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PRODUCCION

PRODUCCION

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Production

Operations

H. Dale Beggs

OGCI Publications

Oil & Gas Consultants lnternational lnc.

TuIsa

COPYRIGHT 1984 BY

OIL & GAS CONSULTANTS INTERNATIONAL INC.

and H. Dale Beggs

4554 South Harvard

Avenue Tulsa, Oklahoma

74135

All rights reserved. No part of this text

may be reproduced or transcribed in any form

or by any means without the written permission

of Oil & Gas Consultants International, lnc.

lts use in adult training programs is specifically

reserved for Oi! & Gas Consultants International, Inc.

Printed in the United States of America

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 83-063489

International Standard Book Number: 0-930972-06-6

Contents

1 lntroduction 1

Geographical Occurrence of Natural Gas 1

Worldwide Occurrence of Natural Gas 1

Occurrence of Natural Gas in the United States 2

Geological Occurrence of Natural Gas 2

Modification by Migration and Burial

1O

Characteristics of Natural Gas 11

Gas Composition 11

Other Sources of Gaseous Fuel 12

Liquefied Natural Gas 12

Coai Gasification 12

Substitute Natural Gas 12

Gas from Devonian Shale 13

Tight Formation Gas 13

Gas from Geopressured Aquifers 13

Gas Production Operations 13

References 14

2 Gas Properties 15

Ideal Gases 15

Early Gas Laws 15

Boyle's Law 15

Charles' Law 15

Avogadro's Law 15

The Ideal Gas Law 16

Ideal Gas Mixtures 17

Dalton's Law 17

Amagat's Law 18

Apparent Molecular Weight 18

Real Gases 22

Real Gas Mixtures 22

Gas Formation Volume Factor 30

V

Correction for Nonhydrocarbon lmpurities 30 í

Other Equations of State 31

Benedict-Webb-Rubin Equation 31 1

Redlich-Kwong Equation 32

Gas Compressibility 33

Ideal Gas Compressibility 33

Real Gas Compressibility 33

Gas Viscosity 34

' Gas-Water Systems 36

Solubility of Natúral Gas in Water 37

Solubility of Water in Natural Gas 37

Gas Hydrates 37

Gas-Condensate Systems 39

Phase Behavior 39

Single Component Fluid 39

Multicomponent Fluids 39

Separation Processes 40

Types of Gas Reservoirs 40

Flash or Equilibrium Separation Calculations 41

Determination of Equilibrium Ratios 44

K-Values from Equations of State 45

Adjustment of Properties for Condensate Mixtures 45

Specific Gravity of Mixtures 46

References 47

Reservoir Gas Flow 49

Flow Regime Characteristics 49

Steady-State Flow 49

Unsteady-State Flow 50

Pseudosteady-State Flow 51

Flow Equations _51

Steady-State Flow 51

Pseudosteady-State Flow 53

Unsteady-State Flow 53

Noncircular Reservoirs 56

Rock Permeability 57

Well Deliverability or Capacity 59

Flow-After-Flow Tests 60

lsochronal Testing 61

Modified lsochronal Testing 62

Jones, Blount, and Glaze Method 64

Laminar lnertia Turbulence (LIT) Analysis 66

Factors Affecting lnflow Performance 68

Transient Testing· 70

Principie of Superposition 70

Pressure Drawdown Testing 70

Two-Rate Tests 73

Reservoir Limit Test 73

Pressure Buildup Testing 73

Real Gas Pseudopressure Analysis 76

Gas Reserves 78

Reserve Estimates-Volumetric Method 78

VI

Plots 81

Abnormally Pressured Reservoirs 82 Well

Completion Effects 82

Open-Hole Completions 83

Perforated Completions 83

Perforated, Gravel-Packed Completions 86 Tight

Gas Well Analysis 86

Testing 88 Testing Equipment

89

Sweet Dry Gas 89 Sweet

Wet Gas 89 Sour Gas 90

Flow Measuring 90

Pressure Measuring 90 Problems in

Gas-Well Testing 90

Liquid Loading 92

