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breaks down unexpectedly (a forced outage) and supply decreases, demand is then greater than supply,
even though consumption still precisely equals supply.
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less than demand because of rationing. A consumer with a 100-W tsshhegte heejdhyee ykjwe
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light is a clear and accurate indication that demand exceeds supply for the interconnection as a whole.
Similarly, any frequency above 60 Hz indicates that supply exceeds demand. In other words, more than
100 watts are
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udgcyunkisugwsmsx turned on is demanding 100 watts of power. During a brown out, however, 100
watts are not supplied to the bulb as power to the bulb is rationed by the suppliers. This rationing is not
due to deliberate action but is a consequence of system physics which automatically lowers the voltage
and frequency. For simplicity, in the remainder of this section, rationing will be discussed as if it
happened solely through frequency reduction, as this is generally considered to be the predominant
effect. A drop in frequency below the target level of 60 Hz

CONTENTS
S.No. Descripti
on Page Nos.
1. Automatic Turbine Run Up System 12. Turbovisory Instruments
283. Furnace Safeguard and Supervisory System 484.Role of Analytical
Instruments in Thermal
PowerStations655. Automatic Control 996. Data Acquisition System (DAS)
1557.Distributed Digital Control & Monitoring andInformation System176

S.No Description No of Days


1. INTRODUCTION
2. POWER STATION INSTRUMENTATION
3. INTERPRETATION OF INSTRUMENT READINGS
4. PRESSURE MANAGEMENT AND MEASURING INSTRUMENTS
5. LEVEL MEASUREMENT AND MEASURING INSTRUMENTS
6. FLOW MANAGEMENT AND MEASURING INSTRUMENTS
7. TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT AND MEASURING INSTRUMENTS
8. PNEUMATIC INSTRUMENTS
9. AUTOMATIC TURBINE RUN UP SYSTEM
10. TURBOVISORY INSTRUMENTS
11. FURNACE SAFEGUARD AND SUPERVISORY SYSTEM
12. ROLE OF ANALYTICAL INSTRUMENTS IN THERMAL POWER STATIONS
13. AUTOMATIC CONTROL
14. DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEM (DAS)
15. DISTRIBUTED DIGITAL CONTROL & MONITORING AND INFORMATION SYSTEM