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R College Of Engineering , Tiruchengode -637215 Department Of Information Technology Year/Sem: III/V
1. Define client and server. • • Clients and servers are separate logical entities that work together over a network to accomplish a task. Clients send requests to the server. The server in turn sends response to the client. 2. Define Client – Server Computing Era:
Subject: Client Server Computing
2 marks Questions and Answers
Client/Server reshaped the way of computers being used. Client/Server become mandatory in all computer oriented fields Internet is a good example for the Client/Server concept.
3. What are the characteristics of client and server? • • • • • • • • • Service Shared resource Asymmetrical Protocols Transparency of location. Mix-and-match. Message-based exchanges. Encapsulation of services. Scalability. Integrity.
4. Define transparency of location. The server is a process that can reside on the same machine as the client or on a different machine across a network. Client/server software usually masks the location of the server from the clients by redirecting service calls when needed. This is referred as transparency of location. 5. Define horizontal and vertical scalability.
Horizontal scaling means adding or removing client workstations with only a slight performance impact. Vertical scaling means migrating to a larger and faster server machine or multiservers. 6. What are the uses of file servers? The client (typically a PC) passes requests for file records over a network to the file server. File servers are useful for sharing files across a network. They are indispensable for creating repositories of documents, images, engineering drawings, and other data objects. 7. What are the functions of database server? The client passes SQL requests as messages to the database server. The results of each SQL command are returned over the network. The code that processes the SQL request and the data reside on the same machine. The server uses its own processing power to find the requested data instead of passing all records back to a client and then letting it find its own data. 8. What are the functions of a transaction server? In a transaction server, the client invokes remote procedures that reside on the server with an SQL database engine. These remote procedures on the server execute a group of SQL statements. The network exchange consists of a single request/reply message. 9. Define OLTP. OLTP-Online Transaction Processing The client component usually includes a Graphical User Interface (GUI).The sever component usually consists of SQL transactions against a database. These applications are called Online Transaction Processing or OLTP. OLTP applications are mission critical applications that require a 1-3 second response time 100% of the time and they also require tight controls over the security and integrity over the database. 10. Define types of OLTP. Two forms of OLTP are: • • TP Lite TP heavy 2
What are the types of middleware? Types of middleware are: 1. Here the clients and servers communicate using an RPC-like protocol called HTTP. Define ORB. Client objects communicate with server objects using an ORB (Object Request Broker) 14. portable. 16. These grouped SQL statements are called transactions. A web server returns documents when clients ask them by name. Define transaction. client objects communicate with server objects using an ORB (Object Request Broker). Middleware is a vague term that covers all distributed software needed to support interactions between clients and servers. invokes the requested method.The ORB locates an instance of that object server class. 15. Service-specific Middleware 3 . It is software that’s in the middle of the client/server system. Server object must provide support for concurrency and sharing. 12. and returns the result to the client object. 17. Define middleware. ORB-Object Request Broker. Define object servers. 11. In transaction server. General Middleware 2. and the flow of work. These client/server systems place people in direct contact with other people. the SQL statements either all succeed or fail as a unit. In an object server. the client/server application is written as a set of communicating objects. mail. Define groupware servers. Example: Lotus Notes 13.TP liteTP heavy- based on the stored procedures provided by database vendors. In an object server. This model of client/server consists of thin.”universal” clients that talk to super fat servers. Groupware addresses the management of semi-structured information such as text. bulletin boards. based on the TP monitors provided by OLTP vendors. image. The ORB brings it all together.
