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WELL DONE – YOU’VE CHOSEN CHEMISTRY AS AN IB SUBJECT!
Now that you have shown extremely good taste in selecting Chemistry for the next two years, there is an introductory phase to the course that you will have to go through. A sort of Boot Camp, if you will.
Please remember – material that was covered in the Chemistry part of your IGCSE course is ASSUMED to be understood already. Important concepts that should have remained in your cranium through the long summer months include:
• • • • • • •
Basic periodic table arrangement Calculation of formula masses Calculation of moles based on masses of solids Writing and balancing chemical equations Calculation of the concentrations of solutions Expressing answers in standard form (from Mathematics) Significant figures (from Mathematics)
All of these will be reviewed during the course, but only very briefly. It’s up to you to ensure that you feel confident with all of the above i.e. through the novel concept of SELF STUDY (get used to it – not just in Chemistry but all your IB subjects).
A basic outline for the first 10 lessons of your Chemistry course (SL or HL) is as follows:
Lessons 1 & 2: Practical X indicators. An investigation into acid/base reactions and
This will serve as an introduction to one of the most important techniques – titrations - used in Years 12 and 13 which will help you to prepare for the practical assessments you will face. This will also give your teacher an opportunity to assess your current level of confidence and ability when doing experiments (don’t worry, it doesn’t count for anything – yet). -
Lessons 3 & 4 Theory – Measurements and Uncertainties
This is actually one of the topics included in the IB course (topic 11). It is covered at this early stage as understanding of error analysis, accuracy, precision etc. is essential to perform any experiment at IB level to an acceptable standard.
Lessons 5 & 6 Practical Y – Identifying the formula of a compound
This activity allows you to find the formula of a compound from your own experimental data – a technique that you may recall from year 10. It also prompts you to think about the errors in your measurements and the concepts of precision and accuracy. This experiment will really test your practical skills as a high standard of accuracy is required during the heating process.
Lessons 7 & 8 Theory – Criteria used for internal assessment of experimental work
Internal assessment of your experimental work will make up 24% (that’s almost one quarter for those a bit slow on the uptake) of your final IB level. It is vital that you understand how your work will be assessed in order for you to gain as high a mark as possible. You will need your copy of the Chemistry Guide for these lessons.
Lessons 9 & 10 Practical Z – An investigation into solubility
A Year 12 look at this relatively straightforward GCSE concept. You will need to expand your use of terminology to an IB standard and develop further practical skills. This will provide an opportunity to peer mark your work as per the IB criteria.
In addition, there are several appendices of relevant information that will be of use as you proceed with the experiments during your course. Much of the content of the appendices is common sense, but this appears to be lacking in the average Year 12 student so a refresher is appropriate. You may work through these appendices with your teacher in class, and refer to them during later experimental work.
Why study Chemistry? Well, take a look at the following Q & A from a well-respected researcher with a doctorate in Chemistry:
Question: Is there really a chemistry of love? Answer: I don't think there are any magic love potions that you can use to make someone fall in love, but chemistry does play an important role in how a relationship progresses. First, there's attraction. Nonverbal communication plays a big part in initial attraction and some of this communication may involve pheromones, a form of chemical communication. Did you know that lust is characterized by high levels of testosterone? The sweaty palms and pounding heart of infatuation are caused by higher than normal levels of norepinepherine. Meanwhile, the 'high' of being in love is due to a rush of phenylethylamine and dopamine. All is not lost once the honeymoon is over. Lasting love confers chemical benefits in the form of stabilized production of serotonin and oxytocin. Can infidelity be blamed on chemistry? Perhaps, in part. Researchers have found that suppression of vasopressin can cause males (voles, anyway) to abandon their love nest and seek new mates. Hey, you gotta have chemistry! (Anne Marie Helmenstine, PhD)
That’s right – love easily explained as a big bag of chemicals. What did Physics ever give us? Gravity – woo hoo.
Add 2-3 drops of universal indicator to the flask and swirl. Why not?) ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 5. 3. Pipette 25 cm3of the hydrochloric acid into a clean conical flask. making sure that the tap area is full and that there are no bubbles which would compromise the accuracy of your work. 4. Rinse a 25 cm3 pipette in the same way to prepare for use with the hydrochloric acid solution. 2.Practical X . Fill the burette with the sodium hydroxide solution and zero the liquid level. The two indicators most commonly used are methyl orange and phenolphthalein. Make sure that the colour is visible but not intense. Rinse a clean burette with 10 cm3 of distilled water then with 10 cm3of the solution of sodium hydroxide.An investigation into acid / base reactions and indicators. (We do not rinse the flask with the acid. Add a little more indicator if the colour cannot be seen. You will titrate an acid with a soluble base (alkali) and use an indicator to determine the equivalence point – when the acid has JUST been neutralised. First we find out why universal indicator is not a good indicator for titration work. In this investigation we find out why certain indicators work well for titrations in some instances but not in others. colour in acid red colourless colour in alkali orange pink 5 . Make sure the section of the burette below the tap is rinsed then emptied into a labeled waste beaker. Indicator Methyl orange Phenolphthalein Instructions: Part A 1.
You should add about 1 cm3 at a time at the beginning and systematically reduce the volume added as the equivalence point is approached. Add the alkali from the burette into the acid in the flask a little at a time and swirl after each addition. Continue until you think that the equivalence point has been reached. Comment on your result and the confidence you have in your value. Record the amount of sodium hydroxide needed to neutralize 25 cm3 of the hydrochloric acid and comment on the likely accuracy of your result. Repeat the titration but using methyl orange as your indicator. We should never add a large volume of one reactant to another without mixing thoroughly as in some cases this can result in inaccuracy. Rinse your pipette with distilled water and then with the ethanoic acid solution and pipette 25cm3 of this into a clean conical flask. Determine the difference in volume between your 3 results and comment on which indicator(s) are acceptable for this acid/base pair. Record the volume of sodium hydroxide used in a result table. 3. 2. How confident can you be of an accurate result using this indicator? Explain why. Repeat the operation using phenolphthalein as indicator and compare your results.6. Add methyl orange as indicator and then titrate to an end point. 8. 9. Can both indicators be confidently used for this acid base pair? 6 . Finally repeat once again but using phenolphthalein as your indicator. 7. Part B 1.
