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in Iowa, Minnesota, Missouri, and Nebraska University of Nebraska-Lincoln Food Processing Center Introduction: Introduction Information contained in this presentation is based upon the following: Survey of 13 Midwest wine retailers Survey of 20 Midwest wineries Secondary research data Wine Consumption Trends and Demographics: Wine Consumption Trends and Demographics Wine Consumption: Wine Consumption U.S. per capita wine consumption is around 2.7 gallons 10 percent of Americans drink nearly 90 percent of the wine Wine Consumption By Type of Consumer*: Wine Consumption By Type of Consumer* US Adult Population 192.4 Million Core Wine Consumers (19.2 million) account for 86% of the table wine volume consumed in the US Marginal Wine Consumers (28.9 million) account for 14% of the table wine volume consumed in the US *Data from The Wine Market Council Consumer Research Study 2002 Core and Marginal Drinkers*: Core and Marginal Drinkers* Core 15% Drink wine daily, 48% drink wine a few times a week, and 37% drink wine weekly Somewhat older than marginal drinkers; 51% are between the ages of 40 and 59 Live in the suburbs (42%), while 38% live in the city 85% Caucasian/white High level of education (college graduate and post-graduate degree Relatively high level of income (household income of $78,100) *Data from The Wine Market Council Consumer Research Study 2002 Core and Marginal Drinkers*: Core and Marginal Drinkers* Marginal 52% drink wine two to three times a month, 30% once a month and 18% drink wine once every 2-3 months Somewhat younger than core drinkers; 49% are between the ages of 30 and 49 Live in the suburbs (41%), while 33% live in the city 85% Caucasian/white High level of education (college graduate and post-graduate degree Relatively high level of income (household income of $63,800) *Data from The Wine Market Council Consumer Research Study 2002 Core and Marginal Drinkers Wine Preferences*: Core and Marginal Drinkers Wine Preferences* Core Favor red wine (48% of total consumption) followed by white wine (41 percent) and blush/rose wine (11 percent) Merlot is the most frequent choice, followed by Chardonnay, White Zinfandel, and Cabernet Sauvignon Marginal Wine Drinkers Favor white wine (46% of total consumption) followed by red wine (35 percent) and blush/rose wine (19 percent) White Zinfandel, is the most frequent choice, followed by Chardonnay, Merlot, and Cabernet Sauvignon *Data from The Wine Market Council Consumer Research Study 2002 Wine Consumption Trends: Wine Consumption Trends Wine Consumption Demographics: Wine Consumption Demographics Wine Consumption Demographics*: Wine Consumption Demographics* Wine consumption is currently heavily skewed toward those over 35. Most Chardonnay, Cabernet Sauvignon, Zinfandel and Sauvignon Blanc drinkers in 2001 were between 35 and 44 Younger consumers drink more, however. They also tend to pay more when they drink. Only one quarter of wine purchasers in the U.S. are between 21 and 34. But among them, 21- to 24-year-olds are twice as likely as the average buyer to spend $20 * ³Vintners Court Younger Crowd With Sexy, Splashy Marketing´, Wall Street Journal, April 24, 2003 Midwest Wine Consumption Comparison with Other States: Midwest Wine Consumption Comparison with Other States Winery Pricing Study:
Winery Pricing Study Data on 440 Wines Collected Six Midwestern States: Nebraska, Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, South Dakota, and Colorado Survey of Wine Retailers: Survey of Wine Retailers Wine Retailer Survey: Wine Retailer Survey 13 retailers interviewed (both wine/liquor specialty stores and supermarkets) Four Midwestern States: Nebraska, Iowa, Kansas, and Missouri Retailers were screened to only interview those who carry wine produced in their state Vast majority report that locally produced wine made up less than 5% of their sales Retailers sold locally produced wine in order to support local wineries; Most did not require a minimum sales volume to stock Wine Retailer Survey Consumer Perceptions: Wine Retailer Survey Consumer Perceptions The level of consumer interest in local wines was less than that of more established wine offerings but most retailers commented the interest was measurable. Of all the different types of wines mentioned by retailers, sweet had by far the most potential according to the retailers (73%). Dry came in at (13%) followed by dessert and fruit with (7% each). White sweet wines have more sales potential that dry red wines. Are locally produced wines priced accordingly? Yes, 92% of retailers felt the price of these wines was appropriate. Wine Retailer Survey Promotional Strategies: Wine Retailer Survey Promotional Strategies Retailers suggested four ways of promoting local wines at retail level. These included: In-house tasting sessions (53%) Point of sale/signage (27%) Advertising in local media (13%) Inviting customers to visit the vineyard (7%) Wine Retailer Survey Promotional Strategies: Wine Retailer Survey Promotional Strategies Should locally grown wine be cross-merchandised with other locally produced products? 61% of retailers surveyed believe cross merchandising would be an effective way to promote local wines, and 31% believe it might be. Small retail outlets are more likely to cross-merchandise. Local wine is cross-merchandised with local gourmet food items and salsas. Wine Retailer Survey Obstacles to Selling Local Wine: Wine Retailer Survey Obstacles to Selling Local Wine Retailers identified four obstacles which local wineries must overcome in order to be successful. These include: Inferior quality compared to the more established wines (46%) Strong competition from more popular wines (23%) Difficulty getting consumers to recognize their product (16%) An inferior image (15%) Wine Retailer Survey Opportunities For Selling Local Wine: Wine Retailer Survey Opportunities For Selling Local Wine Retailers are interested in adding more locally produced wines Forty-two percent of retailers said they are likely to add more local wines to their retail outlets An additional 25% of retailers said they would like to add more local wines but that will be more selective of the local wines they choose Twenty-Five percent of retailers said they were less likely to add more local wines Survey of Wineries: Survey of Wineries Introduction: Introduction Survey of 20 Wineries in the Midwest United States 10 phone surveys 10 personal interviews Wineries in Iowa, Missouri, Nebraska & Wisconsin 5 wineries in each state Winery production ranged from 200 gallons to 20,000 gallons wineries Grape Production Issues: Grape Production Issues Issue #1 Pest Control Issue #2 Herbicide Drift Issue #3 Weather Issue #4 Capital Costs Pest Control: Pest Control Grasshoppers Big issue in Midwest, especially during dry conditions Some respondents estimated that grasshoppers alone decreased their production by at least 10-15%. Rabbits & Deer Cause year round damage to vines Rabbits are a particular problem for young vineyards Strip bark and consume young tender vines. Weeds Can easily Choke out vines Reduces availability of nutrients, water & sunlight Pest Control Solutions:
VQA Ontario also plays an educational role and works with the grape and wine industry. For more information: http://www. Winemaking Issues: Winemaking Issues Issue # 1 Handling Low pH Levels. governments and the public to promote the value and benefits of VQA-approved products.com Lack of experienced wine makers: Lack of experienced wine makers Few professional winemakers in the Midwest Normally hired from wineries in California & New York Full-time winemakers typically earn $30.vqaontario.000 per ACRE of grapes Costs due to trellising.000 to $4. etc.000/ year Some wineries in Nebraska & Missouri share their winemakers with several neighboring wineries Choosing a Winemaker: . Canada¶s premium wines VQA Ontario establishes.000 to $40. Will kill weeds & vines Herbicide Drift: Herbicide Drift (2. kills off yeast Maintaining/Improving Quality and Consistency across wineries: Maintaining/Improving Quality and Consistency across wineries Winemaking requires a highly sanitized environment Area must be scrubbed regularly Equipment must be cleaned constantly during production Remember you are making a food product Very easy to contaminate wine Maintaining/Improving Quality and Consistency across wineries: Maintaining/Improving Quality and Consistency across wineries Solution Constant Cleaning and attention to winemaking environment Technology Inexperience can be overcome by technology Technology is expensive Typically normal equipment costs are about $5 per gallon of wine. but must be careful during pollination and harvest Rabbits & Deer Fences. Several wineries ³hire´ their local high school football teams to pick grapes. Rot. weed control related expenses (labor & materials) Grape Growing is very labor intensive Labor typically accounts for 50% of total expenses Some vineyards donate wage equivalents to non-profit groups in exchange for harvesting Ex.4D is a popular farming herbicide because of its breadth of use Causes leaf blistering and die off Solution Many wineries reach agreements with neighboring farmers Work with state wine producer groups to identify resistant varietals Weather: Weather Issues with rainfall Too much rain can drown out vines Rain during pollination reduces fertilization rates Pollinating insects are less active Rain can wash pollen off Rain during harvest.) Issue # 3 Maintaining/Improving Quality and Consistency across wineries Issue # 4 Lack of experienced winemakers Issue # 5 Capital Costs Low pH Levels: Low pH Levels Almost all respondents indicated importance of knowing how to deal with highly acidic grapes Conditions in Midwest create highly acidic grapes High acidity affects fermentation process.Pest Control Solutions Grasshoppers Spraying. monitors and enforces a system of quality standards and verification of product origin for Ontario wines. Rabbits.4D 2. The next slide illustrates an innovative assurance program in Canada Assuring Wine Quality Vintners Quality Alliance (VQA): Assuring Wine Quality Vintners Quality Alliance (VQA) Rigorous quality assurance program for Ontario. Goal to bolster public perceptions about the vintner¶s wines. High acid grapes Issue # 2 Pest control (Birds.4D) Biggest issue in Midwest can drift a significant distance (over 1 mile) Many vines are especially susceptible to 2. Participation in the VQA appellation system is voluntary but only those wines approved by VQA Ontario may bear labels with regulated terms and descriptions. traps & commercial deterrents Weeds Best to pull them Very little room to use herbicides. irrigation/watering. increases water in grapes Drought Must consider your average yearly rainfall Many wineries incorporate drip irrigation systems to insure adequate moisture & fertilization Weather: Weather Over-Wintering issues In Minnesota and Wisconsin many vines are buried Many areas in Midwest get too cold in winter and can kill off vines Capital Costs: Capital Costs Typically takes $2.
