environmental
monitoring and evaluation.

8. Tasks of the EMU

569. Functioning as the primary implementers of environmental measures defined in the


EIA/EMP, contracts and specifications. The EMU’s tasks are proposed as follows:

i. Short Term Tasks

 Prepare unit operational plan (one time with annual updates);


 Assist the engineering team to develop contract specifications and contract
terms and conditions for improved implementation of the EMP.
 Assist HRB in engaging the required external monitoring expert.
 Monitor all construction activities as specified in the EMP and prepare
corresponding monitoring reports with support from PSC and PMSC.
 Chair and investigate grievances under the GRM process.
 Advise the HRB and PMU on all matters related to environmental requirements
of the project.
 Ensure that mitigation and monitoring measures (both environmental and social)
are being implemented as defined in the EA documentation and the execution
plan and,
ii. Long Term Tasks

 Provide necessary expertise on implementation of the EMP as well as other


required environmental mitigation and monitoring measures, as required, during
the life of the project.
 Develop environmental training programs that target a range of people within the
HRB from managers to field engineers.
 Carry out environmental awareness seminars within the contractor community,
through training workshops; if required, and lead the development and
improvement of environmental specifications used in project contracts.

222
9. Estimated EMU Budget

570. The EMU will have to function for at least two years (during the warranty period of the
Project), but hopefully to provide environmental expertise to the other rail transit projects, after
the completion of all the work on the Project. An initial seven-year budget estimate therefore
has been prepared (See Table 1.1). It can be considered a rough estimate to be worked out in
detail during the preparation of the EMU operating plan.

571. Salaries for the EMU staff are based on $1,000/month and about 15% of salaries for
operating cost.

Table 9.13 Estimated Initial Budget for EMU (US $)

Operating Costs
Staff Salary x 7 years Total Cost
x 7 years

2 168,000 25,000 193,000

10. Future of EMU

572. To assist the GOV in the long-term, the consultant proposes that the EMU unit should
be retained as a permanent part of the HRB should HRB evolve into the Public Transport
Agency (PTA).

573. Upon the completion of the project, EMU will have gained:

 About five years of hands-on experience in environmental management of transit


construction and two years hand-on experience in environmental management
of project operation
 Knowledge of local environmental problems related to the project
 Understanding of HRB procedures and special requirements.
574. This pool of experience will be immensely useful for the HRB in tackling future
environmental requirements. With the ever increasing and evolving values of environmental
issues, an EMU will be able to keep abreast of these to the benefit of HRB and the GOV.

11. Proposed Environmental Training for EMU and PMU/HRB Staff

575. To strengthen the knowledge base of the EMU and PMU/HRB staff, a series of training
activities shall be implemented by the Project Supervision Consultant (PSC). Preceding any
training, the international environment specialist of the PSC (with assistance from the national
environment specialist) shall undertake a needs assessment study within the HRB and EMU.
The international specialist shall prepare a training program and materials based on the results
of the assessment. The training shall be implemented within 6 months from commencement of
civil works.

576. The training activity must not be limited to technical upgrading, but must also target mid-
level management through environmental awareness seminars (1/2 day sessions). Only by
building awareness at the decision making level will there be commitment and the unit remain
functioning effectively.

577. The training for EMU and other staff of PMU/HRB will be undertaken through training

223
workshops on the following topics:

 international best practice on environmental management and compliance monitoring


 integration of EMP in tender and contract documents
 preparation of environmental management plans
 conduct of environmental monitoring and corresponding reports
 occupational health and safety issues related to the project and corresponding
mitigation, monitoring and reporting requirements

578. The training participants shall also undergo on-the-job training on monitoring of
contractor's environmental performance and preparation of monitoring reports. The training will
develop the EMU’s capacity to implement and monitor environmental and safety measures for
implementation of MRT3 and other future components of the Ha Noi MRT system.

224
225

X. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

579. Ha Noi, in the north of Viet Nam, has experienced rapid economic growth in recent
years, which has led to a significant increase in traffic volumes and trip numbers and
associated deterioration of environmental conditions in the urban area. To counter such
environmental degradation and stem economic losses resulting from traffic congestion,
accidents and low travel times, the GOV has identified public transport as a key means of
restraining the use of private vehicles. The Project is one of three priority lines in a proposed
urban rail network that has been identified by the GOV for development in the short term as
part of an overall long-term urban transport strategy.

