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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, VOL. IA-21, NO.

4, MAY/JUNE 1985 803

Energy Losses in Electrical Power Systems


WILLIAM J. MCDONALD, SENIOR MEMBER, IEEE, AND HERBERT N. HICKOK, SENIOR MEMBER, IEEE

Abstract-Today's power systems engineer is perplexed by the pressure TABLE I


to "'do something" about wasted energy. He needs to know where losses THERMAL EFFICIENCY IN POWER GENERATION
exist in system components, If he can measure them, what are the
theoretical savings, and what he can do about them. An Introduction to Thermal Energy
this continuing subject is given, typical loss data on electrical equipment Effiriency Lost
are provided, and measurement problems are discussed. System design Prime Mover (Percent) (Percent)
criteria for reducing losses are considered. A checklist for decreasing
losses is provided, and operating losses and future savings and trends are Gas turbine
discussed. 1) simple 17-25 75-83
2) regenerative 25-34 66-75
Steam turbine 20-27 73-80
INTRODUCTION
STAG-unfired 25-34 66-75
JECENTLY, an industrial plant power system engineer (steam and gas turbine
was given an edict by his management to cut power combination)
consumption by ten percent without reducing production. STAG-fired 50-70 30-50
With confidence, he and two electricians started out on a
program of systematically going through his plant cutting out
or reducing lights. With the plant safety man closely watching combination of the two in our plant, it must be seen
what he did to lighting levels, he diligently pursued the immediately that the preponderance of wasted energy comes in
program to completion and then sat down to add up his converting fuel into mechanical energy-namely, before we
reduction in load. He anticipated getting the job at least half get to the input shaft of the generator. The low thermal cycle
done. Somewhat to his dismay, he found that his results had efficiency inherent in gas and/or steam turbines accounts for
netted him a saving in energy of less than one quarter of one about two out of every three Btu's of energy burned going into
percent. This prompted a phone call asking "...where do I the stack, into cooling water, or otherwise becoming unavail-
find the other 9 3/4-percent energy saving that I need?" This able for conversion to electrical energy. The big exception, of
illustrated the frustration many of us initially have in trying to course, is where heat (or steam) is needed for the process.
track down and slay the twin culprits of wasted energy- Aside from this, however, thermal losses account for the big
energy lost in power system components and energy used in percent of lost energy. A large modern utility power plant has
operation where it is not needed. Whether our management a thermal efficiency of around 39 percent. Table I shows the
has given us a directive to do so or not, all of us at least have order of magnitude of efficiency of most industrial plant
an uneasy feeling that we had better get into the game of generation.
savings energy. The high cost of fuel, the ever-tightening Much work is being done in the power generation field to
competitive market that our companies face, the end of the era improve efficiency, and the values in Table I are a far cry from
of almost inexhaustible fuel supply, and the growing trend to the 10-15-percent efficiency in industrial plants of, say, 30
be better stewards of the energy entrusted to us, all give us the years ago. Since this paper is primarily concerned with
incentive to do our part to improve efficiency whereever electrical losses and many papers have been written on thermal
possible in our power systems. Before the oil embargo, fuel cycle improvement, no more will be included here.
was about 20 percent of the cost of a kilowatt hour. Today it is
about 80 percent. Will it increase ten percent per year as some
ELECTRICAL LOSSES
forecast? Electrical losses vary over a wide range depending on the
complexity of the power system, the geographical area that it
THERMAL LOSSES covers, and the kind of plant process involved. A rough
First, let us get an overall picture as to where energy is estimate would be that these would vary from 0.5 to 20
consumed. Whether we generate or buy power or have some percent. Though little has been done to document the
breakdown of energy consumption in industrial plants, Fig. 1
shows a probable picture of total system energy and where it
Paper PID 84-15, approved by the Pulp and Paper Industry Committee of goes.
the IEEE Industry Applications Society for presentation at the 30th Annual
IEEE Pulp and Paper Technical Conference, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, June It might first be thought that, since electrical losses are such
19-22, 1984. Manuscript released for publication July 23, 1984. a small part of the total, it would be futile to spend much effort
W. J. McDonald is with the General Electric Company, P.O. Box 4659, on them. On the contrary, however, note that each kilowatt of
Atlanta, GA 30302.
H. N. Hickok is with the General Electric Company, P.O. Box 4367, loss saved actually saves about 3 kW of fuel energy. In
Houston, TX 77210. addition to the dollars saved in fuel if the plant generated
0093-9994/85/0500-0803$01.00 © 1985 IEEE
804 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, VOL. IA-21. NO. 4. MAY/JUNE 1985

rABLE It
RANGE OF LOSSES IN POWER SYSTEM EQUIPMENT
Energy Loss-
Full Load
Components (Percent)