sprays. Successful Products Slide49: Locally Produced Products Cheeses and Sausages Locally Baked Bread Locally Smoked Fish or Meats Cross-sell them as: Individual Items Gift Baskets On-site Picnic Basket Successful Products Slide50: Non-Wine Related Products Shirts Hats Baking Mixes Cards Important Note: Several respondents noted that local customers were less likely to buy wine related products than tourists The next two slides summarize findings from a Michigan State study linking tourism to local wine sales Unsuccessful Products Key Findings From a Michigan State Study*: Key Findings From a Michigan State Study* There is a strong relationship between tourism and wine consumption. and containing exceptional qualities and complexities. Silver Medal awarded to a wine showing superb balance and character for its varietal or type. etc. Mead¶s New World International Wine Competition Florida State Fair Wine Competition Top Honors/Awards of Competitions: Top Honors/Awards of Competitions Given to Gold Medal Winners: Best of Class Best of Varietal Best of Price Class Best of Show Other Awards: Other Awards Want to accumulate as many of these as possible (Criteria varies across competitions) Gold Medal presented to a wine exhibiting perfect character (for its varietal or type). local convention & visitor bureaus. This is wine that has been well made.000 per ton Staffing a retail space Facilities and Administrative Costs Do not Forget to factor in your time!!! Top 3 Competitions for New Wineries: Top 3 Competitions for New Wineries Indiana State Fair Indy International Wine Competition Jerry D. Inc. go to a winemaking school (check with your local wine/grape grower organization) How much wine do you plan on making? Is it worth hiring a wine maker for the amount of wine your making? Are there other wineries in your area that are looking into hiring a winemaker? Possibility to share winemakers Capital Costs: Capital Costs Capital costs to keep in mind Equipment costs can be high Typically $5 per gallon produced Sanitation costs Grapes cost average of $0. There is an exploitable association between agricultural tourism & winery tourism.Choosing a Winemaker Two options Hire a Winemaker (Full-time v. balance and structure. quality and style for its variety or type. Michigan State University eatal. Wine related products Corkscrews Wine Preservation products Vacuums. This wine is considered to be extremely well crafted. at annual Wineries Unlimited Trade Show Slide47: Wine According to respondents: Semi-Sweet and Sweet wines are more popular than drier wines Whites & Blushes are more popular than reds Mead and fruit wine are another popular product Takes 3-4 months to make a batch Allows winery to increase volume without reducing wine production Mead can be produced while wine is aging Wine: 1 batch yearly ± 3 months time between harvest & barreling/bottling Mead: 3 batches yearly ± 3 months time between start & bottling Successful Products Slide48: Juice Does well in some areas.50 per pound or $1. Wine drinkers have a higher propensity to travel and use the Internet than non-wine drinkers. 2002 Key Findings From a Michigan State Study*: . * ³A Marketing and Economic Analysis of Michigan¶s Wine Industry and Winery Tourism´. Wineries should cooperatively market with other agricultural tourism attractions and agricultural product and food festivals. seals. ³Best of the East´ Competition Awarded by Vineyard & Winery Management. Part-time) Do it yourself Questions to ask yourself Can you afford one? If not. seems to do better in more heavily populated areas Young families with children Respondents noted that you should not expect significant revenue from juice. Other Awards: Other Awards Bronze awarded to a wine that has very good character. Wineries should investigate and take advantage of opportunities for cooperative marketing & packaging with lodging establishments. Persons that have visited wineries generally have higher household incomes than other travelers.
Wineries should maintain relationships with winery tourists after they return home through various methods including email newsletters and promotions. information on where they can buy the wineries¶ wines. Location Choosing a Location is Very Important Ideal Location Has Grape Vines Visible Adequate Access & Parking Paved Road Better than Dirt Road Look at traffic level How many cars drive by in a day? (Check with Department of Roads) How easy is it to find your winery? Is your establishment Disability Friendly? Location. Wine Maker¶s Dinner. new products and special events in which the winery will participate. Location. Location. events.Key Findings From a Michigan State Study* It is crucial that staff be trained in customer service and point-ofpurchase marketing. Raymond Nebraska Renaissance Festival Over 5. Location . Location: Has Natural Beauty Les Bourgeois Winery and Vineyard. etc. New York and Texas wine regions Suggestions for Improving On-Site Sales Examples of Successful On-Site Sales Promotion: Examples of Successful On-Site Sales Promotion Festivals Cuthills Winery. Location. Gazebos. etc.000 visitors on Saturday May 24. etc. limited return Dinners Examples: Murder Mystery. etc. 2002 Suggestions for Improving On-Site Sales: Suggestions for Improving On-Site Sales Rule of Thumb The longer people stay the more they spend Suggestions Offer Wine Tasting expect costs to be 7% of sales Provide Sitting Areas Tables. Wineries must track their customers and develop customer databases. Location: Location. Suggestion for Improving Off-Site Sales: Suggestion for Improving Off-Site Sales Direct Marketing Use Names and Addresses Provided in Guest/Visitor Signin Books Mail Newsletters Announce new varietals. 2003 Examples of Unsuccessful On-Site Sales Promotion: Examples of Unsuccessful On-Site Sales Promotion Radio High cost.e. they enjoyed a story) ³This structure was once owned by « ³ Location. regular customers and provide revenues between tourist season(s) Many respondents suggested finding an old structure (barn. Pierce Nebraska Wine & Wings Festival Blues Festival Winery sells up to one-third of its production James Arthur Vineyards. Missouri Winery has restaurant & is located on a bluff that overlooks Missouri River (see next slide) Close to a tourist attraction or population center Allows tourists to get away and relax Population center needed to provide a base market for you to develop loyal. shed. thank you notes and cards to persons who purchase wine on their trips. Newsletters Allows winery to maintain contact with buyers and helps build repeat buyers and customer relationships Allows for direct marketing Suggestions for Improving On-Site Sales: Wine Trail Nebraska Wine and Grape Grower Association Awarded State Grant to Develop Nebraskan Wine Trail Missouri also has established trails Serves to cross-promote all wineries in your region and increase tourism/visitor draw Can visit more than just one winery For ideas Look up and/or visit California. * ³A Marketing and Economic Analysis of Michigan¶s Wine Industry and Winery Tourism´. and a web-site that keeps persons informed about changes in the winery.) and fixing it up Noted that visitors responded positively to a historical appeal (i. Use the Internet Web sales account for up to 20% of sales Suggestion for Improving Off-Site Sales: Suggestion for Improving Off-Site Sales Tap Local Markets Approach local food and alcohol businesses Several wineries have their product in local grocery stores Had to repeatedly meet with grocery representatives Most have to distribute and stock their wines themselves Suggestion for Improving Off-Site Sales: Suggestion for Improving Off-Site Sales Tap Local Markets Attend Local Fairs/Festivals Example Nebraska Wine and Grape Grower¶s Association bought booth at Nebraska State Fair Several wineries manned the booth and crosspromoted all Nebraska Wineries Offered Wine Tasting Sold Product Location. Location. then poor attendance High population area Does well year round monthly occasions seemed to be the best timing. Low population area Only seems to be good for once a year Good 1st time attendance. Michigan State University eatal. Offer Restaurant/Onsite Food Service Provide On-Site Entertainment Provides additional reason for visit Suggestions for Improving On-Site Sales: Suggestions for Improving On-Site Sales Lower Prices Many wineries indicated an increase in volume after they decreased prices when the novelty of their winery wore off.
