Cranfield University

Adriaan Moolman

Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine

School of Engineering
MSc Automotive Product Engineering

Cranfield University School of Engineering MSc Automotive Product Engineering

Academic Year 2006-2007

ADRIAAN MOOLMAN

Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine
Supervisor: Professor Douglas Greenhalgh

August 2007

This thesis is submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters in Science

© Cranfield University 2007. All rights reserved. No parts of this publication may be reproduced without the written permission of the copyright owner.

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ABSTRACT
In the highly competitive automotive industry where ever increasing demand on higher performance is overshadowed by emission regulations, downsizing engines becomes an attractive solution. To ensure sufficient breathing capacity of the

downsized engine, the higher possible valve area of the sleeve valve coupled with the possibility to optimize the combustion chamber and the reduced mechanical losses present a plausible alternative to poppet valve engines.

The aim of this study is to develop a simulation model in order to predict the performance of a sleeve valve engine. Little theoretical or empirical models are available for sleeve valve engines because the use of sleeve valve engines deteriorated before the widespread use of computer simulations. The major focus for the

simulation is on the modelling of the flow through the sleeve valves. The modelling consists of the exact valve areas and the accompanying valve discharge coefficients.

The study subsequently developed a method of determining the valve areas as a function of the engine crank angle from the arbitrary shaped valve profiles. It also identified experimental discharge coefficients in the open literature that could be used for flow analyses and it determined a new set of discharge coefficients by way of CFD simulations. These CFD derived discharge coefficients compared well with the

experimental coefficients and can subsequently also be used for sleeve valve modelling.

WAVE models were developed for a sleeve valve engine using the sleeve valve models as determined in the study. These WAVE models produced satisfactory results,

reiterating the need for accurate valve models.

Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine

August 2007

I thank my flatmates and my classmates who helped me through this year of study and for helping me make this a very memorable year in my life. I thank Mahle for providing the experimental engine as well as help and assistance regarding this project. emotionally and financially and I thank my brother and sister for their support and love as well. My thanks go to my supervisor for his help and guidance during this study as well as my fellow students working with me on the sleeve valve project for their support and help. I also thank the staff of the Automotive Product Engineering course for their teachings and guidance throughout the year.Page iv ______________________________________________________________________ ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Firstly I thank my Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ for the opportunity He gave me to study this course and for the abilities and intellect to complete this study. I thank my parents for all their support and love. Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 .

.................................................................................... 38 3..................... 7 2.......................................................................3 Engine Heat Transfer .........................................2..................... 30 3....................4 Disadvantages of Sleeve Valves ........................................................................................... vii Notation ......................................................2 Heat Transfer ..... 41 3....................4 Conclusion ......................................................................................................................... Initial WAVE Model ..... Introduction ................................................ 50 3.. 20 2.................................................................................................................. 46 3....................................3......................................................3 Advantages of Sleeve Valves .................. 23 3..........1 Sleeve Valve Flow Coefficients ............................................ 14 2................................ 2...................5 Engine Model .............................................................................................. iv Table of Contents ...................................1 Engine Geometries ..........................................................................................3 Engine Modelling ..............1 Geometry ............3 Valve Models ................................. 28 3...................1 Determining the Port Positions ...............3...............................................2............................2 The Use of Sleeve Valve Engines ..........4........2...................1 Engine Downsizing ...................... 21 2............ x 1.............2 Sleeve Valve Operation .................................................................................................................. 7 2............................................................................... iii Acknowledgements. 23 3........................................Page v ______________________________________________________________________ TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract ......... 38 3.........5.....................................................4..........................................................................................3 Junction ..............................................................................3................. v List of Figures ..... 46 3...................... 12 2................................................................ 13 2......5...... 1 Literature Review .................................................2 Determining the Valve Areas...4 Intake Flow Path .......................... 45 3......................2 Automated Method of Calculation ...............1 Brief History of Sleeve Valve Engines .......................................................... 10 2........................................................................2........ 7 2............................... 4 2........................................................................................................................................................................... 4 2..... 35 3.....2 Combustion Model .........................................................................2 Sleeve Valve Area ............................. 28 3..........1 Initial Method of Calculation ......... 22 3............................ 50 Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 ...5............................................................4.....2..........................................................................2...........3 Heat Transfer in Small Engines ...............

................................1.1 Model Generation...............................................................6........................................................................................................1.......................... Poppet Valve Model .......... 67 4................................ 99 7.1 Solver Models .............................3......................... 101 Recommendations for Further Work...... 104 Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 .................................................................................................. 68 4........ 92 6.................................2...................................................2 Sleeve Valve Model vs.................................2 Conclusion ......................3 Results and Discussion ........................6 Exhaust Flow Path ... 76 4.................. 70 4...................................Page vi ______________________________________________________________________ 3....................................................................................................................................................6............... 96 6................ Final WAVE Model ..... Experimental Facility ...................8 Conclusion ..........................................1 Changes from Initial Model ...... 57 3.2 Equivalent Poppet Valve Model ....................................... 74 4..........................1 Model Layout ..1 Initial Model vs..................................1 Belt Driven .................................................... 75 4........................... 71 4..... Conclusion ..............................................................2 Junction ..................................... 101 7.. 67 4.......................................................... 60 3............................................................... Valve Discharge Coefficients with Computational Fluid Dynamics ... 79 4......... 89 6.....................................3 Post Processing ................3. 65 4................................ 86 5............................................................................... 72 4.................................2 8..................................... 91 6...................... 85 5...........................................................................................................................................................2.......................................... Final Conclusion and Further Work........................ 59 3............................. 69 4....................................................4 Results and Discussion ................................................7 Initial Results and Discussion ......................1................1......................................................................................3 Gambit Models ...........................................4 Conclusion ........1 Ducts .....2 Direct Coupling ............................................ 87 5................................................................................................................... Updated Model .......... 102 References ......2...........................................2 Boundary Conditions .......... 94 6.................. 57 3.1....................................................................................................................................2 Simulation Specifications .....................1 7........3 Convergence ............................1 Assembly of Test Setup .....................................1...................................................... 85 5......4 Meshing ...................................................5 Conclusion ................ 91 6.................... 83 5................................................................................ 72 4...2 Valve Geometry ................... 94 6......................................................

....... 1999) .................................................... 2006)..................................... 33 Figure 25: Trapezoid from Adjacent Valve Opening Points ................ 16 Figure 9: Flow Coefficients for Centre Inlet Valve (Waldron............................................................................................................................. 24 Figure 17: Coordinate Points on Sleeve Port Profiles ........................ 35 Figure 27: Typical Input Page for Effective Valve Area .......................Page vii ______________________________________________________________________ LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1: VSC Core Engine (Hendrickson... 25 Figure 19: Port Layout at 0° Crank Angle .. 1999) ......................... 24 Figure 16: Traced Cylinder Wall Ports ....................... 1940) .... 20 Figure 14: Valve Movement with Respect to Crank Angle (Hendrickson...... 1940) .... 1940) . 1931) ..................................... 1940) ....................................... 1940) ....... 1931) ............................................... 31 Figure 24: Piston Movement with Crank Angle .............................. 19 Figure 13: Flow Coefficient for Exhaust Valves (Waldron............................................................. 26 Figure 20: Elliptical Motion of Sleeve .................................................................. 9 Figure 4: Maximum Available Valve Areas (Ricardo.................. 6 Figure 2: Sleeve Valve Motion ........................................ 1940) ................... 34 Figure 26: Valve Areas Plotted Against Crank Angle ........ 15 Figure 8: Cylinder of Waldron Experimental Engine (Waldron................... 15 Figure 7: Shape of Sleeve Valve Openings (Waldron........................................................................................ 8 Figure 3: Various Sleeve Port Arrangements (Ricardo...................................... 37 Figure 29: Input Page for Valve Discharge Coefficient ................................................................................ 1940) .. 36 Figure 28: Discharge Coefficients as taken from (Waldron........... 10 Figure 6: Typical Valve Flow Coefficient for Poppet Valves (Cole................. 18 Figure 12: Manifold Pressure with All Inlet Ports Open (Waldron....................... 17 Figure 10: Flow Coefficient for Centre Valve at Different Openings (Waldron......................................................................... 21 Figure 15: Traced Sleeve Ports.. 27 Figure 22: Curves Fitted to Points Describing Sleeve Port ............................. 29 Figure 23: Points Describing the Sleeve Port Profile............ 37 Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 .. 18 Figure 11: Flow Coefficient for End Inlet Ports (Waldron...... 9 Figure 5: Cylinder “Junk” Head (Dardalis................................... 26 Figure 21: X and Y Coordinates of Ellipse at Crank Angle α ................ 1940) .................................................................................................. 2004) .............. 25 Figure 18: Coordinate Points on Cylinder Wall Port Profiles...

.................................. 60 Figure 40: Brake Power and Torque Calculated with Initial Model ............................................................................ 64 Figure 46: Pressure Difference across the Valves .................................................. 81 Figure 53: (Waldron........................................... 46 Figure 35: Volumes for Compression Ratio Calculation ................. 39 Figure 33: WAVE Layout of Intake Including Heat Transfer Ducts ......................................................................................................................... 87 Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 ........ 38 Figure 31: Inlet Manifold Duct and Cylinder Barrel ..................................... 68 Figure 48: Indication of Valve Opening Profiles Simulated ...... 1940) End Inlets (left) vs......... 61 Figure 42: Indicated and Brake Mean Effective Pressure Calculated with Initial Model ................ 81 Figure 54: Exhaust Valve 1 Discharge Coefficients .................... 54 Figure 37: Efficiency of a Rectangular Annular Fin (Incropera & De Witt............................. 85 Figure 57: Engine Belt and Pulley Layout .............................................................................. 39 Figure 32: Inlet Manifold Geometry ..... 1996) ..................................................................................... 44 Figure 34: 3-D Layout of Y-Junction Element for Intake Manifold ........................................................................................................................................................................ 73 Figure 50: Centre Inlet Valve Discharge Coefficients ..................................... 83 Figure 56: Experimental 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine....................................................................... 48 Figure 36: Fin Geometry and Equations ............... Experimental Engine End Inlets (right) .................................................................... 70 Figure 49: Solver and Viscous Model Input Pages of Fluent .......... 62 Figure 44: Effective Valve Areas for Initial Model ............................................... 62 Figure 43: P-V Diagram Calculated with Initial Model at 4000 rpm ............................................ 82 Figure 55: Exhaust Valve 2 Discharge Coefficients .................................... 58 Figure 39: 3-D Layout of Y-Junction Element for Exhaust Pipe . 56 Figure 38: Schematic of Exhaust Flow Path ....................................... 80 Figure 52: End Inlet Valve 2 Discharge Coefficients....................................... 63 Figure 45: Mass Flows through Valves Calculated with Initial Model .....................Page viii ______________________________________________________________________ Figure 30: WAVE Layout of Intake Flow Path ....... 61 Figure 41: Volumetric and Thermal Efficiency Calculated with Initial Model ...................................................... 79 Figure 51: End Inlet Valve 1 Discharge Coefficients.............................................................................. 65 Figure 47: Layout of CFD Model...........................................................................................................

................................................................. 97 Figure 68: Valve Mass Flow Rates – Sleeve Valve Model Left & Poppet Valve Model Right ............................... 94 Figure 64: Effective Valve Areas – Updated Model Left & Initial Model Right ............................................Page ix ______________________________________________________________________ Figure 58: Engine CV Joint Layout ........................................ 95 Figure 66: Brake Power and Torque Calculated with Poppet Valve Model ................................... 89 Figure 60: Updated Discharge Coefficient Input Page for Inlet Valve ............................................................................................ 88 Figure 59: Engine Mountings ..................... 99 Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 ... 93 Figure 63: Brake Power and Torque Calculated with Updated Model ............................................... 95 Figure 65: Valve Mass Flow Rates – Updated Model Left & Initial Model Right ................... 97 Figure 69: Brake Power of Sleeve and Poppet Valve Models ..................................... 92 Figure 62: Valve Configuration for Poppet Valve Model ............................................... 91 Figure 61: Updated Discharge Coefficient Input Page for Exhaust Valve .............................................................. 96 Figure 67: Valve Effective Areas – Sleeve Valve Model Left & Poppet Valve Model Right ........................................................

radius Universal gas constant Reynolds number Surface area. fin and adjacent wall thickness Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 . lift Number of fins Nusselt number Static pressure Total pressure Prandtl number Wetted perimeter Crank shaft radius.Page x ______________________________________________________________________ NOTATION Variables Variable Description Speed of sound Constants Area Flow coefficient Discharge coefficient Specific heat at constant pressure Compression ratio Diameter Hydraulic diameter Discretization length Heat transfer coefficient Height Thermal conductivity Connecting rod length Mass flow rate Length.

Page xi ______________________________________________________________________ Piston vertical position Time. thickness Temperature Volume. velocity Greek Symbols Variable Description Coordinates Crank angle Emissivity Efficiency Ratio of specific heats Viscosity Density Sleeve angle Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 .

This consists of decreasing the engine displacement in order to reduce the exhaust gas emissions. reducing the engine performance. Decreasing the engine displacement involves reducing the piston bore and stroke. The reduction of carbon dioxide and other harmful exhaust gas emissions are very important issues and consume vast amounts of research and development resources. It is therefore the task of the automotive engineer to satisfy the customers while adhering to the regulations and legislations. resulting in smaller air flow area and increased pumping losses due to increasing friction of the flow and the surrounding surfaces. the diameter of the conventional poppet valves subsequently also reduces. Various techniques are investigated and employed. Direct consequences of these focuses are vehicles with lower performance in order to emit less harmful exhaust gasses and slower vehicles in order to be safer. However. When reducing the piston bore. which at this point in time focuses on environmentally friendly and safety driven vehicles.Page 1 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ 1. thus. and one of the techniques currently being developed is “downsizing”. however important to maintain satisfactory performance and therefore boosting is usually employed with downsizing. INTRODUCTION The automotive industry is a very contradictive industry in that the research and development is driven by two conflicting factors. It is. It is dictated by regulations and legislations set out by governments. sleeve valve engine design have not enjoyed as much research and development as the poppet valve engine designs Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 . However. the automotive industry is dependent on its customers to survive financially and the customers desire faster vehicles with ever increasing performance. One possible way to counter this problem is by using sleeve valves to facilitate the air induction and exhaust gasses of the engine. Decreasing the air flow into the engine will reduce the amount of fuel that can be burnt per cycle. together with the increased pumping losses.

