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Gas

Production
Operations
H. Dale Beggs

OGCI Publications
Oil & Gas Consultants lnternational lnc.
TuIsa
COPYRIGHT 1984 BY
OIL & GAS CONSULTANTS INTERNATIONAL INC.
and H. Dale Beggs
4554 South Harvard
Avenue Tulsa, Oklahoma
74135
All rights reserved. No part of this text
may be reproduced or transcribed in any form
or by any means without the written permission
of Oil & Gas Consultants International, lnc.
lts use in adult training programs is specifically
reserved for Oi! & Gas Consultants International, Inc.
Printed in the United States of America
Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 83-063489
International Standard Book Number: 0-930972-06-6
Contents

1 lntroduction 1
Geographical Occurrence of Natural Gas 1
Worldwide Occurrence of Natural Gas 1
Occurrence of Natural Gas in the United States 2
Geological Occurrence of Natural Gas 2
Modification by Migration and Burial
1O
Characteristics of Natural Gas 11
Gas Composition 11
Other Sources of Gaseous Fuel 12
Liquefied Natural Gas 12
Coai Gasification 12
Substitute Natural Gas 12
Gas from Devonian Shale 13
Tight Formation Gas 13
Gas from Geopressured Aquifers 13
Gas Production Operations 13
References 14

2 Gas Properties 15
Ideal Gases 15
Early Gas Laws 15
Boyle's Law 15
Charles' Law 15
Avogadro's Law 15
The Ideal Gas Law 16
Ideal Gas Mixtures 17
Dalton's Law 17
Amagat's Law 18
Apparent Molecular Weight 18
Real Gases 22
Real Gas Mixtures 22
Gas Formation Volume Factor 30

V
Correction for Nonhydrocarbon lmpurities 30 í
Other Equations of State 31
Benedict-Webb-Rubin Equation 31 1
Redlich-Kwong Equation 32
Gas Compressibility 33
Ideal Gas Compressibility 33
Real Gas Compressibility 33
Gas Viscosity 34
' Gas-Water Systems 36
Solubility of Natúral Gas in Water 37
Solubility of Water in Natural Gas 37
Gas Hydrates 37
Gas-Condensate Systems 39
Phase Behavior 39
Single Component Fluid 39
Multicomponent Fluids 39
Separation Processes 40
Types of Gas Reservoirs 40
Flash or Equilibrium Separation Calculations 41
Determination of Equilibrium Ratios 44
K-Values from Equations of State 45
Adjustment of Properties for Condensate Mixtures 45
Specific Gravity of Mixtures 46
References 47

3 Gas Reservoir Performance 49


Reservoir Gas Flow 49
Flow Regime Characteristics 49
Steady-State Flow 49
Unsteady-State Flow 50
Pseudosteady-State Flow 51
Flow Equations _51
Steady-State Flow 51
Pseudosteady-State Flow 53
Unsteady-State Flow 53
Noncircular Reservoirs 56
Rock Permeability 57
Well Deliverability or Capacity 59
Flow-After-Flow Tests 60
lsochronal Testing 61
Modified lsochronal Testing 62
Jones, Blount, and Glaze Method 64
Laminar lnertia Turbulence (LIT) Analysis 66
Factors Affecting lnflow Performance 68
Transient Testing· 70
Principie of Superposition 70
Pressure Drawdown Testing 70
Two-Rate Tests 73
Reservoir Limit Test 73
Pressure Buildup Testing 73
Real Gas Pseudopressure Analysis 76
Gas Reserves 78
Reserve Estimates-Volumetric Method 78
VI

Reserve Estimates-Material Balance Method 79 Energy G


Plots 81
Abnormally Pressured Reservoirs 82 Well
Completion Effects 82
Open-Hole Completions 83
Perforated Completions 83
Perforated, Gravel-Packed Completions 86 Tight
Gas Well Analysis 86
Testing 88 Testing Equipment
89
Sweet Dry Gas 89 Sweet
Wet Gas 89 Sour Gas 90
Flow Measuring 90
Pressure Measuring 90 Problems in
Gas-Well Testing 90
Liquid Loading 92
Hydrate Formation 92 Wet
Gas Streams 92 Irregular
Flow 92
Sour (H2S) Gas 92 Reporting
Data 92
References 92