580. This EIA, utilizing the GOV EIA (2007) and GOV Supplementary EIA (2008),
HRB/SYSTRA Feasibility Study Report (2009), preliminary design drawings (SYSTRA) and
ADB draft Poverty and Social Analysis (2008), assessed the following: negative air quality and
noise impacts will occur during pre-construction and construction. The adverse air quality and
noise impacts are related only to the construction stage. During operation there will be
significant positive impacts for air quality and noise levels, with mitigation measures in place for
the Project will generate less noise than existing measured ambient conditions.

581. A compliance audit was conducted on the Depot and is presented in Appendix 2. There
were no environmental non-compliance issues identified with reference to GOV and ADB
requirements.

582. An EMP covering the depot, viaduct and tunnel sections has been prepared. The
recommended environmental mitigation measures covers the pre-construction, construction
and operation stages of the project. Key issues that are addressed in the plan pertain to
impacts on air quality, noise, groundwater quality, spoils disposal, health and safety of workers
and the public, traffic, and impacts on culturally significant sites and undiscovered
archaeological relics. A monitoring plan has also been developed to assess land subsidence
and settlements along the underground component of the Project. The EMP also specifies that
the contractors shall develop and implement environmental management action plans in the
form of specific management plans on dust and noise control, traffic management, spoils
disposal, spill management, occupational and community health and safety, and emergency
response.

583. The EMP also defines the environmental monitoring requirements for various project
phases. The monitoring program has been prepared following a review of the monitoring plan
contained in the GOV EIA and inclusion of measures to address identified deficiencies in
monitoring locations, parameters, frequency and methods. The plan addresses project
performance monitoring and environment effects monitoring for project pre-construction,
construction and operation.

584. The establishment of an Environmental Management Unit consisting of an environment


specialist, occupational health and safety specialist, social specialist is advocated for PMU
under HRB. Institutional arrangements for managing the EMP implementation and required
institutional strengthening activities have been developed, and costs for implementing the EMP
have been estimated.

585. To ensure that the required mitigation and monitoring measures are implemented, the
EMP shall be included in the tender and contract documents for civil works. Semi-annual
monitoring on EMP implementation shall be submitted by HRB to ADB. An external
environmental monitoring expert shall be engaged and retained by HRB to verify the
montitoring information submitted to ADB and to assess if the EMP is being implemented as

225
required.

586. In conclusion the following are the key environmental benefits of the Project: That
amount of GHG emissions will be avoided because of the Project during the operational phase,
due to the displacement of diesel buses, automobiles and motor cycles. These reductions are
expected to far outweigh any short-term increase in GHG emissions that will be experienced
during the construction phase. Based on other elevated electric transit systems, the MRT3 line
operation is expected to avoid the release of greenhouse gases (Canada Line in Vancouver,
opened in the fall of 2009, and similar to the Project in length and design, is predicting that
between 16 and 21 kilotonnes of greenhouse gases per year by the year 2021 will be avoided),
the reductions will arise due to the assumed replacement of diesel buses and increased
displacement of private automobiles by the train service, relative to bus-only transportation.
These reductions will be partly offset by the anticipated GHG emissions associated with
additional electrical generation required to power the MRT3 Line.

587. Socially the project will be a benefit to the population in the project area. The population,
located in the western area of Ha Noi will, by using the metro: avoid traffic congestion and
reduce safety hazards; reduce health problems due to air pollution and dust; save time and
benefit from a good transportation alternative to go to Ha Noi Center.

226
XI. REFERENCES

ADB. 2003. Environmental Assessment Guidelines. Manila.

ADB. 2006. Socialist Republic of Viet Nam: Preparing the Ha Noi Metro Rail System
Technical Assistance Report Project Number VIE:40080. Manila.

ADB, 2007, Initial Environmental Examination (IEE) for Ha Noi Metro Rail System Project. Manila

ADB.2008. Draft Poverty and Social Analysis. Manila

Almec Corporation, Nippon Koei Co Ltd & Yachito Engineering Co Ltd. 2006. Draft Final
Report Pre-Feasibility Study B UMRT Line 2.

CEPT. 2007. Ha Noi Metro Rail Project Environmental Impact Assessment Report. Ha Noi.

CEPT. 2008. Ha Noi Metro Rail Project Supplementary Environmental Impact Assessment
Report. Ha Noi.

General Statistics Office (GSO). 2006. Estimation of Ha Noi Socio-Economic Development


in 2006. Online: http://www.gso.gov.vn/

GSO. 2007. Vietnam Statistical Yearbook 2006. Ha Noi.