A method of calculating the valve areas from traced drawings of the port profiles are presented. The majority of the sleeve valve development occurred before the 1950’s. The present study thus is aimed at developing models for simulating sleeve valve engine using present engine simulation software and an experimental 4-stroke sleeve valve engine. From the onset of the project the importance of accurately determining the sleeve valve area was realised. These coefficients were simulated using computational fluid dynamic (CFD) software. Attention will also be paid to develop these models so that it could be utilized in simulation of downsized engines employing sleeve valve engines. Accompanying the sleeve valve areas are the discharge coefficients that combine to produce the effective area of the valves. but still a chapter was dedicated to explaining the experimental setup and lessons learned during the attempts to acquire these results. One model was done with Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 . It is a 1-dimensional engine simulation package developed by Ricardo. Three WAVE models were developed and the results compared in order to gain understanding into simulating sleeve valve engines. unwanted sleeve friction and ineffective sealing still needs to be resolved before sleeve valve engines can be used productively. It was planned to perform experiments with the engine and to use the experimental results to calibrate the WAVE engine models. Valve discharge coefficient from available literature is presented as well as a set of simulated discharge coefficients specifically characteristic to the valves of the experimental engine. therefore before the widespread use of computer simulation software to determine engine performance and optimize designs. A major focus of this report was to determine these two valve characteristics for an experimental sleeve valve engine provided by Mahle for this study. The software that will be used is called WAVE. However. the experimental results did not materialise. due to unforeseen circumstances and the time constraint on this project.Page 2 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ and problems with high harmful exhaust emissions.

Page 3 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ discharge coefficients found in the open literature. This project served as one in four projects performed on the particular sleeve valve engine. Finally conclusions were drawn and further recommended work discussed. 2007). The other projects address different parts of the engine and although the projects were all separate. (Franco Sumariva. one model with CFD derived discharge coefficients and one model with poppet valves. 2007). some information and knowledge were shared. Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 . 2007) and (Vasudevan. The other projects are (Chabert.

This causes insufficient air/fuel mixture and flame speeds which can be resolved by introducing large flow areas into the cylinder. It also serves as a tool in performing the project and identifies previous work done in the relevant fields so that unnecessary duplication of work will be avoided. When downsizing an engine the surface to volume ratio becomes an important design consideration. The smaller cylinder exhibit higher heat transfer areas which could result in over cooling thereby impairing effective combustion. are major design criteria for modern automotive engines. Small engines show the tendency to produce low brake thermal efficiencies and (Lowi. thus promoting the use Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 . These two factors. This is however difficult to achieve with conventional poppet valves. but the cylinder head has the tendency to under-cool resulting in excessive spark plug temperatures. Downscaling of the cylinder results in viscous effects influencing the air stream and causing small scale turbulence. The cooler cylinder walls do however reduce the tendency for end gasses to auto ignite.Page 4 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ 2. allowing the use of higher compression ratios. however.1 ENGINE DOWNSIZING One of the possible methods of reducing engine exhaust emissions while maintaining sufficient performance is by downsizing the engine. The literature review firstly focuses on the topic of engine downsizing after which the focus is shifted towards sleeve valve engines and then the modelling of this type of engines. LITERATURE REVIEW In order to gain a better understanding of sleeve valve engines. 2003) describes a few causes for this. a literature review was undertaken. 2. A few key modelling issues are identified and existing literature assembled to aid in the understanding and completion of the task at hand. The problem with current production small engines is that they are not designed to meet any emission regulations and fuel consumption is of low importance.

These factors must be taken into account when simulating and designing a downsized engine. This arrangement however. 1947) also confirmed that decreasing the combustion chamber diameter with the use of a squish land on the cylinder perimeter increases the swirl inside the combustion chamber. This minimized the volume of the chamber as well as the flame travel and the surface area. deems it improbable to use poppet valves and (Hendrickson. Decreasing the travel that the flame must undergo to engulf the end gasses will result in a higher usable compression ratio. Port. (Yagi et al. Furthermore. The design of the combustion chamber is one of the most important components in designing a small engine. In order to ensure sufficient turbulence in the air flow into the cylinder. Careful consideration is required not to invoke excessive turbulence so that the flame kernel is extinguished before the fuel is burnt completely.or direct fuel injection might solve this when high atomization injection is used. 2003) describes the design considerations for a combustion chamber of a small cylinder engine and concluded that the design used by (Hendrickson. 1999) also describes using sleeve valves to overcome Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 . the combustion chamber design in a small engine needs to promote swirl motion of the air.Page 5 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ of sleeve valves. (Lowi. (Ricardo and Company. 1999) is sufficient. This design consists of a small spherical open chamber with a spark plug locater centrally with a small squish land on the cylinder perimeter. 1970) also states that one of the major design considerations to achieve high volumetric efficiency is to maximize the valve area in order to increase engine breathing. using carburetion with a short inlet manifold will cause incomplete vaporization of the fuel (especially wide-boiling hydrocarbon fuels) resulting in unburned fuel being passed through the engine causing high fuel consumption and hydrocarbon emissions. A high compression ratio and combustion speed is required in order to maximize the thermal efficiency while flame travel and heat transfer must be minimized so that higher indicated efficiency can be reached.

necessitating the use of a sleeve valve.Page 6 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ the lack of area in the combustion chamber to yield to the poppet valves. 1999). 1999) Turbocharging a downsized engine may lead to impractically small turbomachinery. Figure 1 illustrates the so called “VSC core engine” by (Hendrickson. Note the combustion chamber shape as described above and the lack of space for poppet valves in the combustion chamber. In these cases positive displacement pumps would result in a more practical solution (Hendrickson. 1999). Too tiny components would have to run at too high rotational speeds resulting in low Reynolds numbers which is not practical for manufacture and service. Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 . Figure 1: VSC Core Engine (Hendrickson.

Various sleeve valve engine designs enjoyed moderate success in the automotive industry with the high production cost of the engines limiting their use to upmarket vehicles. These openings are aligned with the applicable ports in the cylinder wall at the appropriate sectors in the intake and exhaust strokes.2 Sleeve Valve Operation The sleeve is located between the cylinder wall and the piston.2. Six years later two separate designers filled patents for single sleeve valve mechanism combining reciprocating and rotating movements to produce an elliptical path of valve movement. The sleeve motion is produced by a gear driven cam connecting to the Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 . 2.1 Brief History of Sleeve Valve Engines In 1903 Charles Yale Knight designed the first sleeve valve engine. These two inventers were Peter Burt and James H K McCollum (Wells). Sir Harry Ricardo noticed the sleeve valve engine and realized its potential as a high performance aero engine. This sleeve valve mechanism consisted of a double sleeve arrangement with reciprocating movement. At that stage no other markets existed for very high performance spark ignition engines and subsequently sleeve valve engines was lost to the world.Page 7 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ 2. The advent of the jet engine in the aero industry however. The sleeve valve engine was a very competent alternative to the poppet valve engine. two of the world’s most powerful spark ignition engines. thereby creating inlet and outlet valves respectively. halted the use of the sleeve valve engine in that industry.2 THE USE OF SLEEVE VALVE ENGINES 2.2. He performed much development work on sleeve valve engines and many different sleeve valve design aero engines were employed during the Second World War. Port openings at various locations along the cylinder wall serve as inlet and outlet passages. The sleeve consists of a number of pie-shaped openings situated along its circumference. showing very high levels of performance for spark ignition engines and many other advantages (as described in the subsequent sections). Among them the Bristol Centaurus and the Napier Sabre.

with the subsequent maximum valve areas available for some of these arrangements at different bore diameter illustrated in Figure 4. Figure 2: Sleeve Valve Motion Various port arrangements are illustrated in Figure 3. Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 .Page 8 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ sleeve and delivering reciprocating as well as rotating motion to result in an elliptical path being followed by the sleeve (Figure 2).

1931) At TDC the sleeve ports are above the “junk” head rings (Figure 5).Page 9 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ Figure 3: Various Sleeve Port Arrangements (Ricardo. effectively shrouding the ports from the combustion chamber and protecting the ports from the combustion gasses. Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 . This is however a place of concern when sealing is considered and blow-by of gasses occur around these rings. 1931) Figure 4: Maximum Available Valve Areas (Ricardo.

The lack of high temperature resistant materials in the early part of the 20th century caused problems for exhaust poppet valve design. The use of sleeve valves eliminated problematic exhaust poppet valves while also eliminating the source of unwanted auto ignition in the form of the hot exhaust valves. 1999) and (Lowi. This use of sleeve valves which permits the designer to optimize the combustion chamber shape for desired combustion was also realized by (Hendrickson.2. 2004) 2. This is also applicable to very small cylinder engines and is exactly the design consideration required as described in Section 2. but described the following advantages of the general use of sleeve valve engines (Lowi.1. thereby minimizing the required flame travel to engulf all the charge in the combustion chamber.3 Advantages of Sleeve Valves Sir Harry Ricardo realised the potential of the sleeve valve engine as a high performance aero engine. 2003): The spark plug could be located in the centre of the combustion chamber.Page 10 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ Figure 5: Cylinder “Junk” Head (Dardalis. The Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 . 2003).

The geometry and layout of the sleeve valve generates high levels of natural turbulence (in the form of swirl) when the valves initially opens aiding in air/fuel mixing and flame propagation. One of the limitations on engine speed of a normal poppet valve engine as pointed out by (Lumley. The sleeve valve results in a breathing capacity (in other words flow area) at least equal to that of any accommodated poppet valve arrangement and that this larger valve area could be opened more rapidly than a poppet valve counterpart. thereby increasing engine performance. Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 . 2001) is valve float. 1947). The sleeve valve ensures noiseless operation (Ricardo.Page 11 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ absence of the hot exhaust valves subsequently allows for higher tolerable compression ratios. Opposed to the sleeve valve. Sleeve valve engines also showed higher mechanical efficiencies due to reduced friction and lower actuation force of the valve train. This happens when the engine speed becomes too high. this limitation in engine speed is eliminated entirely. When using a sleeve valve. because the sleeve valve is operated by a fixed cam and not controlled by a spring. The use of a sleeve valve mechanism results in a more compact and less complex engine with a smaller frontal area. The rigidity and the inertia of the valve train is a source of loss in the engine. Sleeve valves reduce these mechanical losses due to a lower power consumption of the valve train. 1970) describes abnormal valve motion of poppet valve trains as a major obstacle in high speed engines. It is more robust than the poppet valves and requires less attention. (Yagi et al. These high levels of swirl was studied and documented by (Ricardo and Company. The lower friction also resulted in less wear of the engine components. and the valve spring is not strong enough to prevent the valve from breaking free from the cam profile. reducing the volumetric efficiency. 1931).

2004). was more conserned about engine performance than cylinder wear (or lack thereof in this case) and very little effort was spent on quantifying this benefit. observed in engines without the resiprocating sleeve valve. However. and therefore the current design of these engines will not meet modern emission regulations. 2004) experiments have shown that the total friction of the sleeve valve was “usually lower” than conventional poppet valve designs. Sleeve valve engines are relatively insensitive to high exhaust pressures because of the increased exhaust valve area allowing quick discharge of exhaust gasses through the exhaust ports. the sleeve valve engines illustrated high values of BMEP and the engines could be maintained indefinitely at these peak pressures rather than only 15 minutes as the poppet valves was limited to. 2004). Bristol and Napier. and the sleeve and the cylinder wall would increase mechanical friction. According to (Dardalis. according to (Dardalis. and 10 times lower overall bore wear (Dardalis. thereby reducing engine performance. 2. This results in ideal conditions for using a turbocharger with the sleeve valves. The maintanance records of over 60 000 sleeve valve engines used during the war suggested the absence of localized cylinder wear paterns. believed to be due to the rotary movement of the sleeve. The wear was so low that it did not determine the engine life as was the case in more conventional engines.2. The extra set of ring in the junk head attribute to higher hydrocarbon emissions by trapping fuel and preventing it from combusting during the combustion Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 .4 Disadvantages of Sleeve Valves Sleeve valve engines were developed at a stage where emission control was absent.Page 12 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ At first it was believed that the extra surface contact areas between the piston and the sleeve. Unfortuanately the major manufacturers at the time.

2. The goal of this study is to simulate the sleeve valve engine in order to be able to use the simulations to optimize the design. The level of complexity of the simulations will be dictated by the available models for different simulated sections of the entire engine. the advent of the jet engine in the aero industry halted the production of these engines as well as further development of sleeve valve engines. The thermal fluid flow through the engine ducting will for instance be modelled with theoretical models based on fundamental principles. To do this. However. Simulation on the other hand generally refers to a situation where the characteristics of the system are known and models must be set up to predict its functionality and performance level” (Rousseau. This justifies research into sleeve materials that would allow increased heat transfer from the piston.3 ENGINE MODELLING “Design refers to a situation where the characteristics of a system must be specified so that it will enable execution of specific functions at an acceptable level of performance. the sleeve hampers heat dissipation of the piston to the cooling capacity of the cylinder wall. Furthermore. known models must be employed to accurately predict the performance so that effective optimization can be done. This will cause inaccuracies in engine simulations and therefore the blow-by must be accounted for in the engine model. These stationary rings in the junk head also cause sealing problems and subsequent blow-by is observed.Page 13 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ process. The piston movement can restrict the port area when a short stroke is employed. 2002). as observed by Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 . but empirical correlations determined experimentally should produce more accurate results. The flow through the valves can also be modelled with theoretical principles (approximated with orifice flow). Companies like Rolls Royce started developing high performance sleeve valve engines and experimental ultra-high performance 2-stroke sleeve valve engines for aero applications.

Therefore. It is therefore necessary to acquire a similar flow coefficient curve for sleeve valves. 2.3. The fact that the pressure drop across the valves has a significant influence on the engine performance deems it necessary to accurately model the flow coefficients across the valves. Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 . 1940). the major difference in the modelling of these two types of engines will be the modelling of the valves. 2004).1 Sleeve Valve Flow Coefficients The major fundamental difference between the poppet valve and the sleeve valve engines is the airflow into and out of the cylinder.Page 14 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ (Waldron. This software is used by many automotive companies and research institutions (Farrugia. The theory is not always completely understood and in such scenarios empirical model must be used to acquire accurate results. Figure 6 illustrates a typical flow coefficient curve for normal poppet valves as a function of the valve lift used in the valve model of Ricardo WAVE. The sleeve valve engine will be modelled using the Ricardo WAVE software package. It is a 1-dimensional simulation package which combines accurate general model simulations with improved simulation time compared to 3-dimensional CFD simulations.

