Mobile Database

Written by:
Athra Sultan

.............................................................................................. ................................... ........... 8 .......................................... ..... .............................................................................Table of Contents Abstract: ..... .................... ........... 3 Introduction:.......................................... ............. .............. ................................................ 4 Mobile database System Architecture.............................................. .................... 7 Disconnectivity and Consistency .................................................... ... ... ................................................................... .............................................. ... ... .................................................................... ............. ........................... . ................................... 4 Some of the Mobile Relational Database Systems: ................................................... 5 Model of Mobile Computing ...... 3 Need for Mobile Databases ............ ................................... ............. ........ 8 Summary................................................ ..... ..... ............................................. ............ 8 References:....... ................ 4 Three parties ............................................. ................................... .............. 3 What is the Mobile database? ............ 7 Broadcast Data ...................... ............................................... .................................................. ............. ............. .............. ....... ........ ...................................................... .................................... ... .................... 6 Routing and Query Processing ...............................

Mobile database are the database that allows the development and deployment of database applications for handheld devices. you can even connect to your Intranet from an aeroplane.Abstract: Mobile computing is increasingly becoming more and more popular as people need information even on the move in this rapid changing information world. The database technology allows employees using handheld to link to their corporate networks. Many applications such as databases would require the ability to download information from an information repository and operate on this information even when out of range or disconnected. The use of laptops. While those same analysts can¶t tell us exactly which applications will be the most popular. For example. download data. The client and server have wireless connections. A cache is maintained to hold frequent data and transactions so that they are not lost due to connection failure. and other technologies y The rapid advancements of wireless communication technology and computer miniaturizing technology have enabled users to utilize computing resources anywhere in the computer network. the newer technology trends have changed this paradigm because of the following technological trends: y The notebook and laptop Computers are being used increasingly among the Business Community The development and availability of a relatively low-cost wireless digital communication infrastructure. enabling relational database based applications in the hands of mobile workers. However. Introduction: Traditionally. cellular digital packet networks. thus. The distributed database applications involved usually a strong central database and powerful network administration. a package delivery worker can collect signatures after each delivery and send the information to a corporate database at day's end. However. and then connect to the network again to synchronise with the corporate database. with a mobile database embedded in a handheld device. This could be a list of contacts. this trend changed as more and more distributed applications stated to emerge. . it is clear that a large percentage will require the use of a database of some sort. What is the Mobile database? A mobile database is a database than can be connected to by a mobile computing device over a mobile network. mobiles and PDAs is increasing and likely to increase in the future with more and more applications residing in the mobile systems. This paper attempts to highlight the concepts and basic issues relating to mobile database. A database is a structured way to organize information. large-scale commercial databases were developed as centralized database systems. work offline. price information or distance travelled. This infrastructure is based on wireless local-area networks. For example.

Applications must provide significant interactivity. This type of access and work load generated by such users is different from the traditional workloads seen in client server systems of today. If your application meets any of those requirements. low-cost. things to be considered are y y y y Users are not attached to a fixed geographical location Mobile computing devices: low-power. Mobile databases let employees enter data on the fly. With the advent of mobile databases. They are typically used by low-power two-way radios such as mobile phones. only recently modified data. move around a geographical region that is a collection of mobile cells y y Mobile hosts retains network connection through the support of base stations Role of mobile hosts depend on the capacity Base stations: It is a two-way radio installation in a fixed location. such as printers. Information can be synchronized with a server database at a later time. now users can load up their smart phones or PDAs with mobile databases to exchange mission-critical data remotely without worrying about time or distance. In this scenario user would require to access and update information from files in the home directories on a server or customer records from a database. Need for Mobile Databases y y y y y Mobile users must be able to work without a wireless connection due to poor or even nonexistent connections. used to communicate with one or more mobile or portable radio transceivers. portable Wireless networks Mobile computing constraints Three parties Fixed hosts: Perform the transaction and data management functions with the help of database servers Mobile units: Portable computers.An example of this is a mobile workforce. the chances are good that you will be required to build a mobile database application with synchronization. bar code scanners. Mobile database System Architecture For any mobile architecture. Bandwidth must be conserved (a common requirement on wireless networks that charge per megabyte or data transferred). or GPS units (for mapping or Automatic Vehicle Location systems). Users don't require access to truly live data. portable phones and wireless routers . Applications must be able to access local device/vehicle hardware.