A) Outdoor circuit breakers 0.002- 0.015


(15-230 kV)
B) Generators 0.09 - 3.50
C) Medium-voltage switchgear 0.005- 0.02
D) Current-limiting reactors 0.09 - 0.30
(600 V-15 kV)
E) Transformers 0.40 - 1.90
F) Load break switches 0.003- 0.025
G) Medium-voltage starters 0.02 - 0.15
Fig. 1. Consumption of energy in industrial process. H) Busway (480 V and below) 0.05 - 0.50
I) Low-voltage switchgear 0.13 - 0.34
J) Motor control centers 0.01 - 0.40
K) Cable 4.() 1.00 -
power, there is also the investment saved on the additional L) Motors
generation, distribution and utilization equipment required to a) 1-10 hp 14.00 -35.00
produce the wasted kilowatt of power. b) 10-200 hp 6.00 -12.00
c) 200-1500 hp 4.00 - 7.00
Industrial plants today vary widely in the amount of dollars d) 1500 and up 2.30 - 4.00
claimed as a savings when a wasted kilowatt of electrical M) Rectifiers (large) 3.00 - 9.00
energy is eliminated. The variation runs from about $1000 to N) Static Variable Speed Drives 4.00 -15.00
0) Capacitors (watts loss/var) 0.50 - 2.00
$3000/kW. The actual figure includes not necessarily today's P) Lighting (Im/W) 3.00 - 9.00
fuel cost, which may vary as much as five to one, but its
projected future over the life of the equipment, say, 20 years.
If power is purchased, todays power rate varies from 2 1/2¢ to power system components is responsible for the large varia-
9Y per kWh. Its projected future rate can easily double. Wide tion of overall percent plant losses. A plant component mix of
variation in taxes, overhead, load duty cycle, maintenance, mainly small motors, 10 hp and under, averaging 15 percent
life of equipment, interest on investment, and accounting loss, and low voltage distribution system could easily lose 20
procedures all account for this three-to-one span in savings. percent of its purchased energy. It has been estimated that over
Utilities, of course, put different values into these parameters 75 percent of the energy used in industrial plants is handled by
since power is their output product. As an example, a 5000- motors. About half of this is in the 1-125-hp range with a
kVA transformer has a 0.88-percent loss at 0.9 PF full load. If range of efficiency of 70-94 percent [1]. Other plants with
the plant figure in $/kW of loss is $1000, the plant would mainly large drives may have total plant losses of less than six
charge that transformer with 5000 kVA x 0.9 PF x 0.88/100 percent.
percent x $1000/kW = $39 600, nearly $40 000 in losses To date, very few plant surveys have been made to
over its life if operated at rated load continuously. Inciden- determine actual plant losses. They are time-consuming and
tally, the transformer original cost was about $40 000 in- tedious and are good for a given plant load only.
stalled, so losses can about equal first cost.
LOSS DATA
LOSSES IN SYSTEM COMPONENTS Recently, there have been more requests for specific energy
Like our friend who called us at the beginning of the paper, loss data on individual power system components. Considera-
most plant engineers would like to find the immediate big ble present data have been gathered to size air conditioning
savings. Energy losses do not come that way. They are in units where components have been located indoors in power
small amounts sometimes in small fractions of a percent. control rooms. For that reason, it has sometimes been on the
Though they are to be found scattered across a power system, high side. In some cases, it is now getting a closer look. The
they tend to be located toward the utilization equipment end. following data have been calculated or gathered from various
They are elusive, quiet, and well hidden. First let us find out product engineering groups. They are based on rated load
where the losses are. Table IL is a list of the major components flowing through the equipment and must be reduced to actual
in a power system and the range of losses we may expect to load for a particular case. They are representative data to give
find associated with them. the user an estimate of equipment energy losses. Specific units
Much of the following data will be presented as "percent may vary considerably depending on their particular applica-
energy loss." Percent energy loss is simply a ratio of power tion. The data are intended to be representative of equipment
consumed internally in equipment to the total energy input. manufactured in the U.S. and Canada.
Energy consumed you might consider as the charge equipment Since the designation of watts is a rate function, actual
makes to the power system for handling its power. The loss energy lost must be a function of time such as watthours. To
generally ends up in heat to be dissipated with the exception of convert watthours to Btu, multiply watt values by 3.413 to get
rotating equipment where windage is a factor. Btu/h.
The foregoing wide range of losses for various kinds of Generators: Table III gives the losses for 3600-r/min 13.8-
MCDONALD AND HOCKOK: ENERGY LOSSES IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS 805