The author used an experimental setup which employed a very similar sleeve valve arrangement as the engine being used for the present study. Figure 7: Shape of Sleeve Valve Openings (Waldron. In both cases a single sleeve is used with an elliptical path consisting of 3 inlet valves and 2 exhaust valves. 1940) was obtained describing the construction of flow coefficients for sleeve valves. This was done and a 1940 NACA report (Waldron. 1940) Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 .Page 15 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ Figure 6: Typical Valve Flow Coefficient for Poppet Valves (Cole. 2006) A first method of obtaining such a flow coefficient curve for a sleeve valve is to search the open literature.

Page 16 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ Figure 7 illustrates the shape of the sleeve and cylinder ports that was used in the experimental engine of Waldron. The inlet duct is also aligned with the one centre port after which it branches to the two end ports resulting in the inlet flow entering the end ports tangentially. The experimental engine of the present study consist of a very similar setup. 1940) Waldron describes the experimental setup and methods used in measuring the pressure drop as well as the assumptions made during the entire process and the claimed accuracy of the results. with three inlet ports spread across 180° of the cylinder and the two exhaust ports located in the remaining half of the cylinder wall. Figure 8: Cylinder of Waldron Experimental Engine (Waldron. Figure 8 illustrates the cylinder and port arrangement. He calculates the flow coefficient as a function of the pressure across the valves and it is presented in the following equations. Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 .

Figure 9: Flow Coefficients for Centre Inlet Valve (Waldron. 1940) Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 .Page 17 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ (1) (2) Waldron’s results are illustrated for the different valves in the following figures.

It should be noted that Waldron ensured that inlet manifold acoustics did not influence the results. 1940) Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 .8) and that they are independent of approaching flow field conditions. 1940) Figure 10 illustrates the flow coefficients for the centre inlet valve for different valve openings. It can be seen that the flow coefficients are quite high (>0. Figure 11: Flow Coefficient for End Inlet Ports (Waldron.Page 18 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ Figure 9 illustrates the flow coefficients for the centre inlet valve for different approaching flow field conditions. showing that the flow coefficients are independent of the valve opening. Figure 10: Flow Coefficient for Centre Valve at Different Openings (Waldron.

the flow coefficient still seems to be high. 1940) Figure 12 illustrates the pressure in the inlet manifold just upstream of the respective valves in the case where all the inlet valves are opened simultaneously. indicating a pressure drop as a result of the flow curvature.78). It shows that when the valves are fully open. Figure 12: Manifold Pressure with All Inlet Ports Open (Waldron.Page 19 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ Figure 11 illustrates the flow coefficients of the end inlet valves.62 – 0. the pressure just upstream of the end valves are lower than that just upstream of the centre valve. Although they are lower than that of the centre inlet valve (0. Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 .

This process will be described in a later Section where the valve model will be described in detail.Page 20 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ Figure 13: Flow Coefficient for Exhaust Valves (Waldron. 1999). These results seem to be very useful for developing a model for simulating the sleeve valves. careful consideration must be done to ensure that the definition of the flow coefficients as calculated by Waldron is exactly the same as the definition of the flow coefficients used to describe the eventual valve model. 1940) Figure 13 illustrates the flow coefficients for the exhaust valves at different valve openings. 2. Figure 14 illustrates the valve movement presented as flow area with respect to crank angle for the VSC core engine of (Hendrickson. There is no exact equation for calculating the area for the sleeve valve areas and therefore the drawings and physical measurements of the experimental engine will be used to determine the areas graphically. However.2 Sleeve Valve Area The area of the sleeve valves as a function of the crank angle together with the flow coefficients described in the previous section is used to calculate the flow through these valves.3. It is clear that the flow coefficients are independent of valve opening. Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine It shows the upwards August 2007 .

(Lowi. resulting in a reduced flow area.3. This heat transfer phenomena of the small bore engines can adversely affect the efficiency and torque and must subsequently be taken into consideration when simulating and designing engine performance of a downsized engine (Lowi.3 Heat Transfer in Small Engines The increased heat transfer area in small engines causes cooler cylinder walls. In the design process of a small cylinder sleeve valve engine. Figure 14: Valve Movement with Respect to Crank Angle (Hendrickson. 2003). 2003) used the following models that influence the combustion process: Fuel properties and mixture as well as unburned mixture and residual gas fractions. This must be considered when calculating the valve areas of the experimental engine being used in this study. Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 . 1999) 2.Page 21 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ movement of the piston covering the ports.

The major simulation difference between poppet and sleeve valve engines will be the valve flow models. together with the advantages of the sleeve valve engines justifies research into minimizing the emissions of these engines. The fact that the current designs of sleeve valve engines will not meet the modern emission regulations. With this in mind and the lack of sleeve valve simulation models due to the halted use of these engines in the non-computer age necessitates the need for accurate performance prediction models to aid in sleeve valve engine optimization. but the detail description of the valve model will be described in further sections of this report. Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 .Page 22 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ Geometry of the combustion chamber including spark plug location and surface to volume ratio. It was also shown that sleeve valve engines present a plausible solution for maintaining sufficient breathing for downsized engines. For these models the valve areas of the experimental engine must be determined and the flow coefficient described in this literature review must be adapted to serve in the WAVE software. a brief description of the sleeve valve engine was given as well as some comments on the downsizing of spark ignition engines. a measure of the turbulence and the swirl ratio.4 CONCLUSION In this review. Heat transfer characteristics which are based on the mean velocity. Sleeve valve flow coefficients for a very similar sleeve valve was found and described. These suggested models will be taken into account when preparing the final models for the engine simulations and will therefore be described in more detail in subsequent sections. 2. It was found that the sleeve valve engine consists of many advantages and therefore justifies a closer inspection.

This will be done with specialised engine simulation software called WAVE. the engine was taken apart before any testing was done.Page 23 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ 3. As the engine was available for testing. the ports in the sleeve as well as the ports on the inside of the cylinder wall were exposed. In order to develop an initial WAVE model. as two ports overlap the inlet cylinder wall ports.1 DETERMINING THE PORT POSITIONS With the engine taken apart. various geometries were needed from the engine. This chapter explains the determination of acquiring the sleeve valve flow areas as well as initial sleeve valve flow coefficients and the subsequent development of an initial WAVE model. being developed by a company called Ricardo. An initial engine simulation was needed in order to use the experimental data to calibrate the model. one overlaps an exhaust cylinder wall port and the final sleeve port overlapping an inlet and exhaust cylinder wall port. which uses model elements to represent certain parts of typical engine components. The most important geometries needed for the WAVE model is any geometrical dimensions determining the flow path of air and exhaust gas through the engine. There are five ports in the cylinder wall. two end inlet ports and two exhaust ports. The software is a 1-dimensional fluid simulation package. 3. The sleeve has four ports. Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 . being one centre inlet port. The sleeve valve port openings are very important geometries and special care was taken to acquire these values because of their rather arbitrary and complex shapes. The detail theory behind the models will not be addressed as it comprises mostly of widely published thermal fluid mechanics. INITIAL WAVE MODEL The main aim of this project is to model the 4-stroke sleeve valve engine. to acquire the required geometrical dimensions.

Figure 17 and Figure 18 illustrates these coordinate points for the sleeve and cylinder wall port profiles respectively. Scaled down pictures of the traced sleeve ports and of the cylinder ports are presented in Figure 15 and Figure 16 respectively. Figure 15: Traced Sleeve Ports Figure 16: Traced Cylinder Wall Ports The next step was to copy these images onto graphical paper in order to determine coordinates for various points on the profiles of the ports. The profiles were copied onto the graphical paper and many points along the ports’ shapes were identified so that the coordinates of these points would describe the respective port shapes.Page 24 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ The shape of the both sets of ports was captured by fixing a sheet of paper around the sleeve and around the inside of the cylinder respectively and tracing the particular port shapes with a pencil. Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 . Both copies produced the same port profiles and it was therefore assumed to be sufficiently accurate and repeatable. Great attention was paid to obtaining accurate copies of the shapes and two copies of both sets of ports were made and compared in order to ensure repeatability of the copying process.

representing the piston at TDC. Figure 19 illustrates the positioning of the various ports at 0° crank angle as reproduced in the Excel workbook.Page 25 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ Figure 17: Coordinate Points on Sleeve Port Profiles Figure 18: Coordinate Points on Cylinder Wall Port Profiles The X and Y coordinates of all the various points as they occur on the graphical paper were read into and Excel spreadsheet and X and Y offset values were added in order to replicate the positions of the port openings at top dead centre (TDC) for the start of the combustion stroke (assumed as 0° crank/cycle angle). Note the horizontal line Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 . This position was marked on the traced drawings of the sleeve and cylinder wall ports in order to obtain the correct X offset values. The circumference of the sleeve outside diameter and the cylinder inside diameter were “rolled out” on the X-axis. The origin of the Y-axis was selected to be the outer rim of the piston at bottom dead centre (BDC) and the origin of the X-axis was selected to be between the centre inlet wall port and one of the end inlet wall ports. and therefore the X-axis stretched from 0 mm to approximately 278 mm (sleeve outside diameter ≈ 89 mm).

the port coordinates at TDC was used as the base coordinates whereby dynamic X and Y offset values would be added for a certain crank angle.Page 26 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 0 50 Wall Port 1 (End Inlet) Combined Sleeve Port 100 Wall Port 2 (Exhaust) Exhaust Sleeve Port 150 Wall Port 3 (Exhaust) End Inlet Sleeve Port 200 Wall Port 4 (End Inlet) Centre Inlet Sleeve Port 250 Wall Port 5 (Centre Inlet) Piston Figure 19: Port Layout at 0° Crank Angle The procedure described above produced the port positioning of all the ports at TDC. These offset values are determined by the sleeve motion produced by the rotation of the crank shaft. Figure 20: Elliptical Motion of Sleeve (3) Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 . To determine the port positions at any given crank angle.

with the sleeve angle being half that of the crank angle. which represents sleeve angle θ.a)). The X and Y offset values can therefore be calculated with the equation describing an ellipse as presented in Equation (3).Page 27 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ The mechanism driving the sleeve produces an elliptical motion of the sleeve as illustrated in Figure 20. (4) (5) Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 . This leads to an X value as function of the sleeve angle as calculated by Equation (4) and a Y value as a function of the X value as calculated by Equation (5).y)). The sleeve at TDC is located at the upper most point on the ellipse (coordinates (0. Y a y θ b x X Figure 21: X and Y Coordinates of Ellipse at Crank Angle α Figure 21 illustrates the sleeve at crank angle α (coordinates (x.

3. α. it will result in a very time consuming and inaccurate process due to the difficulty in correctly tracing the overlapping port shapes in the confined space of the cylinder.2 DETERMINING THE VALVE AREAS In order to correctly simulate the flow through the engine the valve areas must be known throughout the 720° crank angle cycle. Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 . 3. It was subsequently decided to use the coordinates of the sleeve and cylinder wall ports as determined in the previous section to calculate the valve areas for all 720° crank angles. Figure 22 illustrates the curves fitted and their accompanied equations to eight different zones identified around the sleeve port profile. as this must be done for all five valves at 720 different crank positions. This can be done by tracing the overlapping sleeve and cylinder wall port profiles onto a piece of graphical paper and counting the square millimetre blocks confined within the traced port outline.1 Initial Method of Calculation At first it was thought to perform “curve fitting” to various sections of the coordinated points identified in the port profiles and then to determine the integral of these curves over their various ranges of applicability and finally to add these areas in order to obtain the total area of a certain port.Page 28 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ The values of x and y is subsequently adapted to produce the values for the X and Y offsets and added to the base X and Y values of the sleeve at TDC in order to locate the sleeve ports at any given crank angle. However. Therefore the valve areas must be calculated for every crank angle.2.

7.36 y = -0. the equations for the curves changes with every change in crank angle (subsequent change in position) and therefore the integrals must be repeated for every crank angle. (7) y = 120.003x 2 + 0.5x + 143.47.9 110 0 20 40 60 80 Figure 22: Curves Fitted to Points Describing Sleeve Port A number of problems arose with this method however.03 6 7 140 8 Poly. when the ports overlap.5 y = -0. the exact X coordinates where the port profiles overlap are unknown and hence the ranges of the applicable integrals are unknown.4 y = 0.40x . Firstly.016x 3 + 1. resulting in incorrect calculations of the areas. (8) y = -0.Page 29 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ 170 y = 0.0 1 2 3 150 4 5 y = -0. (6) 120 Poly.2x .527x 2 .331x + 45. resulting in inaccurate calculation of Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 . resulting in a very laborious and time consuming process.75x + 617. because the curve fittings are just a mathematical approximation.2 160 y = 3.623x 2 + 424. (1) Linear (2) 130 Poly. Poly.303x + 154.210. the curves does not exactly represent the various profiles.124x 2 + 10. Finally.47. (3) Linear (4) Linear (5) Poly.165x2 + 15. Secondly.7747.045x 3 .69x .

This value was compared to the area determined by counting the square millimetre blocks on the graphical paper for the sleeve port in question. generic and quicker method of calculating the port areas. interpolation was done by Equation (6) where (x1. The port area is subsequently obtained by subtracting the area of the bottom part of the port profile from the area of the top part of the profile.y1) and (x2. being the area from the X-axis to the straight line for the range on the X-axis. To overcome this problem.2 Automated Method of Calculation The points identified on the port profiles are located so that when the points are connected with a straight line it would still yield a very similar profile as the actual shape.2.Page 30 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ the area. Problems arise however. 3.25 mm sections. this procedure works well only when calculating the area of an entire port. However. when the sleeve port and the cylinder wall port overlap and only a certain part of each profile must be taken into account and the exact points of overlap is unknown. the entire range of each port on the X-axis was divided into 0.25 mm intervals.y2) are two original adjacent points and (x. This was realised when the area of the port shown in Figure 22 was calculated using the method described above.25 mm. it is very accurate and the area calculated using this method resulted in approximately 1200 mm² compared to an area of roughly 1400 mm² calculated with the curve integrals. The region between two adjacent points could therefore be approximated with a straight line and the area can easily be calculated as the area of a trapezoidal.y) is the newly created points with 0. Although counting the blocks is also a time consuming process. On curved parts of the profiles the points are highly populated and on straighter parts the points are more sparsely populated. New points were created by linearly interpolating between The linear adjacent points in order to have points at every 0. This confirms the need for a more accurate. at intervals of Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 .