com Best Practices: Best Practices Based on the respondents: Regarding your location and products Pick your location carefully Must have something ³special´ Beautiful landscape Close to a tourist draw (National/State Park. City. Particular Grape Varietal. exquisite bistro cuisine and beautiful scenery Source: www. soil makeup and varietals Will save you money in the long run Best Practices: Best Practices Based on the respondents: Winemaking: Keep your production and equipment clean Educate yourself Go to winemaking school even if you have a winemaker Try a lot of wine. Les Bourgeois Winery and Vineyards is one of Mid-Missouri's premier cultural and recreational attractions. but can pay for itself during a drought Helps to maximize yields Keep weeds down! Can significantly reduce yields Spend time researching your climate. Les Bourgeois offers visitors a taste of some of the Show-Me State's finest award-winning wines. etc. there are many different styles and varietals Buy the best equipment that you can afford Best Practices: Best Practices Based on the respondents: Regarding Customer Service: Hire good people Provide great customer service Provide tours of your facility Many tourists regard a winery tour as a must and expect the guide to be knowledgeable Educate your customers Make sure they learn something about your winery Best Practices: Best Practices Based on the respondents: Promotions: Know your market and tailor events to them Who is your customer? Be specific! What do they want? Make sure that you make money on your promotions Did you bring in more revenue than you spent? Spend the time organizing your events Planning is everything Best Practices: Best Practices Based on the respondents: Promotions: Use the Internet Increases your market and can have a significant effect on your revenues Talk with your local retailers and restaurants Allows you to diversify your revenue streams Increases the awareness of your winery Develop cross-promotional relationships with related industries Tourist oriented Bed & Breakfasts Local value-added producers Midwest Regulatory Environment: Midwest Regulatory Environment Most respondents indicated that their states had done well to develop an environment where the wine industry could grow However. some noted that volume restrictions and lack of a checkoff program were hindering their state¶s development Helpful State Regulation: Helpful State Regulation Tax Subsidy Most states have subsidies that allow a winery to pay less state alcohol tax if they use a certain percentage of product from in-state suppliers Helps ensure/encourage local production of grapes and fruits Helpful State Regulation: Helpful State Regulation State Funding Opportunities Provides opportunity for wineries and other wine & grape associations to access additional funding for promotional activities Typically come in the form of Value-Added grants or Initiatives Encourages cooperation between producers within the state Suggestions for Improvement: .Slide63: Known for its spectacular bluff top view of the Missouri River Valley.missouriwine. A family owned and operated winery.) Find something that you are ³good´ at Mead. Customer Service What makes you different from other wineries? What would a visitor find appealing about your winery? Best Practices: Best Practices Based on the respondents: Decide how much wine you want to make Majority of respondents suggested starting small and growing your business Lower start-up costs Mistakes and experimentation are less expensive Take time to assess supply & demand in your area Smaller volume allows you to focus on quality Quality of the wine is very important Best Practices: Best Practices Based on the respondents: Production: Spend the money to put in irrigation Expensive.
MO 65102 Phone: (573) 751-6807 Fax: (573) 751-2868 Nebraska Regulatory Contacts: Nebraska Regulatory Contacts Nebraska Liquor Control Commission 301 Centennial Mall South 5th Floor P.O.O. Murli Dharmadhikari. MO 65711 Phone: (417) 926-4105 Nebraska Production Contacts: Nebraska Production Contacts Dr. WI 53708-8933 Phone: (608) 266-2776 Fax: (608) 261-6240 Email: ates@dor. Box 95046 Lincoln Nebraska 68509-5046 Phone: (402) 471-2571 Fax: (402) 471-2814 Wisconsin Regulatory Contacts: Wisconsin Regulatory Contacts Wisconsin Department of Revenue. Alcoholic Beverages Division http://www.iowaabd.edu/info/info. Roper.O.com/ Phone: (866) 4692223 Missouri Regulatory Contacts: Missouri Regulatory Contacts Jim Anderson. Professor of Horticulture Address: Room 479 Department of Horticulture 1575 Linden Drive Madison. Dept. NE 68583-0724 Phone:402/472-5136 Fax:402/472-8650 Wisconsin Production Contacts: Wisconsin Production Contacts Teryl R. WI 53706 Phone: (608) 262-9751 Iowa Wine Making Contacts: . Iowa State University Ames.us Iowa Production Contacts: Iowa Production Contacts Dr. Professor of Horticulture 377J Plant Science Hall Department of Agronomy and Horticulture University of Nebraska-Lincoln P. grape growers and state fruit growers ³Ideal´ Regulatory Environment: ³Ideal´ Regulatory Environment Provide funding for agritourism research Provide competitive grants to provide monies for the marketing research of the states wine regions Provide additional funding for Viticulture/Enology research To reduce workshop prices Increase spending on varietal feasibility research ³Ideal´ Regulatory Environment: ³Ideal´ Regulatory Environment Initiate regular discussions about value-added industries Provides opportunity for state officials to learn first hand about the environment that producers and wineries perceive Spend as much time and money promoting wine industry as they do other agricultural industries Iowa Regulatory Contacts: Iowa Regulatory Contacts State of Iowa. soil.state. Paul Domoto. Box 630 Jefferson City.us Web: http://www.hort. Professor.dor.iastate. Box 830724 Lincoln.state.O.html Phone: (515) 294-0035 Missouri Production Contacts: Missouri Production Contacts Dr. Enology Technician Mid-America Viticulture and Enology Center/ Southwest Missouri State University Fruit Experiment Station 9740 Red Spring Road Mountain Grove. Director or Tavis Harris. P. IA 50011 http://viticulture. Paul Read.4D Suggestions for Improvement: Suggestions for Improvement Assist with matching cultivar selection to state¶s ³Terroir´ Terroir (Tear-Wah) French term with no direct English Translation Refers to how the climate. Program Coordinator Missouri Grape & Wine Program 1616 Missouri Blvd. landscape and other environmental factors come together and give the wine character/ identity Sometimes referred to as the ³soul/essence´ of the wine ³Ideal´ Regulatory Environment: ³Ideal´ Regulatory Environment State promotes its wine industry Locally through assistance with industry promotional brochures/marketing Nationally through tourism literature Encourages industry development State alcohol tax breaks Good for wineries.wi. of Horticulture Address: 245 Horticulture Hall. Alcohol & Tobacco Enforcement Address: P.Suggestions for Improvement Provide more funding for enology & viticulture training workshops Many respondents indicated that current prices for these workshops are high and are a barrier to attendance Spending more monies on educating ³row-crop´ farmers about Herbicide Drift Especially 2.wi. Box 8933 Madison.
The quality of the grapes and the soil in which they are cultivated . Dept. Enology Technician Mid-America Viticulture and Enology Center/ Southwest Missouri State University Fruit Experiment Station 9740 Red Spring Road Mountain Grove. The terrain either side of the Douro is irregular in the extreme with deeply incised tributaries draining the mountais. Professor. Murli Dharmadhikari.Half of the region¶s vineyards are planted on slopes SOILS AND CLIMATE Slide5: PORT WINE PROCESSING LINE CVUT Mechanical Engineer SOILS AND CLIMATE Slide6: PORT WINE PROCESSING LINE CVUT Mechanical Engineer .Iowa Wine Making Contacts Dr. NE 68583-0724 Phone:(402) 472-5136 Fax:(402) 472-8650 Wisconsin Wine Making Contacts: Wisconsin Wine Making Contacts Wisconsin Winery Association Address: 7600 Terrace Avenue.O. . .html Phone: (515) 294-3889 or (515) 2949425 Missouri Wine Making Contacts: Missouri Wine Making Contacts Dr. It remains to this day the center of much of the world's production. IA 50011 http://viticulture.The blend of wines selected for each style of port . Professor of Horticulture Address: 377J Plant Science Hall Department of Agronomy and Horticulture University of Nebraska-Lincoln P.The first vineyards in Douro were planted in the thirteenth century during the reign of Dom Diniz.com PORT WINE PORT WINE PROCESSING LINE: PORT WINE PROCESSING LINE PROCESSING LINES CVUT Mechanical Engineer Nuno Silva Porto Portugal HISTORY OF PORT WINE : HISTORY OF PORT WINE PORT WINE PROCESSING LINE CVUT Mechanical Engineer .hort.Whether the port is matured in the bottle or in a wooden cask Slide4: PORT WINE PROCESSING LINE CVUT Mechanical Engineer Forming a deep cleft in the rock. -The proportion of organic material in the Douro¶s soils is low and regular application of both organic and inorganic fertilisers is necessary to correct the imbalance of nutrients. Box 830724 Lincoln.wiswine. and the discovery was made that the wines from the Douro valley were to the taste of the British. relations between Britain and France had deteriorated so badly that the British government decided to impose heavy import duties on French wines. Three main factors account for the difference between one port and another: . This was originally thought to be a virus.By the end of the 17th century.iastate.edu/info/info. of Food Science and Human Nutrition Address: Iowa State University Ames.The Douro¶s soils are naturally rich in Potassium and magnesium but tend to lack calcium and boron.com Website: www. WI 53562 Phone: (608) 831-1155 or (866)947-9643 Email: Info@WisWine. SOILS AND CLIMATE Slide7: . Lester Wilson. the river Douro flows at an altitude of between 60 and 140 metres above sea level. which rise in places to over 1000 metres on the edge of the region. but is now successfully treated by applying borax to the soil. causing a condition known locally as moromba. MO 65711 Phone: (417) 926-4105 Nebraska Wine Making Contacts: Nebraska Wine Making Contacts Dr. Director or Tavis Harris. Slide3: PORT WINE PROCESSING LINE CVUT Mechanical Engineer Port can legally still only be produced in the Douro region within boundaries firmly delineated by the Portuguese government. Paul Read. Suite 203 Middleton.