Results table Conclusions drawn: ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 7 .
mechanical balance that has been dropped many times. or both.489g/ml for chloroform at 20 oC shows that this group of measurements also has good accuracy. These measurements vary widely.488g/ml. This group of measurements has good precision.Theory – Measurements and Uncertainties If a reported measurement is to be useful. This section discusses how measurements are reported and used so that the reliability of the numbers is understood by everyone. A chemist who frequently carries out a complex experiment is likely to have more precise results than someone just learning the experiment. Uncertainty in measurements can result from limitations in accuracy or limitations in precision. An electronic balance that is often calibrated with a standard mass is likely to be more accurate than an old. Percent error is calculated as follows: Value accepted Percent Error = – Value accepted experimental x100% Value 8 . The complete expression of a measured quantity must include the number value and the unit and also show how reliable the number is. If a measurement can be compared to the correct value. Accuracy and Precision The quality of a measurement depends on the measuring instrument and the skill of the person making the measurement. 1. and 1. its accuracy can be judged using percent error.487g/ml. it must include some indication of its uncertainty. Suppose it is necessary to determine the density of a sample of chloroform (CHCI3) at 20oC. Accuracy refers to the closeness of a measurement to the true or accepted value of the quantity measured. Comparing these values with the accepted value of 1.495g/ml. Precision refers to the agreement among the numerical values of a set of measurements of the same quantity made in the same way. One chemist obtained values of 1.476g/ml.485g/ml for the density of the sample.490g/ml. The limitations may be those of the instrument or the experimenter. Another chemist repeated the measurements three times using the same equipment as the first chemist and found densities of 1. the precision is poor. and 1. 1.
05oC (NB: readings and errors must be given to the same number of decimal places.01) grams. then the error = 0. Thermometers. on pipettes. If no error is stated on the apparatus.01 grams. burettes and measuring cylinders if obvious. the following guidelines should be followed: a) For most of the scale divisions (analogue equipment).24 grams for the mass of an object. the absolute uncertainty is equal to the unit of the last place of the readout.05oC ). So the measured mass of the body would be: (63. the absolute uncertainty is equal to the least count (not one half the least count) or more specifically.1oC should be recorded as 24.24 ± 0. b) For a digital readout. Find as many different pieces of apparatus as possible in the laboratory and state the errors associated with them. For example.1oC then the error will be ± 0. classified as Manufacturer’s. the reading uncertainty is equal to ± half scale division. Balances and pH meters are examples of apparatus where this is appropriate. so a reading of 24. if a thermometer goes up in increments of 0. Digital or Analogue: ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ 9 . if a digital balance displays 63.10 ± 0. measuring cylinders and burettes are examples of such apparatus For example.g.Errors associated with apparatus: Whenever it is available manufacturer's information (labels) should be reported according to the specifications for the particular class of instrument e.
The following pages cover material that is stated in the actual IB Chemistry syllabus for topic 11 – this could be discussed in class or set as self study. 10 .
1 Uncertainty and Error Precision and accuracy: Precision: A measure of the amount of human error in taking a reading or a measurement. the usual practice is to take a sufficient number of repeats and obtain a RANGE of values for any specific reading. Accuracy: The equipment used will have a limit to the accuracy with which measurements or readings can be taken. Random Uncertainties: By combining together the precision of the measurement with the accuracy of the equipment the total random uncertainty can be calculated for each reading taken. Standard accuracy of 25cm3 pipette = ± 0.1 cm3 As opposed to estimating precision. however it will still be inaccurate due to the limitations of the accuracy of the pipette itself. the volume of solution in a pipette may be recorded precisely using the meniscus of the liquid. Total random uncertainty = ± 0. Other random errors may arise from difficulty in determining colour changes etc. 11. E. Most lab equipment has a standard level of accuracy. This is given as a + and – as it could be above or below the actual reading. E.15 cm3 (Random uncertainties COLLECTION) are estimated and presented during DATA 11 .05 cm3 Estimation of precision with which readings are taken = ± 0.g.g.Topic 11 Measurement and Data Processing Pages 75 – 77 of the Chemistry for the IB Diploma IB Study guide (Neuss) should also be referred to. Therefore measurements can be precise but may not be accurate.
017 = 1.017 = 1. The concentration should therefore be expressed as: 1.32 ± 0. Calculated concentration of acid by titration = 1.11.3245 – 0. (Random uncertainties are processed during DATA PROCESSING) Systematic Errors 12 .15 cm3 Uncertainty due to burette = ± 0.2 Uncertainties in Calculated Results Processing Random Uncertainties Random uncertainties can be presented as % uncertainty.3245 = ± 0.325 mol dm-3.6 + 0.3245 mol dm-3 Clearly there is uncertainty in third significant figure of the answer. This can be done by choosing an appropriate number of significant figures.3% Since 1. awareness must be displayed that it has an uncertainty.3245 + 0.25 cm3 % Uncertainty due to pipette = (0. E.02 mol dm-3 Or as a range: 1.0% Note: Round up % uncertainties to 1 or 2 sig figs depending on circumstances.017 mol dm-3 Therefore the concentration could be: 1.6 % % Uncertainty due to burette = (0.g.3245 mol dm-3 ± 1. Use of Significant Figures When an answer is calculated.g.3415 mol dm-3 or: 1.25) x 100 = ± 0. E.342 – 1.4% Total random uncertainties = 0.4 = ± 1. In a simple titration: Uncertainty due to 25cm3 pipette = ± 0.15 / 25) x 100 = ± 0.3% of 1.05 / 14.05 cm3 for a titre reading of 14.