distributed directories. ONC+. Example: Database specific middleware such as ODBC.examples of 2-tier client/server systems are file servers and database servers with stored procedures. the application logic(or process) lives in the middle-tier. EDA/SQL. 21. Netware Service –specific middleware: Service-specific middleware is needed to accomplish a particular client/server type of service. 19. Fat clients are the most traditional form of client/server. The fat server model places more function on the server. authentication services. Define fat clients. Example: DCE.tier client/server systems.General Middleware: General Middleware is the substrate for client/server interactions. network time. The bulk of application runs on the client side of equation. remote procedure calls and queuing services. 18. and web servers. Define fat server model. The examples of fat clients are database and file servers. Fat servers try to minimize network interchanges by creating abstract levels of service. Define 2-Tier client/server architecture. Define fat client model. It includes communication stacks. Fat servers applications are easier to manage and deploy on the network because most of the code runs on the servers. Define 3-Tier client/server In 3-tier client/server systems. the application logic is buried inside the user interface on the client or within the database on the server(or both). it is separated from the data and user interface. They provide flexibility and opportunities for creating front end tools that let end users create their own applications. The fat client model does the reverse of fat server. The examples of fat server are groupware.3-tier client/server systems are 4 . Fat clients are used for decision support and personal software. In 2. Define fat servers. 20. 22. 23. transaction. DRDA.
A new generation of network-enabled. The client runs a component of the distributed system management element. The middleware building block.for example. Client/server for intergalactic enterprises. 25. Define intergalactic client/server. What are the building blocks of client/server? The building blocks of client/server are: 1. OS/2 Warp Connect and Windows 95. The client building block. 28. Client/server for a post-scarcity world. Examples of 3 tier client/server systems are TP monitors. Define DSM. 3. The server building block. wherever they may be. Client/server for small shops and departments. It runs on the operating system (OS) that provides graphical user Interface(GUI) or an OOUI (Object oriented User Interface)that access distributed services. DSM-Distributed System Management. 26. 2. The client building block runs the client side of the application. Define server building block. distributed objects and the web. 1. This could be anything from a simple agent on a managed PC to the entire front-end of the DSM application on a managing station. 27. 5 . Intergalactic client/server is a new threshold of client/server applications and this is because of. What are the basic building blocks of client/server based on situations? The building blocks of client and server arrangements based on situations are: • • • • Client/server for tiny shops and nomadic tribes. 28. 2.more scalable. the Internet and CompuServe. Define client building block. 24. robust and flexible. multi-threaded desktop operating systems . The exponential increase of low-cost bandwidth on Wide Area Networks .for example.
Waits for client initiated services. It is of three categories: transport stacks. 31. online chat. partners. An extranet is a private network that uses Internet protocols. network connectivity. Sometimes the term refers only to the most visible service.The server building block runs the server side of the application. Define middleware building block. What are the functions of server program? The role of server program is to serve multiple clients who have an interest in a shared resource owned by the server. and possibly the public telecommunication system to securely share part of an organization’s information or operations with suppliers. Define Internet. The middleware running block runs both the client and server sides of an application. and government networks. and the service-specific middleware. 29. An Intranet is a private computer network that uses internet protocols. An extranet can be viewed as part of a company’s Intranet that is extended to users outside the company (e. 6 . network connectivity to securely share part of an organization’s information or operations with its employees. It is a “network of networks” that consists of millions of smaller domestic. academic. such as electronic mail. customers or other businesses. 33. 30. the internal website. The server side depends on the operating system to interface with middleware building block that brings in the requests for the service. Define extranet. and the interlinked web pages and other resources of the World Wide Web (WWW). The Internet is a worldwide. business. The typical server does the following functions: 1. which together carry various information and services. Define Intranet.g. vendors. network operating systems (NOSs). 32. publicly accessible series of interconnected computer networks that transmit data by packet switching using the standard Internet Protocol (IP).The server application typically runs on top of some shrink-wrapped server software package. file transfer.: normally over the Internet).
