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Actividad de aprendizaje 15

Evidencia 5: Summary “Export-import theory”

Contar con los conocimientos necesarios para realizar un proceso de exportación,


requiere no solo de manejar habilidades lectoras para apropiar las normas y pasos
a seguir, sino también comprender y extraer los aspectos más importantes de
cada texto. Existen gran cantidad de textos referentes exportación e importación
en inglés, por lo cual es necesario fortalecer las competencias en dicha lengua.

Para reforzar lo mencionado, realice las siguientes actividades:

1. Lea el siguiente texto:

Export-Import Theory1

Setting up the business

Whether it is a new or existing export-import business, the legal form,


or structure, will determine how the business is to be conducted, its
tax liability, and other important considerations. Each form of
business organization has its own advantages and disadvantages,
and the entrepreneur has to select the one that best fulfills the goals
of the entrepreneur and the business. Selection of an appropriate
business organization is a task that requires accounting and legal
expertise and should be done with the advice of a competent attorney
or accountant.

Ownership structure

1
Belay, S. (2009). Export-Import Theory, Practices, and Procedures. (2a ed.). New York: Routledge.
In this section, we examine different forms of business organizations:
sole proprietorships, partnerships, corporations, and limited liability
companies.

Sole proprietorships

A sole proprietorship is a firm owned and operated by one individual.


No separate legal entity exists. There is one principal in the business
who has total control over all export-import operations and who can
make decisions without consulting anyone. The major advantages of
sole proprietorships are as follows:

1. They are easy to organize and simple to control. Establishing an


export-import business as sole proprietorship is simple and
inexpensive and requires little or no government approval. At the
state level, registration of the business name is required, while at the
federal level, sole proprietors need to keep accurate accounting
records and attach a profit or loss statement for the business when
filing individual tax returns (Schedule C, Internal Revenue Service
Form 1040). They must operate on a calendar year and can use the
cash or accrual method of accounting.

2. They are more flexible to manage than partnerships or


corporations. The owner makes all operational and management
decisions concerning the business. The owner can remove money or
other assets of the business without legal or tax consequences. He or
she can also easily transfer or terminate the business.
3. Sole proprietorships are subject to minimal government regulations
versus other business concerns.

4. The owner of a sole proprietorship is taxed as an individual, at a


rate lower than the corporate income tax rate. Losses from the export
import business can be applied by the owner to offset taxable income
from other sources. Sole proprietors are also allowed to establish tax
exempt retirement accounts. (Harper, 1991; Cheeseman, 2006a)
The major disadvantage of running an export-import concern as a
sole proprietorship is the risk of unlimited liability. The owner is
personally liable for the debts and other liabilities of the business.
Insurance can be bought to protect against these liabilities; however,
if insurance protection is not sufficient to cover legal liability for
defective products or debts, judgment creditors’ next recourse is the
personal assets of the owner. Another disadvantage is that the
proprietor’s access to capital is limited to personal funds plus any
loans that can be obtained. In addition, very few individuals have all
the necessary skills to run an export-import business, and the owner
may lack certain skills. The business may also terminate upon the
death or disability of the owner.

Establishing an appropriate business organization: pointers

 Does the entrepreneur intend to be the sole owner of the export-


import business? If not, how many people have an ownership
interest?

 Does the entrepreneur need additional capital and/or expertise?


 What legal form provides the greatest flexibility for management?

 What legal form affords the most advantageous tax treatment for
the business concern and individual entrepreneurs?

 Which legal structure is easy and less expensive to establish and


subject to a low degree of government regulation?

 How important is it to limit personal liability of owners?

o Which legal structure is the most appropriate in light of the goals


and objectives of the export-import business? (Belay, 2009).

2. Elabore una lista de vocabulario sobre el texto, mínimo de 15 palabras y


escriba su respectivo significado en inglés.

vocabulario significado
Advantages: Circumstance or situation Ventajas: Circunstancia o situación que
that gives superiority in something. da superioridad en alguna cosa.