g.g. Try to get the same number of points on each side of the line. there were small amounts of other substances in the solution that the acid may have reacted with. 11.3 Graphical Techniques • • Construct a variety of types of graph to represent experimental data. (Systematic errors are explained and presented in the EVALUATION). appreciate the uncertainty in the gradient (max/min). HL students are encouraged to show some appreciation of the uncertainty in graphs. Use lines of best fit that can either be straight or smooth curves. please read through the following extract from the IB teacher’s guide (even they need help. HL students are encouraged to use simple uncertainty bars and if a gradient is calculated. sometimes). the solid didn’t filter successfully. • • • • For further clarification. misinterpretation of a colour change at end point) Equipment errors (e. Choose appropriate scales for graphs. These explanations may be in the form of: • • • Human errors (e.g.g. Interpret the shape of a graph and use to show proportional or inversely proportional relationships.Systematic errors are qualitative explanations describing why the answer given by experiment differs from the actual literature/theoretical value. incomplete combustion) There does not need to be any quantitative estimation of such errors. the systematic errors attempt to explain why this may be. gradients) using the graph. If the experimental answer is below the literature value. Although uncertainty bars are not specifically required in IB chemistry. 13 . This can affect the accuracy of any calculations (e. instrument was calibrated incorrectly) Chemical errors (e.
The evaluation of the reliability of the data upon which conclusions can be drawn is at the heart of a wider scientific method that IB students consider in other areas such as group 3 individuals and societies. If one uncertainty is much larger than others. For multiplication. determine from graphs physical quantities (with units) by measuring and interpreting a slope (gradient) or intercept. When constructing graphs from experimental data. The treatment of errors and uncertainties is directly relevant in the internal assessment criteria of: • • data collection and processing. and improving the investigation). division and powers. They then may apply this in their subsequent educational. However. aspects 1. often construct error bars and there is no requirement to discourage them from doing so. Within internal assessment students should be able to do the following: • • • • make a quantitative record of uncertainty range (±) (data collection and processing: aspect 1) state the results of calculations to the appropriate number of significant figures. students should make an appropriate choice of axes and scale. percentage uncertainties can be added. aspects 1 and 3 (recording raw data and presenting processed data) conclusion and evaluation. The number of significant figures in any answer should reflect the number of significant figures in the given data (data collection and processing: aspect 3). (Millimetre square graph paper or software is appropriate. (Note: Chemistry students at SL and HL are not expected to construct uncertainty bars on their graphs and may achieve “complete” for aspect 3 of data collection and processing without them. propagate uncertainties through a calculation so as to determine the uncertainties in calculated results and to state them as absolute and/or percentage uncertainties (this applies to both higher and standard level students). professional and personal lives. and the plotting of points should be clear and accurate.Errors and uncertainties in chemistry internal assessment The consideration and appreciation of the significance of the concepts of errors and uncertainties helps to develop skills of inquiry and thinking that are not only relevant to the group 4 experimental sciences. probably those who also study IB physics. evaluating procedure(s). the approximate uncertainty in the calculated result can be taken as due to that quantity alone (data collection and processing: aspect 3). Expectations at standard level and higher level The expectations with respect to errors and uncertainties in internal assessment are the same for both standard and higher level students and are supported by topic 11 of the subject guide. 2 and 3 (concluding. and theory of knowledge. For functions such as addition and subtraction absolute uncertainties can be added. Quantitative measurements should not be made from sketch graphs.) The uncertainty requirement can be satisfied by drawing best-fit curves or straight lines through data points on the graph (data collection and processing: aspect 3). students.) 14 . Errors and uncertainties are addressed in “Topic 11: Measurement and data processing” of the subject guide and this topic can be very effectively treated through the practical scheme of work. Only a simple treatment is required.
errors are reduced by repeating readings (conclusion and evaluation: aspect 3). For example. regardless of the nature of the scale or the instrument. If the mass of an object is determined with a digital balance reading to 0. Students should appreciate the difference between the two concepts (topic 11. Random errors can be reduced with the use of more precise measuring equipment or its effect minimized through repeat measurements so that the random errors cancel out. (b) Accuracy and precision Accuracy is how close a measured value is to the correct value.15° C (±0. a burette is often read to half of the least count division. whereas precision indicates how many significant figures there are in a measurement. estimated uncertainties should be indicated for all measurements. 15 . If the same object is measured on a balance reading to 0. For example.5° C) whereas a data probe recorded it as 98.05 cm3). In this case the mercury thermometer is more accurate whereas the data probe is more precise.01 g on a top pan balance.2). the actual value lies in a range above and below the reading. comment about the precision and accuracy of the measurements when evaluating their procedure (conclusion and evaluation: aspect 2) suggest how the effects of random uncertainties may be reduced and systematic errors be eliminated. that is. Note that the volume value is now cited to one extra decimal place so as to be consistent with the uncertainty. Students should be aware that random. • • The simplest is the least count.5° C (±0. but it can never be completely eliminated.001 g. The instrument limit of error: this is usually no greater than the least count and is often a fraction of the least count value. but not systematic. the uncertainty is reduced. This would mean that a burette value of 34. which simply reflects the smallest division of the scale. Random errors arise from the imprecision of measurements and can lead to readings being above or below the “true” value.• • • justify their conclusion by discussing whether systematic errors or further random errors were encountered. When recording raw data. always higher or always lower. (c) Uncertainties in raw data When numerical data is collected.1 cm3 becomes 34. a mercury thermometer could measure the normal boiling temperature of water as 99.05° C). This range is the uncertainty of the measurement. Explaining terms and concepts (a) Random and systematic error Systematic errors arise from a problem in the experimental set-up that results in the measured values always deviating from the “true” value in the same direction. Examples of causes of systematic error are miscalibration of a measuring device or poor insulation in calorimetry experiments. values cannot be determined exactly. The percentage error should be compared with the total estimated random error as derived from the propagation of uncertainties (conclusion and evaluation: aspect 1). The direction of any systematic errors should be appreciated.10 cm3 (±0.1. There are different conventions for recording uncertainties in raw data. for example ±0.1 g.