Extended services. 2.2. Task preemption. 5. 35. 10. Initiates and runs background task activity. What are the types of base services? Types of base services are as follows: 1. The extended services are add-on modular software components that are layered on top of the base services. 36. Intertask Protection. Define base services. Multiuser High performance File system. 37. 6. Task priority 3. Define semaphore. 4. Keeps running. What are the types of extended services? 1. Local/remote Interprocess communication. 2. It includes all the basic operations of an operating system. The types of OS functions are as follows: 1. 38. 9. Threads. Dynamically linked run-time extensions. Executes many request at the same time. Ubiquitous communication. Base services. 4. 39. 34. Define extended services. The base services are a part of standard operating systems. Name the types of OS functions on a server. Functionally equivalent extended services are provided by more than one vendor. 7. 8. Efficient Memory management. 7 . 3. Interprocess communication (IPC) 5. These mechanisms are known as semaphores. Semaphores. Takes care of VIP clients first. An operating system must provide simple synchronization mechanisms for keeping concurrent tasks from bumping into another when accessing shared resources.
10. What are the object oriented services provided by an OS to a server? The operating system provides object broker services that allow any object to interact with any other object across the network. 43. What are the system management services? System management services include: 1. 3. System management. BLOBs are used to test the capabilities of OS. What is meant by intertask protection? The operating system must protect tasks from interfering with each other’s resources. Threads are used to create very concurrent. Threads are units of concurrency provided within the single program itself. 42. 9. 3. A single task must not be able to bring down the entire system. Database and transaction services. Monitoring the performance of all elements. Network Operating system extensions. Authentication and authorization services. Network must transport BLOBs at astronomic speeds. databases and network. video. Distributing and managing software packages on client workstations 4. Binary Large Objects (Blobs) 4. It also provides object interchange services and object repositories. 6. 5. graphics. 2. Global directories and Network yellow pages. 41. Internet services. Define BLOBs with examples. 7. 44. Define thread. Generating alerts when things break. intelligent documents. Images. 40. 45. BLOBs-Binary Large Objects. database snapshots are BLOBS. event driven server programs.2. What are the upper limits of server? 8 . Checking for viruses and intruders. 5. Network Time. Metering capabilities for pay –as-you use server resources. Protection also extends to the file system and calls to the operating system. Object oriented services. 8.
2. A coprocessor is an extreme form of codependency. so scalable servers are frequently an issue. GUI clients. 9 . It improves performance and throughput of the server system. Define symmetric multiprocessing superservers. Multiprocessing super servers are fully loaded machines and they have multiprocessors. What are the three categories of clients? The three categories of clients are: 1. 50. Non-GUL clients.The limits of servers really depend on the type of service required by their clients. More servers can be added to increase the processing power (creating a pool of servers) or existing server can be upgraded to latest generation of PC super server machines. Define asymmetric multiprocessing superservers. The master controls the slave processors dedicated to specific functions such as disk I/ or network I/O. Multiservers (clusters) have more processing power than single server system or SMP. 46. Asymmetric multiprocessing 2. 47. Define multiservers. 49. Define multiprocessing super servers. 46. The safe rule is that clients will always want more services. Define co-processor. the master can run the operating system at any time. high speed disk arrays for intensive I/O and fault tolerant services. 48. Asymmetric multiprocessing superservers impose hierarchy and a division of labor among processors. Any processor can do the work of any other processor. Symmetric multiprocessing. OOUI clients. Only one designated processor. 3. one processor completely controls a slave processor through interlocked special –purpose instructions. It is of two types namely: 1. Symmetric Multiprocessing treats all processors equals. The coprocessor has unique special purpose hardware that is not identical to the main processor.
53. smart gas pumps. In OOUI clients. They are used by information workers doing variable. 52. Multimedia based training systems. real-time. Non-GUI clients that do not need multitasking: These clients may provide a simple human interface in the request generation loop. GUI clients are of two types: 1. Object Oriented User Interface (OOUI) clients are highly iconic and provides object oriented user interface access to information in visual formats. 54. 3. Define modeless dialogs. barcode readers. What are the compound documents frameworks? 10 . event driven multitasking services. over parallel sessions with the server. multiple tasks whose sequence cannot be predicted. Non GUI clients that need multitasking: These clients often require very granular. Simple GUI clients are applications where occasional requests to the server results from a human interacting with GUI. and daemon programs. 2. Examples: robots. Defline Non-GUI clients. also called modeless dialogs. testers. System management consoles. Examples: Automatic Teller Machines (ATM). fax machines. 56. 57.51. Define OOUI clients. Non-GUI client applications generate requests with a minimal amount of human interaction. 55. and intelligent clipboards. OLTP business applications with repetitive tasks and high volumes. Each workplace may be running parallel dialogs. cellular phones. Executive and decision support systems. 4. the desktop can contain multiple workplaces running concurrently. These clients are good for mainstream. Stock broker workstations. What are the examples of OOUI client? The examples for OOUI clients are: 1. Define GUI clients.