TABLE Im
LOSSES FOR 3600-r/min 13.8-kV INDUSTRIAL GENERATORS
TABLE IV
Efficiency ESTIMATED FULL-LOAD LOSSES FOR 5 AND 15 kV
kVA PF Cooling (Percent)
Watts Loss
9375 0.80 air 97.6 Breaker Unit Magnetic Vacuum Vacuum
12 500 0.85 " 98.1 Ampere Rate (1) High (1) High (2) High
15 625 0.85 98.3
18 750 0.85 98.3
25 600 0.85 98.3 (1) 1200 1000 675 -

32 000 0.85 98.3 (2) 1200 - - 1220


44 000 0.85 98.3 (1) 2000 1500 1335 _
50 000 0.85 98.4 (1) 2000+(1) 1200 - - 1880
25 600 0.85 30# H2 98.5 (1) 3000 2500 2030 -

32 000 0.85 " 98.6 Heaters per unit 330 W


44 000 0.85 30# H2 98.7
51 200 0.85 98.7 Auxiliary unit, average 600 W
64 000 0.85 98.7 Bus Duct
76 800 0.85 98.8
96 000 0.85 " 98.8 1299 A 75 W/ft
115 000 0.85 98.9 2000 A 100 W/ft
133 700 0.85 99.0 3000 A 175 W/ft
161 300 0.90 99.1
175 000 0.90 99.1
TABLE V
ENERGY LOSSES IN CURRENT-LIMITING AIRCORE REACTORS
kV industrial generators. The losses include windage and
friction but not seal and bearing losses as per ANSI Standard Loss (W)
C50. 10. Part load efficiencies may be important in an Equivalent kVA 600 V 5 kV 15 kV
evaluation of hydrogen- and air-cooled generators. The
following data showing generator load in percent of rated kVA 5 360 400 445
are based on a rating of 44 000 kVA, 0.85 PF, 13.8 kV: 10 565 625 695
20 830 922 1025
30 1074 1193 1315
40 1259 1399 1555
100 75 50 25 50 1437 1597 1775
Percent Percent Percent Percent 60 1559 1732 1925
80 1867 2074 2305
H2 efficiency 98.7 98.7 98.6 97.9 100 2126 2362 2625
Air efficiency 98.3 98.0 97.3 95.1 140 2673 2970 3300
kW loss 180 224 256 277 200 3240 3600 4000
300 4131 4590 5100
400 4981 5535 6150
500 5710 6345 7050
Medium- Voltage Switchgear-5 and 15 kV: Table IV 600 6399 7110 7900
gives the estimated full-load losses for 5-kV and 15-kV 800 7695 8550 9500
1000 8829 9810 10 900
switchgear. The losses are for indoor units; for outdoor add 1200 9881 10 980 12 200
500 W/unit for heaters if air magnetic and 300 Wfunit if 1400 10 935 12 150 13 500
vaccuum. The losses are approximately the same for alumi- 1600 11931 13257 14703
1800 12 887 14 319 15 910
num or copper bus. Finally, the losses vary as the square of 2000 13 810 15 365 17 050
current throughout range. The percent energy losses of 2200 14 580 16 200 18 000
breaker units with load at 0.9 PF, all ratings, are 2400 15 390 17 100 19 000
2600 16 200 18 000 20 000
2800 17010 18900 21000
3000 17 820 19 800 22 000
Voltage Efficiency Losses 3500 19 602 21 780 24 200
(kV) (Percent) (Percent) 4000 21 303 23 670 26 300
4500 23 085 25 650 28 500
2.4 99.98 0.02 5000 24 786 27 540 30 600
4.16 99.99 0.01
6000 27 783 30 870 34 300
13.8 99.994 0.006 7000 30 699 34 110 37 900
8000 33 534 37 260 41 400
9000 36 207 40 230 44 700
Reactors: Energy losses in watts in current-limiting aircore 10 000 38 718 43 020 47 800
12000 43 335 48 150 53 500
reactors are shown in Table V as a function of equivalent 14000 47 628 52 920 58 800
single-phase reactor kVA: 15 000 49 734 55 260 61 400
J2X
kVA (equiv.) =

1000
806 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS. VOL. IA-21, NO. 4. MAY/JUNE 1985

TABLE VI TABLE Vii


TRANSFORMER LOSSES, LOAD CENTER TYPE-THREE PHASE, OIL OR TRANSFORMER LOSSES, SUBSTATION TYPE-THREE PHASE, OIL OR
SILICON" SILICON
.__ . .7 ._ .. _.. .: -.~ -. _