There are other protocols for combining uncertainties such as “root sum of square” calculations.00]×100 = 5% 3 3 volume of NaOH(aq) = 10. Note: A common protocol is that the final total percent uncertainty should be cited to no more than one significant figure if it is greater than or equal to 2% and to no more than two significant figures if it is less than 2%. random fluctuation in a voltmeter read-out.00 M (±0. When multiplying or dividing quantities. molarity of NaOH(aq) = 1. or qualitative considerations such as parallax problems in reading a burette scale. then the percent (or fractional) uncertainties are added. Students should do their best to quantify these observations into the estimated uncertainty. In chemistry internal assessment it is not specified which protocol is preferred and a moderator will support a teacher when it is clear that recording uncertainties has been required and the uncertainties recorded are of a sensible and consistent magnitude. For example.10 cm ) percent uncertainty = [0. where relevant. For example. then the absolute uncertainties are added.0100 moles (±6%) The student may convert the calculated total percent uncertainty back into an absolute error or leave it as a percentage.10/10. higher levels of uncertainty as indicated by an instrument manufacturer.10 cm3). A simple protocol is as follows: 1. (d) Propagating errors Random errors (uncertainties) in raw data feed through a calculation to give an error in the final calculated result. 2. calculated moles of NaOH in solution = 1. or difficulties in knowing just when a colour change has been completed in a rate experiment or titration.05 cm3 then the propagated uncertainty for the total volume is (±0.00×[10.00/1000] = 0.00]×100 = 1% Therefore. reaction time in starting and stopping a timer.00 cm (±0.05 M) percent uncertainty = [0.05 cm3) + (±0.05 cm3) = (±0. When adding or subtracting quantities.05/1. if the initial and final burette readings in a titration each have an uncertainty of ±0. There is a range of protocols for propagating errors. These are not required in IB chemistry but are acceptable if presented by a student.• The estimated uncertainty takes into account the concepts of least count and instrument limit of error but also. 16 .
Δ Hmean = 102 kJ mol–1 (±10%) Δ Hmean = [+100 kJ mol–1 (±10%) + 110 kJ mol–1 (±10%) + 108 kJ mol–1 (±10%)] / 3 This is more appropriate than adding the percent errors to generate 30%. 17 . since that would be completely contrary to the purpose of repeating measurements. The final answer could be given to the propagated error of the component values in the average.(e) Repeated measurements Repeated measurements can lead to an average value for a calculated quantity. This is not common in IB chemistry and is therefore not a requirement in chemistry internal assessment. These statistical techniques are more appropriate to large-scale studies with many calculated results to average. For example. A more rigorous method for treating repeated measurements is to calculate standard deviations and standard errors (the standard deviation divided by the square root of the number of trials).
The simplest ratio of moles of atoms can be found and thus the empirical formula of water. But did you know that.157 18 . like every fact in chemistry.Practical Y . it has come from observation and measurement? One way to determine the formula of water is to break it down into its elements _ hydrogen and oxygen .in an electrolysis experiment: water hydrogen + oxygen The hydrogen and oxygen formed can be collected and the volume of each gas measured.3 g) boiling tube Bunsen burner Introduction You know for a fact that the formula of water is H 2O. Experiment 1 2 3 Mass of Hydrogen (g) 0. It also helps you to think about the uncertainties in your measurements and it gives you practice at converting mass to amount of substance. Requirements • • • • • • • copper strip (approximately 15 cm x 1 cm) emery paper dry filter paper access to a balance iodine crystals (0. The mass of each gas produced can be calculated from the volumes and then converted to the amount in moles.168 0.020 0.139 0.017 0.Identifying the formula of a compound This activity allows you to find the formula of a compound from your own experimental data.021 Mass of Oxygen (g) 0. it has been experimentally determined.
Bend one end of the copper strip so that it fits over the lip of the boiling tube and the other end of the copper is about 2cm above the iodine crystals (Figure 1). The rest of this activity will help you to find experimentally the formula of another compound . Boiling tube Copper strip HEAT Figure 1 4. (You may find it helpful to stand the boiling tube in a beaker so that it does not roll.3g in the tube. 2. The exact masses which react together (reacting masses) can be measured and then used to find the empirical formula of the compound. Gently heat the copper nearest to the iodine. so you do not need to record the mass of the tube or the iodine. What you do 1. 1. 19 . 5. In the water example above the compound was broken down into its elements. 0.) Keep adding iodine crystals until you have about 0. Weigh the copper strip.16). Clean a strip of copper with emery paper and wipe it with a piece of dry filter paper. 3. The relative atomic masses of hydrogen and oxygen are 1 and 16 respectively (Ar: H. You need to use about 0. It is not necessary to know the exact mass of iodine in the tube.The Table on the previous page gives the results of three experiments.) Add a small quantity of iodine to the boiling tube and reweigh it. you will make a compound from its elements. (CARE Iodine is harmful.3g of iodine crystals so first weigh a dry boiling tube.a yellow compound formed when copper reacts directly with iodine vapour. This should be done in a fume cupboard. In this example. Avoid skin contact and do not inhale the vapour. Continue heating until no more iodine vapour is seen but do not heat so strongly that iodine vapour escapes from the tube. Keep moving the tube in and out of the flame to avoid overheating it. Use these data to find the empirical formula of water.
63. How many moles of iodine atoms combine with one mole of copper atoms? 20 . Carefully remove the copper strip and reweigh it.5) 11. How many moles of copper atoms reacted? (Ar: Cu. Allow the tube to cool. Remove the. What mass of iodine did it react with? 10.6. What mass of copper has reacted with the iodine? = = = g g g 9. How many moles of iodine atoms reacted? (Ar: I. yellow coating of copper iodide from the surface of the copper by scraping gently with a spatula onto a piece of scrap paper and reweigh the copper strip. 7. 127) 12. Record your results Initial mass of copper strip Mass of copper strip + copper iodide Final mass of copper strip Using your results 8.