.After the bins has been weighed it is tipped into a reception hopper from where a large screw (µwithout end¶) conveys the grapes to a crusher-destemmer. On the basis of the vineyard classification a licence would be issued permitting the grower to produce a certain amount of Port per thousand vines. MAKING PORT Slide12: PORT WINE PROCESSING LINE CVUT Mechanical Engineer The place where is extracted the colour and flavour from the Port grapes is the lagar. Nowadays they are loaded on to trailers and towed to the adega by tractor. armazem (storage). Slide14: PORT WINE PROCESSING LINE CVUT Mechanical Engineer MAKING PORT-Technology The process called Autovinification powered by a natural build-up of carbon dioxide in the system is the more vigorous and the most used.Baumé (a measure of the concentration of grape sugars). . pH and total acidity are crucial readings but tasting grapes or juice are important for the determination of the optimum ripeness.3 metres in depth.Over the course of a day¶s picking. The majority of grapes are now transported to the winery in 1000 Kg steel bins known as dornas. the soles of their feet crushing the grapes gently against the stone floor of the lagar.6-3. .PORT WINE PROCESSING LINE CVUT Mechanical Engineer The feature that all the vineyards have in common is the initial deep ploughing or ripping of the earth to create a course top soil roughly 1-1. The vineyard plot within the Douro is graded according twelve different physical variables. the grapes were carried out entirely by hand.7 by adding the appropriate amount of tartaric acid.Before the crushed grapes reach the fermentation tank or autovinifier. MAKING PORTTradition Slide13: PORT WINE PROCESSING LINE CVUT Mechanical Engineer MAKING PORT-Tradition Depending on the temperature at which of the grapes reach the vinery. Most wine-maker will adjust the acidity of the must at this stage to around pH 3. VINEYARDS AND QUINTAS Slide8: PORT WINE PROCESSING LINE CVUT Mechanical Engineer The vineyard classification is the basis for the authorisation which regulates the amount of Port that may be produced in any one year.the treaders link arms and march slowly back and forth.In the past. Grapes were traditionally cut into large. the Instituto do Vinho do Porto (Port Wine Institute) determines the total amount of grape that must be fortified to make Porto. the must is dosed with sulphur dioxide at levels of between 40 and 150 mg per Kg. . The action of human legs and feet helps to warm the must.The key to the production of a quality red Port is in the vigorous extraction of colour and flavour compounds found in the skins of the grapes. the lagar is filled to within 15 to 20 centimetres of the brim. which removes at least a proportion of the stalks from both red and white grapes. rising to 28-30ºC at the height of fermentation. . This is a square stone tank made from granite or cement. fermentation will begin quite soon after treading. -The fermentation is prematurely arrested by the addition of grape spirit known as aguardente. MAKING PORT Slide11: PORT WINE PROCESSING LINE CVUT Mechanical Engineer . Taking in account the previous year¶s sales and stocks of Porto held by the shippers. VINEYARDS AND QUINTAS Slide9: PORT WINE PROCESSING LINE CVUT Mechanical Engineer PROCESS: Vindima Transportation of the grapes Crush of the grapes Fermentation prematurely arrested by the addition of aguardente (spirit) Maturation Clarification and filtration MAKING PORT Slide10: PORT WINE PROCESSING LINE CVUT Mechanical Engineer The building block of the Douro is the quinta. All the quintas have the adega (vinery). Slide15: PORT WINE PROCESSING LINE CVUT Mechanical Engineer MAKING PORT-Technology Slide16: PORT WINE PROCESSING LINE CVUT Mechanical Engineer MAKING PORT-Technology The preoccupation with the ways of crush the grapes in the lagares have led to a number of attempts to simulate the gentle action of the . . usually no more than a metre in depth with a capacity varying between 15 and 25 pipes (8000-14000 litres). possibly during the night. coarse woven baskets with capacity up to 75 Kg at a time. All grapes destined for the production of Port must legally be above 11 degrees baumé. These steps like terraces are called socalcos or patamares. Ideally the grapes will arrive at the adega registering temperature around 20ºC.
the fermenting must falls back down the central autovinification unit by force of gravity. Most wines are therefore clarified using fining agents like gelatine. Left in the wine. Slide26: . . cement or stainless steel holding tank simultaneously with the free run juice. At the same time the hydraulic valve resets itself ready for the pressure to build up and the cycle to begin again. . In a process called as encuba. egg white and casein.It involves the removal of clear wine from the sediment or less that have settled at the bottom of the cask or vat. similar to vintage character port. In the case of old wines. a shop or cellar store.The vat is filled of full capacity.Ports are typically racked three times in the first year. Most of the wines ages in wooden vats and casks holding as much as 100 000 litres to casks of around 600 litres. By law it has to spend four to six years in wood before it is bottled. the carbon escapes though a calibrated hydraulic valve. -Wines set aside to become old Tawnies are transferred to smaller lodge pipes to enhance the oxidative character of the wine. is a blend of higher quality wines.In the past days. . but the grapes must all come from the specified year.The wine matures in a loja. Slide21: PORT WINE PROCESSING LINE CVUT Mechanical Engineer MATURATION Slide22: PORT WINE PROCESSING LINE CVUT Mechanical Engineer RACKING .All Port wines spend their first winter in the Douro. betonite. Slide17: PORT WINE PROCESSING LINE CVUT Mechanical Engineer MAKING PORT-Technology The basic functionality of the autovinification system: . The Institute also has its rigorous quality control producers but a number of smaller shippers without their own laboratories are still sitting on a potential bacterial time bomb. Slide19: PORT WINE PROCESSING LINE CVUT Mechanical Engineer MATURATION . . starting from the top row. No longer supported by the pressure inside the vat. This provides the opportunity of the first selection and classification. Slide24: PORT WINE PROCESSING LINE CVUT Mechanical Engineer QUALITY CONTROL The Port Wine Institute has a well-equipped laboratory and offers its services to smaller shippers.Ruby port. the wine is typically run off when approximately 4 or 5 per cent of natural alcohol has been produced from the fermentation and mixed with grape spirit or aguardente in a proportion of 20 percent. They function as vessels for ageing where the permeability of the wood permits a gradual.Late Bottled Vintage. . twice in the second and annually thereafter. Slide18: PORT WINE PROCESSING LINE CVUT Mechanical Engineer MAKING PORT-Technology All Port is fortified to a strength of between 19 and 22 per cent of volume. Slide25: PORT WINE PROCESSING LINE CVUT Mechanical Engineer BASIC CLASSIFICATION . The young wines are analysed and adjusted where necessary. -Wines destined for a bottling after two or tree years (Vintage) are partly aged in wooden vat and partly kept in stainless steel to preserve the primary character of the fruit. is matured for around three years in the cask and then bottled ready for drinking. Slide20: PORT WINE PROCESSING LINE CVUT Mechanical Engineer MATURATION . the less will generate offflavours.human foot with pistons. . pipes or casks are decanted progressively. the Port wine was transported to Porto by a boat called barco rabelo. A temperature controlled stainless steel vat equipped with programmable pistons is installed in some quintas.Once a certain pressure has built up inside the autovinifier.Reserve/Vintage character ports are made from higher quality vintage style wines and are matured in the wood for between four and five years. controlled oxidation of the contents. The blending of aguardente is generally carried out by pumping a measured quantity of spirit into wooden. Slide23: PORT WINE PROCESSING LINE CVUT Mechanical Engineer CLARIFICATION AND FILTRATION Racking alone is sufficient to eliminate heavier insoluble particles from a young Port but is does not remove unstable material found in solution that could precipitate after the wine has been bottled. This forces the fermenting must up an escape valve which spills into an open holding tank on top of the vat.As the fermentation begins carbon dioxide is given off and the pressure builds up inside the tank. They are smoother than Ruby port.