No-Load No-Load
kVA Loss Trotal Loss Percent kVA Loss Total Loss Percent
OA Rating (W) (W) Loss OA Rating (W) (W) Loss

750 1940 15 670 1.79 2.4-, 4.16-, 6.9-, 12-, 13.2-, or 13.8-kV delta primary, 480-, 480Y/277-V
1000 2600 16 170 1.60 delta or wye secondary
1500 3390 22 910 1.51
2000 3850 27 100 1.34 750 1950 9300 1.38
2500 5200 31 960 1.27 1000 2500 11 800 1.31
1500 3400 16 300 1.21
2000 4400 21 000 1.17
2.4-, 4.16-, 6.9-, 12-, 13.2-, or 13.8-kV delta primary, 480-, 480Y/277- 2500 5200 24 700 1.10
V delta or wye secondary. 6.9-, 12.0-, 13.2-, or 13.8-kV delta primary, 2400-4160-V delta or wye
secondarv
where I is the current in amperes and X is the reactance in 1000 2400 10 000 1.22
1500 3200 15 200 1.13
ohms. Multiply watt losses by three for three-phase reactors. 2000 4300 19 000 1.06
Notes: 2500 5000 22 500 1.00
1) The data in Table V are for indoor units. For outdoor 3750 6800 31 000 0.92
5000 8700 39 700 0.88
units, add ten percent. 7500 11 500 54 000 0.80
2) Interpolate for losses for intermediate kVA's. 10 000 15 000 64 000 0.71
3) To the values in Table V add losses generated by field of 22.9-, 26.4-, or 34.4-kV delta primary, 2400-14 400-V delta or wye
reactor in surrounding magnetic material such as metallic secondary
beams, walls, floor, etc. These generally approach zero if they 1000 2700 12 600 1.40
are outside the magnetic clearances shown on reactor drawings 1500 3600 16 700 1.24
2500 5600 24 000 1.07
unless they are surrounded by a complete loop of magnetic 3750 7700 33 000 0.98
material such as structural building steel. 5000 8500 42 500 0.94
4) The value of R in ohms of a reactor is on the order of 1/ 7500 12 000 58 000 0.86
10 000 16 000 68 000 0.76
SOth-l/lOOth the value of X in ohms.
5) The values in Table V are for aluminum windings. The 46-kV insulation class, delta primary 250-kV BIL, 2400--14 400-V wye or
delta secondary
values for copper are approximately the same.
1000 3200 13 500 1.50
6) Throughout the load range, losses vary as a square of the 1500 4100 17 100 1.27
through kVA and PF. The percent energy losses for typical 2500 5500 26 000 1.16
reactors are 375Q 8000 33 600 1.00
5000 9500 42 500 0.94
75()0 12 500 58 000 0.86
10 000 16 (X) 70 500 0.78
69-kV insulation class, delta primary, 350-kV BIL, 2400-14 400-V wye or
VD 30 Equivalent Loss delta secondary
Voltage Reactor (Percent) Circuit kVA kVA (Percent)
1500 5000 18 000 1.33
2500 6000 27 900 1.24
480 1000 A, 0.01 3.61 830 10 0.227 3750 8500 36 200 1.07
2400 1200 A, 0.10 8.65 5000 144 0.180 5000 10 500 44 000 0.98
4160 1200 A, 0.10 5.00 8640 144 0.105 7500 14 000 59 000 0.87
13800 1200 A, 0.5 7.53 28 600 864 0.094 10 00 17 000 72 000 0.80

Note: Load tap changing transformers will add five to ten percent to no-
Transformers: The losses for new transformers should be load losses and five to ten percent to load losses plus adjustment for tap
obtained from the manufacturer. Representative historic en- connection above or below rated voltage.
ergy losses in transformers at self-cooled rating, rated kVA,
and 55°C rise are given in Tables VI-VIII. actual current or kVA to rated current or kVA, and add back
Notes: no-load losses for total.
1) Load losses vary as the square of the current. Load-Break Switches-5 and 15 k V: Current-limiting
2) No-load losses are based nameplate voltage and vary
on fuses are not available for the full line of switch ratings. Where
directly as a function of voltage. Taps above or below the loss of other fuses is known, total loss data can be
nameplate rating will raise or lower losses by the percent calculated using the tabulated switch data. Typical full-load
voltage change. watts loss per units with load-break switches and current-
3) For losses at other than self-cooled rated kVA as in limiting fuses for 5- and 15-kV switches are given in Table IX.
forced-air or forced-oil-air cooling ranges, subtract no-load Losses vary as the square of the current. The typical percent
losses, adjust load loss by the difference of the square of the energy losses for loaded unfused 600- and 1200-A switches
MCDONALD AND HOCKOK: ENERGY LOSSES IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS 807