What formula does this indicate for the copper iodide? Evaluating your results and procedures As a matter of routine.01g is the precision error of the balance.46 g 21 In this case. This can be written as 11. if it was difficult to remove all of the copper iodide then the final mass of copper would be too high.46 ± 0. on completing an experiment you should review and evaluate the procedures you used so that you can identify any that could have been sources of error. Where your experiment involves measurements. you should consider whether the sources of error in your procedure would tend to make your values larger or smaller.01g x 100 = 0. the percentage error = . For example. As well as evaluating your procedures it is also important to bear in mind that when any physical measurement is made there is always some kind of uncertainty associated with the value obtained. A source of uncertainty is the precision of the instrument being used.01g . a reading of 11. the copper iodide activity involves several weighings using a balance.46g means that the mass is between 11. The commonest balance you will use reads to 2 decimal places but there is an uncertainty associated with the second place. This is sometimes referred to as experimental error. To compare the importance of the precision errors for different measurements they are usually expressed as percentage errors. Remember – balances give DIGITAL readings. ± 0.08% 11. For example. although it is not a mistake. Percentage error = error x 100 reading 0. For example. Every measuring instrument is designed to measure to a certain level of precision.13.45g and 11.47g.
Which one(s) do you think had the greatest effect on your final result? If you were to repeat the experiment. If you wanted to reduce the percentage error for the initial mass of copper. would you use a smaller or larger piece of copper? d. What was the percentage error for each of the three weighings that you did? b.QUESTIONS a. Look at all the sources of error associated with weighing and with carrying out your experiment. 22 . Identify stages in your procedure which could have led to errors. write down any changes you would make to how you would carry it out or with which parts of the procedure you would take extra care. How is the percentage error related to the value of the mass recorded? c. How would these errors have influenced the answer you obtained for I2? e.
the errors associated. you know). so your marks will improve (Year 13 is when you expect to gain most of the marks that will be used in your final level). but you will have plenty of opportunities to gain marks in each of the respective disciplines – do not be discouraged if your initial few marks are a little low! As you become more familiar with the criteria. the significant figures. The criteria for marking that is followed may appear confusing at first.Theory . For these lessons you will need the following: • • • IB Diploma Chemistry Guide Practical Scheme of Work Record (PSOW) A manila folder If you do not have these three items. you will take a look at the marking criteria as well as some examples of past students’ work – along with the marks allocated. the decimal places. It is attention to detail and GLP (Good Laboratory Practice) that will lead to level 6s being obtained. The following extract gives some clearly set out examples of students’ work. ask your teacher nicely for them (manners cost nothing. REMEMBER – always refer to the marking Chemistry guide when writing up practical work. internal assessment of your experimental work will constitute 24% of your overall IB level. criteria in your 23 . Note carefully the layout of results. along with the allocated marks as explained by the IB Diploma assessors. In the next two lessons. etc.Criteria used for internal assessment of experimental work As stated previously.
5 3 3 24 .25 40.5 3 Initial volume / cm 2.05 cm ) 42.00 cm3 vinegar against the standardized NaOH Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Initial volume / cm (±0.7 1. Titration of standard NaOH against vinegar Final volume / cm3 42.00 3 3 Final volume / cm (±0.2 40.00 2. Table 1: DCP aspect 1 = “partial” Table 1 a.5 3 3 Some appropriate raw data is recorded with units and uncertainties.7 40.7 41.0 40. Titration of standard HCl against NaOH Run 1 Run 2 Run 3 Initial volume / cm (±0.5 1 3 Volume of base required / cm 40.2 42. Either of these factors reduces the level of achievement for aspect 1 of data collection and processing to partial/1.5 Colour of solution at end point light pink dark pink Some appropriate raw data is recorded but there are no uncertainties and the number of decimal places is inconsistent.2 cm3) 42. However.50 3 3 Total volume of base required / cm (±0.0 Final volume / cm3(±0.5 Volume of base required / cm3(±0. relevant qualitative observations were not recorded and the level of achievement for aspect 1 of data collection and processing is partial/1.1 cm3) 42.5 40.1 cm ) 0. Titration of 5.5 41.05 cm ) 1.Interpreting the relevant assessment criteria Data collection and processing: Aspect 1 (recording raw data) Sample extracts of typical student work from an experiment on volumetric analysis in acid-base titration are shown in tables 1–3.0 40.0 2. Table 3: DCP aspect 1 = “complete” Table 3 c.50 43. Table 2: DCP aspect 1 = “partial” Table 2 b.55 0.1 cm ) 41.
5 60.0 61. At the end point.5 60. base and phenolphthalein indicator were all colourless. The following examples of data collection and processing (see tables 4–6) are from a gas law experiment.5 30.0 80.0 71.0 50. The student records appropriate qualitative and quantitative raw data. Table 5: DCP aspect 1 = “partial” Table 5 Temperature (T) Height of column (h) 10.8 71.0 39.0 90. including units and uncertainties.5 mm 10. the rough trial was dark pink.2° C Height of column h / mm ± 0.2 67.5 58.0 39.5 58.0 20.0 80. Table 4: DCP aspect 1 = “complete” Table 4 Temperature T / °C ± 0.2 67. the student designed the data table and correctly recorded the raw data. The level of achievement for aspect 1 of data collection and processing is complete/2. 25 .0 20.9 64. The level of achievement for aspect 1 of data collection and processing is partial/1.0 50.9 64.0 90.1 64.1 64. The other two trials were only slightly pink at the end point.0 71. The level of achievement for aspect 1 of data collection and processing is complete/2. including units and uncertainties.Colours of solutions: acid.5 70.7 68. units and uncertainties are not included.3 60.7 68.5 70.5 In table 5.3 60.5 In table 4.8 71.0 61.5 30.
26 .8 71 90 71.Table 6: DCP aspect 1 = “partial” Table 6 Temperature Height of column 10.2 67. it may be more appropriate to present the data as a graph.5 70.9 64 50 64.5 30 61 39. The uncertainties should be recorded on the axis labels and any qualitative observations recorded as annotations on or below the graph. units and uncertainties are not included.5 In table 6. and the data is recorded in an inconsistent manner.5 60. Note: In investigations where a very large amount of data is recorded (probably by a data logger). The level of achievement for aspect 1 of data collection and processing is partial/1.5 58 20.7 68 80. Significant digits are not appreciated.3 60.