The procedure of adding points at every 0. Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 .25 mm interval on the X-axis was done for the sleeve ports as well and it is subsequently easy to determine the points of intersection between the wall and sleeve ports to within 0.25mm Intervals) Figure 23: Points Describing the Sleeve Port Profile The coordinates of the cylinder wall ports remain unchanged when the crank angle changes.Page 31 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ (6) Figure 23 illustrates the original points describing one of the sleeve port profiles together with the linearly interpolated added points at 0. This procedure was done for all the cylinder wall ports as well as for the sleeve ports.25 mm.25 mm intervals.25 mm resulting in a very small potential error in determining the exact point of intersection in the case of port overlap. the biggest interval in X values is 0. but as described in the previous section. 165 160 155 150 145 140 135 130 Y-Axis 125 120 24 29 34 39 44 49 54 59 X-Axis Original Points Added Points (0. Subsequently. the sleeve port coordinates change.

Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 .Page 32 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ This results in the range of X values where the wall and sleeve ports overlap being known. effectively reducing the valve areas. Equation (7). However. As illustrated by (Hendrickson. so that the area of the open valve can be calculated. as well as the Y values accompanying these X values. 2004) was used to describe the piston movement and an appropriate Y offset value was added in order to ensure the piston is at Y = 0 at BDC. The equation for the piston movement is given by (7) The resulting piston movement is presented in Figure 24. 1999) the piston movement covered the valve openings when moving up to TDC in the exhaust stroke and moving down from TDC in the intake stroke. An equation presented by (Bosch. A horizontal line was added to the port coordinates and taken into account when determining the Y values for the valve opening. the issue of whether the piston will mask the valve area at certain crank angles is still unattended.

The equation is presented in Equation (8) and Figure 25 also illustrates the definitions of the terms used in the equation. (8) Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 .Page 33 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ 90 80 70 60 Y-Axis [mm] 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 Crank Angle [deg] Figure 24: Piston Movement with Crank Angle Finally all the necessary data are available to calculate the valve opening area. These Y values also include the presence of the piston where applicable. as well as the accompanying Y values that describes the open part of the overlap. This includes the range of X values at which a cylinder wall port and its associating sleeve port overlap. It was decided to use the equation for calculating the area of a trapezoid because two adjacent X values and their respective two associated Y values are situated in the form of a trapezoid as illustrated in Figure 25.

Page 34 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ 100 (x2t. Note the sudden dropoffs in the range between 300° to 400° due to the piston masking the valve openings.4 48. This was done at all the crank angles for 1 full cycle (0° to 720°) and plotted to produce Figure 26.Axis 96 Δy1 95 Δy2 Δx 94 93 (x1b.55 X .45 48.3 48.y1b) 92 (x2b.y1t) 97 Y .Axis Figure 25: Trapezoid from Adjacent Valve Opening Points All the small trapezoid areas describing each valve opening were added together to produce the total valve opening for each valve.y2b) 91 48.2 48.y2t) 99 98 (x1t.35 48. Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 .5 48.25 48.

Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 .Page 35 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ 900 800 700 600 Area [mm^2] 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 -100 Cycle Angle [deg] End Inlet 1 Valve Area [mm^2] Exhaust 1 Valve Area [mm^2] Exhaust 2 Valve Area [mm^2] End Inlet 2 Valve Area [mm^2] Centre Inlet Valve Area [mm^2] Figure 26: Valve Areas Plotted Against Crank Angle 3. As described in the previous section. the valve area was determined as function of the crank angle. This model requires the valve area as function of the crank angle. a diameter and the valve flow coefficients as function of the pressure ratio across the valve and the valve lift.3 VALVE MODELS The WaveBuild software has a number of options available to specify the valve models with. The area data was entered into a file in the format as specified by the WAVE user manual for valve effective area files. Unfortunately. there are no models which are directly applicable to sleeve valves and it was subsequently decided that the best alternative would be to use the effective area valve model. These files were then specified as the areas for the various valves leading to input pages similar to the one presented in Figure 27. Notice that WAVE automatically converts the effective area to valve lift values.

Figure 28 illustrates the coefficients used. as long as it is used consistently. In the simulations this will be converted back to an effective area and therefore.3. any reasonable diameter can be used.Page 36 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ Figure 27: Typical Input Page for Effective Valve Area The valve diameter is used to convert the effective area plot to a valve lift plot . plotted against crank angle.1 will be sufficient. For the initial model. 1940) was copied into a file with the format of the file as specified by the WAVE user manual for valve discharge coefficient files. 1940) concluded that very similar coefficients were acquired for different valve openings. all the valve diameters were specified as 20mm. it was decided that the coefficients as described in Section 2. as (Waldron. Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 . These files were then specified in the WAVE model as the discharge coefficients for the various valves. Notice only one profile per valve. Due to the fact that this is an initial WAVE model. Discharge coefficient determined from the figures presented by (Waldron. This leaves only the discharge coefficients to be determined.

75 0.0000 3.5000 3.5000 Pressure Ratio Centre Inlet Valve End Inlet Valves Exhaust Valves Figure 28: Discharge Coefficients as taken from (Waldron. Figure 29: Input Page for Valve Discharge Coefficient Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 .8 0.0000 4.85 0. 1940) These discharge coefficients were entered as a function of the pressure ratio and repeated for two different valve lifts.6 1. resulting in a typical input page presented in Figure 29 (centre inlet valve in this case).5000 2.0000 1.5000 4.9 Discharge Coefficient 0.0000 2.1 mm) and one large lift value (15 mm).Page 37 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ 1 0.65 0. one small lift value (0.95 0.7 0.

A fuel injector is also added to the second part of the inlet pipe to facilitate fuel delivery to the system.Page 38 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ 3. This layout is presented in Figure 30. The inlet pipe and the inlet manifold are modelled using duct elements and these two parts are joined by a Y-junction element. Figure 31 illustrates these components. thus using the barrel as one of the sides enclosing the inlet flow path. throttle valve of the carburettor and then the inlet manifold leading into the three inlet valves. This ducting directs the flow towards the three inlet ports which are situated at roughly 90° intervals around the barrel.7. The injector was set to deliver an air fuel ratio (AFR) of 14. The side of the manifold connecting to the barrel is open. thereby assuming stoichiometric combustion. splitting the inlet pipe into two sections before entering the junction element. Figure 30: WAVE Layout of Intake Flow Path 3. The throttle is specified as an orifice.1 Geometry The carburettor is connected to an inlet manifold.4 INTAKE FLOW PATH The flow path of the intake system comprises of an inlet pipe. Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 . The manifold comprises of a Cshaped steel ducting that bolts over the exposed ports in the cylinder wall.4. The area around the ports is cleared of cooling fins in order for the ducting to attach onto the outside of the cylinder barrel.

The curvature of the flow around the barrel to the two end inlet valves are supported by slopping cut-out sections into the barrel to maximize the flow area.Page 39 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ Figure 31: Inlet Manifold Duct and Cylinder Barrel The geometry of the inlet manifold duct therefore defines the flow path of the air and it is graphically presented in Figure 32. Ø38 191 139 26 26 30 30 Figure 32: Inlet Manifold Geometry Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 15 90 . showing the main dimensions. Inside the ducting there are no obstructions and the air is free to move undisturbed.

with the carburettor having the same diameter as the pipe it connects to. The two pipes leading to the two end inlet valves are noncircular and therefore the hydraulic diameter equation (Equation (9)) was used to determine the input diameter values for the ducts. Equation (10). The input geometrical values for the various duct elements are taken from Figure 32. implying no pressure loss due to friction. It should be noted that the friction multiplier for the three ducts leading to the inlet valves are set at 0. (9) The resulting geometrical input values for the ducts of the intake system are presented in Table 1.875 38 30. The manual suggests using this equation to calculate the discretization size in order to acquire the best compromise between accuracy and Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 Multiplier Diameter Friction Overall [mm] [mm] Right [deg] .53 38 38 30. This is done because the pressure loss due to friction is already taken into account in the discharge coefficients of the valves.53 38 33.875 15 15 15 15 15 100 15 90 10 90 0 0 90 0 90 1 1 0 0 0 The discretization lengths were calculated with an equation given in the WAVE user manual. orifice and Y-junction elements.Page 40 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ As illustrated in Figure 30 the inlet flow path will be modelled by using duct. Table 1: Geometrical Input Values for Intake Flow Path Ducts Left Diameter Heat Transfer 1 1 1 1 1 [mm] Discretization Length [mm] Bend Angle Multiplier Carb1 Carb2 DuctEI1 DuctCV DuctEI2 38 38 33.

it was decided to calculate the discretization for this speed and subsequently it will be sufficient for lower speeds. (10) with where is the engine speed in revolutions per minute. the temperatures throughout the intake system will be at a similar temperature as the ambient surrounding temperature. and is the speed of sound. As the engine will probably not be ran above 6000 rpm. Therefore. conductive and radiation heat transfer.2 Heat Transfer Heat transfer inherently implies the transfer of heat from a medium which consist of heat to a medium which consists of less heat.4. This resulted in a discretization of approximately 15 mm.Page 41 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ computing time. it was realised that a part of the two intake ducts leading to the end inlet valves are directly in contact with the cylinder barrel which will be at a considerably higher temperature as the ambient temperature and thus a significant Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 . as minimizing the discretization length will increase the accuracy but also increase the computing time. However. Subsequently very little heat transfer will take place and it was therefore decided not to simulate heat transfer in the intake system. The three methods of heat transfer are convective. 3. All these methods rely on a temperature difference between two mediums and a higher temperature difference implies higher heat transfer. remembering that this is a normally aspirated engine. Consider the intake system. This phenomenon is therefore driven by a difference in heat between two mediums which imply a temperature difference between the two mediums.

However. excessive heat transfer will take place due to the heat transfer area (the outside area of the duct) being larger than the actual heat transfer area (only the one side). Unfortunately. Thus. the length and thickness of these ducts can be altered in order to accurately specify the heat transfer area. The thickness has no affect on either the mass flow rate or pressure loss. even for the ambient temperature intake ducts. It is hence imperative that the heat transfer in these two ducts is simulated. A first thing to notice is that the heat transfer multipliers as specified in Table 1 in the previous section are all set to 1.Page 42 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ amount of heat transfer will take place. A problem arises when attempting to activate the conduction and radiation heat transfer to the two ducts which are in contact with the cylinder barrel. altering the length of the pipe will affect the acoustic pressure wave in the duct and ultimately the effective mass flow rate. The heat transfer calculated in that case is convective heat transfer between the fluid stream in the duct and the boundary layer. a way must be found to decrease the heat transfer area without affecting the pressure loss and mass flow rate through these ducts or their acoustic behaviour. but these heat transfer terms will be included in the analyses of the two ducts which are in contact with the cylinder barrel. altering the length of the ducts will not affect the pressure loss. The problem is that only one side of the duct is connected to the hot cylinder barrel and if the geometries of theses ducts remain as they are specified in Table 1. In order to keep the mass flow rate in tact the same diameters must be used as specified in the table. It was subsequently decided to divide each of the two intake ducts that lead to the end inlet valves into two separate Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 . because the pressure loss of these ducts is already accounted for in the discharge coefficients of the valves. the conductive and radiation heat transfer of the ambient inlet ducts will be ignored. As far as the pressure loss is concerned. Due to the friction between the boundary layer and the duct wall it was decided to consider this convective heat transfer. Therefore.

. . According to the engine drawings. The contact area is only one face in the length and one face in the depth of the block. Assuming that this duct will be placed adjacent to the valve. the diameter of the duct will be 30. of 16. The new input values for these ducts are presented in Table 2 and the layout is presented in Figure 33. Therefore. and thus and Solving these equations simultaneously leads to a duct length. Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 .87 mm. 38 mm high and 25 mm deep.Page 43 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ ducts.13 mm and a thickness. In order to calculate the input values the area and volume of the duct with conduction and radiation must be equal to the area of the cylinder barrel that is in contacts with the flow and the volume of that part of the barrel. of 14.875 mm as presented in Table 1. that part of the barrel is roughly a block of 50 mm long. one of the ducts will model conduction and radiation heat transfer while the other duct will model the convective heat transfer. The combined length of these two ducts will be the same as the geometrical length of the duct.67 mm and a new length of the accompanying duct of 75.

875 30. air cooled cylinder block.13 Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 .8 This leads to a heat capacity of roughly 2.875 30.875 30. The temperature of the cylinder barrel was assumed to be 400K.53 DuctHTEI1 30.53 DuctHTEI2 30.875 15 14. (Incropera & De Witt.K]. but should be calibrated once experimental data becomes available. 1996) provides the following properties for cast aluminium: Density – ρ = 2790 *kg/m³+ Specific heat – cp = 883 [J/kg.13 15 14.875 30.46 x 106 [J/m³. Table 2: Input Values for Intake Heat Transfer Ducts DuctEI1 Left Diameter [mm] Right Diameter [mm] Discretization [mm] 33.K] Emissivity – ε ≈ 0.K] Thermal conductivity – k = 168 [W/m.Page 44 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ Figure 33: WAVE Layout of Intake Including Heat Transfer Ducts The cylinder barrel is a cast aluminium.875 DuctEI2 33.

3 Junction The modelling of the intake flow path consists of a Y-junction model that connects the inlet pipe.8 - 400 0. and the three inlet manifold ducts.Page 45 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ DuctEI1 Overall Length [mm] Bend Angle [deg] Friction Multiplier Heat Transfer Multiplier Outer Wall Thickness [mm] Heat Capacity [J/m³. Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 .13 0 0 0 DuctEI2 75.67 - 2.K] Convective Field Temperature [K] Radiation Field Temperature [K] Emissivity 75.13 0 0 0 - 16.87 90 0 1 DuctHTEI2 14. but because the junction does not contact any part of the hot cylinder barrel.87 90 0 1 DuctHTEI1 14. The friction and heat transfer multipliers were specified as 1 to account for the friction and convection heat transfer.67 - 16. A Y-junction element was used and specified with a diameter of 38 mm.46 x 106 - 2.8 3. following the carburettor throttle valve.4.46 x 106 - 168 - 168 - 400 - 400 - 400 0. the conduction and radiation heat transfer were omitted. The junction openings were set up as presented in Figure 34.K] Conductivity [W/m.

Page 46 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________

Figure 34: 3-D Layout of Y-Junction Element for Intake Manifold

3.5 ENGINE MODEL
The engine model comprises of the basic engine geometries, combustion model and heat transfer specifications. It is therefore only logical to divide this section into these subsections.

3.5.1 Engine Geometries The engine geometries were measured on the engine drawings and verified with the measurements on the actual engine. The geometry tab of the engine model window was subsequently populated with the values presented in Table 3.