TABLE VIII TABLE IX


TRANSFORMER LOSSES, LARGE POWER TYPE-WITHOUT LTC TYPICAL FULL-LOAD WATTS LOSS WITH LOAD-BREAK SWITCHES AND
CURRENT-LIMITING FUSES
No-Load
kVA Loss Total Loss Percent Watts Loss
OA Rating (W) (W) Loss
Unfused
Load Current (A) Switch Fuse Total
69-kV class delta primary, 350-kV BIL, 15-kY class wye secondary, 1 10-kY
BIL
12 000
1) 600-A switch, 5 kV
32.3 89 0.82
20 000 42.5 128 0.71 50 5 109 114
25 000 50 150 0.67 100 14 171 185
30 000 57 171 0.63 200 55 300 355
35 000 64 191 0.61 300 125 405 530
40 000 70 210 0.58 400 222 528 750
50 000 82.5 247 0.55 500 347 - -
600 500 - -
115-kV class delta primary, 550-kY BIL, 15-kV class wye secondary, 1 10-kV
BIL 2) 1200-A switch, S kV
5000 14.5 55.0 1.22 50 2 109 111
7500 21.7 70.5 1.04 100 5 171 176
10 000 32.3 81.0 0.90 200 20 300 320
16 000 45.5 114.1 0.79 300 46 405 451
20 000 47.2 130.0 0.72 400 83 528 611
25 000 55.5 153.0 0.68 500 130 - -
30 000 63.5 174.0 0.64 600 187 - -
35 000 71.0 195.0 0.62 800 333 - -
40 000 78.0 214.0 0.59 1000 521 - -
50 000 91.5 252.0 0.56 1200 750 - -

138-kV class delta primary, 650-kV BIL, 15-kV class wye secondary, 1 10-kV 3) 600-A switch, S kV
BIL 50 5 468 473
5000 19.0 54.0 1.20 100 14 502 507
7500 23.5 73.5 1.09 200 55 - -
10 000 30.7 87.5 0.97 300 125 - -
16 000 47.8 120.0 0.83 400 222 - -
20 000 48.0 132.0 0.73 500 347 - -
25 000 56.5 155.0 0.69 600 500 - -
30 000 64.5 177.0 0.66 4) 1200-A switch, 5 kV
35 000 72.0 198.0 0.63
40 000 79.0 217.0 0.60 50 2 468 470
50 000 92.0 255.0 0.57 100 5 502 507
200 20 - -

Note: Transformers with LTC will raise no-load losses five to 20 percent 300 46 - -
and load losses ten to 25 percent.
400 83 - -
500 130 - -
600 187 - -
with 0.9 PF load are 800 333 - -
1000 521 - -
1200 750 - -
Losses
Switch 2400 V 4160 V 13 800 V
(A) (Percent) (Percent) (Percent)
applies to 2.4- or 4.16-kV equipment, one high design and are
600
1200
0.022
0.017
0.013
0.009
0.004 arranged
to show how the power circuit segments can be
0.003
varied to reduce watts loss (Table X).
Notes:
The foregoing tabulations are based on historic data; newer 1) The losses shown in Table X are for indoor units. Add
current limit fuses are available with lower losses as follows: 250 W/unit for heaters, if outdoors.
2) The losses apply to copper or aluminum power bus.
5-kV loss 15-kV Loss 3) Losses vary as the square of the current for contactors
(A) (W) (A) (W) and fuses but are constant for control power transformer and
protective and control devices.
250 170 100 140 Typical percent energy losses of fully loaded motor starters
300 165 125 170 are
350 180 150 175
400 195 175 190 1) 300-hp 2300-V 400-A contactor, 4R fuse: 0.1 1 percent;
450 210 200 220
2) 700-hp 2300-V 400-A contactor, 12R fuse: 0.077
percent;
Medium- Voltage Starter Equipment: Add up estimated 3) 4000-hp 4000-V 700-A contactor, 600 A fuse: 0.13
full-load losses for each cubicle of lineup as follows: data percent;
g80 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS. VOL. IA-21, NO. 4, MAY/JUNE 1985

TABLE X

Load Fuse Contactor Cable Coil, CPT Blowouts Total

(A) Size (W) (W) Size (W) and OL (W) (W) (W)

