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 Basic biomedical sciences – 10%

 Pharmaceutical sciences – 33%

 Social, behavioral, administrative pharmacy sciences – 22%
 Clinical sciences – 35%

250 questions Passing Score-75

Area 1.0 - Basic Biomedical Sciences - 10%

 Anatomy & Physiology - major body systems, molecular biology including cell
physiology, structure and organization.
 Pathology/Pathophysiology - Inflammation, degeneration, hemodynamics, developmental
defects, neoplasia, pharmacist triage of conditions.
 Microbiology - infectious disease, inflammatory responses to infectious agents, clinical
aspects of infection.
 Immunology - human immune responses, antigen-antibody relationships, molecular
biology of immunity, immunity in relation to genes.
 Biochemistry/Biotechnology - proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and DNA / RNA
replication and repair, enzymology and kinetics, energy utilization.
 Molecular Biology/Genetics - cell structure including ion channels, receptor physiology,
mitosis and meiosis and recombinant DNA technology
 Biostatistics - management of data sets, evaluation of statistical results versus clinical

Area 2.0 - Pharmaceutical Sciences - 33%

 Medicinal Chemistry -physio-chemical properties of drugs in relation to ADME,

pharmacophores, drug-target interactions.
 Pharmacology / Pharmacodynamics - adverse effects and side-effects of drugs, drug
discovery and development.
 Pharmacognosy and Alternative / Complementary Treatments - herbal medicines and
their regulation, dietary supplements, herbal-drug interactions.
 Toxicology - toxicity and toxicokinetics, interpretation of drug screens, antidotes, poison
control centers, bioterrorism.
 Bioanalysis/Clinical Chemistry - use clinical data for screening, diagnosis and evaluation
of patients
 Pharmaceutics/Biopharmaceutics - dosage forms, drug delivery, stability, formulation.
 Pharmacokinetics/Clinical Pharmacokinetics - bioavailability and bioequivalence, low-
therapeutic-index drugs.
 Pharmacogenomics/Genetic - genetic basis for disease, drug action, alteration and drug
 Extemporaneous Compounding/Parenteral/Enteral - United States Pharmacopeia (USP)
guidance on compounding and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Compliance Policy
Area 3.0 - Behavioral /Social//Administrative (BSA) Pharmacy Sciences - 22%

 Health Care Delivery Systems - United States, state, and local health care delivery
systems and their interfaces, Medicare and Medicaid
 Economics/Pharmacoeconomics analysis - applications of economic theories and health-
related quality-of-life concepts to improve allocation of limited healthcare resources
 Practice Management - principles of management, marketing, accounting, infection
control, project management and third-party administration and managed care systems.
 Pharmacoepidemiology
 Pharmacy Law and Regulatory Affairs - pharmacy practice, law, liability (civil and
criminal), drug-related misadventure and business contract law.
 History and evolution of Pharmacy - major milestones and contributors in the evolution
of pharmacy.
 Ethics - principles of professional behavior, ethical dilemmas, principles of palliative care
and ethical issues in teamwork.
 Professional Communications - effective verbal and written interpersonal
communication, interviewing techniques and principles of behavior modification.
 Social and Behavioral Aspects of Practice - pharmacy as a patient-centered profession.

Area 4.0 - Clinical Sciences - 55%

 Pharmacy Practice and Pharmacist-Provided Care - principles of pharmacist-managed,

patient-centered pharmacy services and home diagnostic devices.
 Medication Dispensing and Distribution Systems - medication errors and subsequent
audits, drug toxicity, automation
 Pharmacotherapy - Practice Guidelines and Clinical Trials - evaluation of clinical trials
that validate treatment usefulness
 Pharmacotherapy - Health Promotion/Disease Prevention - promotion of wellness and
nonpharmacologic therapies
 Pharmacotherapy - Pharmaceutical Care - application of evidence-based decision making
to patient care, non-prescription drug therapies and drug-induced disease.
 Pharmacist-provided Care for Special Populations - pediatric, geriatric, pregnant, cystic
fibrosis, sickle cell anemia, celiac disease, genetic disorders... and dosage calculation and
 Drug Information - application of drug information skills for delivery of pharmaceutical
care showing the ability to judge the reliability of various sources of information
 Medication Safety - pharmacy leadership in medication safety
 Literature Evaluation and Research Design - principles of research design and analysis in
practicing evidence-based pharmacy
 Patient Assessment Laboratory - obtaining a comprehensive patient history, triage and
referral skills, knowledge of therapeutic drug concentrations and their interpretation.