Disadvantages: Circumstance of being Desventajas: Circunstancia de ser peor


worse or being in a worse situation one o estar en peor situación una cosa
thing with respect to others of the same respecto a otras de la misma naturaleza
nature with which it is compared. Less con la que se compara. Situación menos
favorable situation in which a person or favorable en que se halla una persona o
thing is with respect to others with which cosa respecto a otras con las que se
it is compared. compara.
Attorney: Person legally authorized to Abogado: Persona legalmente autorizada
advise and defend the rights and interests para asesorar y defender los derechos e
of another person in legal matters and intereses de otra persona en materia
represent it in a lawsuit. jurídica y representarla en un pleito.
Without: Indica falta o carencia de alguna Sin: Indicates lack or lack of something
cosa material o inmaterial. material or immaterial.
Proprietorships: Property rights Propietarios: Derecho de propiedad, en el
In the right, the domain or property, is the derecho, el dominio o propiedad, es el
direct and immediate power over an poder directo e inmediato sobre un objeto
object or good, by which is attributed to o bien, por la que se atribuye a su titular la
its owner the ability to dispose of it, capacidad de disponer del mismo, sin más
without further limitations than those limitaciones que las que imponga la ley.
imposed by law.
Returns: The return is the act of giving Devoluciones: La devolución es el acto de
something back to someone. It is a entregar algo nuevamente a alguien. Es un
process that is based on a right of proceso de se sustenta en un derecho de
possession of a certain person with posesión de una determinada persona con
respect to a certain good that was respecto a un determinado bien que fue
delivered with some type of specific entregado con algún tipo de objetivo
objective. específico.
Applied: That puts effort, interest and Aplicado: Que pone esfuerzo, interés y
perseverance in the accomplishment of a constancia en la realización de un trabajo
work or in the development of an activity, o en el desarrollo de una actividad, en
especially in the study. especial en el estudio.
Loans: A loan is an operation by which a Prestamos: Un préstamo es una operación
financial institution puts at our disposal a por la cual una entidad financiera pone a
certain amount of money through a nuestra disposición una cantidad
contract. determinada de dinero mediante un
contrato.
Skills: The ability is the innate aptitude, Habilidades: La habilidad es la aptitud
talent, skill or ability that a person holds to innata, talento, destreza o capacidad que
carry out and of course with success, ostenta una persona para llevar a cabo y
certain activity, work por supuesto con éxito, determinada
actividad, trabajo
Losses: Small amount of blood or Pérdidas: Cantidad pequeña de sangre o
discharge from the womb that is flujo procedente de la matriz que se
abnormally expelled outside of the expulsa anormalmente fuera del período
menstrual period. menstrual.
Upon: Heritage prefix of Latin origin that Sobre: Prefijo patrimonial de origen latino
enters the formation of names with the que entra en la formación de nombres con
meaning of 'above', 'besides'. el significado de ‘por encima de’, ‘además
de’.
Judgment: Faculty of understanding, by Juicio: Facultad del entendimiento, por
virtue of which man can distinguish good cuya virtud el hombre puede distinguir el
from evil and true from false. bien del mal y lo verdadero de lo falso.
Income: Amount of money earned or Ingresos: Cantidad de dinero ganada o
collected. recaudada.
Little: That has a smaller size than Pequeño: Que tiene un tamaño menor de
normal. lo normal.
Sole: It applies to one or several things of Único: Se aplica a una o varias cosas de
which or of whose species there are no las cuales o de cuya especie no hay otras.
others.

3. El texto sugerido al inicio de esta evidencia cuenta con varios párrafos, y al


interior de cada párrafo se encuentran varias ideas principales. Por favor, lea el
material complementario “Identifying the main idea” para conocer cómo se
puede encontrar la idea principal en un párrafo escrito en inglés.

MAIN IDEAS

• How to carry out a business


• There are different forms of commercial organizations

• The director controls all export and import operations

• The sole proprietors are simple and low in costs

• The owners are in charge of making all the decisions

• The individual companies are governamental

• The individual owners have a lower rate than the tax rate

• The owners are responsible for their business

4. Luego de analizar el material complementario, por favor escriba las ideas


principales de cada párrafo, en presente simple, en inglés. No haga
transcripción literal de los párrafos. A continuación, transforme la oración a
presente progresivo, también en inglés.

Simple Present Tense Present Progressive Tense


How to carries out a business How to carriesing out a business
There's are different forms of There's are differenting forms of
commercial organizations commercial organizations
The director controls all export and The director controlling all export and
import operations import operations
The sole proprietors are simple and The sole proprietors are simple and
lows in costs low in costsing
The owners are in charges of make all The owners are in charge of making all
the decisions the decisions
The individual companies are The individual companying are
governamental governamental
The individual owners have a lower The individual owners having a lower
rate than the tax rate rate than the tax rate
The owners are responsible for their The owners are responsible for their
business business

5. Organice las ideas en un solo resumen, de manera que se conecten


coherentemente, en 15 líneas.

How to carry out an export and import business, in different forms of commercial
organizations since the director controls all export and import operations, where
the sole proprietors are simple and low in cost and make all the decisions in front
of the business. Individual companies are governmental and have a lower rate than
the tax rate, thus carrying the responsibility of the business

Knowing well that each legal form in which the company has its legal bases will
apply different processes why you should know what you should apply to have
greater knowledge and not have legal consequences in the environment even with
a single administrator or boss immediately co-author all the legal health and tax
aspects for a better export or import in order to provide the company with better
quality and good recognition at the international level and to conquer or reach large
countries for its advertising and industry growth.