1) 400-A Contactor
40 3R 22.8 1.9 #8 21.0 2070 0 252.7
6R 11.1 1.9 #6 13.2 233.2
9R 7.5 1.9 #4 8.1 24.5
12R 5.7 1.9 #2 5.1 219.7
18R 3.6 1.9 1/0 3.3 215.8
24R 2.8 1.9 300M 1.2 212.9
60 4R 38.7 4.3 #6 29.7 207 a 0 279.7
9R 16.8 4.3 #4 18.7 246.8
12R 12.6 4.3 #2 11.7 235.6
18R 8.4 4.3 1/0 7.3 227.0
24R 6.3 4.3 300M 2.6 220.2
80 6R 46.2 7.7 #4 33.2 207a 0 204.1
9R 30.0 7.7 #2 20.7 265.4
18R 15.0 7.7 1/0 13.0 242.7
24R 11.4 7.7 300M 4.6 230.7
120 9R 67.8 17.3 #2 46.7 207 a 36 374.8
18R 33.7 17.3 1/0 29.4 36 323.4
24R 25.5 17.3 300M 10.4 36 296.2
160 12R 90.6 30.7 1/0 52.2 207a 114 494.5
24R 45.3 30.7 300M 18.4 114 415.4
240 18R 134.7 69.0 300M 41.5 207° 225 677.2
24R 101.9 69.0 300M 41.5 207 a 225 644.4
360 24R 229.4 155.4 300M 93.3 207 a 372 1057.1
2) 700-A Contactor
240 18R 134.7 69 300M 41.5 268 b 0 513.2
24R 101.9 69 300M 41.5 268 b 0 480.4
600A 20.2 69 500M 24.2 268 b 0 381.4
700A 16.7 69 500M 24.2 268 b 0 377.9
360 24R 229.4 155.4 300M 93.3 268 b 0 746.1
600A 45.4 155.4 500M 54.4 268 b 0 523.2
700A 37.6 155.4 500M 54.4 268 b 0 515.4
500 600A 87.5 300.0 500M 105.0 268 b 20 480.5
600 700A 72.5 432.0 500M 151.2 268 b 28 951.7

a
CPT-1 kVA 54 W
Contactor coils 117
Overload heaters, average 36
Total 207 W
bCPT-1 kVA 54 W
Contactor coils 177.8
Overload heaters, average 36
Total 267.8 W

4) 5000-hp 4000-V 700-A contactor, 700 A fuse: 0.021 cubicle are the sum of those for breakers in the cubicle plus the
percent. power bus loss (Tables XII and XIII).
Busway: In the 600-V class, for use with motor control Notes:
center or switchgear, the full-load three-phases watts loss/ 1) For outdoor equipment add 250 W/unit for heaters.
ft, are shown in Table XI. Losses vary directly as the square of 2) Losses apply to aluminum or copper bus.
current. The typical percent losses for 50 ft of busway with Losses vary as the square of the feeder current plus the
load at 1.0 PF are adjusted losses of the power bus. Typical percent energy
1) 600-A armor-clad 208-V aluminum: 0.84 percent; losses of a cubicle of four 600-A breakers with 400-A trips and
2) 600-A armor-clad 480-V aluminum: 0.36 percent; 0.9 PF loads and a 300-A bus for the following voltages are
3) 5000-A armor-clad 480-V aluminum: 0.21 percent;
4) 1600 A LVD 480-V copper: 0.26 percent; 240 V 0.34 percent
5) 1600 A CL 480-V copper: 0.35 percent. 480 V 0.17 percent
Low-Voltage Switchgear: Typical total losses per indoor 600 V 0.13 percent.
MCDONALD AND HOCKOK: ENERGY LOSSES IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS 809

TABLE XI TABLE XII


FULL-LOAD WATTS LOSSES, THREE PHASES/ft BREAKER LOSSES, THREE POLES'