Figures 1 and 2: DCP aspect 3 = “complete” Figure 1 Figure 2 27 .Data collection and processing: Aspect 3 (presenting processed data) Figures 1 and 2 show graphs of the gas law data from table 4.
Figure 4: DCP aspect 3 = “not at all” Figure 4 28 . Figure 3: DCP aspect 3 = “partial” Figure 3 In figure 3.Figure 1 is a graph of the gas law data showing the significant uncertainty.5 mm for each value. The level of achievement for aspect 3 of data collection and processing for both graphs is complete/2. Figure 2 does not show the uncertainty bars. The computer drew the uncertainty bars based on the student entering the correct information. The level of achievement for aspect 3 of data collection and processing is partial/1. students are not expected to construct uncertainty bars. and the units are missing. In both graphs the title is given (although it should be more explicit). and the student has labelled the axes and included units. which in this case was 0. In chemistry. the student does not include a title for the graph.
random errors alone cannot explain the difference. aspect 2 = “not at all” Figure 5 29 .In the examples shown in figure 4. and errors in the method and equipment being used. The experimental value has an uncertainty of only 2%. 2. The error (a measure of accuracy. the melting point of a substance. and some systematic error(s) must be present. There must be more uncertainty and/or errors than acknowledged. The units and the titles of the graphs are missing. but if. Perhaps a student measured the value of the ideal gas constant R = 8. evaluating procedure and improving the investigation) When attempting to measure an already known and accepted value of a physical quantity.314 kPa dm3 mol–1 K–1. Conclusion and evaluation: Aspects 1. and the accepted value is 8. the experimental uncertainty is only 2%. The experimental range does not include the accepted value. poor use is made of the x-axis scale/ The level of achievement for aspect 3 of data collection and processing for both graphs is not at all/0. In addition to the above two types of comment. The error in the measurement can be expressed by comparing the experimental value with the textbook or literature value.11 kPa dm3 mol–1 K– 1 . A critical student would appreciate that they must have missed something here. In the second graph. This sounds good. such as the charge of an electron. 2 and 3 (concluding. the first student has failed to draw a best-fit line graph and the second has drawn no line at all. students may also comment on errors in the assumptions of the theory being tested. in fact. The experimental results fail to meet the accepted value (a more relevant comment). Two typical examples of student work are given in figures 5 and 6. students can make two types of comments: 1. or the value of the ideal gas constant.45% of the accepted value. not precision) is 2. Figure 5: CE aspect 1 = “partial”.
The level of achievement for aspect 1 of conclusion and evaluation is partial/1. The fact that % difference > % uncertainty means random errors alone cannot explain the difference and some systematic error(s) must be present. The student states a conclusion that has some validity. the melting point should be the same as the freezing point. go from solid to liquid. and when melting.Conclusion and evaluation: Intermolecular bonds are being broken and formed which consumes energy. There is a definite correlation between the melting point and the freezing point of a substance. Figure 6: CE aspects 1.0 ± 0. The level of achievement for aspect 2 is not at all/0. Our experiment proved this is true because. If good data is collected. the freezing point was found to be 55 °C. A substance should melt. the melting point was also found to be 55 °C (see graph). No comparison is made with the literature value. goes from liquid to solid. Melting point (or freezing point) is the temperature at which the solid and the liquid are in equilibrium with each other: (s) ⇌ (l). This is the temperature at which there is no change in 30 . 2 and 3 = “complete” Figure 6 Melting point = freezing point = 55. at the same temperature that it freezes.5 °C Conclusion and evaluation: Literature value of melting point of para-dichlorobenzene = 53. There is no evaluation of the procedure and results. while freezing.1° C (Handbook of Chemistry and Physics).
Evaluation of procedure and modifications: 1. 2. In order to eliminate any systematic errors due to the use of a particular thermometer. 2 and 3 of conclusion and evaluation is complete/2.Duplicate readings were not taken.5°C divisions. in their case random errors could explain the % difference.The sample in the test tube was not as large as in other groups. so repeating the investigation is important. but a change in potential energy. A greater quantity of solid. plus use of a more accurate thermometer (not 0.How accurate was the thermometer? It should have been calibrated. 3. that is. Thus the temperature rises/falls were much faster than for other groups. The value suggests a small degree of systematic error in comparison with the literature value as random errors alone are unable to explain the percentage difference. calibration against the boiling point of water (at 1 atmosphere) or better still against a solid of known melting point (close to the melting point of the sample) should be done. but the longer one used by some groups) would have provided more accurate results. The level of achievement for aspects 1.kinetic energy (no change in temperature). 31 . Other groups of students had % uncertainty > % difference.
32 . and make sure that all of the crystals go in to a dry boiling tube. but will dissolve if heated to a higher temperature. Add 10 ml. [MAKE SURE YOU PRACTICE DOING THIS A COUPLE OF TIMES BEFORE STARTING THE EXPERIMENT!] There is no need to try to record the temperature at which the solid just dissolved. and to graph your results. This means CONTROLLED heating. As the tube cools watch out for the appearance of small crystals. It is a good idea to CAREFULLY stir the solution as it cools with the thermometer. 7. CAREFUL measurement of masses and volumes and GOOD OBSERVATION as well as the ability to calculate the solubility and draw a graph. When you have read the temperature record it in the appropriate place in the results table. Weigh out exactly 5g of potassium CHLORATE on to a square of paper. This should be at a lower temperature than before. Stir with the thermometer CAREFULLY and check that the salt does not dissolve. 5. 3. then IMMEDIATELY turn off your Bunsen and raise the tube from the hot water by raising the clamp. it is much more accurate to record the temperature at which precipitation occurs because the temperature has cooled. because you now have more water present to dissolve the salt. Marks will be awarded for the way in which you carry out the experiment. Now add a further 5ml (5g) of pure water using the syringe. 2.Practical Z – An investigation into solubility You are going to investigate the way that the solubility of a salt changes when we change the temperature. Marks will be awarded for how well you can operate these pieces of equipment. Clamp the tube and contents onto a stand. This occurs when the solution is just saturated. Watch carefully until the solid completely dissolves. Raise the temperature of the tube gradually by placing it into the beaker of water and heating the beaker of water. If you are not paying full attention you will miss this! 6. and arrange it so that it can be lowered easily in and out of a 250 ml beaker half full of tap water. 4. (10g) of PURE water using the measuring cylinder or syringe provided. The salt will not dissolve in 10g of water at this temperature no matter how much it is stirred. 1. and be ready to record the EXACT temperature at which this 'snowing' occurs. Now place the tube and warm the solution again until the salt just dissolves.