Define shippable places. 66. 60. There will be huge demand for fat PC’s. What are the cons of Windows 95? 1. 69. 3. Define OLE. 4. The desktop is becoming more fragmented. Shippable places let you interact with multiple places that represent collaborative environments based on real-world.Compound document framework includes. it provides the component foundation of Microsoft’s desktop. 2. 5. A shippable place is a mobile container of components. Embedded clients will be everywhere. What are the cons of MAC OS? 1. What are the features of Windows NT workstation? 11 . 2. Define place. 3. 3. 4. Not robust for corporate client market. Windows 95 OOUI is inconsistent. 2. 67. The web will generate a huge demand for documents. It is also not a good advanced client platform. Mixes GUI and OOUI paradigms. Still built on DOS. OLE-Object Linking and Embedding OLE is a part of Windows 95. Shippable places will become new desktops. it’s like having multiple desktops. 1. A place is a visual ensemble of related components. It is also a mini virtual world that servers can ship to their clients. OLE 2. enterprise and Internet/Intranet products. 68. OpenDoc OLE and OpenDoc forms the latest and greatest OOUI technology 58. It does not scale well and has limited multithreading options. What are the client OS trends? The client OS trends are: 1. it’s a place that can be shipped over the net. 59. Mac OS is not a very good server platform.
32-bit Operating system incubates leading edge server software including 2. 72. 2. 2. Provides C-2 level securities. memory protection and a transactional file system. does not even integrate with other back office applications. OS/2 does not incur the extra burden of a portability layer. 4. 3. remote administration.1. Does not support virtual device drivers. 7. NT workstation is a resource hog. easier to find and configure network adapters. 4. Network ready supports TCP/IP. 74. 73. 6. remote software distribution. OS/2 is an Intel-only server platform. Windows NT workstation is a robust 32-bit client OS. multithreading. Have security holes. OS/2 is an excellent application server. a back server. Define transparency. software metering. Does not support plug and play. Does not get the same level of ISV support as the rest of the windows platform. PPP and AppleTalk. IPX/SPX. NetBEUI. Auto detects hardware. 3. Back up facilities are not good. 5. What are the features of OS/2 warp server? 1. 2. 5. It requires minimum of 16Mbytes RAM and 512 Mbytes (disk). 2. Addition of processor makes it slow 3. What are the cons of OS/2 warp server? 1. 70. 4. NT server does not scale well. LotusNotes and CORBA services. Expensive client platform. 12 . What are the cons of Windows NT? 1. It supports preemptive multitasking. 3. What are the cons of NT server? 1. Support for laptop is poor. Provides disk mirroring. 71. Does not provide an enterprise directory server. Limited PCMCIA support and power management.
It really means hiding the network and its servers from the users and even application programmers.Transparency means fooling everyone into thinking the client/server system is totally seamless. It is referred as “network disappearing act”. It introduces an inaccuracy component to compensate for unequal clock drifts that occur between synchronizations. It periodically synchronizes the clocks on every machine in the network. What are the types of transparency? • • • • • • • • Location transparency Namespace transparency Logon transparency Replication transparency Local/remote transparency Distributed transparency Failure transparency Administration transparency 76. What are the types of synchronization schemes used to refresh replicas in global directory? The two types of synchronization schemes used to refresh replicas include: • • Immediate replication Skulking Immediate replication: This causes any update to the master to be immediately shadowed on all replicas. Define encryption. 78. What are the techniques involved in distributed time services? The two techniques involved in distributed time services are: 1. 77 . once a day) to all the replicas of all changes made on the master. 75. Skulking: This causes a periodic propagation (for example. 2. 13 .