Ampere Rating Copper Aluminum Breaker Trip Watts


Frame Sizes Coil (A) Loss
1) Armor-Clad
600 29 36 225A only 15 55
800 39 42 20 55
1000 40 50 30 65
1200 43 57 40 60
1350 52 60 225A and 600A 50 60
1600 65 78 70 70
2000 82 94 90 70
2500 96 103 100 65
3000 111 132 125 105
4000 144 173 150 80
5000 173 - 175 110
200 105, IlOb
2) Type LVD 225 140
600 - 36 600A only 250 95
800 38 40 300 119
1000 40 49 350 150
1350 54 78 400 165
1600 68 83 500 225
2000 79 97 600 215
2500 94 120
3000 108 146 1600 A 200 60
4000 163 197 225 75
5000 188 240 250 55
300 40
3) Type CL (Current-Limiting) 350 55
1000 53 66 400 60
1350 73 109 500 90
1600 93 114 600 120
2000 108 134 800 195
2500 131 169 1000 180
3000 157 208 1200 260
4000 197 283 1600 460
3000A 2000 480
2500 750
Motor Control Centers, 600 V Class: Total watts losses 3000 1080
for equipment are the sum of the losses for components 4000A 2000
2500
applicable and are listed in Tables XIV-XVI. 3000
Lighting Panelboards: 0.8 W/A handled, single or three 4000
phase based or mixture of 15, 20 and 30 A circuits.
Vertical and Horizontal Bus: 1) 300-A vertical bus with a Including tap and run back bus and direct acting or static trips, 240, 480,
or 600 V.
600-A main, 75 W. 2) 300-A vertical bus with 1200-A main, b 105 for 225A frame breaker, 110 for 600A frame breaker.
105 W.
Losses vary generally as the square of the current through TABLE XIII
BUS LOSSES, ALUMINUM OR COPPER
control power transformers, individual lights, etc., and fixed
losses regardless of load. The energy losses for a typical 480- Main Bus Watts
V cubicle of, say, two size 1 starters, one size 2, and one size 3 Equipment Size Rating Amperes Loss
with 1200-A power bus would be-0.24 percent.
Cable: Energy losses are a funciton of I2R. The values of R 20- or 22-in stack 1600 570
for use in calculating losses for copper cable at 60 Hz and 3000 1350
75°C are given in Table XVII (multiply ohms by three for 27-in stack 1600 645
3000 1500
three-phase circuit).
30-in stack 3000 1700
Note: The values of resistance in Table XVII are nominal 4000 2100
values and apply to three single-conductor nonmetallic sheath
cables and three-conductor cable in conduit or aerial installa-
tions. They reflect: As an example, determine the loss in two 500-kcmil/phase
three-conductor cable conduits 500 ft long 480-V 900-A load
1) additional losses due to skin and proximity effect; at 0.9 PF:
2) loss due to circulating currents and/or eddy currents in circuit kW = IE 3 cos X
metallic shield; and
3) conduit loss due mainly to eddy currents and bystersis = 900 x 0.48 x 3 x 0.9
effect if conduit is magnetic. = 673.4
810 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, VOL. IA-21, NO. 4. MAY/JUNE 1985

TABLE XVII
VALUES OFR FOR CALCULATING LOSSES

Size Q/ 1000 ft
AWG or kcmiil of Conductor
TABLE XIV
COMBINATION STARTERS, FUSED OR BREAKERa 8 0.780
6 0.489
NEMA Size Watts Loss 4 0.309
2 0.195
1 0.155
1 27 1/0 0.124
2 57 2/0 0.010
3 99 3/0 0.078
4 165 4/0 0.064
5 280 250 0.055
300 0.046
0 Includes control power transformer and pilot light. 350 0.040
400 0.035
450 0.032
500 0.029
TABLE XV 600 0.025
FEEDER TAP UNITS 750 0.021
Frame Ampere Rating Watts Loss

1) Circuit Breakers based on 80-percent loading loss, kW=I2R


TEF, THEF 15-30 4
40-60 16 (900) 2 0.029
70-100 27.5 1000 2
TFJ, TFK 70-100 20
THFK 125-150 26 =17.617 kW
175-225 37
TJJ, TJK 125-225 27 17.617
percent loss= 673 x 100= 2.63 percent.
THJK 250-275 50 673.4
300 55
350-400 65
500-600 85 Assuming $1000/kW cost of energy over the life of the cable,
TKM, THKM 400 70 the cost of energy loss in the cable would be $17 617 if it were
500-600 75 operated continuously at full load.
700-800 140 Motors: Typical efficiencies of motors at rated load are
1000-1200 140
presented in the Tables XVIII-XXIV. To convert to percent
2) Fusible Switches loss or to kW loss, use these formulas:
30 12
60 18 a) percent efficiency = 100 x (output/input)
100 30 b) percent loss = 100 - percent efficiency
200 35
c) kw loss = 0.746 x hp x percent loss/percent
efficiency.
TABLE XVI
Example: For a 200-hp 1200-r/min 460-V TEFC high-
POWER AND LIGHTING TRANSFORMERa efficiency motor (column C in Table XVIII),
a) percent loss = (100 percent - 95.4 percent) -4.6
Single Watts Three Watts
Phase Loss Phase Loss percent
b) kW loss = (0.746 x 200 hp x 4.6 percent)/95.4
1 60 9 295 percent = 7.19 kW.
2 90 15 450
5 190 30 1400 Small motors are induction type, three phase, type NEMA
7.5 240 - - B, 875, 1165, 1750, and 3550 r/min at rated load, 115, 230, or
10 290 - -
460 V.
15 350 - -
25 430 - - Since there is a significant difference in efficiency in some
induction motor ratings, depending on when a motor was
a 480-120/240-V single-phase or 480-208/120 V three-phase. manufactured, Table XVIII is structured as follows:
Column A motors of normal efficiency manufactured prior
to 1980
Column B motors of normal efficiency manufactured after
1979
MCDONALD AND HOCKOK: ENERGY LOSSES IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS 811