Table 3: Engine Geometry Inputs

Variable Name Number of cylinders Strokes per cycle Engine type Bore

Value 1 4 Spark ignition 85

Units mm August 2007

Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine

Page 47 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ Variable Name Stroke Connecting rod length Wrist pin offset Clearance height Value 84.5 171 0 21 Units mm mm mm mm

The friction correlation constants were specified with the default values as no numerical data on sleeve valve friction could be obtained. This is sufficient for the initial WAVE model, but the friction model needs to be correlated with the experimental results for the final WAVE model. The detail geometry of the piston were specified with the default values of 0, because the swirl model is not used, therefore not requiring the piston detail.

The compression ratio was more complicated to determine and therefore the following subsection is dedicated to this matter.

3.5.1.1 Compression Ratio
In order to determine the compression ratio of the engine it was decided to use a mathematical process. Using the known geometries of the piston and cylinder head, the volumes needed to calculate the compression ratio could be calculated. The equations that describe the piston at TDC and BDC as well as the cylinder head were integrated in order to obtain their respective volumes. The various curves describing these volumes along with the coordinates defining the curves are illustrated in Figure 35.

Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine

August 2007

Page 48 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________

Cylinder Head Volume 3 Piston TDC Volume 1

X
(0,98) (42.5,106.5)

(42.5,84.5)

Piston BDC Volume 2

(0,8.5) (42.5,0)

Y

Figure 35: Volumes for Compression Ratio Calculation

It was assumed that the curves are round and therefore the various points on the curves as illustrated in the figure were substituted in the standard equation describing a circle. The coordinates of the points were determined by measurements from the engine drawings and the measurements from the actual engine. This lead to the following equations for the various curves:

(11)

To obtain the volume of a curve in the XY-plane revolved around the Y-axis, Equation (12) can be used.

Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine

August 2007

Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 . Consider then Volumes 2 and 3 were calculated in a similar way. resulting in a compression ratio of 7. resulting in and . Using this equation to determine the volume is similar for all three different curves. and subsequently the compression ratio could be calculated with Equation (13).312 : 1. and hence only the derivation of the piston at TDC (volume 1) will be shown.Page 49 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ (12) where is the function describing the curve.

2 Combustion Model The standard SI Wiebe model is specified for the combustion model.3 Engine Heat Transfer There are two input pages to consider when modelling the heat transfer in the engine model. These input values was chosen in order to acquire the prescribed ignition timing of roughly 20° before TDC. 470°C and 440°C respectively as suggested by (Vasudevan. as well as the cooling of these components. however has to Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 . The second is the conduction page and accounts for the conduction through the piston.5.5. The inputs for these pages are described next. but these values should be correlated when experimental data is available. while the rest of the variables were kept at their respective default values.Page 50 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ (13) 3. but the values should however be calibrated with the experimental data. The heat transfer multipliers for open and closed intake valves will be kept at the default values of unity. As initial values.5. 3.1 Heat Transfer Inputs This heat transfer model will be simulated by the original Woschni model as predefined in the WAVE software. 3. 2007). This indicates similar heat transfer for open and closed valve situations. The area multipliers. the 50% burn point was specified at 8° and the combustion duration was specified as 30°. This is however a gross simplification as these values will vary with different engine operating conditions. The average surface temperature of the piston. The first is the heat transfer page and refers to the heat transfer between the combustion gas and the surrounding surfaces. cylinder head and liner were specified as 400°C.3. cylinder wall and head.

The surface is produced when the portion around the Y-axis. and using it together with Equation (14) will provide the actual surface area from which an area multiplier can be calculated. only as mirror images of each other. (14) where the curve is expressed as for and is continuous on to and is revolved . Rewriting Equation (11). This leads to the following calculation: Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 . which describes the profile of the piston and cylinder head. The actual surface area of the piston and the cylinder head is the same. as these to shapes follow the same curve.Page 51 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ be adjusted as a value of 1 indicates a flat piston and cylinder head and this is not the case.

Page 52 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ With the area of a flat piston with a diameter of 85 mm being 5674.5 mm² this results in an area multiplier of 1.04. The multiplier is the same for both the piston and the cylinder head.

The final input is the swirl ratio. According to (Ricardo and Company, 1947), sleeve valve engines are high natural swirl engines and a swirl ratio of 0.716, as suggested by (Vasudevan, 2007), will be used. This is however only a speculative value and should be correlated with experimental results.

3.5.3.2 Conduction Inputs
The conduction input page consists of two sub-pages. The one contains information on the engine component walls and the other information on the cooling side of the engine components.

The cylinder head, barrel and piston were assumed to be cast aluminium and the properties are presented in (Incropera & De Witt, 1996).

Density – ρ = 2790 *kg/m³+ Specific heat – cp = 883 [J/kg.K] Thermal conductivity – k = 168 [W/m.K] Volumetric heat capacity – 2.46 x 106 [J/m³.K]

Firstly considering the piston, as it was simplified to a hollowed circular cylinder with a height of 60 mm and a thickness of 6 mm as measured on the drawings. This resulted in a volume of:

(15)

Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine

August 2007

Page 53 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________

The area of the coolant side of the piston is difficult to determine, because the drawings of the piston is not detailed enough, but it was assumed sufficient to use an area equal to that of the piston face, calculated in Section 3.5.3.1 as .

The cylinder head was also assumed to be a hollowed out cylinder with height of 125 mm and a thickness of 18 mm as measured on the drawings. Using Equation (15) again results in a volume of . The area of the coolant side of the

cylinder head consists of a number of cooling fins. According to the drawings the fins are 65 mm by 40 mm and there are 20 fins. This results in an area of approximately .

The barrel unit also consists of cooling fins and is therefore difficult to determine the volume. However, it was measured at 6.23 kg, but it is assumed that roughly only two thirds of that mass is the part of the barrel that is in contact with the piston and which contributes directly to the heat transfer. With a density as specified above, this leads to a volume of the cylinder barrel of .

The next step is to calculate the area of the coolant side. Figure 36 illustrates the geometry of the barrel and fin setup with the accompanying equations. The following are the geometries describing the barrel of the experimental engine:

H = 85 mm S = 10 mm N=9 t = 2 mm Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007

Page 54 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ L = 26 mm r1 = 69.5 mm r2 = 95.5 mm

This leads to a coolant side area, including the fins, of thickness of the barrel is the difference between the two radii, which is 26 mm.

. The

S H

t

r1 r2

L

Figure 36: Fin Geometry and Equations

This concludes the inputs for the component walls sub-page and the next sub-page requires information on the cooling side of the components. The required information includes the heat transfer coefficients and temperatures of the cooling sides of the piston, cylinder head and barrel.

Drop-down menus provide options for calculating the heat transfer coefficients for the various components. The piston heat transfer coefficient will be determined via a splash correlation hardcoded in the WAVE software. Determining the heat transfer coefficients for the cylinder head and barrel will however be calculated by hand and Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007

s/m²] Prandtl number – Pr = 0.02574 [W/m.K] Thermal conductivity – k = 0. (16) According to Table 7.194 [kg/m³] Specific heat – cp = 1.811 x 10-5 [N. The barrel was considered as a cylinder in a cross-flow application.7 m/s. which is associated with water-cooled engines.2 in (Incropera & De Witt.00686 [J/kg.000. the values of and must be used in Equation (17) to determine the average heat transfer coefficient.Page 55 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ specified as a fixed value. 1996) provides properties of the cooling air at 293 K and it is listed below. 1996) for a Reynolds number between 40. Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 .70882 [-] With the cooling fan ratted at 173 m³/min and a diameter of 650 mm. The heat transfer coefficient of the cylinder head and barrel will be the product of a forced convection heat transfer coefficient of just the barrel without the fins and the total fin efficiency. it results in an air speed of approximately 8. Density – ρ = 1. The correlation for these values considers nucleate boiling.K] Viscosity – μ = 1. (Incropera & De Witt. The diameter of the barrel is 139 mm and using Equation (16) the Reynolds number was calculated as 79. The forced heat transfer coefficient will be generated by a cooling fan blowing cool air over the stationary engine.635.000 and 400. This engine is air cooled and therefore a pre-calculated fixed value will be used as opposed to the correlation. This resulted in a forced convection coefficient of .

1996) The forced convection coefficient and the overall fin efficiency are multiplied to produce an effective heat transfer coefficient for the coolant side of the cylinder barrel. results in a single fin efficiency of . Equation (18) is subsequently .Page 56 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ (17) The next step is to calculate the fin efficiency of the barrel fins. This resulted in a value of . used to calculate the overall fin efficiency of all the fins. resulting in (18) Figure 37: Efficiency of a Rectangular Annular Fin (Incropera & De Witt. Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 . Although the cylinder head has differently shaped fins. it was assumed that the same effective heat transfer coefficient could be used for the coolant side of the cylinder head. Using the equations presented in Figure 36 along with the calculated forced convection coefficient and Figure 37.

3.K].1 Ducts The geometry of the exhaust system is illustrated schematically in Figure 38. The assumed exhaust temperature of 1000 K increased the speed of sound which subsequently increased the discretization length from the value calculated for the intake ducts.Page 57 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ Finally. The exhaust bolts directly onto the cylinder barrel covering the exhaust ports.35 This leads to a heat capacity of roughly 4. The engine was used for racing purposes and hence there are no catalytic converters or silencers. The exhaust gas will be at a high temperature compared to the ambient temperature and thus heat transfer must be added to the simulation models. the default value of 380 K was used. Therefore the modelling of the exhaust flow path will only consist of ducts and junctions. Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 .6. For the oil temperature. 1996) at a temperature of 1000 K: Density – ρ = 8055 *kg/m³+ Specific heat – cp = 606 [J/kg. representing the cooling air and not cooling water as is the case of the default values.K] Thermal conductivity – k = 25.88 x 10 6 [J/m³. The pipe is manufactured from stainless steel and the following properties are described in (Incropera & De Witt. It was assumed that the exhaust temperature would be in the region of 1000 K.K] Emissivity – ε ≈ 0. Using Equation (10) again to calculate the discretization length yields a discretization length of approximately 30 mm. but the cylinder head and liner coolant temperatures were specified as 293 K. the coolant temperatures of the cooling flows were specified.4 [W/m. 3.6 EXHAUST FLOW PATH The exhaust flow path of the experimental engine only consists of an exhaust pipe.

leads to the input data for the exhaust system as presented in Table 4.Page 58 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ Figure 38: Schematic of Exhaust Flow Path The geometry and heat transfer data presented above. Table 4: Input Values for Exhaust System Ducts DuctHTX11 Left Diameter [mm] Right Diameter [mm] Discretization [mm] 32 DuctHTX12 32 DuctHTX21 32 DuctHTX22 32 DuctHTX 47 32 32 32 32 47 30 30 30 30 30 Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 .

88 x 106 25.4 25.88 x 106 4.6.35 293 293 293 293 293 293 293 293 293 293 430 DuctHTX12 170 DuctHTX21 430 DuctHTX22 170 DuctHTX 400 135 90 135 90 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4.K] Conductivity [W/m.35 0. The junction was specified with a diameter of 32 mm and it was also deemed necessary to simulate the heat transfer.35 0.35 0.4 25.4 25.Page 59 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ DuctHTX11 Overall Length [mm] Bend Angle [deg] Friction Multiplier Heat Transfer Multiplier Outer Wall Thickness [mm] Heat Capacity [J/m³.4 3.35 0.4 25.88 x 106 4.K] Convective Field Temperature [K] Radiation Field Temperature [K] Emissivity 0.88 x 106 4. The input values for the heat transfer was Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 .88 x 106 4.2 Junction A Y-junction was used to simulate the junction of the two exhaust pipes into one final pipe.

Page 60 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ specified as the same values as presented for the ducts in the previous section. The engine brake power and brake torque is presented in Figure 40. Figure 39: 3-D Layout of Y-Junction Element for Exhaust Pipe 3. The engine performance is always of high importance and the discussion will therefore start there. The engine speed was limited to 6500 rpm because above this value the average piston speed is in excess of 18 m/s and therefore above a recommended safe operating speed.07 kW at 6500 rpm and the maximum torque is 34.95 Nm at 6000 rpm. Not all these results will be discussed. The WAVE software produces many different results ranging from temperature and pressure through the engine to engine performance. fuel consumption and emission levels. The junction openings were set up as illustrated in Figure 39.7 INITIAL RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The simulation was set up for different engine speeds. ranging from 1000 rpm to 6500 rpm at intervals of 500 rpm. only some of the relevant results will be presented and discussed. Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 . The maximum power is 23.

Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 .Page 61 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ Figure 40: Brake Power and Torque Calculated with Initial Model The torque curve illustrates two troughs at 2000 rpm and 4000 rpm respectively. 2006). When examining the efficiencies. These troughs in the volumetric efficiency indicate that the inlet acoustics are detrimental to the engine breathing. it can be seen that these troughs coincide with two troughs in the volumetric efficiency curve. As suggested by (Greenhalgh. Figure 41: Volumetric and Thermal Efficiency Calculated with Initial Model The indicated and brake mean effective pressures are presented in Figure 42.1 bar is in the range of typical naturally aspirated spark ignition engines. the maximum break mean effective pressure of roughly 9. Figure 41. causing low engine power outputs at these speeds.

meaning that the basic parameters of the engine simulation seems to be correctly specified. Figure 43 illustrates this diagram at 4000 rpm.Page 62 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ Figure 42: Indicated and Brake Mean Effective Pressure Calculated with Initial Model The cycle analysis was also investigated and the first to consider is the P-V diagram. It is clear from the diagram that it seems to resemble a 4-stroke spark ignition engine. Figure 43: P-V Diagram Calculated with Initial Model at 4000 rpm Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 .

The difference in the mass flow through the centre valve and the two end valves is very clear. It is therefore of main concern to study the results of the valves. This is because the discharge coefficients given by (Waldron. 1940) for the centre inlet valve is higher than that of the two end inlet valves. whereas the end inlet valves are roughly 50 kg/hr each. illustrating the mass flow through the various valves plotted against crank angle at 4000 rpm. It can also be seen that the one inlet valve (the centre inlet valve) has a much higher peak than the other two inlet valves. Figure 44: Effective Valve Areas for Initial Model Consider Figure 45. The centre valve mass flow rate is about 300 kg/hr. This figure presents the valve areas multiplied by the discharge coefficient. The difference in Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 .Page 63 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ The main difference between the poppet and sleeve valve engines is the flow through the valves. but the values have reduced due to discharge coefficients being lower than 100%. Firstly consider Figure 44 illustrating the effective valve areas. It can be seen that the basic profile of the area curves as presented in Figure 26 are retained.

the flow will naturally follow the path of least resistance. Furthermore. ensure that the inlet ducts are not heated by the cylinder barrel and try to minimize the flow losses in the ducts. causing the higher flow rate in the centre inlet duct. causing the flow to heat up as it flows towards the valve inlets. In this case it was difficult as this is a motorcycle engine and packaging was a major design specification. Figure 45: Mass Flows through Valves Calculated with Initial Model Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 . The duct leading to the two end valves are longer and they are bent.Page 64 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ effective valve area as described from the above figure assists in this phenomenon. the two ducts leading to the two end inlet valves are in contact with the cylinder barrel. Therefore. The higher temperature of the air causes the density of the flow to reduces. These are therefore design considerations that need to be taken into account when designing a sleeve valve engine like this. but is not the only cause. short duct leading into the centre valve. To maximize air flow through the valves. causing higher flow losses than the straight. further reducing the mass flow rate through the end inlet valves.