Gobelet : Gobelet This ancient method of vine training involves no wires or other system of support. and results in a goblet shaped growth Best suited to warm. In Double Guyot. which is for the generation of the replacement cane. Of the two canes originating from the spur.PORT WINE PROCESSING LINE CVUT Mechanical Engineer BASIC CLASSIFICATION Vintage Port is the wine of a single year. Excoriosis Canes display pale patches. Provence and Languedoc Guyot : Guyot Named after Dr. bears a number of spurs (how many often depends on appellation laws in France) which are subject to spur pruning Vertical Trellis : Vertical Trellis Also known as vertical shoot positioning or simply VSP The canes are supported by securing them to a number of trellis wires running the length of the row of vines. and consequently the row takes on a hedge-like appearance. whereas the cane further away is left intact. the canes being trained in opposite directions along wires Cordon training : Cordon training The vines have a short trunk. the one closest to the cordon is pruned to leave a replacement two node spur.5m. providing sufficient quantity of fruit. . each vine has two canes and two spurs. about 0. Grey Rot and Noble Rot Grey Rot is the result of consistently wet or humid conditions Noble Rot occurs when drier conditions follow wetter Powdery Mildew : Powdery Mildew Fungal disease High atmospheric humidity is a major cause This mildew can be treated with sulfur or fungicides. fissures and lesions after winter pruning Rain and cool spring temperatures can also be a factor . in the previous years pruning). which is bottled between 22 and 31 months after the harvest and then matures in the bottle for a minimum of ten years. are completely removed. which is a system widely used in Bordeaux. for the generation of next years many fruiting canes. This is next years two year old cane. without fertile soil Found in southern parts of Burgundy. although shortened. It may be spur or cane pruned Viticultural Hazards : Viticultural Hazards Botrytis Cinerea : Botrytis Cinerea A fungus that gives rise to two different kinds of infections on grapes. At pruning the two year old cane. which is never pruned away. and a spur giving origin to two canes. this system is essentially cane pruning In Single Guyot. which will generate the two new fruiting canes. Jules Guyot. dry climates. followed by warmth and humidity The µoil spot¶ is and initial indicator Plasmopara viticola Phomopsis : Phomopsis AKA Dead Arm. There are a number of spurs along the cordon. a 19th century French scientist. usually to two nodes. It can be either dry or sweet and is at its best when served chilled. similar to the gobelet style The cordon. The cane furthest away from the cordon is completely removed. Viticulture : Viticulture Spur Pruning : Spur Pruning There are two fruiting canes (this years growth) originating from each spur (a cane shortened. especially Strobilurines AKA Oidium Downy Mildew : Downy Mildew Fungal disease Spring storms and heavy rain are significant causes. and one spur. the one nearest is shortened to two nodes to produce next years spur. although it may be between one and four nodes. each vine has one cane preserved each year. the Rhône Valley. and consequently much of this years growth. Cane pruning : Cane pruning Here the vine has a two year old cane which generates many more fruiting canes during the growing season.White port is made only from white grapes. The canes may be trimmed off at the top.
Fortified wines. In a natural wine all the alcohol present has been produced by fermentation. for white wines. leading to gradual death Phylloxera is combated by grafting onto resistant rootstocks: Vitis berlandieri. Wines are also classified as dry or sweet. The term wine is also applied to alcoholic beverages made from plants other than the grape. wine is mentioned in early Egyptian inscriptions and in the literature of many lands. and alcoholic content. For red wines the entire crushed grape is utilized. are wines to which brandy or other spirits have been added. thus producing a light pink color. of which champagne is the finest example. mass-produced rosé wines may be made by adding a small amount of red wine to white wines. dandelion wine. Wines are red. are produced by the process of secondary fermentation in the bottle. the skins are removed after fermentation has begun. bouquet or aroma. white. alcoholic beverage made by the fermentation of the juice of the grape. is also prone to phylloxera. Wine is also divided into three main types: still or natural. In traditional rosé wines. the juice only. These wines contain a higher alcohol content (from 16% to 35%) than the still wines (from 7% to 15%). Vitis riparia and Vitis rupestris Hybrid rootstock AxR1. flavor. port. or whether some residual sugar has been left (sweet). and eventually die off the following year This pathogen complex disease does not yet have a cure Eutypa Dieback : Eutypa Dieback Fungal virus affecting grapevines as well as fruit vines Vines die off. according to whether the grape sugar is allowed to ferment completely into alcohol (dry). So ancient that its origin is unknown. elderberry wine. Madeira. . commonly used in California. or rosé (depending on the grape used and the amount of time the skins have been left to ferment in the juice). prevention is the only real cure Grafted vines are usually used to combat this problem Phylloxera : Phylloxera A louse that damages the roots of vines They disrupt the nutrition of the vines. and Malaga. similar to Esca Cankers and small leaves are symtoms Esca infections can lead to Eutypa Dieback Feared Vineyard Pests : Feared Vineyard Pests Grape Berry Moths Vine Leafhoppers Willow Beauty Caterpillars Black Vine Weevil Nematodes Phylloxera Nematodes : Nematodes Microscopic worms that attack the roots of a vine Treatment is near impossible. just at a later period of life Obviously one of the major crisis of wine producers in modern wine producing era Phylloxera Lifecycle : Phylloxera Lifecycle wine. Sparkling wines. e.. such as sherry. fortified.Rotbrenner : Rotbrenner Fungal disease which colors the leaves brown and yellow Mainly effects steep vineyards (Mosel) Esca : Esca A chronic infection found mainly on older vineyards Vines in a plot show leaf degeneration and stunted growth.g. Characteristics Wines are distinguished by color. and sparkling.
For red wines the must is fermented with the skins and pips. are somewhat lighter in body than the Bordeaux.Highly publicized studies of the French. as for Sauternes. superfine natural wines made in good vintage years from perfect grapes of the better varieties and possessing the unaccountable quality that vintners call breed are produced in the Bordeaux. Mechanical extraction of the juice. Such findings were judged worthy of further investigation by the American Medical Association. as Château LafiteRothschild. when overripe). red and white. The best-known Bordeaux wines are those of Médoc (red). The Bordeaux region furnishes red wine known as claret (or simply Bordeaux) and white wine. then racked into smaller casks. come in contact with the must. Connoisseurs prize the Burgundies of the Côte d'Or. it is run off into large casks. the Rhône valley (Hermitage and Châteauneuf-du-Pape). but superior sparkling wines are also produced elsewhere in the world. It may take from a few days to several weeks. called must. in California's Napa and Sonoma valleys and other parts of the United States. or for certain wines several years. Production In natural-wine making the grapes are gathered when fully ripe (sometimes. The Chablis area produces fine. The very rare. and Château Latour. French Wine France is the most influential wine-producing area in the world and has developed superfine natural still wines and the finest sparkling wine champagne. especially the white Montrachet. made from overripe grapes and including the noted Château d'Yquem. and the Jura Mts. Graves (red or white). After some months. The wine is periodically fined (clarified). A great quantity of wine is produced in S France. and Rhône regions of France. distilled into brandy. and in other regions of the world. both dry except for Sauternes. the traditional method. has almost entirely replaced treading. claim that a moderate consumption of red wine might help reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. according to the temperature and the amount of yeast present or introduced. Fermentation starts when wine yeasts ( Saccharomyces ellipsoideus ). and some of it of superior quality. Château Margaux. the wine is ripe for bottling. Burgundy. Bibliography . and St.-Emilion and Pomerol. where it undergoes a complicated series of chemical processes including oxidation. Burgundy wines. or used for blending. Sauternes (white). white Burgundy. and formation of esters that create a characteristic bouquet. in the Rhine valley of Germany. When the new wine has become still and fairly clear. from which the newly formed alcohol extracts coloring matter and tannin. Champagne is the best-known fine sparkling wine. and red Clos Vougeot and Romanée. sweet. Good wines are made in the Loire valley (Vouvray). The fine sherry of Spain and port of Portugal are superior fortified wines. some of it made into vermouth. precipitation of proteids. existing on the skins of ripe grapes. Alsace. particularly in Lyons. classified and known by the vineyard names.
Other good wines are made in Baden. but both that island and Sardinia are increasing important for quality wines. is typically an undistinguished semisweet Rhine wine. Rüdesheimer. a sweet. since the mid-1960s the quality domestic wine industry has grown. Catawbas. but many are now produced from the Old World species and hybrids. Wine is produced in many states. are grown. amber-colored. Vitis vinifera. One of the most northerly viticultural areas in the world. from Veneto comes Valpolicella. See P. 1989). also produces distinguished wines. noted for Stein wine. 1999). Hock. chardonnay. Rheinhessen wines are milder and lighter in taste. Italian Wine Italy is the largest and one of the oldest wine-producing countries in the world. Lichine. and properly a Tuscan wine. grapes of the Old World species. Rhine wines were formerly matured for many years in huge casks like the classic Heidelberg Tun.See A. delicate wines. situated along the Moselle (Mosel) River and its tributaries the Saar and the Ruwer. although well known. most of them from New York state especially the Finger Lakes region were long made mainly from native grapes such as Concords. Italian wines are frequently named for the grape rather than for the region of origin. Eastern wines. ed. Alexis Lichine's Guide to the Wines and Vineyards of France (4th ed. from Campania come the well-known Lacrima Cristi. In California and the Northwest. California is the nation's richest wine-producing state. white wines made from the Riesling grape and characterized by a fresh. hence a wine excellent in one locality may be inferior in another. and in Franconia in Bavaria. dry. Distinguished wines from that region include cabernet sauvignon. and some of the varieties produced from these grapes have come to rival the finest French wines. flowery bouquet. Pfalz (the Palatinate). Lukacs. and Steinberger. They include Johannisberger. descendant of Horace's Falernian. Sicily makes Marsala. The third Rhine district. followed by New York and the Pacific Northwest states. From Piedmont come the red Barolo. N. and zinfandel. but are now aged in small casks for not more than three years. is an English term sometimes applied to all Rhine wines. derived from the town of Hochheim. and the southern scuppernong. American Vintage: The Rise of American Wine (2000). and many excellent and some superb wines have been made in the United States. usually fortified wine. Barbera. German Wine Fine German wines are generally light. American Wine Although in the past American vintners largely were satisfied with quantity production and imitations largely in name only of foreign wines. . and Falerno. The best known is Chianti. Tuscany also produces the esteemed red blends known as Super-Tuscans. dark red with a rich texture. Moselle wines are drawn off into green bottles. red or white. furnishes extremely light. The best white Rhines traditionally are from the Rheingau. The Winemasters of Bordeaux (rev. Faith. Some of the best wines come from the Napa Valley area north of San Francisco. Liebfraumilch. and Barbaresco wines. Rhine wines into brown.