81. 79. Define socket address. Define WinSock. A socket address on the TCP/IP consists of two parts: an internet address (IP_address) and a port number. 82. Another approach is to use a public. Define cryptographic checksums. Internet address is a 32-bit integer usually represented by four decimal numbers separated by dots that must be unique for each TCP/IP network interface card. What are the popular socket types? 14 . It is represented by a 16-bit integer. The receiver recalculates the checksum. A port is an entry point to an application that resides on a host. The windows socket API is known as Winsock. 80. Define port. Each principal must obtain a copy of a session key from a trusted third party. decrypts the one received in the message using the session key. and appends the result to the message. Define socket. This session key can be used for encoding and decoding messages. and then compares the two. 83. using a session key to encrypt it. Ports are commonly used to define the entry points for services provided by server applications. which is a multivendor specification that standardizes the use of TCP/IP under windows. 12. Socket address=internet address (IP) +port address.Encryption allows two principals to hold a secure communication. Sockets are supported on virtually every operating system. The sender calculates a checksum on the data.bit integer. private key encryption technique. The Winsock API is based on the Berkeley sockets interface. Port address is represented by 16. Cryptographic checksum is a less extreme solution that ensures data is not modified as it passes through the network. A socket is one end of a two-way communications link between two programs running on the network.
It is used as a foundation protocol by sophisticated network applications for sending and receiving lowoverhead datagram packets. UNIX. Windows 95. or sequenced packet exchanges provide a reliable two-way connection service over a session. NetBEUI is the protocol stack that comes with IBM and Microsoft LAN products including Windows for Workgroups. OS/2. 85. virtual circuits. NT. Each packet of information that gets exchanged over a session is given a unique sequence number through which it gets tracked individually acknowledged. 87. The IPX/SPX network layer is provided by the Internet packet Exchange (IPX) protocol. 86. XNS. Define NETBEUI protocol. and some mainframe environments. Define NETBIOS protocol. OSI. Define IPX protocol. Connection-oriented protocols-also known as session –based protocols. NetBIOS is used as an interface to a variety of stacks-including IBM/Microsoft LANs (NetBEUI). OS/2 Warp 15 . This service consists of 16 API calls. and IPX/SPX. One of the many reasons for NetBIOS success is its intuitive simplicity. Duplicate packages are detected and discarded by the session services. Windows95. LAN Manager. Define connection oriented protocol.The three most popular socket types are: • • • Stream Datagram Raw Stream and datagram sockets interface to the TCP and UDP protocols Raw sockets interface to the IP protocol. including MS-DOS. Vines. Support for a NetBIOS platform exists on a multiplicity of operating system environments. 88. 84. NETBIOS is the premier protocol for LAN based program-to-program communications. TCP/IP. The transport layer of IPX/SPX is provided by the sequenced packet exchange (SPX) protocol which is responsible for a reliable connection oriented service over IPX. Window NT. Define SPX protocol. This is a “send and pray” datagram protocol with no guarantees. Windows.
The binding information can be hard coded in the client or a client can find its server by consulting a configuration file or an environment parameter. Define automatic binding and dynamic binding. • The process of using a directory to find a server at runtime is called dynamic binding. Define RPC. 16 . RPC-Remote Procedure Call RPC like an ordinary procedure call is synchronous. Define binding. 90. A client process calls a function on a remote server and suspends itself until it gets back the results. An IDL complier takes these descriptions and produces source code stubs (and header files) for both client and server. What are the issues faced in RPC? The issues in RPC are: • • • • • • How are the servers functions located and started? How are parameters defined and passed between the client and the server? How are failures handled? How is security handled by RPC? How does the client find its server? How is data representation across systems handled? 91. 89. IDL-Interface Definition Language IDL (Interface Definition Language) describes the functions and parameters that a server exports to its clients. 92. Define IDL. 93. The association of a client with a server is called binding. and OS/2 Warp Server. It came to life as the original transport for NetBIOS commands.Connect. Parameters are passed like in any ordinary procedure.