This is very important as the detail knowledge of the valve Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 . this provides a pressure ratio range for the inlet valves of 1 to 2 and for the exhaust valves of 1 to 6.Page 65 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ The following step in this project was to determine discharge coefficients that are applicable to the available experimental engine. a method was presented on how to determine the sleeve valve areas accurately from detail sketches of the ports. The discharge coefficients are presented in WAVE as values plotted against valve lifts and pressure ratio across the valves. The figure shows the pressure difference across the various valves. Therefore.8 CONCLUSION Two of the major aims of this project have been addressed in this chapter. Assuming 1 bar pressure in the cylinder chamber during the intake stroke and 1 bar pressure in the exhaust during exhaust stroke. Firstly. one final result that is of worth is presented in Figure 46. Figure 46: Pressure Difference across the Valves 3.

This method works well when the engine has already been designed and needs to be analysed from sketches and measurements. has been identified and put to practical use in an engine simulation with satisfactory results.Page 66 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ areas is fundamental in simulating the engine. especially when the sleeve and cylinder wall ports have different profiles than that used in the (Waldron. Nonetheless. in the modern computer aided design (CAD) atmosphere this method might be redundant as the design software will probably be able to automatically calculate the valve areas. These discharge coefficients provide an excellent starting point for similar sleeve valve analyses. a set of sleeve valve discharge coefficients found in the open literature. working through this method still provides a proper understanding of the sleeve movement during the engine cycle and could aid in the design of new sleeve valve configurations. (Waldron. However. Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 . The next step in this project is therefore to determine discharge coefficients characteristic to the experimental engine’s specific sleeve valves. 1940). Secondly. It is however suggested that a more detailed method of determining discharge coefficients should be undertaken when more detailed simulations are done. 1940) experiments.

It was decided to use CFD methods to determine the discharge coefficients of the valves. The discharge coefficients could either be determined experimentally or mathematically by the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The discharge coefficients are specified in WAVE as an external data file. 4. VALVE DISCHARGE COEFFICIENTS WITH COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS In developing the initial WAVE model. This way the author could gain knowledge in the use of CFD simulations and acquire a further skill in the use of CFD software. This is done by dividing (meshing) the volume into very small elements in order for the CFD software to solve the continuity equations (continuity of mass. it became clear that the air flow through the valves is very influential in determining the performance of the engine. However. and consists of the discharge coefficients as a function of pressure ratio and valve lift. but those coefficients were determined on slightly different valve geometries than the engine used in this study and hence it was decided to determine discharge coefficients that is characteristic to this engine and its specific valve profiles. For the initial WAVE model the discharge coefficients provided by (Waldron.1 MODEL GENERATION The CFD simulates the fluid flow in a volume bounded by certain boundary conditions with the volume being the space occupied by the fluid. This chapter describes the process undertaken to determine these discharge coefficient profiles for the valves using CFD simulations.Page 67 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ 4. 1940) was used. It is therefore crucial that the discharge coefficients of the valves are determined correctly. the use of experimental results required the construction of an experimental setup and due to the limited amount of time available for this project it proved to be a detrimental constraint. The valve lift represents the area of the valve. momentum and energy) for each small Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 .

2 and an inlet or exhaust duct representing the inlet or exhaust pipe respectively.5 mm Figure 47: Layout of CFD Model Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 85 mm . the length of the duct was selected to be 6 diameter lengths in order to ensure that fully developed flow has been established inside the duct. This led to respective heights of 228 mm and 192 mm. The first step in the CFD process is to generate a model of the volume being studied and meshing the model for the CFD to perform the calculations on. This comprised of a large round duct representing the cylinder. A round duct with a diameter equal to that of the height of the intake channel (38 mm) was used for the intake duct and equal to the diameter of the exhaust pipe (32 mm) was used for the exhaust duct.Page 68 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ element bounded by adjacent elements. In both these cases.5 mm) of the engine was used to represent the cylinder volume. port in the cylinder wall and exhaust duct for exhaust valves and inlet duct for inlet valves. The following sections describe the process undertaken to create the meshed models for this project. 4.1 Model Layout A valve setup comprising of the cylinder bore. was simplified for the CFD analyses to an orifice type setup. presented in Figure 47. This layout is A round duct with a diameter equal to that of the bore (85 mm) and a length equal to that of the stroke (84.1. Valve Profile Volume (2 mm thick) D = 38 mm (Intake) / D = 32 mm (Exhaust) Inlet for Intake Valves Outlet for Exhaust Valves Inlet for Exhaust Valves Outlet for Intake Valves 6D = (228 mm Intake / 192 mm Exhaust) 84. the detail valve geometry as determined in Section 3.

extruded to a thickness of 2 mm.2. at a certain pre-determined crank angle. 1940) that the coefficients remain similar for different valve openings. hence the simulations were focused at valve openings smaller than half of the maximum valve area. The exact profile is described by the points as determined in Section 3. Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 . Valve profiles at the intersections of the solid black horizontal lines (also the two vertical lines at maximum openings) and the graphs were used for the simulations.2 Valve Geometry The valve profile volume consists of the exact valve profile.Page 69 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ 4. This proved not to be sufficient and simulations at 3/4 valve opening was also necessary in order to fully describe the trends of the coefficients. Simulations were then done at a very small valve opening (approximately 1/32 of maximum opening) followed by simulations at valve openings between these extremes. it was deemed necessary to simulate the discharge coefficient at different valve openings.1. but it was necessary to establish at which different crank angles the simulations would be done. Figure 48 illustrates the locations of the valve profiles on the area/crank angle graph. The first simulations were done at approximately maximum valve opening for all the valves. At first it was believed that the biggest variation in coefficients occur at smaller valve openings. Although suggested by (Waldron.2. representing the thickness of the sleeve. This volume is then placed between the two ducts described in the preceding paragraph (see Figure 47).

it should be noticed that only valve profiles on the opening slope of the valves were simulated. but not for sleeve valves.1.3 Gambit Models The setup as presented in Figure 47 was constructed in Gambit (CFD meshing software) after which a mesh was generated for use in the Fluent CFD software package. This was assumed because the highest pressure ratios across the valves occur when the valves opens initially. The mass flow rates will be the highest in these cases of high pressure ratios and thus the discharge coefficient will have the greatest influence. For this study it was therefore decided to use only the opening profiles to determine the discharge coefficients. 4. assuming the areas are the same in both cases.Page 70 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ 900 800 700 600 500 Area [mm^2] 400 300 200 100 0 0 -100 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 Cycle Angle [deg] End Inlet 1 Valve Area [mm^2] End Inlet 2 Valve Area [mm^2] Exhaust 1 Valve Area [mm^2] Centre Inlet Valve Area [mm^2] Exhaust 2 Valve Area [mm^2] Figure 48: Indication of Valve Opening Profiles Simulated Upon closer inspection. Further comments regarding this matter will be made when the results of the CFD simulations are described at the end of this chapter. This was because the WAVE software does not distinguish between the opening and closing instances of the valves. One of the most important factors of these simulations was that the exact Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 . This is true for poppet valves.

4 Meshing The meshing of the volumes is a very important aspect of the CFD model. The user then only needs to decide which valve area is needed. a Macro was added to the workbook that creates journal files for all the valves. is not a CFD expert and is not experienced in creating meshes and therefore decided to use a standard automated meshing scheme. then they need to be joined to form lines and all the lines need to be joined to form a face.2. This was especially helpful since this study included 27 different geometrical setups.2.2. Constructing the exact profile in Gambit is a very labour intensive and time consuming job. This automated scheme is available in the Gambit software.Page 71 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ valve profile was used. This allowed for a non-perfect mesh to be sufficient. The journal file is then run in Gambit where after only a few commands are added and the mesh is ready for import into the Fluent software. the entire process taking at most 5 minutes instead of hours of Gambit modelling. Care must be taken when generating the mesh in order to produce accurate and representative results. namely the Cooper scheme. These saved journal files can be accessed to repeat a certain work session if need be. Since all the required points are known in the Excel workbook as described in Section 3. to determine the flow coefficient from the CFD simulations. however. Gambit uses a journal file to record all the actions taking place in a work session. Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 . enter the crank angle into the Excel file to obtain the required valve area and run the Macro which produces a journal file for each valve. because the profile is described by many points as determined in Section 3. and the detail flow field is of no concern. and subsequently it was decided to create journal files with a text editor and just import the journal files to create the model.1. In some cases more than 200 points describe the profile and all these points have to be created in Gambit. Further. producing the valve profile as it will be at that crank angle. only the mass flow rate through the valve and the inlet density are needed. The author.2. Fortunately. 4.

and the skewness remained below 0. This resulted in element numbers ranging from 5.Page 72 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ The entire volume was meshed using the automated Cooper meshing scheme with hex/wedge element type. A segregated solver was specified with the use of implicit mathematical formulation.000 to 20. For the inlet and outlet duct a spacing of 2 mm was used. 4.5 mm. In the cases where the skewness was greater than 0. In all the cases the quality of the mesh was checked using the mesh examiner provided by Gambit. Only steady state solutions were considered and the gradient option was set as cell-based and not nodeModelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 . 4.000 elements for the valve volume. the skewness of the elements should be as low as possible on a 0 to 1 scale.1 Solver Models The geometrical models and meshes were created in 3-dimensional orientation and therefore the 3-D version of the Fluent software was used. It was assumed that less than half a percent of all the elements is a small enough number of elements to provide an acceptable mesh.2. It was decided to ensure that the skewness of all the elements should be kept below 0. The valve volume was meshed using a spacing representative of its size.000 elements for the duct representing the inlet or outlet duct.7 for all the elements. but for the very small area profiles the spacing was chosen as 0. The important specifications used in the software are presented in the following sections.5.5.5. As a guideline.2 SIMULATION SPECIFICATIONS The Gambit models were exported as mesh files to be used in the Fluent CFD software. resulting in almost 70. In almost all the cases (with the exception of the very small valve area cases) all the elements had a skewwnes of less than 0.000 elements for the duct representing the cylinder and about 30.2 mm. For most of the meshes it was 0. it was less than half a percent of all the elements.

however. Figure 49: Solver and Viscous Model Input Pages of Fluent Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 . resulting in longer simulation times. Figure 49 illustrates the input pages of the Fluent software for the solver and viscous models. momentum. There are no set values that were used. justified the longer simulation times. The gain in accuracy however. in some cases they had to be altered in order to avoid divergence of the solution. The SIMPLE algorithm was selected for the pressure-velocity coupling and the discretization of the pressure set to second order. and the author experimented with different values until satisfactory convergence was reached. The under-relaxation factors were all left at their default values. The energy equation was activated and the k-ε turbulence model was used with the default model constants as prescribed by the software. turbulence kinetic energy.Page 73 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ based. albeit at a higher consumption of computing resources. The discretization of the density. The second order discretization leads to more accurate results. turbulence dissipation rate and the energy were all set to second order upwind.

K W/m.s kg/kMol 4.2 Boundary Conditions The boundary conditions define the simulation and establish flow inside the volume being studied. but too smooth for the inlet and outlet ducts. The inlet pressure of the intake valves and the Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 . 1992). The value found in (Shames. Table 5 presents the values used for the material properties of air. These boundary conditions include wall specifications.43 0.K kg/m.and outlet pressure boundary conditions are specified in Table 6. The inside walls of the ducts and the valve profile were specified with a surface roughness of 0. This value was therefore assumed to be a compromise between the two extremities. The table presents the specified outlet pressure for the intake valve cases and the specified inlet pressure for the exhaust valve cases.Page 74 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ In all the simulations.015 mm as found in (Shames. which was specified as an ideal gas instead of having a constant value. This is to simulate the pressure drop through the ducts due to friction of the fluid against the non-smooth wall surfaces. inlet. 1992) is for drawn tubing and might be too rough for the cylinder wall. Table 5: Properties of Air for CFD Simulations Property Density Cp Thermal Conductivity Viscosity Molecular Weight Value Ideal-gas 1006. This was done because high pressure values (up to 6 bar) were used in the simulations which significantly affect the value of the density.2.0242 1. air was used as working fluid. The inlet. The default properties as given by Fluent were used except the formulation of the density.7894 x 10-5 28.and outlet pressure.966 Unit kg/m³ J/kg.

000 Outlet Pressure [Pa] -5.000 300.1 1.000 50.000 0 0 0 0 0 Pressure Ratio 1. the positive inlet pressure set for the exhaust valve cases replicates the high pressure inside the combustion chamber after combustion took place.000 Pa (the setting of the initial conditions is 100. The negative pressure set for the outlet of the intake valves replicates the piston movement creating a pressure lower than atmospheric pressure inside the cylinder chamber.2.000 -30.000 500. This will replicate an atmospheric intake pressure for the intake valves and an atmospheric outlet pressure for the exhaust vales.000 -15.4286 2 1.5 2 4 6 4. These are all gauge pressure readings.000 Pa). Table 6: Boundary Pressure Settings for CFD Cases Case Intake Valve Case 1 Intake Valve Case 2 Intake Valve Case 3 Intake Valve Case 4 Exhaust Valve Case 1 Exhaust Valve Case 2 Exhaust Valve Case 3 Exhaust Valve Case 4 Exhaust Valve Case 5 Inlet Pressure [Pa] 0 0 0 0 10.000 100. It uses initial values at the boundaries in order to Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 . However.000 -50. resulting in a pressure setting of 100.3 Convergence The CFD software uses an implicit method to solve the simultaneous continuity equations for all the elements.Page 75 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ outlet pressure of the exhaust valves were specified as 0 Pa. The temperature for all the cases is set at 300 K.0526 1.1765 1. blowing down to atmospheric pressure at the outlet. it should be noted that the working fluid is air and not typical combustion residual gasses. which is a simplified assumption for the exhaust cases. In contrast.