or until the solute remains dissolved even at room temperature. Repeat operations 5 and 6 to find out the new temperature at which the solution becomes saturated. and 6 to obtain a new temperature for the saturation of 5g of your salt in 20ml (20g) of water. Repeat until you have a total of 30ml of water in your solution. You should have 6 temperatures written down. Now try to do the calculations set out below.8. with all associated errors detailed 33 . Add a further 5ml of pure water and repeat operations 4. RESULTS TABLE – Recorded as per IB Marking Criteria. 10. 5. 9.
Calculations WORK OUT the solubility of your solute in g per l00g of water at each of the temperatures recorded. Propagate errors as appropriate.g. e. Question: What factors affect the solubility’s of the ions shown in your results? 34 . water against temperature. at 78 °C 5g of KClO3 dissolved in 10g of water therefore the solubility of KClO3 at 78°C is 5g x l00g/l0 g = 50g per l00g water. Graph your results by hand (line of best fit) or using a software programme like Excel (if using EXCEL then graph must be an X-Y scatter with a trend line). Plot solubility of KClO3 per 100g.
Section B: Answer the following questions in complete sentences. As soon as you enter the lab. What type of flame is preferred for laboratory work and why? 35 . what safety equipment should you put on immediately? 2. what safety precautions should always be followed? 4. 1. what should you read and discuss with your teacher? 3. Before doing an experiment.Appendix 1: Questions on Techniques & Safety Section A: Identify the following pieces of equipment. Before you light a burner.
5. How can a liquid be transferred from a beaker to a funnel without spattering and without running down the outside wall of the beaker? 11. What precautions should be taken when filling a burette with liquid? 10. never thrown into a wastepaper basket? 6. matches. Why are chemicals and hot objects never placed directly on a balance pan? 9. How would you dispose of a spillage of concentrated sulphuric acid? Section C: Hazard Symbols Identify each of these hazard symbols: Appendix 2: 36 Techniques and Safety . etc. What procedure is used to dilute a concentrated acid? 12. What precaution can you take against chemical contamination in reagent bottles? 8. chemicals. Why are broken glassware. List three instruments used in the laboratory for measuring small quantities of liquids. Why should you never touch chemicals with your hands? 7.
37 . The safest way of transferring a liquid from one test tube to another is shown in Figure S-1. Use one of the methods shown below to separate a supernatant (the clear fluid) from insoluble solids. This position enables you to see what you are doing and still maintain steady control. Sometimes liquids contain particles of insoluble solids that sink to the bottom of a test tube or beaker. Figure S – 2 (b) Figure S-3 shows the proper method of decanting a supernatant liquid in a beaker by using a stirring rod. In this way the liquid will not run down the side of the beaker from which you are pouring. The liquid is transferred at arm's length with the elbows slightly bent. 2. Hold the stirring rod against the lip of the beaker containing the supernatant liquid.Decanting and Transferring Liquids 1. The rod should touch the wall of the receiving vessel. Figure S-1. (a) Figure S-2 shows the proper method of decanting a supernatant liquid in a test tube. the liquid will run down the rod and drop off into the beaker resting below. As you pour.
heat-resistant mittens and pads. rubber gloves. and safety goggles whenever you handle this apparatus. porcelain. In some experiments you are required to heat a substance to high temperatures in a porcelain crucible. Use heat-safety items such as safety tongs. Figure S-4 3. 5. 4. These wire gauzes can withstand extremely high temperatures and will help prevent glassware from breaking. 2. The glassware should be Pyrex or a similar heat-resistant type. but can still burn your skin for several minutes. aprons. Figure S-4 shows the proper setup for evaporating a solution over a water bath. and iron rings look cool several seconds after they are removed from a heat source. When heating substances in glassware by means of a gas flame. Figure S-5 38 . Heated glassware. Figure S-6 shows the proper setup for evaporating a solution in a porcelain evaporating dish with a watch glass cover that prevents spattering. Figure S-5 shows the proper apparatus setup used to accomplish this task . use a ceramic-centered wire gauze to protect glassware from direct contact with the flame. Use care in selecting glassware for high-temperature heating.Heating Substances and Evaporating Solutions 1.
Never lay the stopper of a reagent bottle on the lab table. Note that the stopper is still between the fingers. 4. Note: You will more likely use a tripod. add the acid to water in small quantities. because of splashing and heat generation. 2. but otherwise the set-up is the same. Any heat generated from the hot surfaces will be felt . Allow plenty of time for the apparatus to cool before handling. (b) To dilute any acid. ring stands. use a stirring rod to avoid drips and spills. You can test the temperature of questionable beakers. 6. Remove the stopper by grasping the stopper between two fingers. Read the label at least three times before using the contents of a reagent bottle. stirring slowly and constantly. Remember the "triple A's"—Always Add Acid to water. Extra precaution should be taken when handling a bottle of acid. Remember these two important rules: (a) Never add water to any concentrated acid. 39 . particularly sulphuric acid. Estimate the amount of liquid you need and pour this along the rod into the beaker. Replace the stopper on the reagent bottle after you are finished pouring. rather than an iron ring on a clamp stand. wire gauzes.DO NOT TOUCH. Pick up the reagent bottle making sure the label is toward the palm of your hand. or other pieces of apparatus that have been heated by holding the back of your hand close to their surfaces before grasping them. 3. Hold the stirring rod against the lip of the reagent bottle.6. How to Pour Liquid from a Reagent Bottle 1. 5. When pouring a caustic or corrosive liquid into a beaker.