Hydrate Formation 92 Wet

Gas Streams 92 Irregular

Flow 92

Sour (H2S) Gas 92 Reporting

Data 92

References 92

Basic Flow Equation 95

Laminar Single-Phase Flow 97

Turbulent Single-Phase Flow 97

Smooth-Wall Pipe 97

Rough-Wall Pipe 97 Flow

ln Wells 102

Static Bottom-Hole Pressure 102

Average Pressure and Temperature Method 102 95

Cullender and Smith Method 102

Flowing Bottom-Hole Pressure 103

Average Pressure and Temperature Method 103

Cullender and Smith Method 105

Annular Flow 106 Flow in

Pipelines 106

Pipelines in Series 109

Pipelines in Parallel 109

Effects of Liquids 11O Well

Performance 11O

Gravity Adjustment 11O

Hagedorn and Browri Method 11O

Pipeline Performance 112

Flanigan Method 113

Beggs and Brill Method 113 Gas Flow

Through Restrictions 117

Use of Pressure Traverse Curves 119

Liquid Removal from Gas Wells 122

Minimum Flow Rate for Continuous Liquid Removal 122 li!=Juid

Removal Methods 124

Vll

Beam Pumping Units 124

Plunger Lift 124

Small 124

Tubing

Gas-Lift 125

Erosional 125

Predicting Flowing Temperatures 126

Flowing in Wells

Temperatures 1

Flowing

Reforences 2

5 Gas Compression

129

Positive Displacement Compressors 130

Dynamic Compressors 133

Ejector Compressors 134

Compressor Design 135

Design Methods 135

Reciprocating Compressors 136

Power Requirement 137

Multistaging 141

Effect of Clearance 141

Effeét of Specific Heat Ratio 142

Centrifugai Compressors 143

References 145

Tubing and Flowline Size Effect

147

Constant Wellhead Pressure 147

Variable Welihead Pressure 150

Separator Pressure Effect 151

Compressor Selection 151

Subsurface Safety Valve Selection

152 Effect of Perforating Density

154

Effect of Depletion 156

Relating Performance to Time 157

Summary 158

lntroduction 159

Grifice Metering 159

Grifice Constants 160

Basic Grifice Factor Fb 160

Pressure-base Factor Fµb 160

Temperature-base Factor F1b 160

Specific-gravity Factor F9 160

Flowing-temperature Factor Ftr 160

Reynolds-number Factor F, 160

Expansion Factor Y 160

Supercompressibility r::actor Fµv 161

viii

Manometer Factor Fm 161

Metering System Design 161

Straightening Vanes 162

Orifice Location 162

Size of Orifice and Meter Run 162

Recorder 163

Chart-Reading Accuracy 165

Conditions Affecting Accuracy 166

Condition of the Orifice Edge 166

Condition of the Meter Tube 166

Pulsation 166

Effect of Water Vapor 166

Wet Gas Measurement 167

Other Metering Methods 167

Orifice Well Tester 167

Critical-flow Prover 167

Pitot Tube 168

Turbine Meters 168

References 182

183

8 Gas-Condensate Reservoirs

Well Testing and Sampling 184

Well Conditioning and Sampling Procedúres

185 Laboratory Testing

185

Calculation of lnitial ln-Place Gas and Condensate 185

Compositional Analysis Not Available 186

Compositional Analysis Available 187

Recovery Estimates 188

Laboratory Simulation 188

Flash Calculations 191

Empirical Correlations for Estimating Performance 192

Effects of Water Drive 193

Gas Cycling 193

Areal Sweep Efficiency ( EA) 193

Vertical Sweep Efficiency (Ev) 193

Displacement Efficiency (Eo) 194

Reservoir Cycling Efficiency ( ER) 194

Feasibility of Gas Cycling 194

References 194

195

Pressure-Cumulative Production Plots 195

p/ Z versus GP Plots 195

Energy Plots 196

Rate Versus Time Plots 196

Hydrate Formation 199

Causes, Occurrence, and Prediction 199

Hydrate Formation in the Flow String and Surface Unes 201

Hydrate Formation in Flow Provers, Orifices, and

Back-Pressure Regulators 202