Ha Noi DONRE. 2005. Ha Noi Environmental Status Report 2005. Ha Noi.

HRB/SYSTRA. 2008. Feasibility Study Report, Final Report. Ha Noi.

Kolymbas, D., Wagner, P., 2007. Groundwater ingress to tunnels - The exact analytical solution.
Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology 22 (2007) 23–27

Lee, J. Y., Yi, M. J., Moon, S. H., Cho, M., Won, J. H., Ahn, K. H., Lee, J. M., 2007. Causes
of the changes in groundwater levels at Daegu, Korea: the effect of subway excavations. Bull
Eng Geol Environ, (2007) 66:251–258.

Mairi, D. 1985. Unconfined groundwater flow calculation into a tunnel. Journal of Hydrology,
82 (1985) 69-75.

Mathers, S.J., Zalasiewicz, J.A., 1999. Holocene sedimentary architecture of the Red
River delta, Vietnam. Journal of Coastal Research 15, 314–325.

NDWRPI, 2009, Hydrogeological Characterization for Metro Nhon-Ha Noi Railway Station
Subway Line Design. Ha Noi.

Nga TTV, Khatiwada NR, Takizawa S. 2003. Heavy metal tracers for the analysis of
groundwater contamination: case study in Ha Noi City, Vietnam. In Water Supply Vol 3, pp.
343- 350.

227
Nguyen Van Dan & Nguyen Thi Dung. 2003. Groundwater Pollution in the Ha Noi Area,
Vietnam. Prepared for UNESCAP.

Nguyen Van Dan, Nguyen Thi Dung, 2002. Current status of groundwater pollution in Ha
Noi area. International Symposium on Environment and Injure for Community Health
caused by Pollution during the Urbanization and Industrialization, Ha Noi, 2002.

SYSTRA. 2005. Etude de Faisabilite d’une Ligne Pilote de Transport Ferre Urbain a Ha
Noi. Ha Noi.

Tanabe, S., Hori, K., Saito, Y., Haruyama, S., Doanh, L.Q., Sato, Y., Hiraide, S., 2003.
Sedimentary facies and radiocarbon dates of the Nam Dinh-1 core from the Song Hong
(Red River) delta, Vietnam. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 21, 503–513.

Tong Ngoc Thanh, 2001. Report on investigated results for arsenic groundwater level in Ha
Noi city. UNICEF. March 2001.

Tong Ngoc Thanh. 2003. Arsenic Pollution in Groundwater in the Red River Delta. Prepared for
UNESCAP.

Tran, N., Ngo, Q.T., Do, T.V.T., Nguyen, V.V., 1991. Quaternary sedimentation of the
principal deltas of Vietnam. Journal of Southeast Asian Earth Sciences 6, 103–110.

TRICC. 2006. Ha Noi LRT Pilot Line Project Feasibility Study. Ha Noi.

USCo, 2008, The Ground Investigation Report. Ha Noi.

UNESCO. undated. http://whc.unesco.org/en/tentativelists/5059/, Government submission to


UNESCO nominating the Temple of Literature for inclusion on the World Heritage
Register, viewed 21 June 2006.

United Nations Environment Program. 2001. State of the Environment Vietnam 2001.
Bangkok.

United States Asia Environmental Partnership (USAEP). 2002. Before the Clouds Gather:
Protecting Clean Air in Vietnam.

US Commercial Service. 2007. Vietnam: Industrial Air Quality Treatment.

Wedewardt, M., Enge, G., Kuhne, M. 2003. Solutions for large construction sites in
groundwater-saturated sub-soils at the large infrastructure projects in Central Berlin. RMZ-
Materials and Geo-environment, V. 50, Issue 1, pp 413-416.

World Bank. 2003. Vietnam Environment Monitor 2003 – Water. Ha Noi.

World Bank. 2006. Project Information Document Appraisal Stage: Ha Noi Urban
Transport Project. Washington DC.

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APPENDIX 1: PHOTOGRAPHS OF STUDY AREA

1. Looking west toward the Ha Noi Railway Station, site of underground Station 12.
 

 
 
2. View south of the Railway Station and the area required for underground station

229
 

 
3. Looking east from Temple of Literature, Station 11 is now located in the next block.

 
4. Station 10 in front of Horison Hotel.

230
 

 
 
 

 
5. Two views of the Horison Hotel Parking lot proposed for a laydown/storage site. 
 

231
 

 
6. Parking area near Station 9 proposed for a worksite at the tunnel entrance.
 

 
7. Looking west on Kim Ma at the Daewoo Hotel and Station 9.

232
 

 
8. Looking east along the promenade at Thu Le Lake. This and treed area will be lost by
expansion of 2 traffic lanes. This area will be re-built by 7m encroachment into the lake.
 