The best wines from South America come from Chile. Dovaz. Navarre. Robinson. Rioja. Bibliography See E. It is clarified and bottled before undergoing final maturation. Germany. a leading table wine. sweet wines being high in sugar content and dry wines containing little or no sugar. and Romania. French planting has made Algeria one of the largest wine-producing countries. and then the wine is drawn off ( racked ) into wooden barrels or other containers for a second fermentation ( aging ). 2008. and South Africa. Oxford Companion to Wine (1994). is Spain's most widely exported wine. In wine manufacture. Greek wines. contain added brandy. Portugal. A Short History of Wine (2001). Argentina is another significant producer. Priorato. Hungary.. mainly whites and rosés. but the wines are not notable. the U.Other Countries Until recently.S. sake . Australian wines have sold well since the mid-1980s. such as champagne. Wines may be classified according to colour as red. Bulgaria. which suppresses wild yeasts and organisms. contain suspended carbon dioxide. Wine Course (1990).com. wine was not drunk in its matured form until the development of the bottle and cork in the late 17th century. Fermentation continues for several weeks. Licensed from Columbia University Press wine Alcoholic beverage made from the fermented juice of grapes. H. Vintage (1989) and Modern Encyclopedia of Wine (4th ed. best known for port and Madeira. or white. such as port and sherry. South Africa. Portugal. The leading wine-producing countries are France. Peynaud. colour depends on whether the skins of red grapes are allowed to ferment with the juice. Phillips. S. sherry was the major Spanish wine sold. rosé (pink). also produces some excellent table wines. Wine taste is described as sweet or dry. when first-class examples of chardonnay and cabernet sauvignon became available abroad. The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia Copyright © 2004. Though known by the ancients. Spurrier and M. 1998). and other regions also produce fine wines. J. Italy. Encyclopedia Britannica. R. Australia. Knowing and Making Wine (1984). and Ribera del Duero. Fortified wines. grapes are crushed and strained. Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Today. and the juice (called must) is sealed in vats along with yeast ( Saccharomyees ellipsoideus ) and often sulfur dioxide. New Zealand is especially noted for its sauvignon blanc. Argentina. the result of bottling the wine before fermentation is complete. Other wine-producing countries include Austria. Johnson. Romania. which produces both fortified and table wines. Learn more about wine with a free trial on Britannica. Wine may also be made from various fruits and plant parts. are sometimes treated with pine resin (retsina). Spain. Sparkling wines.
are made from starch-based materials and resemble beer and spirit more than wine. and the drink is also used in Christian and Jewish ceremonies such as the Eucharist and Kiddush. or "wandering word". The word "wine" derives from the Proto-Germanic *winam . such as barley wine and rice wine (e.g. It dates to at least the 3rd century AD . the resultant "wines" are normally named after the fruit from which they are produced (for example. Often mistakenly called a wine. Wine has a rich history dating back to around 6000 BC and is thought to have originated in areas now within the borders of Israel. Similar words for wine or grapes are found in the Semitic languages (cf. Encyclopedia Britannica. Wine Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from the fermentation of grape juice.oînos .woinos ). Encyclopedia Britannica Online. 2008. enzymes or other nutrients. Sake is light in colour and noncarbonated. Wine has also played an important role in religion throughout history. Aeolic Greek . The Greek god Dionysos and the Roman equivalent Bacchus represented wine. sake). History . sake is closer in its method of manufacture to beer. In Japan. where it is the national beverage and the traditional drink of the Shinto gods. while ginger wine is fortified with brandy. and bottled. Learn more about sake with a free trial on Britannica. twice fermented (with fresh rice and water added). an early borrowing from the Latin vinum . Georgia and Iran. Ancient Greek .Japanese alcoholic beverage made from fermented rice. Wine probably appeared in Europe at about 4500 BC in what is now Bulgaria and Greece. The natural chemical balance of grapes is such that they can ferment without the addition of sugars. some consider the term to be a wanderwort. Although other fruits such as apples and berries can also be fermented. Others. In these cases. The commercial use of the English word "wine" (and its equivalent in other languages) is protected by law in many jurisdictions. the mix is kneaded into a paste. Thrace and Rome. filtered. Arabic wayn ) and in Georgian ( vino ). itself derived from the Proto-Indo-European stem *win-o. its alcohol content is about 18 percnt by volume. Steamed rice is combined with a mold that converts the rice starch to fermentable sugars. apple wine or elderberry wine) and are generically known as fruit wine or country wine (not to be confused with the French term vin du pays).(cf. Wine is produced by fermenting crushed grapes using various types of yeast which consume the sugars found in the grapes and convert them into alcohol.com. "wine" or "(grape) vine". with a sweet flavour. Various varieties of grapes and strains of yeasts are used depending on the types of wine produced. and was very common in ancient Greece. rather than production process. acids. the use of the term "wine" is a reference to the higher alcohol content. sake is warmed in a small earthenware or porcelain vessel before being blessed and served in small porcelain cups.
included grapes rather than other fruits. a royal chief vintner. Vitis labrusca (of which the Concord grape is a cultivar).Archaeological evidence suggests that the earliest production of wine. created by the genetic crossing of two species. Georgia and Iran. such as Pinot Noir. Wine became so revered and its effect so feared that elaborate theories were developed about which gemstones would best counteract its negative side effects. from regions like Bordeaux and the Rhone Valley. However. storing it underground in caves to age. Henan were found to contain traces of tartaric acid and other organic compounds commonly found in wine. In Ancient Egypt. some of the world's most valued and expensive wines. as opposed to a blended . made by fermenting grapes. Vitis aestivalis. Wine can also be made from other species of grape or from hybrids. In medieval Europe. Vitis rotundifolia and Vitis riparia are native North American grapes usually grown for consumption as fruit or for the production of grape juice. . wine. which seem to be the precursors of rice wine. while wine consumption was viewed as civilized and a sign of conversion to Christianity. such as hawthorn. Monks in France made wine for years. it was legalized for cosmetic and medical uses. A 2003 report by archaeologists indicates a possibility that grapes were used together with rice to produce mixed fermented beverages in China as early as 7000 BC. After Geber and other Muslim chemists pioneered the distillation of wine. the Roman Catholic Church was a staunch supporter of wine since it was necessary for the celebration of Mass. Five of these amphoras were designated as from the King's personal estate with the sixth listed as from the estate of the royal house of Aten. or jelly. could not be ruled out. Chardonnay. In places such as Germany. In fact. The same sites also contain the world s earliest evidence of crushed grapes. other fruits indigenous to the region. the result is a varietal. are blended from different grape varieties of the same vintage. If these beverages. in fact. however. beer was banned and considered pagan and barbaric. When one of these varieties is used as the predominant grape (usually defined by law as a minimum of 75% or 85%). Blended wines are not considered inferior to varietal wines. dating from the second and first millennia BC. but sometimes made into wine. the 10th-century Persian philosopher and scientist Al Biruni described recipes where herbs. took place in sites in Israel. In the Islamic world. from as early as 6000 BC. which were introduced into China some 6000 years later. six of 36 wine amphoras were found in the tomb of King Tutankhamun bearing the name "Kha'y". These locations are all within the natural area of the European grapevine Vitis vinifera. minerals and even gemstones are mixed with wine for medicinal purposes. these grapes were of any of the several dozen indigenous wild species of grape in China. Grape varieties Wine is usually made from one or more varieties of the European species Vitis vinifera. rather than from Vitis vinifera . Cabernet Sauvignon. Pottery jars from the Neolithic site of Jiahu. jam. and Merlot. The oldest known evidence of wine production in Europe is dated to 4500 BC and comes from archaeological sites in Greece. Traces of wine have also been found in central Asian Xinjiang. wine was forbidden during the Islamic Golden Age. Vitis rupestris.