A simulation has not reached convergence until these residual values are small enough and hence the results cannot be trusted unless the residuals are sufficiently small. valve skirt area.3 POST PROCESSING The aim of the entire CFD exercise in this project was to determine the valve discharge coefficients for use in the WAVE effective area valve model. with . The geometrical area. Table 7: Convergence Criteria’s Criteria Variable Continuity X-Velocity Y-Velocity Z-Velocity Energy k ε (epsilon) Convergence Value 1 x 10-3 1 x 10-3 1 x 10-3 1 x 10-3 1 x 10-6 1 x 10-3 1 x 10-3 4. Simulations were continued until the residuals reasonably steadied out at values satisfying the criteria’s as specified in the table. In almost all the cases the specified criteria’s were met and it was assumed that the results could be trusted. is defined by the area of a poppet the lift of a poppet valve with diameter . The various criteria’s suggested for the different variables in this study is presented in Table 7. The discharge coefficient is defined by Equation (19) as found in the WAVE user manual. Thus. to determine these coefficients one must first examine the definition of the discharge coefficients for the WAVE model. (19) Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 . .Page 76 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ calculate new values at the boundaries and then the differences between the initial and the newly calculated values are the residuals.

To determine the effective area. the density. The mass flow rate at any point through the orifice setup is given by Equation (20). however. (20) Rewriting the equations leads to the effective area. considering that these would be the same equations that WAVE uses to determine the mass flow rate from the discharge coefficient. it seems to be the most accurate method to use these equations for determining the discharge coefficients. Further. and (21) It is very difficult to accurately determine the velocity and density at the vena contracta from the CFD results. . Equation (21). . is known. The effective area is actually the area of the vena contracta and therefore the isentropic velocity. provides equations to calculate the isentropic velocity and the throat density. at the throat must be used. This is because the exact location of the vena contracta is not known and it differs for different boundary conditions. These equations are presented in Equations (22) and (23). The WAVE user manual. (22) Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 .Page 77 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ The discharge coefficient can thus be calculated when the effective area. . the mass flow rate calculated with the CFD simulations is used.

1992) and produces an unrealistically low pressure ratio as the critical pressure ratio. 1992) was used. Therefore. It was therefore assumed that the equation in the WAVE manual might be a typing error and the equation given by (Shames. . however. preventing the mass flow to increase even if the pressure ratio increases. 1992). which results in a velocity very close to that of the widely know value for the speed of sound for normal air (approximately 330 m/s). if the pressure ratio across the valve exceeds the critical pressure ratio. the pressure ratio. These results were used for all the different cases (varying pressure ratios for all different geometries. Finally. for Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 . must be compared with the critical pressure ratio given in Equation (24) as presented by (Shames. the pressure ratio terms in Equations (22) and (23) must be replaced with the critical pressure ratio (Equation (24)) so that the velocity (and subsequent mass flow rate) will not be overestimated. the mass flow rate and inlet density calculated by the CFD software were the only results used for the calculation of the discharge coefficients. 1992) provides a much more realistic critical pressure ratio. The pressure ratio calculated with the equation given by (Shames.Page 78 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ (23) Prior to using these equations. (24) The equation presented by the WAVE manual for calculating the critical pressure ratio is slightly different from the one given by (Shames. the flow will choke (the flow velocity reaches the speed of sound). If the pressure ratio exceeds the critical pressure ratio.

The profiles of the coefficients are very similar and the magnitudes of the values are in the same range. This is a good validation for the CFD results. with both yielding very similar results.95 Discharge Coefficient 0.4 1.Page 79 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ all the valves) and the various discharge coefficients calculated.3 1. For the centre inlet valve. approximately full. produces results very similar to the centre inlet valve.1 1.75 0. It also produces results showing similar profiles to that of the Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 . Figure 51 and Figure 52.8 1. (Waldron.and half valve openings. 1940) only considered two different area opening.5 1.85 0.8 0. These coefficients are presented in the following section. Centre Inlet Valve 1 0.2 1. and the advantage is that the CFD results cover a wider range of different valve area openings.7 1.4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The resultant discharge coefficients are presented in this section together with the flow coefficients presented by (Waldron. the coefficients compare very well.6 1. 4. Figure 50.9 0.7 1 1.9 2 Pressure Ratio 100 % Open 73 % Open 48 % Open 24 % Open 3 % Open Waldron Coefficients Figure 50: Centre Inlet Valve Discharge Coefficients The two end inlet valves. 1940) in order to make a comparison.

6 1 1.7 0. but at higher magnitudes. 1940) takes into account the duct curvature and it is represented in his results being of lower magnitude.Page 80 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ (Waldron.75 0.85 0. while in reality the end inlet ducts are curved.4 1.65 0.9 Discharge Coefficient 0. The lower flow disturbance of the lower curvature results in higher coefficients.6 1.9 2 Pressure Ratio 100 % Open 73 % Open 48 % Open 25 % Open 3 % Open Waldron Coefficients Figure 51: End Inlet Valve 1 Discharge Coefficients Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 .8 1. This is due to the simplification of the CFD geometry to a straight duct orifice setup. 1940) coefficients.7 1.3 1.95 0. End Inlet Valve 1 1 0.5 1. while the experimental results of (Waldron.1 1.2 1.8 0.

3 1.85 0.6 1 1. It was therefore assumed that the higher discharge coefficients produced by the CFD results could be used due to the costumed flow path of the experimental engine.7 1.8 1.9 2 Pressure Ratio 100 % Open 74 % Open 49 % Open 25 % Open 3 % Open Waldron Coefficients Figure 52: End Inlet Valve 2 Discharge Coefficients However. Experimental Engine End Inlets (right) Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 . 1940) End Inlets (left) vs.8 0. consider the end inlet ducts for the different engines as presented in Figure 53.95 0. the (Waldron.Page 81 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ End Inlet Valve 2 1 0.9 Discharge Coefficient 0.2 1.4 1. 1940) engine can be seen with very sharp edges on the intake port of the cylinder wall. Figure 53: (Waldron.7 0.5 1. On the left hand side.65 0.6 1.1 1.75 0. whereas the experimental engine on the right shows a smoothly curved path cut-out of the cylinder wall in order to decrease flow curvature towards the end inlet valves.

5 3 3. Both exhaust valves yielded very similar results and compared fairly well with the (Waldron.8 0.5 4 4.76 0.7 1 1.5 2 2. The flattening of the curves at higher pressure ratios can be attributed to the critical pressure ratio being reached and choked flow occurring in the valves. the profiles of the coefficient curves compare very well.72 0. with the (Waldron.74 0.86 Discharge Coefficient 0. Exhaust Valve 1 0.78 0.84 0.5 6 Pressure Ratio 100 % Open 80 % Open 53 % Open 27 % Open 13 % Open 3 % Open Waldron Coefficients Figure 54: Exhaust Valve 1 Discharge Coefficients Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 .9 0. 1940) coefficients having greater extremities.5 5 5.Page 82 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ The results for the exhaust valves are illustrated in Figure 54 and Figure 55. 1940) coefficients.82 0.88 0. but in this case the magnitudes are slightly different. As in the cases of the inlet valves.

88 0. From the results it was realized that the different profiles of the different valves resulted in similar discharge coefficients and hence it was assumed sufficient to only use the opening valve profiles and not the closing valve profiles to acquire representative discharge coefficients.Page 83 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ Exhaust Valve 2 0.5 2 2. The only discrepancy was in the case of the Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 .2 it was described that only valve profiles on the opening slope of the area chart was used. should sleeve valve technology continue to be studied as a viable engine design option.7 1 1. However.84 0.5 6 Pressure Ratio 100 % Open 80 % Open 54 % Open 27 % Open 13 % Open 3 % Open Waldron Coefficients Figure 55: Exhaust Valve 2 Discharge Coefficients Finally.72 0.1.5 3 3. 4.5 5 5.78 0.76 0. CFD is a powerful tool that can be used to minimize experimental costs and in this case it also yielded results which compared very well to existing experimental results.74 0.9 0.5 4 4. in Section 4.82 0.86 Discharge Coefficient 0.8 0.5 CONCLUSION In conclusion it can be said that the aim of attaining discharge coefficients for specific sleeve valve profiles has been addressed. it is suggested that the developers of the WAVE software be requested to develop a sleeve valve model which will incorporate both opening and closing discharge coefficients for the sake of comprehensive simulations.

Page 84 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ end inlet valves. Now that the specific discharge coefficients have been determined. and the designer must be careful when analysing the valve flow. Chapter 6. However. it will be used in the WAVE model in order to analyse and compare the results. it is all a case of perspective. If the flow losses were to be considered in the adjacent duct elements. This is done in Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 . where the experimental results included the extra flow resistance of the bend in the duct. then using the CFD discharge coefficients will yield similar results to the use of the experimental discharge coefficients which inherently account for those losses.

EXPERIMENTAL FACILITY The experimental 4-stroke sleeve valve engine supplied by Mahle Powertrain Ltd.Page 85 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ 5. This chapter describes the assembly of the test setup and the subsequent lessons learned from the experience. Figure 56: Experimental 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine 5. Ultimately the engine could not be brought to an operational state before the end of the project as the project is fixed to the academic year. Engine mounting brackets and a mounting base were manufactured and the engine was attached to these mountings. Northampton UK. The mounting brackets were attached to sliders channels on the mounting base to Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 . Various items were manufactured in order to set the engine up for testing purposes. the engine was reassembled and sealed for operational purposes..1 ASSEMBLY OF TEST SETUP After taking the engine apart and measuring the required dimensions. is presented in Figure 56.

Careful alignment was also required in order to align the pulleys on Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 . Covering plates were also added around all the rotating parts which served safety purposes. an aluminium disc was attached with a steel bolt on the outer rim which acted as pickup for the electronic ignition system. Firstly. displaying the components mentioned above. Similarly. A plate was manufactured which attached to the base mounting and served as attachment for the ignition system and timing sensor.Page 86 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ permit the engine placement to be adjusted left to right. Figure 57 illustrates the layout at the end of the engine crank shaft. a number of components were manufactured. At the end of the pulley. Very precise adjustment was needed fastening all the components to the end of the crank shaft to eliminate any unbalanced forces. This setup created many challenges and difficulties. which was connected to the dynamometer with a pulley and belt system and it was thought to use the same system components to connect the 4-stroke sleeve valve engine.1 Belt Driven A previous project made use of a 2-stroke sleeve valve engine. The next step was to link the engine to the dynamometer as the dynamometer would be used to start the engine and measure the engine torque produced when running. the mounting base was attached to slider rails in the floor which permitted the engine placement to be adjusted closer or further from the dynamometer. excluding the covering plates.1. a connector was manufactured which bolted onto the end of the crank shaft and contained a square stub end where the pulley was fastened onto. An oil tank was also manufactured and attached onto one of the engine mounting brackets. 5. In order to connect the 4-stroke sleeve valve engine to the dynamometer using the pulley and belt system.

Page 87 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ the engine and dynamometer respectively. Tightening the tension in the belt caused the belt to break. The connector used for the belt setup was adjusted to fit to the joint and holes were machined into the Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 . Connector Pulley & Belt Aluminium End Disc & Bolt Timing Sensor Ignition System Plate Ignition System Figure 57: Engine Belt and Pulley Layout 5.1. but the belt jumped on the pulleys. This setup solved both the problem of alignment and the jumping belt and should not apply unwanted forces on the crank bearings.2 Direct Coupling It was subsequently decided to use a direct coupling by means of a constant velocity (CV) joint. Thereafter the engine was motored by the dynamometer. Although an extra belt was available. An available CV joint was used and fixed to the dynamometer. it was realised that the alignment and jumping problems justified a change in connecting the engine to the dynamometer. Over tightening of the belt could also lead to excessive forces exerted on the crank shaft bearing. possibly causing it to fail.

Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 . Two steel columns were constructed which fitted in between the mounting base and the engine mounting brackets.Page 88 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ connector in order for shear pins to be used to protect the engine from excessive force transmission which could damage the engine. The ignition system plate was moved and a new cover plate was constructed which also housed the ignition timing sensor. required the engine to be lifted in order for the crank shaft to be at the same height as the shaft of the dynamometer. The new layout however. but it was uncertain whether the engine was running on its own or being driven by the dynamometer and just firing randomly. The engine fired. Dynamometer Timing Sensor New Cover Plate with CVJoint underneath Ignition Coil Ignition System Figure 58: Engine CV Joint Layout Using this setup. the engine was brought up to about 2400 rpm with the dynamometer. The carburettor was connected to a tank with unleaded fuel and the ignition system switched on. The new setup is presented in Figure 58 and Figure 59.

2 CONCLUSION The aim of the experimental setup was to acquire pressure. Variables such as heat transfer coefficients. cylinder wall and head. temperature and engine output reading and to use these values to calibrate the WAVE model of the engine. the laboratory exhaust system would have to be fixed as there is some sort of a blockage and the carburettor settings would have to be inspected. Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 . ignition timing and friction factors can be calibrated using the experimental data.Page 89 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ It is therefore suggested that a type of clutch should be connected between the dynamometer and the engine in order to let the engine run free. ambient temperature and pressure. 5. Before the engine could be started again. the lack of experimental data prohibited the calibration of the engine model. Oil Tank Engine Mounting Brackets Mounting Base Steel Columns Figure 59: Engine Mountings This was the point where it was realised that there was not sufficient time to get the engine running and complete this report. surface temperatures of thepiston. However.

a great deal was learned through the experience of attempting to acquire experimental results. Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 . Should work on this engine be continued. This will ease the starting of the engine.Page 90 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ Nonetheless. it is suggested that the direct coupling that presently set up between the engine and dynamometer be improved by adding a clutch between the two machines.

1 CHANGES FROM INITIAL MODEL The only changes made to the initial model was to replace the valve discharge coefficients taken from (Waldron. Exactly the same model was used as the sleeve valve model. except the valve definitions. this study concludes with the update of the initial engine model to include the CFD derived valve discharge coefficients. 1940) with the values obtained by means of CFD analyses as described in Chapter 4. Figure 60: Updated Discharge Coefficient Input Page for Inlet Valve Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 . 6. Furthermore. a model was set up with poppet valves instead of sleeve valves in order to see if the sleeve valves boast any performance advantages in this engine. This resulted in the discharge coefficient input pages as presented in Figure 60 for one of the inlet valves and Figure 61 for one of the exhaust valves. FINAL WAVE MODEL Due to the lack of experimental results. The results generated with the new model will be compared to the results of the initial model and subsequent conclusions will be made.Page 91 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ 6.

especially intake and exhaust systems. 6. was used. It was assumed that the Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 . The same engine model as the sleeve valve engine was used. a model of a similarly sized engine was set up which consist of poppet valves instead of sleeve valves. limiting the sizes of the valves. It is true that a similar sized poppet valve engine would have different geometries. The constraint here is that the valves should fit into the cylinder head. The first thing was to determine the size of the valves.Page 92 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ Figure 61: Updated Discharge Coefficient Input Page for Exhaust Valve The rest of the model was left unchanged and this provided an excellent opportunity to evaluate the influence of the discharge coefficient on the final results of the simulation. These results will be discussed at the end of this chapter. This was done purely to see if there are any performance advantages in using sleeve valve engines.2 EQUIVALENT POPPET VALVE MODEL As a comparison between sleeve and poppet valve engines. It was decided to use a graphical method to determine the maximum valve sizes. with only the valve models being changed to represent poppet valves. three inlet and two exhaust valves. A similar valve configuration. but the same model was used in order to only distinguish the differences caused by the different valves.