transfer the responsibility for mobile transaction and data support to the new base station Transparent processes Some of the Mobile Relational Database Systems: The current database systems do not provide special facilities for specific update operations in a mobile computing environment. They also allows users with handheld to synchronise with Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) database content.0 Oracle Lite Sybase's SQL These databases work on Palm top and hand held devices (Windows CE devices) providing a local data store for the relational data acquired from enterprise SQL databases.Capturing mobility by hand-off processes y y When a mobile unit leaves a mobile cell serviced by a base station. and personal information management data and email from . The commercially available mobile database systems allow wide variety of platforms and data sources. The main constraints for such databases are relating to the size of the program as the handheld devices have RAM oriented constraints. Some of the commercially available Mobile relational Database systems are: IBM's DB2 Everywhere 1.

the disk may be allowed to spin down when it is not in use. Within a small area. This may happen only for the cases where the location of the user is a parameter of the query. But on the other side it will increase the amount of data residing on machines administered by users. etc. we may reduce the need for mobile systems to transmit queries. If a traveler information system provides data on hotels. at times. The size and power limitations of many mobile computers have led to alterative memory hierarchies. raising the question about the consistency of data Model of Mobile Computing The mobile-computing environment consists of mobile computers. queries about services that are ahead on the current route must be processed based on knowledge of the user's location. thus. be disconnected from the network. be powered down. to access information and to provide data pertaining to the situation. Mobile computing has proved useful in many applications. these machines may. by doing scheduled data broadcasts. Flash memories may be used in such systems to save power. Emergency response services may use/ are using mobile computers at the disasters sites. It is possible for mobile hosts to communicate directly without the intervention of a mobile support station. Another issue relating to mobile computing is the energy (battery power).Lotus Development's Notes or Microsoft's Exchange. One of the issue relating to wireless computing is that creates a situation where machines no longer have fixed locations and network addresses. to save energy. For example. This may complicate query processing for the cases where location plays a key role. such as a building. . thus. direction of motion. A mobile support station manages the mobile hosts within its cell. This will also reduce the overhead of transfer of control. to motorists. a host may leave one cell and re-materialize later at some distant cell. If the mobile host includes a hard disk. and a wired network of computers. rather than by database administrators. The communication between the Mobile hosts and the wired network takes place through the computers referred to as mobile support stations. necessitating a transfer of control from one mobile support station to another. roadside services. which are referred to as mobile hosts. It is a scarce resource for mobile computers. etc. These database technologies support either query-by-example (QBE) or SQL statements. Mobile hosts may move between cells. which may provide lower-cost connectivity than a wide-area cellular network. moves between cells are not necessarily between adjacent cells. But what is a cell? A cell is defined as the geographical area covered by a mobile support station. and speed. at times. Can we reduce the requirements of data transfer for the sake of energy efficiency? Yes. since it becomes difficult to determine the optimal location at which to materialize the result of a query. In addition. Mobile hosts may be connected by a wireless local-area network within a small area. This limitation influences many aspects of system design. Delivery services may use/ are using mobile computers to assist in tracking of delivery of goods. medical emergencies. such communication can occur only between the nearby hosts. Therefore. Newer applications of mobile computers are also emerging. Since mobile hosts may. However. Many business travelers are using laptop computers to enable them to work and to access data while traveling.