Check to see that the test tube is PYREX or a similar heatresistant type. 3. Examine the outside of the reagent bottle for any liquid that has dripped down the bottle or spilled on the counter top.7. Remove the powdered substance with a spatula. any excess chemicals should be properly discarded under the direction of your teacher. 2. How to Use a Mortar and Pestle Figure S-11 1. Your teacher will show you the proper procedures for cleaning up a chemical spill. Place the substance to be broken up into the mortar. How to Heat Material in a Test Tube 1. 2. Do not heat any one spot on the test tube. Heat the test tube from the upper portions of the tube downward and continuously move the test tube. because the liquid may splash out of the test tube. At the end of the experiment. 40 . 4. Never pour reagents back into stock bottles. 3. Never look down into the test tube while heating it. 5. Never point a heated test tube at anyone. Never use a mortar and pestle for simultaneously mixing different substances. Always use a test tube holder or clamp when heating the test tube. A mortar and pestle should be used for grinding only one substance at a time. Pound the substance with the pestle and grind to pulverize. Otherwise pressure from a vapour meeting a layer of liquid above it m may cause the bottom of the tube to blow out. 8. 5. 3.
since dust may get into eyes and nasal passages. Do not inhale any fumes directly. Testing an Odour Safely 1. DO NOT waft and sniff poisonous or irritating fumes. 41 .CAUTION Do not blow into the mortar to remove any remaining powder. 2. Test for the odour of gases by wafting your hand over the test tube and cautiously sniffing the fumes. 3. Use a fume cupboard whenever poisonous or irritating fumes are evolved.
0 to 25 ml. are used for delivering any desired quantity of liquid up to the capacity of the burette. Measuring Pipettes & Burettes. at the bottom of the burette. from bottom to top. For approximate measurements of liquids. 3. The beaker serves to catch any liquid that will be drawn off. A pipette is fitted with a suction bulb (pipette filler) which is used to withdraw air from the pipette while drawing up the liquid to be measured. d) Pour into a 100-ml beaker a quantity of the liquid you want to measure from the liquid's reagent bottle. Always use the suction bulb. a measuring cylinder such as the one shown to the right is generally used. 250-ml. (You may need to flick the tap with your fingers to remove air bubbles. Burettes. The height at which the liquid stands is then read accurately. so that it is below eye-level. A pipette or a burette is used for more accurate measurements. cylinder 1. or more. e) Fill the burette with the liquid and then draw off enough liquid to fill the tip below the tap and bring the level of the liquid down to the zero.) Burette 42 . Remember to carefully check the label of the reagent bottle before removing any liquid. When using a burette. These cylinders are usually graduated in millilitres (ml). Pipettes are made in many sizes and are used to deliver measured volumes of liquids. follow these steps: a) Clamp the burette in position on a clamp stand. Such a measuring cylinder may read from 0 to 10 ml. place it on a stool.Liquid Measurements – Measuring Cylinders. Pipette 2. fitted with a tap. See Figure 1-10. c) Place a beaker. Many burettes are graduated in tenths of millilitres. b) While filling the burette.
4. if a measuring cylinder is graduated in 1cm3 steps. Such a curved surface is called a meniscus. as shown in Figure 1-11. as directed. open the tap and draw off as many millilitres of the liquid as you wish. give the reading to the nearest 0.g. you will get an incorrect reading. After you have taken your first burette reading. read 14.5 cm3. i. Notes: All the glassware used here may be graduated in cubic centimetres (cm3) instead of millilitres (ml). You read to the bottom of the meniscus.e. CD.0 cm3 or 17.5 cm3 43 . This is the line AB. The exact amount drawn off is equal to the difference between your first and final burette readings. 5. Observe that the surface of a liquid in the burette is slightly curved. 1ml = 1cm3 Glassware should be read to an accuracy of half of one division e. If you read the markings at the top of the meniscus.
and group 4 elements have more than one possible oxidation state. tin(II) chloride.(iodate(V)) Notes: Some d-block metals. If nitrate. 44 . and nitrate(V) was simply nitrate. sulphate etc appear without a Roman numeral. The old convention was to use –ite to indicate the lower oxidation state and –ate to indicate the higher oxidation state. So nitrate(III) was nitrite.(sulphide) (sulphate(IV) – sulphite) -1 FClBrI(nitrate(III) nitrite) Fe3+ Cr 3+ (lead(IV)) P3- (chromium(III)) (manganese(IV) ) Mn4+ Cu2+ (vanadium(III)) V3+ (phosphate(V) ) PO4 3- SO32- NH + 4 Fe2+ (iron(II)) 2+ (sulphate(VI) – sulphate) SO42- NO2- (copper(I)) Cu+ (manganese(II)) Mn (carbonate) CO32- (nickel(II)) Ni2+ (dichromate(VI)) Cr2O72- (nitrate(V) – nitrate) NO3- (manganate(VII)) MnO4ClO- Zn Sn2+ 2+ (tin(II)) (chlorate(I) hypochlorite) Pb2+ (lead(II)) (chlorate(V)) ClO3- IO3. iron(III) sulphate Names in italics are old-fashioned. When writing the name the oxidation state is indicated using Roman numerals e.(nitride) (phosphide) -2 O2S2.Appendix 3: Table of Ion valencies. assume the higher oxidation state. but are still commonly used. +1 (I) H+ Li+ Na+ K+ Rb+ Cs+ (ammonium) +2 (II) Mg2+ Ca2+ Sr2+ Ba2+ (copper(II)) +3 (III) Al3+ (iron(III)) +4 (IV) Sn4+ Pb4+ (tin(IV) -3 N3.g.
Appendix 4: Organic Functional Groups Many important organic chemistry molecules contain oxygen or nitrogen. It's essential to memorise the names and structures of these functional groups Other functional groups that you will become familiar with include: • • • • • Alkanes Alkenes Alkynes Haloalkanes (Halogenoalkanes) Aromatic Compounds that include a Benzene ring 45 .
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