Pinot Noir and Merlot). Meritage (sounds like "heritage") is generally a Bordeaux-style blend of Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot. Bordeaux and Chianti). flavor differences are not desirable for producers of mass-market table wine or other cheaper wines. however. tannin filtration.g. The range of possibilities here can result in great differences between wines. Many wineries use growing and production methods that preserve or accentuate the aroma and taste influences of their unique terroir . finishing.g. vinifera vines that have been grafted onto North American species rootstock. and may also include Cabernet Franc. Such producers will try to minimize differences in sources of grapes by using production techniques such as micro-oxygenation. thin film evaporation. and aging processes as well. Barossa Valley in Australia. Willamette Valley in Oregon. while non-European wines are most often classified by grape (e. However. This is common practice because North American grape species are resistant to phylloxera. In the context of wine production. through Vin de Pays and Vin Délimité de Qualité Supérieure (VDQS) up to Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée (AOC). pioneered this technique back in 1756 with a royal charter which created the "Demarcated Douro Region" and regulated wine production and trade. terroir is a concept that encompasses the varieties of grapes used.Hybridization is not to be confused with the practice of grafting. Classification Regulations govern the classification and sale of wine in many regions of the world. European wines tend to be classified by region (e. leading to massive vine deaths and eventual replanting. Portugal has something similar and. and Malbec. Outside of Europe . in fact. Examples of non-European recognized locales include: Napa Valley in California. and the use of these names is governed by trademark or copyright law rather than by specific wine laws. Most of the world's vineyards are planted with European V. Germany did likewise in 2002. For example. where consistency is more important. market recognition of particular regions is leading to their increased prominence on non-European wine labels. which are the only ones that have not yet been exposed to the insect. Europe classification France has an appellation system based on the concept of terroir. Grafting is done in every wine-producing country of the world except for the Canary Islands. influencing the fermentation. climate and seasonal conditions. Commercial use of the term "Meritage" is allowed only via licensing agreements with an organization called the "Meritage Association". Some blended wine names are marketing terms. and spinning cones. Spain and Italy have classifications which are based on a dual system of region of origin and quality of product. with classifications which range from Vin de Table ("table wine") at the bottom. a root louse that eventually kills the vine. Petit Verdot. Central Valley in Chile and Marlborough in New Zealand. elevation and shape of the vineyard. type and chemistry of soil. Chile and Argentina. More and more. cross-flow filtration. Europe's vineyards were devastated by the bug. and the local yeast cultures. although their system has not yet achieved the authority of those of the other countries'. In the late 19th century.
are only made in better-than-average years. vintage wines are produced to be individually characteristic of the vintage and to serve as the flagship wines of the producer. Wines may be classified by their effect on the drinker's palate. vintage year may not be as significant to perceived wine quality as currently thought. Dry wine. Tasters often can distinguish between flavors characteristic of a specific grape (e. for example.) Variations in a wine's character from year to year can include subtle differences in color. Inexperienced wine drinkers often tend to mistake the taste of ripe fruit for sweetness when. Vintage wines are generally bottled in a single batch so that each bottle will have a similar taste. for a wine to be vintage dated and labeled with a country of origin or American Viticultural Area (AVA) (such as " Sonoma Valley"). due to the complex mix of organic molecules such as esters and terpenes that grape juice and wine can contain. palate. relative to the acidity present in the wine. Consequently. The sweetness of wine is determined by the amount of residual sugar in the wine after fermentation. either intentional or not. Climate can have a big impact on the character of a wine to the extent that different vintages from the same vineyard can vary dramatically in flavor and quality. Superior vintages. Tasting Wine tasting is the sensory examination and evaluation of wine. Chianti and sour cherry) and flavors that result from other factors in wine making. The most typical intentional flavor elements in wine are those . In the United States. One recent study suggests that for normal drinkers. it is not uncommon for wine enthusiasts and traders to save bottles of an especially good vintage wine for future consumption.. and labeled as such.g. If a wine is not labeled with a country of origin or AVA the percentage requirement is lowered to 85%. body and development. nose. Vintages A "vintage wine" is one made from grapes that were all or mostly grown in a single specified year. although there have been non-official attempts to classify them by quality. High-quality red table wines can improve in flavor with age if properly stored. a process which allows wine makers to keep a reliable market image and maintain sales even in bad years. although wine connoisseurs continue to place great importance on it. Some vintage wines. will often fetch much higher prices than their average vintages. (Most countries allow a vintage wine to include a portion of wine that is not from the labeled vintage. has only a small amount of residual sugar. from reputable producers and regions. and spices. They are made up of chemical compounds which are similar or identical to those in fruits. the wine in question is very dry. like Brunellos. vegetables. it must contain at least 95% of its volume from grapes harvested in that year. in fact. Individual flavors may also be detected. Non-vintage wines can be blended from more than one vintage for consistency.New World wine wines from outside of the traditional wine growing regions of Europe tend to be classified by grape rather than by terroir or region of origin. Thus.
and are absorbed by the wine. super-premium wines are the most expensive of all food. The most common wines purchased for investment include those from Bordeaux. Production Wine production by country 2006 Country Production (with link to wine article) ( tonnes) France 5.333 Rank 1 . like Chinon and Beaujolais. Like any investment. and rotten egg ( hydrogen sulfide).. or coffee almost always come from the oak and not the grape itself. and outstanding vintages from the best vineyards may sell for thousands of dollars per bottle.that are imparted by aging in oak casks. Banana flavors ( isoamyl acetate) are the product of yeast metabolism. proper research is essential before investing. because some salts are soluble in water (like limestone). vanilla. rare. band-aid ( 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol). Characteristics of highly collectible wines include: A proven track record of holding well over time A drinking window plateau (i. goods for which demand increases instead of decreases as its price rises. as are spoilage aromas such as sweaty. Some varietals can also have a mineral flavor. the period for maturity and approachability) that is many years long A consensus amongst experts as to the quality of the wines Investment in fine wine has attracted fraudsters who prey on their victims' ignorance of this sector of the wine market. cult wines from California. and Vintage port. Collecting At the highest end.e. chocolate. For red wines that are already highly aromatic.349. Counterfeiting of labels and bottles is another scam that is frequently encountered in auctions of famous wines such as 1982 Pétrus. Wine fraudsters often work by charging excessively high prices for off-vintage or lower-status wines from famous wine regions. Such wines are considered by some to be Veblen goods that is. while claiming that they are offering a sound investment unaffected by economic cycles. Wine aroma comes from volatile compounds in the wine that are released into the air. Vaporization of these compounds can be sped up by twirling the wine glass or serving the wine at room temperature. many people prefer them chilled. barnyard.
28 345.539.600 1.2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Italy Spain United States Argentina Australia China South Africa Chile Germany 4.86 1.51 422.400.92 284.643.012.364.665 3.600 Wine grapes grow almost exclusively between thirty and fifty degrees north or south of the equator.483 1.000 1. Exporting countries Top ten wine exporting countries in 2005 Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Country Italy France Spain Australia Chile South Africa United States Germany 1000 tonnes 1.232.980 977.711.410.000 1.42 349.10 1.75 695. and the northernmost are in Flen. Sweden. just north of the 59th parallel.552.087 891.666 2.367.50 . The world's southernmost vineyards are in the Central Otago region of New Zealand's South Island near the 45th parallel.
since its acidity lends balance to rich savory or sweet dishes.47 7. Apéritif and dessert wines contain 14 20% alcohol. Wine is important in cuisine not just for its value as a beverage.17% 3.929.01% 18. and are known as light wines because they are only 10 14% alcohol-content by volume.18% 4. . and are sometimes fortified to make them richer and sweeter.85 2005 Export market shares Market share (% of value in US$) 34.25% 3. Red.90% 1.13% 3.61% Rank Country 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Uses France Italy Australia Spain Chile Germany Portugal United States South Africa New Zealand Wine is a popular and important beverage that accompanies and enhances a wide range of European and Mediterranean-style cuisines. but as a flavor agent. primarily in stocks and braising.24% 9.18 251.03% 10. from the simple and traditional to the most sophisticated and complex. white and sparkling wines are the most popular.9 10 Moldova Portugal 254.00% 2.