 
9. Another view of the transition zone to the tunnel and the lost park and trees.
 

233
 

 
10. Looking west to elevated station 8 at Cau Giay Interchange

 
11. Cau Giay Interchange

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12. Entrance to the Depot

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

235
13. Depot site capped with 1m of sand.

 
14. Road No 70. Unpaved looking toward junction with N32.

236
237

APPENDIX 2: Compliance Audit for the Depot

ENVIRONMENTAL DUE DILIGENCE REPORT FOR THE DEPOT SITE FOR THE
HA NOI METRO RAIL SYSTEM PROJECT

I. Introduction

1. A 15 ha Depot site has been selected at Nhon (See Fig.1), the current
western terminus of the Project. The Depot will house the administration, control
centre, workshops, car washing system and trackage to store spare trains.

2. The Depot will experience construction under 3 tenders: first, (Depot #4)
involves construction of the trackage, foundations for the structures, perimeter fence,
and internal roads. It is to be constructed starting in late 2010 - this contract warrants
this compliance audit. The second contract (Viaduct #1) will involve the removal of 53
houses and construction of the viaduct and ramp into the depot. This tender will be
called in late 2010 or early 2011. The final contract (Depot #5) will be called in 2011
and involve construction of the buildings and ancillary works: water and waste
facilities, fiber optic cabling etc.
II. Status of the Project

A. Work undertaken Prior to Tender

3. In 2006 the site was a market garden area and during the preparation of the GOV EIA,
field sampling was conducted for air quality, noise, soil and surface water quality. The results
indicated that air quality parameters were within the GOV standards, noise levels exceeded
standards, soil quality samples indicated Cu and Zn levels that exceeded permitted levels for
agricultural land use. The IEE (2007) recommended that additional sampling be carried out for
pesticides and herbicides. However, this was not carried out prior to capping the site with a 1 m
layer of sand.

4. Water quality samples from the lake next to the Depot showed:
(i) Odor was present smelling of sewage or strong ‘fishy’ smells.
(ii) There was visual evidence of high turbidity.
(iii) DO levels were within TCVN criteria.
(iv) Oil and grease was present and exceeded TCVN criteria
(v) Trace levels of pesticides were detected and thus exceeded TCVN criteria.
(vi) Total coliforms and E. coli exceeded TCVN criteria.
(vii) Remaining parameters were within TCVN criteria.

5. Land clearance has already taken place for the depot area. The depot area clearance
process was divided into 2 phases; the first phase in Tay Tuu commune (9 ha) was
implemented in early 2007 and the second phase in Minh Khai (5 ha) commune was
implemented in October 2007. Figure1 highlights the current land and structure requirements.
There are two structures (blue shading) that have not been demolished, although compensation
has been provided to the AP’s. There are two parcels in the center of the Depot area (shown in
red) that have not been acquired. The parcels and structures shown in red bordering Road 70
are the 53 required for the Viaduct Ramp access line (slated for 2011). Implementation of
resettlement activities is ongoing for the access line.

6. A survey was conducted at 4 households in March 2010. Local residents were asked if
the clearance of the Depot and the truck traffic importing sand was carried out in
environmentally and socially acceptable manner. The respondents had the following comments:

Table 1: Direct interview the affected people near Depot site


District(s) Tu Liem
1. Name of interviewed participant Nguyen Thien Hai
Date of consultation: April 4th , 2010
Venue/address Depot site at Tay Tuu – Tu Liem – Ha Noi
Environmental issues raised Existing condition of air environment is seriously
degraded. Trucks conveying sand exploitation from
areas named Lien Mac, Thuong Cat, Dong Ba
crossing this road (No 70) with poor conveying
condition thus, sand leakage to road surface
seriously causing dust, affects local residents as
well as travellers. Moreover, pesticide enterprises
also generate harmfull emission to local people.
Every day, environmental police have to be at two
ends of road for transport monitoring. This might be
a good solution as a mitigation measure;
Domestic water is supplied by a separate pipe
system thus, construction process will not affect
domestic water.
2. Name of interviewed participant Dao Ngoc Le
Date of consultation: April 4th , 2010
Venue/address Road No 70, Tay tuu, Tu Liem, Ha Noi
Environmental issues raised Road surface structure has been degrading with
pollution of air, especially dust.
Road should be cleaned everyday during
construction process;
Paving road should be implemented to reduce dust
generation;
There should be coordination among local
authorities, environment and transport police as
well as transportation agencies to have proper
methods for trucks’ transportation route and
reduce dust leakage from the vehicles.
3. Name of interviewed participant Nguyen Thi Dai
Date of consultation: April 4th , 2010
Venue/address Road No 70, Tay tuu, Tu Liem, Ha Noi
Environmental issues raised Dust is a main problem along the road. Dust can be
generated more during project construction
process. To reduce dust generation, water should
regularly sprayed along the road No 70 and
environmental police should monitor trucks and
drivers everyday along the road.
4. Name of interviewed participant Le Thu Huong
Date of consultation: April 4th , 2010
Venue/address Village 15 of Tu Hoang and Xuan Phuong
commune, Tu Liem, Ha Noi
Environmental issues raised Working safety should be considered during project
construction process because there are so many
people crossing the road No 70 as well as
increasing number of trucks. Construction activities
might cause traffic jam and accident, especially at
night;
During operation process, noise might be a bit
problem to local residents. But we can get benefit
from increasing bussiness because of workers in
the Depot;
Disorder of society and other social evils could
happen during project operation process. In that
case, there should be good control from local
authority (communal people’s committee) to
workers as well as coordination from the local
authority to management board of Depot.
Figure 1: Photos taken during direct interview at the Depot site (along road 70)

Interviewee: Ms. Nguyen Thi Dai Interviewee: Mr. Dao Ngoc Le

Interviewee: Ms. Le Thu Huong Mr. Nguyen Thien Hai’s house


near the existing entrance of the
Depot
7. HRB requires a significant daily allotment (384 m3/day) of water for washing the rail cars,
providing potable water and for firefighting requirements. In order to meet their daily
requirement, a well 50 m deep with an 8 m screen was drilled in 2009. Eight water samples
were collected during the pumping test period (9 hour interval) for quality analyses (Systra,
2009, pumping test report). Results indicate that NH4+ is 100 times over the drinking water
standard, Fe content is also high. Phenol and Cyanide were also detected. HRB indicates it will
conduct further testing and construct a water treatment system that will treat the water to
potable standards. A groundwater monitoring program has been incorporated into the EMP.

8. The Tender Package (TP) being advertised will follow ADB guidelines (SYSTRA).
Although not reviewed in its entirety, the TP does call for an environmental Management Plan
(Chapter V, Part 2) covering Noise; Water Quality Management; Refuse Management;
Hazardous Substance Management; Chemical Management and Public hygiene management.
Moreover, there is Chapter XI that prescribes the Environmental Plan and the required
Specifications. In addition, SYSTRA (pers comm. J Holmes-Higgins) has indicated that should
this draft EIA be accepted, and the tender closure date has not been reached, they will
incorporate the EMP related to the Depot and issue it as an Addendum to the bidders.

B. Work to be undertaken: pre-construction

9. Once the two outstanding properties are obtained, HRB indicates that they will pre-load
an additional 60cm of sand. HRB indicates that the sand comes from a government pit. It has
been tested for quality and approvals are in place for the quantities and placement (Mr. Nam,
HRB, pers. comm.).

10. Trucks will deliver a large quantity of piles to be vibrated into place. The EMP calls for
weekly monitoring of air quality and noise during this period.

III. Description of Environmental Issues

i) Compliance with ADB Safeguard Policy Yes


Statement (2009), Public Communications An IEE was prepared and public
Policy (2005), and conformity to ADB consultation meetings conducted. There
Environmental Assessment Guidelines (2003) have been additional public consultation
and information disclosure activities
undertaken since 2007, in 2008 and again
in 2010.

ii) Compliance with National laws and regulations Yes.


on environment
iii) Implementation of environmental mitigation and Yes. The EMP and the tender documents
monitoring measures during construction phase call for mitigation and monitoring measures.
iv) Environmental clearances or approvals No. All clearances from the GOV are in
required. place.

11. This due diligence report has been conducted to determine compliance of the MRT3
Depot with national environmental requirements and ADB Environment Policy 2009. Based on
the findings, the Depot meets all environmental requirements and clearances of the
Government and the ADB.
APPENDIX 3: Terms of Reference for the External Monitoring Expert

A. Objectives of the External Monitoring

1. Consistent with the requirement of ADB’s Safeguard Policy Statement 2009 on external
monitoring for environment category A projects, HRB shall engage and retain an external
environmental monitoring expert. Such expert shall undertake independent periodic reviews to
verify the monitoring information submitted by HRB to ADB on the implementation of the
environmental management plan (EMP). The external expert shall also assess if various EMP
provisions are being implemented as required.