There are two reasons for using broadcast data: y y The mobile host does not have to invest on the energy cost for transmitting data requests The broadcast data can be received by a large number of mobile hosts in a single transmission. ensures effective utilization of the available transmission bandwidth. Broadcast Data It is often desirable for frequently requested data to be broadcast in a continuous cycle by mobile support stations. Thus. Number of bytes. battery power is a scarce resource and should be optimized. The mobile host may optimize energy costs by determining whether a given query may be processed using only cached data. therefore.Routing and Query Processing The mobile computing poses typical problems from the point of view of routing and query processing. However. are: y y y y y User time is a highly valuable commodity in most of the business applications Connection time is the unit of monetary charges is assigned in most cellular systems. for possible later use. the route between a pair of hosts may change over time. which need to be considered for mobile computing. Often. One of the basic principles of radio communication is that it requires less energy to receive than to transmit radio signals. The mobile host may also have the local nonvolatile storage for storing (cache) the broadcast data as and when received. or transmit a request . Some of the anomalous factors. rather than transmitted to mobile hosts on demand. therefore. The mobile-computing model also directly affects database query processing. should be minimum. the communication costs play important role in query optimization process while selecting the best method of query evaluation strategy. complicate the optimization process. transferred is the unit of charges is computed in digital cellular systems Time-of-day based charges may vary based on whether communication occurs during peak or off-peak periods Energy is limited. then the mobile host may either may wait for the data to be broadcast. thus. This simple fact may have a dramatic effect at the network level. the cached data is not found to be appropriate for the query. or packets. In case. at no extra cost. For example. A typical application of broadcast data is stock-market price information. Mobility results in dynamically changing communication costs. the mobile hosts need to only receive data as and when those data are transmitted. transmission and reception of data impose different power demands on the mobile host. if one of the two hosts is mobile. rather than consuming energy by transmitting a request. these networking issues are beyond the scope of this course. In the case of distributed query processing. as per the mobile-computing model. since location-based network addresses are no longer constants within the system. Thus.

In such cases on reconnection. such updates must be propagated as and when the mobile host reconnects. This situation creates several problems of the following types: Recoverability : Updates entered at the mobile host machine which is not connected may be lost if the machine undergoes a major failure. the cached data may become inconsistent once a different machine updates the value. The broadcasting of data may be made according to a fixed schedule or a changeable schedule. the connectivity cost. the updates occurring in the mobile host cannot be propagated until reconnection occurs. the mobile host may be sent with invalidation reports that may inform it about inconsistent cache entries. However. but the mobile host can discover this fact only when it is reconnected. However. In the data transmission schedule is changeable then even the broadcast schedule may itself be broadcast at a well-known frequency and time intervals. Similarly. the mobile host must know when the relevant data will be broadcast. The transmission schedules behave like indices on the disk. detecting conflicting updates become even more difficult.for data.ignou. Details on these issues are beyond the scope of this text. However. This area is still evolving and research is still being conducted on broadcast data issues. If the schedule of data transmission is fixed then the mobile host uses the known fixed schedule to determine when the relevant data will be transmitted. Summary We discussed about the basic requirements of mobile databases. In case updates can occur at both the mobile host and elsewhere.ac.in/virtualcampus/adit/course/cst302/block2/cst302-bl2-u1. during the time of disconnection. This problem will result from the fact that only copy of information is kept at local host and simulation of storage that takes care of failure will be difficult to do. there is an incentive for certain mobile hosts to be disconnected for substantial periods. the user may still be working on the host machine and may issue queries and updates on data on locally cached data. In effect. the broadcast medium can be thought of as a disk with a high latency Requests for data can be thought of as being serviced when the requested data are broadcast.org/wiki/Mobile_database . in order to make this decision. References: y y http://www.wikipedia. if the mobile host caches read-only copies of data.htm http://en. However. Disconnectivity and Consistency As one of the major cost involved in wireless communication. is paid for on the basis of connection time. Consistency: The locally cached data may become inconsistent. which is being updated by other computers.

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