Define MOM. MOM allows general purpose messages to be exchanged in a client/server system using message queues. Features MOM: Messaging and Queuing Metaphor Client/server relationship Asynchronous. 94. 96. where the RPC client stub will locate a server from a list of servers that supports the interface. Client/server sequencing No fixed sequence 17 Servers must come up before Synchronous.• The easiest way of finding a server with the help of RPC is called automatic binding.like RPC: Remote procedure call . Differences between MOM and RPC. 95. In both the cases messages can be copied or removed from a queue. Define persistent and non persistent message queues. Non Persistent messages refer to message queues in memory. • • Persistent (logged on disk) messages are slower and they can be recovered in case of power failures after a system restart. MOM-Message Oriented Middleware MOM is a key piece of middleware that is absolutely essential for a class of client/server products. Clients and servers operate at different times and speed. Client and server must run concurrently. Post office-like Telephone.
101. Define DFS. DFS-Distributed File System DFS provides a single image file system that can be distributed across a group of file servers. A DCE cell must have one directory server and one security server.Style 97. Define ACL (Access Control List) Servers use access control list (ACLs) to control user access. 98. In time shared systems. DCE directory services consist of: • • Cell directory services (CDS) Global directory services (GDS) This two tier hierarchy provides local naming autonomy (at the cell level) and global interoperability (at the inter cell level). 99. Each file has a unique identifier that is consistent across network. Call-Return Kerberos is the trusted third party that allows to processes to prove to each other that they are who they claims to be. Authentication validates a client. 100.DCE implements authentication by Kerberos. Define Authorization. 26. They contain list of names and the type of operations they are permitted to perform on each resource. Name the elements of DCE directory services. DCE divides the distributed environment into administrative units (or domains) called cells. Define DCE cell. Define Authentication. 102. the authentication is done by the OS using passwords. A cell usually consists of the set of machines used by one or more groups working on related tasks. 18 . Kerberos authentication system is widely implemented in distributed Computing Environment (DCE). The DFS file naming scheme is location independent. typically a user or program is who or what it claims to be. A DCE cell is a combination of client and server workstations. ACLs can be associated with any computer resource. Queued clients can talk to them. Define Kerberos.
URL-Unified Resource Locator. CGI is a standard for interfacing external applications with information servers. The linked document can itself contains links to other documents.DCE provides a semaphore service that helps threads synchronize their access to shared memory. The DCE thread package provides granular levels of multitasking on operating systems that do not provide multitasking threads. CGI-Common Gateway Interface CGI is now being used to access every known server environment . Define CGI. Define Hypertext. 107. and this can go on forever. Define DCE threads package.Authorization comes after authentication. Give some example for Internet Application Protocols. 103. sound clips or executable programs. 19 . DCE supports authorization through Access Control List (ACLs).DCE thread packages support multitasking environments using shared memory. A link can also point to other external resources such as image files. such as HTTP or Web servers. it determines whether the authenticated client has permission to access a resource. 106. What are the names of protocol introduced by Netscape navigator? SSL(Secure Socket Layer) S-HTTP(Secure –HTTP) Firewalls 105. Hypertext is a software mechanism that links documents to other related documents on the same machine or across networks. 104. Define URL. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol(SMTP) File Transfer Protocol(FTP) Network News Transfer Protocol(NNTP) Gopher 108.