B. Key Activities and Methodology

2. The scope of services of the external environmental monitoring consulting services are
provided below.
(i) Review and verify the accuracy, breadth, depth, and relevance of information
provided by HRB to ADB with regard to EMP implementation
(ii) Determine if EMP provisions (mitigation, monitoring, reporting, etc.) are being
conducted in thorough and timely manner and in accordance with budget
identified within the EMP.

3. The above tasks shall be undertaken on an annual basis throughout the 5-year
construction phase and during the first year of Project operation. Monitoring shall be undertaken
through review of environmental monitoring reports, site visit and interviews with affected
households, local officials and other stakeholders.

C. Qualifications

4. The external environmental monitoring will be undertaken by an international


environmental consultant with a total 6 person-months input.

5. The expert to be engaged has not been and shall not be involved in day-to-day project
implementation or supervision, with relevant academic qualification in the field of environmental
management, environmental science, environmental engineering or other related courses), has
at least 15 years experience in environmental management and monitoring and/or supervision
of EMP for major infrastructure project, knowledgeable on ADB and Vietnamese environmental
policies and guidelines and is fluent in written English.

D. Schedule and Reporting Requirements

6. The external environmental monitoring consultant will be mobilized on an annual basis


throughout the construction phase until the first year of Project operation. The monitoring report
to be prepared by the consultant shall provide details of the methodology used; findings (results
of desk review, site observations, consultations/interviews); recommendations; and other
relevant information to support the findings (minutes of meetings, photo-documentation, etc.).
The reports shall be submitted to HRB and ADB two weeks from completion of each monitoring
activity.
E. Estimated Cost for the Service of the External Environmental Consultant

7. The estimated total cost for engaging an international external environmental monitoring
expert over a 6-year period is presented below:

Item Rate ($) Unit Qty Total ($)


3. International
(i) Remuneration 15,000 Person-month 6 90,000
(ii) Airfare 2,000 Round-trip 6 12,000
(iii) Per diem 200 day 180 36,000
4. Expenses
(i) Local transportation 500 Monitoring period 6 3,000
(ii) Interpreter 100 day 60 6,000
(iii) Report preparation 200 Monitoring period 6 1,200
(materials)
(iv) Contingency 2,500
150,700
APPENDIX 4: Record of the Public Consultation Meetings
Public consultation contents
1. Participants: HRB, implementing agency, SYSTRA Design consultants, ADB Environmental
Specialist, local leaders (communal and district levels), affected households and other local
people living near project area;
2. Objectives: Project disclosure and public consultation on potential environmental impacts
and proper mitigation measures during project’s implementation;
3. Meeting content
3.1. SYSTRA Design consultants introduced project scope and information on construction
items and their parameters;
3.2. ADB Environmental Specialist gave a presentation on the anticipated environmental
impacts and their mitigation measures. The issues were:
+ Environmental impacts, social impacts before construction, consist of popular impacts such as
land acquisition, plant and tree removal and their mitigation measures;
+ Environmental impacts during construction implementation such as dust, noise, safety for
transportation on surrounding residential areas, other impacts on agricultural activities and
corresponding mitigation measures;
3.3. Discussion from local people on other potential environmental impacts before construction
implementation, during construction stage and on operation, maintenance stages;
3.4. HRB, implementing agency discussed in general the Environmental System Management
in Viet Nam that may be applied in this project such as responsibilities of DONRE, DARD, DPC,
CPC, Construction Management Consultants, Contractors and especially local Community
Environmental Management Board;

The details are described in the meeting minutes and photos taken following the public
contribution on environmental impacts and mitigation measures. These are presented in detail
in table 7.15.
4. Photos on public consultation

Project information disclosure-Cau Giay district Environmental assessment-Cau Giay district

Participants’ contribution on environmental Participants’ contribution on environmental


impacts and mitigation measures – Cau Giay impacts and mitigation measures – Cau Giay
district district
Public consultation in Ba Dinh district Project Introduction

Information disclosure Contribution on environmental impacts by


participants
5. Meeting minutes in Ba Dinh district held on Apr. 22nd, 2010
6. List of participants in the meeting
7. Meeting minutes in Dich Vong commune – Dong Da district held on Apr. 24th, 2010
8. List of participants in the meeting