4 Piping System Performance


Basic Flow Equation 95
Laminar Single-Phase Flow 97
Turbulent Single-Phase Flow 97
Smooth-Wall Pipe 97
Rough-Wall Pipe 97 Flow
ln Wells 102
Static Bottom-Hole Pressure 102
Average Pressure and Temperature Method 102 95
Cullender and Smith Method 102
Flowing Bottom-Hole Pressure 103
Average Pressure and Temperature Method 103
Cullender and Smith Method 105
Annular Flow 106 Flow in
Pipelines 106
Pipelines in Series 109
Pipelines in Parallel 109
Effects of Liquids 11O Well
Performance 11O
Gravity Adjustment 11O
Hagedorn and Browri Method 11O
Pipeline Performance 112
Flanigan Method 113
Beggs and Brill Method 113 Gas Flow
Through Restrictions 117
Use of Pressure Traverse Curves 119
Liquid Removal from Gas Wells 122
Minimum Flow Rate for Continuous Liquid Removal 122 li!=Juid
Removal Methods 124

Vll
Beam Pumping Units 124
Plunger Lift 124
Small 124
Tubing
Gas-Lift 125
Erosional 125
Predicting Flowing Temperatures 126
Flowing in Wells
Temperatures 1
Flowing
Reforences 2

5 Gas Compression
129

Types of Compressors 129


Positive Displacement Compressors 130
Dynamic Compressors 133
Ejector Compressors 134
Compressor Design 135
Design Methods 135
Reciprocating Compressors 136
Power Requirement 137
Multistaging 141
Effect of Clearance 141
Effeét of Specific Heat Ratio 142
Centrifugai Compressors 143
References 145

6 Total System Analysis 147


Tubing and Flowline Size Effect
147
Constant Wellhead Pressure 147
Variable Welihead Pressure 150
Separator Pressure Effect 151
Compressor Selection 151
Subsurface Safety Valve Selection
152 Effect of Perforating Density
154
Effect of Depletion 156
Relating Performance to Time 157
Summary 158

7 Flow Measuring 159


lntroduction 159
Grifice Metering 159
Grifice Constants 160
Basic Grifice Factor Fb 160
Pressure-base Factor Fµb 160
Temperature-base Factor F1b 160
Specific-gravity Factor F9 160
Flowing-temperature Factor Ftr 160
Reynolds-number Factor F, 160
Expansion Factor Y 160
Supercompressibility r::actor Fµv 161

viii
Manometer Factor Fm 161
Metering System Design 161
Straightening Vanes 162
Orifice Location 162
Size of Orifice and Meter Run 162
Recorder 163
Chart-Reading Accuracy 165
Conditions Affecting Accuracy 166
Condition of the Orifice Edge 166
Condition of the Meter Tube 166
Pulsation 166
Effect of Water Vapor 166
Wet Gas Measurement 167
Other Metering Methods 167
Orifice Well Tester 167
Critical-flow Prover 167
Pitot Tube 168
Turbine Meters 168
References 182

183
8 Gas-Condensate Reservoirs
Well Testing and Sampling 184
Well Conditioning and Sampling Procedúres
185 Laboratory Testing
185
Calculation of lnitial ln-Place Gas and Condensate 185
Compositional Analysis Not Available 186
Compositional Analysis Available 187
Recovery Estimates 188
Laboratory Simulation 188
Flash Calculations 191
Empirical Correlations for Estimating Performance 192
Effects of Water Drive 193
Gas Cycling 193
Areal Sweep Efficiency ( EA) 193
Vertical Sweep Efficiency (Ev) 193
Displacement Efficiency (Eo) 194
Reservoir Cycling Efficiency ( ER) 194
Feasibility of Gas Cycling 194
References 194
195