and the religious mysteries of Dionysus used wine as a sacramental entheogen to induce a mind-altering state. Methodist minister-turned. boray p ree hagafen" "Praised be the Eternal. In addition to aeration. wine or grape juice is used in a sacred rite called the Eucharist. A blessing over wine said before indulging in the drink is: "Baruch atah Hashem elokeinu melech ha-olam. Libations often included wine. or lose their character and flavor intensity. decanting with a filter allows one to remove bitter sediments that may have formed in the wine." In Christianity. and flavor. During aeration. . The Kiddush is a blessing recited over wine or grape juice to sanctify the Shabbat or a Jewish holiday. Wine is an integral part of Jewish laws and traditions. texture. Some Christians who were part of the growing temperance movement pressed for a switch from wine to grape juice. Roman Catholics. it is a Rabbinic obligation of men and women to drink four cups of wine. Decanting the act of pouring a wine into a special container just for breathing is a controversial subject in wine. Wine should be tasted as soon as it is opened to determine how long it should be aerated. (However. Wine was used in the Eucharist by all Protestant groups until an alternative arose in 1869. for example. On Pesach ( Passover) during the Seder. Despite these general rules. which originates in Gospel accounts of the Last Supper in which Jesus shared bread and wine with his disciples and commanded his followers to "do this in remembrance of me" ( Gospel of Luke 22:19). a common misconception which contributes to the myth of the blood libel. Ruler of the universe. and the substitution spread quickly over much of the United States. the exposure of younger wines to air often "relaxes" the flavors and makes them taste smoother and better integrated in aroma. Beliefs about the nature of the Eucharist vary among denominations. the libation of wine was part of the sacrificial service. Sediment is more common in older bottles but younger wines usually benefit more from aeration. The use of wine is forbidden under Islamic law. hold that the bread and wine are changed into the real body and blood of Christ in a process called transubstantiation.) There remains an ongoing debate between some American Protestant denominations as to whether wine can and should be used for the Eucharist or allowed as a regular beverage. Religious uses The use of wine in religious ceremonies is common to many cultures and regions. Older wines generally fade . while others recommend drinking it immediately.dentist Thomas Bramwell Welch applied new pasteurization techniques to stop the natural fermentation process of grape juice. Iran used to have a thriving wine industry that disappeared after the Islamic Revolution in 1979. with extended aeration. if at all. breathing does not necessarily benefit all wines. In the Tabernacle and in the Temple in Jerusalem. who makes the fruit of the vine.Some wine labels suggest opening the bottle and letting the wine "breathe" for a couple hours before serving. Note that this does not mean that wine is a symbol of blood. in such rites the beverage is usually still called "wine" in accordance with scriptural references.
Red wines from south of France and from Sardinia in Italy have been found to have the highest levels of procyanidins. Epidemiologists suspect that this difference is due to the high consumption of wines by the French. including exposure to yeast during fermentation. Researchers suspect that this may be because red wine contains more polyphenols than white wine. This means that heavy drinkers have an elevated risk. Other beneficial compounds in wine include other polyphenols. while moderate drinkers have a lower risk than non-drinkers. no controlled studies have yet been completed that study the effect of alcoholic drinks on the risk of developing heart disease or stroke. A chemical in red wine called resveratrol has been shown to have both cardioprotective and chemoprotective effects in animal studies. In the United States. the American Heart Association cautions people "not to start drinking . which are compounds in grape seeds suspected to be responsible for red wine's heart benefits. Also. a boom in red wine consumption was initiated in the 1990s by the TV show 60 Minutes.. Procyanidins suppress the synthesis of a peptide called endothelin-1 that constricts blood vessels. but the scientific evidence for this theory is currently limited. The French paradox refers to the comparatively lower incidence of coronary heart disease in France despite high levels of saturated fat in the traditional French diet. including cancer protection. Also. wine has traditionally been used to treat wounds in some parts of the world. Interestingly. low doses of resveratrol mimic the effects of what is known as caloric restriction .Health effects The health effects of wine (and alcohol in general) are the subject of considerable ongoing study. Red wines from these areas have between two and four times as much procyanidins as other red wines. Consult your doctor on the benefits and risks of consuming alcohol in moderation. . the average bottle of wine contains 9. Specifically. although the association is considerably stronger for wine. it generally contains lower levels of the chemical. While evidence from both laboratory studies as well as epidemiological (observational) studies suggest a cardioprotective effect. A 2007 study found that both red and white wines are effective anti-bacterial agents against strains of Streptococcus. and flavonoids. the studies have found increased health benefits for red wine over white wine.4 units. Based on the UK unit system for measuring alcoholic content. if they do not already drink alcohol.diets with 20-30 percent fewer calories than a typical diet. Resveratrol is produced naturally by grape skins in response to fungal infection. Moreover. Population studies have observed a J curve association between wine consumption and the risk of heart disease. antioxidants. and additional news reports on the French paradox.. As white wine has minimal contact with grape skins during this process. Studies have also found that moderate consumption of other alcoholic beverages may be cardioprotective. Low doses of resveratrol in the diet of middle-aged mice has a widespread influence on the genetic levers of aging and may confer special protection on the heart. excessive consumption of alcohol can cause some diseases including cirrhosis of the liver and alcoholism.
) in other words. Wine's effect on the brain has also been studied. . One advantage of box wine is that it can stay fresh for up to a month after opening. Although some researchers have concluded that wine made from the Cabernet Sauvignon grape reduces the risk of Alzheimer's Disease. and some wines have been marketed with low sulfite content. and fortified. an amateur wine maker. factors such as temperature and humidity are maintained by a climate control system. and are called box wines or cask wine. such as dried apricots and orange juice. Recently. etc. Négociant: A wine merchant who assembles the produce of smaller growers and winemakers and sells them under their own name. perishable food product. sparkling. particularly those with asthma. including red. or home. moderate consumption of red wine may decrease the risk of lung cancer in men. Additionally. Sulphites in wine are not a problem for most people. Most experts say the optimal temperature for aging wine is 55 °F(12. and complexity as they mature. 2008 issue of Cancer Epidemiology. all types of wine. Left exposed to heat. white.Sulphites are present in all wines and are formed as a natural product of the fermentation process. can spoil. and other similar wooden objects. When properly stored. wines not only maintain their quality but can actually improve in aroma. Wine is a natural. many wine producers add sulfur dioxide in order to help preserve wine. Sometimes. light. The wine in a box wine is typically accessed via a tap on the side of the box. In addition to being less expensive. wine damages the hippocampus to a greater degree than other alcoholic beverages. casks.778 °C). Also used in a derogatory way when speaking of small scale operations of recent inception. Wine cellars (also called wine rooms if they are aboveground) are places designed specifically for the storage and aging of wine. like breakfast cereal. Packaging and storage Most wines are sold in glass bottles and are sealed using corks. vibration or fluctuations in temperature and humidity. and thus must be carefully located. In an active wine cellar. usually without pedigree (and typically located in Bordeaux). alternative closures prevent cork taint. Biomarkers and Prevention. In contrast. this term is just a synonym for wine merchant. Profession Cooper: Someone who makes wooden barrels. Garagiste: One who makes wine in a garage (or basement. others have found that among diagnosed alcoholics. can have adverse reactions. According to a report in the October. a growing number of wine producers have been using alternative closures such as screwcaps or synthetic plastic "corks". while bottled wine will start to oxidize immediately. Sulfur dioxide is also added to many other foods as well. although they have been blamed for other problems such as excessive reduction. passive wine cellars are not climate-controlled. flavor. although some. Some wines are packaged in heavy plastic bags within cardboard boxes. The level of added sulfites varies.
The series was very popular and a wine named "Falcon Crest" even went on the market.Oenologist: Wine scientist or wine chemist. The Judgment of Paris . plays a central role. irrigation. UK 2006 7. . A winemaker may be trained as oenologist. Oz and James's Big Wine Adventure. 2004. and the second series saw them drive a recreational vehicle throughout California. with the tagline: "In search of wine. this is a documentary short that covers the 2006 grape harvest and crush in California's wine country. Viticulturist: A person who specializes in the science of the grapevines themselves. USA 2008. Vintner: A wine merchant or producer. A film currently in production. French Kiss." Wine. Mondovino. Produced and directed by Bret Lyman. Taber's account of the Paris Wine Tasting of 1976. Bottle Shock. In search of themselves. A Good Year. USA 2007. a student of oenology. A Walk in the Clouds 1995. 1995. The first series saw them traveling in a classic Jaguar through the wine regions of France. A documentary film directed by American film maker Jonathan Nossiter. 2006. Ridley Scott directs Russell Crowe in an adaptation of Peter Mayle's novel. exploring the impact of globalization on various wine-producing regions. and assisting customers with their wine selections. A film currently in production. Film and television Falcon Crest. and pest control. Crush . USA 1981 1990: A CBS primetime soap opera about the fictional Falcon Crest winery and the family who owned it. it tells the story of the birth of the Napa wine industry. Can also be someone who manages a vineyard. set in a fictional "Tuscany Valley" in California. but often hires a consultant instead. A love story set in a Mexican-American family's traditional vineyard showcasing different moments in the production of wine. Sommelier: A person in a restaurant who specializes in wine. It also features winemaker Richard Bruno. A comedy/drama film. particularly Pinot Noir. "Wine ponce" Oz Clarke tries to teach motor head James May about wine. May or may not be formally trained. educating the staff about wine. Meg Ryan and Kevin Kline act in this romantic comedy. Winemaker: A person who makes wine. USA/France 2004. it is based on journalist George M. USA 2008. Sideways. He or she is usually in charge of assembling the wine list. which includes making decisions about pruning. In search of women. Kline's character wants to have his own vineyard since he comes from a family of winemakers. directed by Alexander Payne.
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