images. Browser sends an HTPP request to server 3. What are the steps involved in client/server interaction? 1. 112. 3) The port number-It identifies a program that runs on a particular server. 109. sound clips and programs. Define HTTP HTTP-Hypertext Transfer Protocol The web provides an RPC like protocol called the HTTP for accessing resources that live in URL space. The client is simply there to interpret the server’s commands and render the contents of an HTML page to an user. 20 . 4) The path to a target resource-It starts with the slash after the host and the port number. Why web browsers are referred as ‘Universal clients’? A web browser is a minimalist client that interprets information it receives from a server. 2) The server name-It is usually an internet host domain name that identifies the site on which the server is running. 111. Browser interprets the HTML commands and displays the page contents. Server comes to life and processes the request 4. HTTP stateless RPC that 1) Establishes a client/server connection 2) Transmits and receives parameters including a returned file 3) Breaks the client/connection 110. What are parts of the URL? The parts of URL include: 1) The protocol scheme-It tells the web browser which internet protocol to use when accessing a resource on a server.URL protocol provides a consistent intergalactic naming scheme to identify all web resources-including documents. Select a target URL 2. and displays it graphically to user.
Give some examples for tags in HTML? <B>Bold</B> <I>Italic</I> <U>Underlined</U> <TT>Fixed-window</TT> <STRIKE>strike out</STRIKE> 114.com:7800:/path/subdir/file.Ex: http://www. 115. Write a HTML program to show about the heading tags. HTML tags for creating unordered list: <UL> </UL> 21 . Write few HTML tags for creating list.ext 113.address. <HTML> <HEAD> <TITLE> My DOCUMENT</TITLE> </HEAD <BODY> <H1>THIS IS AN H1 HEADING</H1> <H2> THIS IS AN H1 HEADING</H2> <H3> THIS IS AN H1 HEADING</H3> <H4> THIS IS AN H1 HEADING</H4> <H5> THIS IS AN H1 HEADING</H5> <H6> THIS IS AN H1 HEADING</H6> </BODY> </HTML> 116. What is mean by tags in HTML? The tags are non-case sensitive commands surrounded by angle brackets. A tag pair consists of a command. then some text and finally the inverse command –represented as the command with a slash in front of it.
Hyperlinks are used to link our document to other documents or to other locations in the same document using a pair of anchor tags that look like this: <A HREF=”Target URL”> This is good link </A> 119.zif”> This tag includes an attribute called SRC that contain the URL of the external picture file or the name of a local file. Define Hyperlinks.Hypertext Transfer Protocol. < IMG SRC=”file. then issues a request. The client establishes a connection to the remote server. The following are some examples: HTML 1. HTTP is used to access and retrieve URL-named resources. There are different versions of HTML. 118. Write HTML tag to include images in the document. 121. 22 . and closes the connection. HTTP.0(originally known as HTML+) 120. The server then processes the request.0 HTML 2. Give some versions of HTML. Give HTTP request syntax.HTML tags for creating ordered list: <OL> </OL> 117. HTML tag for including image in a document is given by. The HTTP RPC is stateless.0 HTML 3. returns a response. Define HTTP.
2. The HTTP server starts a CGI program. The CGI program reads the environmental variable. 124. 5. 4. Give HTTP response syntax. The examples of environmental variables are: SERVER_NAME – The server's Host name or IP address 23 . 122. The HTTP server receives the method invocation via a socket connection. Environment Variables allow the CGI Script to reference variables that might be wanted for the Script output. The Environment Variables are set when the server executes a CGI Script. The CGI program receives the message body via the standard input pipe(stdin).HTTP request consists of a request line. 123. one or more optional response header fields and an optional entity body. one or more optional request header fields. 7. 3. Give some examples for environmental variables. 6. What are the uses of environmental variables? In order to pass data from the server to the script. and an optional entity body. 125. The CGI program returns the results via the standard output pipe(stdout) 10. User clicks on the form’s “submit” button. What are the steps involved in CGI scenario? 1. The HTTP server sets up the environmental variables. The HTTP server returns the results to the web browser. 8. HTTP response consists of a response header line. The web browser invokes a POST HTTP METHOD. 9. the server uses command line arguments along with environment variables. The CGI program does some work.