9 Field Operation Problems


Pressure-Cumulative Production Plots 195
p/ Z versus GP Plots 195
Energy Plots 196
Rate Versus Time Plots 196
Hydrate Formation 199
Causes, Occurrence, and Prediction 199
Hydrate Formation in the Flow String and Surface Unes 201
Hydrate Formation in Flow Provers, Orifices, and
Back-Pressure Regulators 202
Hydrate Control 204 IX
Sour Gas Production 204
Corrosion 204
Corrosion Contrai with lnhibitors 205
The Short Batch Mthod of Application 205
The Tubing Displacement Method 206
Methods of lnhibitor Application Using Nitrogen Gas 206
Method of Continuous Treatment with lnhibitors 206
Formation Squeeze 208
Sulfur Oeposition 209
Safety 209
Well Testing 211

213
10 Gas Processing
Field Treatment of Natural Gas
213 Types of Separators
214 Separator
Controls 215
Stage Separation 215
Low Temperature Separation 218
Condensate Stabilization 219
Gas Plant Operations 220
Liquid Hydrocarbon Recovery 221
Compression Processing 221
Absorption Processing 223
Cryogenic Processing 224
Adsorption Processing 224
Gas Dehydration 226
Gas Sweetening 227
References 228

Appendices 229
A. Equilibrium Constants for 5000 psia Convergence Pressure 229
B. Matthews-Brons-Hazebrook Curves for Various Reservoir Shapes 243
C. Mollier Diagrams for Natural Gas 249
D. Computer Subroutines 253
E. Pressure Traverse Curves 275

X
Nomenclature

Dimensions

A area L
B gas formation volume factor i
g gas formation volume factor at bubble-point
conditions oil formation volume factor

'j' Bob oil formation volume factor at bubble-point conditions


t B, total (two-phase) formation volume factor
B"' water formation volume factor
Cf formation (rock) compressibility Lt
2
/m
2
Cg gas compressibility Lt / m
2
Co oil compressibility Lt / m
Cpr pseudoreduced compressibility
2
Cu· water compressibility Lt / m
e coefficient of gas-well back-pressure curve L3-211t4"/m 2"
e concentration various
CL condensate or natural gas liquids content various
d diameter L
D depth L
E. efficiency
EA areal efficiency
Ev displacement efficiency
E1 invasion (vertical) efficiency
Ep pattern sweep efficiency
ER reservoir recovery efficiency, overall
Ev volumetric efficiency
f fraction
f friction factor
f fugacity m/ Lt 2
F force mL/ t2
XI

Dimensions

F.,.º instantaneous producing water-oil ratio


Fwop cumulative water-oil ratio


2
g acceleration of gravity L/ t
2
gc conversion factor in Newton 's Second Law of Motion mL/ Ft
G total initial gas in place in reservoir L3
G; cumulative gas injection L3
GL initial condensate liquids in place in reservoir L3
Glp cumulative condensate liquid produced L3
GP cumulative gas produced L3
G..1fP cumulative wet gas produced L3
f:.GP gas produced during an interval L3
h thickness (general and individual bed) L
mL /t
2 2
H enthalpy (always with phase or system subscripts)
3
injection rate L /t
4
J productivity index L t/ m
specific productivity index 3
JS L t/ m
k absolute permeability (fluid flow) L1
kg effective permeability to gas L1
ko effective permeability to oil Lz
krg relative permeability to gas
k,o relative permeability to oil
k"'. relative permeability to water
k.,. effective permeability to water L1
K equilibrium ratio ( y / x)
ln natural logarithm, base e
log common logarithm, base 1O
L length L
L moles of liquid phase
m mass m
m ratio of initial reservoir free-gas volume to initial reservoir oil
volume
m slope various
M mobility ratio
M molecular weight m
n exponent of back-pressure curve, gas well
n total moles
nj moles of component j
N initial oil in place in reservoir L3
Np cumulative oil produced L3
NRe Reynolds number (dimensionless number)
b..NP oil produced during an interval L3
p pressure m/ Lt 2
Pa atmospheric pressure m/ Lt 2
Po bubble-point (saturation) pressure m/ Lt 2
2
p,. criticai pressure m/ Lt
Xll