Hydrate Control 204 IX

Sour Gas Production 204

Corrosion 204

Corrosion Contrai with lnhibitors 205

The Short Batch Mthod of Application 205

The Tubing Displacement Method 206

Methods of lnhibitor Application Using Nitrogen Gas 206

Method of Continuous Treatment with lnhibitors 206

Formation Squeeze 208

Sulfur Oeposition 209

Safety 209

Well Testing 211

213

10 Gas Processing

Field Treatment of Natural Gas

213 Types of Separators

214 Separator

Controls 215

Stage Separation 215

Low Temperature Separation 218

Condensate Stabilization 219

Gas Plant Operations 220

Liquid Hydrocarbon Recovery 221

Compression Processing 221

Absorption Processing 223

Cryogenic Processing 224

Adsorption Processing 224

Gas Dehydration 226

Gas Sweetening 227

References 228

Appendices 229

A. Equilibrium Constants for 5000 psia Convergence Pressure 229

B. Matthews-Brons-Hazebrook Curves for Various Reservoir Shapes 243

C. Mollier Diagrams for Natural Gas 249

D. Computer Subroutines 253

E. Pressure Traverse Curves 275

X

Nomenclature

Dimensions

A area L

B gas formation volume factor i

g gas formation volume factor at bubble-point

conditions oil formation volume factor

t B, total (two-phase) formation volume factor

B"' water formation volume factor

Cf formation (rock) compressibility Lt

2

/m

2

Cg gas compressibility Lt / m

2

Co oil compressibility Lt / m

Cpr pseudoreduced compressibility

2

Cu· water compressibility Lt / m

e coefficient of gas-well back-pressure curve L3-211t4"/m 2"

e concentration various

CL condensate or natural gas liquids content various

d diameter L

D depth L

E. efficiency

EA areal efficiency

Ev displacement efficiency

E1 invasion (vertical) efficiency

Ep pattern sweep efficiency

ER reservoir recovery efficiency, overall

Ev volumetric efficiency

f fraction

f friction factor

f fugacity m/ Lt 2

F force mL/ t2

XI

Dimensions

Fwop cumulative water-oil ratio

r·

2

g acceleration of gravity L/ t

2

gc conversion factor in Newton 's Second Law of Motion mL/ Ft

G total initial gas in place in reservoir L3

G; cumulative gas injection L3

GL initial condensate liquids in place in reservoir L3

Glp cumulative condensate liquid produced L3

GP cumulative gas produced L3

G..1fP cumulative wet gas produced L3

f:.GP gas produced during an interval L3

h thickness (general and individual bed) L

mL /t

2 2

H enthalpy (always with phase or system subscripts)

3

injection rate L /t

4

J productivity index L t/ m

specific productivity index 3

JS L t/ m

k absolute permeability (fluid flow) L1

kg effective permeability to gas L1

ko effective permeability to oil Lz

krg relative permeability to gas

k,o relative permeability to oil

k"'. relative permeability to water

k.,. effective permeability to water L1

K equilibrium ratio ( y / x)

ln natural logarithm, base e

log common logarithm, base 1O

L length L

L moles of liquid phase

m mass m

m ratio of initial reservoir free-gas volume to initial reservoir oil

volume

m slope various

M mobility ratio

M molecular weight m

n exponent of back-pressure curve, gas well

n total moles

nj moles of component j

N initial oil in place in reservoir L3

Np cumulative oil produced L3

NRe Reynolds number (dimensionless number)

b..NP oil produced during an interval L3

p pressure m/ Lt 2

Pa atmospheric pressure m/ Lt 2

Po bubble-point (saturation) pressure m/ Lt 2

2

p,. criticai pressure m/ Lt

Xll

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