SQL helps protect the data in a multi-user networked environment. What are the features of SQL? SQL has the following features: 1. 3. database schema creation and modification. REQUEST_METHOD – 126. SQL is the language of networked database servers. 5. 4. SERVER_SOFTWARE – The name and version of the server-software that is answering the client requests SERVER_PROTOCOL – The name and revision of the information protocol the request came in with. 127. SQL is a standard language for accessing and manipulating databases. Define SQL. 24 The method with which the information request was issued. Multithreaded architecture. SQL is an interactive query language. What are the SQL database architectures? There are three SQL database architectures namely: Process-per-client architecture. 1. SQL is a data definition and data administration language. 2.SQL (Structured Query Language) is a database computer language designed for the retrieval and management of data in relational database management systems (RDBMS). ISO standards of SQL are: SQL-89 SQL-92(also called SQL2) SQL-3 129. Mention few ISO standards of SQL.management. and database object access control . SQL is a database programming language. SQL-Structured Query Language. . 128.
Decision Support Systems (DSS) are used to analyze data and create reports. Stored procedure is typically treated like any other database object and registered in the SQL catalog. Triggers can perform complex actions and can use the full power of a procedural language. Define Trigger. Define rule. 134. They offer maximum flexibility at the expense of execution speed. SQL nightmare: The multivendor operation. Dynamic SQL statements are created and issued at run time. including banking. Define DSS. A rule is a special type of trigger that is used to perform simple checks on data. 133. Mention two SQL middleware options. 132. supermarkets. Dynamic SQL is an interpretive form of the SQL language. OLTP (online transaction processing) is a class of program that facilitates and manages transaction-oriented applications. Hybrid architecture. 133. and manufacturers. typically for data entry and retrieval transactions in a number of industries. They provide the business professional and information hounds with means to obtain 25 . The SQL statement is known before program is running. Static SQL statements are defined in code and converted into an access plan at program preparation time. airlines. verified.2. Define dynamic SQL. 131. Define OLTP. 135. 130. 132. mail order. Define static SQL. The SQL middleware options include: SQL nirvana: The single vendor operation. Triggers are special user-defined functions usually in the form of stored procedures that are automatically invoked by the server based on data-related events. A stored procedure is a named collection of SQL statements and procedural logic that is complied. Define stored procedure. Rules are attached to specific operations on specific tables. and stored in the server database.
2. easy-to-use. H. 3. and business specific than DSS tools. A successful decision-support system must provide user with flexible access to data and the tools to manipulate and present that data in all kinds of report formats. 138. knowledge-driven decisions. the extraction of hidden predictive information from large databases. 137. Data mining. 140. OLAP often is used in data mining. IBM sometimes uses the term "information warehouse. Define data warehouse. it provides time series and trend analysis views. For example. Define OLAP. 141. a category of software tools that provides analysis of data stored in a database. 136. allowing businesses to make proactive. Executive Information Systems (EIS) are powerful. The term was coined by W. Associations 26 . Mention some data mining tools. The information directory. Inmon. OLAP tools enable users to analyze different dimensions of multidimensional data. Define EIS. Define data mining. EIS/DSS tool support. which may explain why the “executive” attribute is in the name. Online Analytical Processing. is a powerful new technology with great potential to help companies focus on the most important information in their data warehouses. What are the elements of data warehousing? Data warehousing includes four elements: The data replication manager 1. They are certainly more expensive.exactly the information they need. The informational database. 139. Data mining tools predict future trends and behaviors. Data warehouse is a central repository for all or significant parts of the data that an enterprise's various business systems collect."Richard Hack thorn defines warehouse as “a collection of data objects that have been inventoried for distribution to a business community”.
Clustering. Example: When the price of stock goes up by 10%. Define Association.age brackets between 40 and 50 and live in XYZ neighborhood”.000. 142. Clustering looks for groupings and high-level classifications. Define clustering. 143. Define sequential patterns. 27 . Sequential patterns look for chronological occurrences. Associations look for patterns where the presence of something implies the presence of something else. Example: Over 70% of undecided voters have incomes of over $60. Sequential pattern. Example: Scuba gear buyers are candidates for Australian vacations. 144.the price of stock Y goes by 15% a week later.