The blue circles representing the inlet valves and the smaller red circles representing the exhaust valves. The open duration and crank timing input variables were specified so that the valves open and close at exactly the same crank angles as with the sleeve valves. The valve movement for the inlet and exhaust valves were specified with the predetermined “fast” polynomial as hardcoded in the WAVE software.5 mm inlet valves and 27 mm exhaust valves. resulting in a final valve configuration as presented in Figure 62.Page 93 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ cylinder head is flat.8 mm. The open duration Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 .7 mm and an exhaust valve lift of roughly 6. The respective valve lifts were calculated by assuming that the maximum skirt area is equal to the valve area . Figure 62: Valve Configuration for Poppet Valve Model This layout was achieved with 30. This resulted in an inlet valve lift of roughly 7.

17 Nm at 6000 rpm.3.5°.23 kW at 6500 rpm and torque of 35. 6.16 kW and 0. The model was solved and the results compared to the results of the updated sleeve valve engine model to analyse the performance differences.Page 94 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ and crank timing for the inlet valves were 333° and 465.3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The results of the model specified with CFD derived discharged coefficients and the model specified with poppet valves were studied and some conclusions drawn. resulting in an inlet valve opening at 299° crank angle and inlet valve close at 632° crank angle. The brake power and torque curves (see Figure 63) have similar profiles and very similar values with a power output of the updated model of 23. To achieve an exhaust valve opening at 91° and closing at 400° the open duration for the exhaust valves was specified as 309° and the crank timing as 245.1 Initial Model vs. Updated Model The results for the updated sleeve valve model are very similar than the results of the initial model.5° respectively. It is 0.23 Nm more than the initial model. Figure 63: Brake Power and Torque Calculated with Updated Model Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 . 6.

Figure 65: Valve Mass Flow Rates – Updated Model Left & Initial Model Right Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 . compared to the lower effective areas of these valves in the initial model (right). all the results compare similarly for these two models.Page 95 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ In the same way. The difference in effective areas leads to the different mass flow rate plots as presented in Figure 65. Notice the smaller difference between the profiles in the range of 360° and 540° on the updated model plot (left). There is however differences when examining the effective areas of the valves and the mass flow rate through the valves. Figure 64: Effective Valve Areas – Updated Model Left & Initial Model Right The effective area plots. illustrates the effect of the higher discharge coefficients for the end inlet valves of the updated model (left). Figure 64.

3.54 Nm less than the sleeve valve model.02949 kg/s. For the initial model it is 0. The brake power and torque calculated for the poppet valve model are 22. It is only 0. Figure 66: Brake Power and Torque Calculated with Poppet Valve Model The only difference between these two models is the definition of the valves. air-fuel-ratio.83 kW at 6500 rpm and 34.02933 kg/s and for the updated model it is 0. a very similar value is obtained. it can be shown that the power produced by the engine is a function of the engine speed. This can be observed in the mass flow rates calculated through the carburettor element. The results of the poppet valve engine are very similar to the sleeve valve engine model results. Further. Considering that for the two different engine models.Page 96 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ When considering the mass flow rate of all the inlet valves combined.63 Nm at 6000 rpm respectively. Figure 66 illustrates a very similar performance profiles. fuel heating value.2 Sleeve Valve Model vs. Different valve areas are specified and different discharge coefficients are specified for Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 . all these variables are equal except the mass flow rate.4 kW and 0. however. fuel conversion efficiency and the air mass flow rate. it is clear that the performances are very similar because the air mass flow rate values are very similar. Poppet Valve Model The comparison of these results was done using the sleeve valve model with discharge coefficients derived from the CFD analyses. 6.

This difference can be contributed to more area available for valves ports in the case of the sleeve valve engine and the higher discharge coefficients of the sleeve valves due to less flow obstruction. with a maximum of just more than 600 mm² compared to the maximum for the poppet valve model of just more than 400 mm². Figure 67: Valve Effective Areas – Sleeve Valve Model Left & Poppet Valve Model Right The respective effective valve areas results in the mass flow rates as presented in Figure 68. Figure 68: Valve Mass Flow Rates – Sleeve Valve Model Left & Poppet Valve Model Right Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 . the mass flow rates through the carburettor element presents similar flow rates.02949 kg/s. Figure 67 illustrates the much higher effective valve areas of the sleeve valve model (right). Although the peaks of the poppet valve model (left) are lower than the peaks of the sleeve valve model.02947 kg/s compared to 0. Therefore it is logical to also compare the effective valve areas and mass flow rates through the valves. 0.Page 97 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ the two models.

the power of the poppet valve model is lower than that of the sleeve valve model at higher engine speeds due to the smaller effective area of the valves causing choked flow at lower mass flow rates. the effective areas of the sleeve valves are greater than that of the poppet valves. As seen in Figure 67.12 kW against 22. At this engine speed the mass flow rates through the carburettor elements are 0. the effective areas of the valves were sufficient to avoid choked flow. subsequently increasing the velocity of the flow through the valves (see Equation (20)). it amounts to roughly a 3% difference which is observed in the respective brake power figures of 24. the two models compared here was analysed again.1. the similar air mass flow rates into the engine results in very similar performance figures. when increasing the engine speed.Page 98 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ As explained in Section 6. At 7500 rpm the sleeve valve engine reaches maximum brake power. and therefore it is believed that the flow through the poppet valves will choke prior to the flow through the sleeve valves when increasing the engine speed.03306 kg/s and 0. higher engine speeds will have to be considered. At the engine speeds considered up to now. The question now arises. can any of the so called performance benefits of the sleeve valve engine be seen with simulations or not. This difference increases with increasing engine speeds as observed in the figure. Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 .3. sleeve and poppet valves. this time at up to higher engine speeds. the mass flow rate demand will also increase. the required mass flow rate induced by the piston movement could be delivered by the valves. Although it is not a big difference. To test this.72 kW. because sonic conditions has not been reached yet. To answer this question for these specific simulations. to see if the poppet valve performance succumb to that of the sleeve valve model at higher engine speeds as predicted. However. Figure 69 illustrates the brake power results of these extended simulations. In all the cases. As predicted.03229 kg/s for the sleeve valve and poppet valve models respectively.

This study has focussed largely on determining the true valve area of the arbitrary shaped sleeve valves as well as the discharge coefficients of these valves. it will be of high Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 . While it was shown that the exact determination of these variables did not make a substantial difference in simulating the performance of the experimental engine. Therefore.4 CONCLUSION Although the different discharge coefficients used for the sleeve valve model did not make a significant difference in the engine performance. Subsequently comparing the sleeve valve model to the poppet valve model lead to the realisation that when the mass flow rates through the engine increases. the effective valve areas becomes of high importance and hence the discharge coefficients and true valve areas becomes of high importance. the flow has the possibility to choke if the effective valve areas are not sufficiently large.Page 99 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ Figure 69: Brake Power of Sleeve and Poppet Valve Models 6. it did make an observable difference in the effective valve areas of the different valves.

The small valve areas in the downsized engines will result in higher flow velocities through the valves. The methods of determining the true valve areas and discharge coefficients presented in this report can therefore serve a great purpose if sleeve valve engine technology is to be re-evaluated. Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 . This is due to the possibility of choked flow in the high mass flow rate high speed engines and small valve area in downsized engines.Page 100 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ importance in either high speed sleeve valve engine or downsized sleeve valve engines where correctly simulating choked flow through the valves will be of very high importance. leading to choked flow and the necessity to accurately predict the choked condition.

Subsequently. the lack of sleeve valve engine development in the computer era necessitates the need for sleeve valve models when sleeve valve analyses are done using computer simulations. It is subsequently important to accurately predict the onset of choked flow to determine the maximum mass flow rate which in turn determines the engine performance. FINAL CONCLUSION AND FURTHER WORK 7. However. in the modern CAD environment this method might be redundant as the design software will probably be able to automatically calculate the valve areas. All this leads to possible higher performance outputs especially in downsized engines. working through this method Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 . It was realised that very accurate valve models are needed for high speed applications where choked flow through the valves occur.Page 101 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ 7. the present interest in downsizing due to emission regulations therefore justifies the consideration and analyses of sleeve valve engines. However. It was initially believed that accurate sleeve valve areas and discharge coefficients are needed in order to accurately simulate sleeve valve engine performance. This occurs when engines operate at very high engine speeds. and can also occur in downsized engines where minimal space is available for valves and the consequent small valve areas tend to produce high flow velocities leading to choked flow. Nonetheless. In order to obtain accurate sleeve valve models the valve areas must be determined as a function of the engine crank angle as well as the valve discharge coefficients. This belief was proved valid in the comparison of the sleeve valve engine model and the similar poppet valve engine model.1 CONCLUSION The use of sleeve valves in engine design pose advantages in the form of enhanced breathing capabilities and possibly larger valve areas when downsizing the piston bore. This is challenging as very random valve profiles occur. This study presents a mathematical method to determine the sleeve valve areas accurately from engine drawings and practical measurements from the engine.

It was shown how CFD was used to obtain discharge coefficients for the respective valves of the experimental engine. It was done using standard software that does not even provide the use of sleeve valve models. The sleeve valve models described in this study could therefore be used to accurately simulate the performance of a sleeve valve engine. Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 .Page 102 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ still provides a proper understanding of the sleeve movement during the engine cycle and could aid in the design of new sleeve valve configurations. Extensive work was also done on determining the valve discharge coefficients. 7. Experimental coefficients were found in the open literature and employed in an initial WAVE model. but were more detailed especially for different valve openings. A first and obvious extension of this project would be to acquire experimental sleeve valve engine results and to calibrate the engine model presented in this report. it is however suggested that the designer determine discharge coefficients characteristic to the specific sleeve valve profiles being design or analysed. When more detailed engine analyses are done. Chapter 5. As was done in this report. for instance in a detail design phase. CFD simulations could be used to determine these coefficients.2 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER W ORK As with any project there is always more work that could be done on this project. These coefficients provided very sufficient results and it is suggested that these coefficients could be used in an initial model especially during analyses in a conceptual design phase. These models will be sufficient for analysing sleeve valve engine performance. could provide an excellent starting point should this task is undertaken. which describes the experimental setup. The resultant CFD coefficients compared very well with the experimental coefficients found in the open literature.

but the surrounding element geometries were simplified to a simple orifice type setup. Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 .Page 103 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ A second recommendation for further work would be to redo the CFD analyses of the discharge coefficients. In this study the detail geometry of the valve openings were considered. There are certainly always improvements that could also be done to the projects. It is also suggested that the CFD simulations for the exhaust valves be updated with a temperature boundary condition representing the high temperature exhaust gasses. the CFD models be updated. instead of the simplified 300K simulations done in this study. Although it is believed that the current CFD results are a very good representation of the coefficients (as it compares well with the experimental results) it is suggested that for more detail analyses of the sleeve valve engine. for instance including the sleeve material in the heat transfer coefficient of the cylinder liner. Therefore it is suggested that the CFD analyses be updated with the detail geometries of these adjacent elements as well. but it is believed that the above mentioned issues are that major issues that needs to be addressed before more conclusions can be drawn after which more work could be identified.

Cole. J. P. Inc. Bosch. (1931). CFD Study of a 4 Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine. Fluid Mech. (2006). Annu. The High-Speed Internal-Combustion Engine. School of Engineering. 319-338. FSAE: Engine Simulation with WAVE. Hendrickson. UK: Cranfield University. HMSO. . Dardalis.Page 104 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ 8. A. Incropera. Inc. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer (4th ed. Powertrain. A. (2004). A. Austin. South Africa: Potchefstroom University for Christian Higher Education. Cranfield. Lowi. Mechanics of Fluids (3rd ed. D. (1947). School of Engineering. Lecture Notes. (2004). Ricardo.).). L. Franco Sumariva. Ricardo and Company. F. P. (2003). J. (1992). P. London: Professional Engineering Publishing. 33. London: Blackie & Son Limited. (1995). Designing a Miniature Engine for Large-Engine Performance.). New York: John Wiley & Sons. (1999). S. Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 . Early Work on Fluid Mechanics in the IC Engine. Greenhalgh. School of Engineering. J. Investigation of Induction Swirl on Single-Cylinder Sleeve-Valve Engines. Cranfield. & De Witt. Automotive Handbook (6th ed. School of Engineering. Very Long Range Autonomous Aircraft. M. Shames. Rotating Liner Engine A New Approach to Reduce Engine Friction and Increase Fuel Economy in Heavy Duty Engines. Lumley. Calculus (5th ed. Powertrain. H. Texas: RLE Technologies. H.). P. UK: Cranfield University. I. Advanced Thermal-FLuid Systems Course Notes. D. (2007). Farrugia. (2004). (2001). Inc. REFERENCES Anton. Oakland: Oakland University. R. Rev. Rousseau. D.. UK: Cranfield University. Chabert. Bingen WA. SAE . A Miniature Powerplant for Very Small. Lecture Notes. Singapore: McGraw-Hill. (1996). H. (2002). USA: The Insitu Group. Potchefstroom. L. (2006). G. UK: Cranfield University. (2007). Developing the Direct Injection on a 4 Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine.

. from www. N.enginehistory.Page 105 of 105 ______________________________________________________________________ Vasudevan. School of Engineering. SAE Report No. 227-239. S. Ishizuya. 700122. (1940).htm Yagi. HighPerformance. Cranfield. (n. Wells. Report No 717. Honda R&D Co.org/pioneering_sleeve_valve. I. & Fujii. Research and Development of High-Speed. Retrieved May 9. Flow Coefficients of Monosleeve Valves.. Small Displacement Honda Engines. Modelling of a 4-Stroke Sleeve Valve Engine August 2007 . (2007). (1970). UK: Cranfield University.. A. D.d.). Waldron. J. C. 2007. Ltd. A Study of Coating Technologies for Minimal Lubrication Operation for Sleeve Valve Engine. National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics . The 120 HP Argyll.

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