TABLE XVHI

Horizontal Horizontal
Dripproof TEFC Severe Duty Dripproof TEFC Severe Duty
Percent Efficiency Percent Efficiency Percent Efficiency Percent Efficiency
Synchronous Normal High Normal High Synchronous Normal High Normal High
HP Speed A B C A B C HP Speed A B C A B C

1/2 3600 69.0 69.0 - 69.0 69.0 30 3600 87.0 88.5 93.6 86.5 88.5 92.4
1800 69.0 69.0 74.0 69.0 69.0 74.0 1800 89.0 89.5 94.1 89.5 90.2 93.6
1200 70.5 71.0 75.0 70.5 71.0 75.0 1200 88.5 89.5 93.6 89.0 90.2 93.0
900 62.5 71.0 - 62.5 71.0 900 88.0 87.5 98.6 90.0 87.5 93.6
1 3600 74.5 77.0 - 74.5 80.0 40 3600 88.0 88.5 93.6 86.5 89.5 93.6
1800 75.0 72.0 84.0 75.0 75.0 84.0 1800 88.5 90.2 94.5 90.5 90.2 94.1
1200 73.0 77.0 81.5 73.0 79.0 81.5 1200 89.0 90.2 94.1 90.0 90.2 93.6
500 70.0 70.0 - 70.0 70.0 79.0 900 88.0 89.5 93.6 90.0 89.5 93.0
1 1/2 3600 - 79.0 84.0 - 80.0 81.5 50 3600 89.0 89.5 93.0 88.0 90.2 93.0
1800 - 77.0 84.0 - 79.0 81.5 1800 89.5 90.2 94.5 91.5 91.7 94.1
1200 - 75.5 86.5 - .5 84.0 1200 90.0 90.2 94.1 91.5 91.5 93.6
2 3600 79.0 81.0 86.5 79.0 86.#
900 89.0 88.5 93.6 90.0 88.5 93.6
86.5
1800 79.5 80.0 84.0 79.5 84.0 84.0 60 3600 - 90.2 93.6 - 90.2 94.1
1200 78.5 77.0 87.5 78.5 80.5 87.5 1800 - 91.0 95.4 - 91.7 95.0
900 70.0 72.0 86.5 70.0 72.0 85.5 1200 - 90.2 95.0 - 91.7 94.1
3 3600 80.0 80.0 86.5 75.5 82.5
900 - 91.0 94.1 - 91.0 93.6
86.6
1800 80.5 80.5 88.5 80.5 82.0 88.5 75 3600 90.5 90.2 94.5 90.5 91.7 94.5
1200 76.0 81.5 90.2 78.0 81.5 89.5 1800 91.0 91.7 95.4 92.0 91.7 95.4
900 74.0 74.0 87.5 74.0 74.0 86.5 1200 91.0 91.7 95.4 92.0 91.7 95.0
5 3600 83.0 82.5 88.5
900 91.0 91.0 94.5 92.0 90.2 94.1
80.5 84.0 88.5
1800 84.0 82.5 88.5 84.0 84.0 88.5 100 3600 91.5 91.7 94.5 91.5 91.7 94.1
1200 79.0 81.5 90.2 78.0 84.0 89.5 1800 92.5 91.7 96.2 93.0 92.4 95.4
900 78.0 78.5 90.2 78.0 78.5 89.5 1200 91.5 91.7 95.4 91.5 92.4 95.0
7 1/2 3600 84.5 85.5
900 92.5 91.0 95.0 93.5 91.7 94.1
88.5 79.0 84.0 89.5
1800 82.0 84.0 91.7 82.5 84.0 91.0 125 3600 - 91.7 95.0 - 91.7 94.5
1200 84.5 84.0 91.0 83.0 84.0 90.2 1800 - 92.4 95.4 - 92.4 95.4
900 79.0 80.0 90.2 79.0 80.0 89.5 1200 - 92.4 95.4 - 93.0 95.0
900 - 91.0 95.0 - 92.4 94.5
10 3600 84.5 86.5 91.7 82.5 86.5 91.0
1800 83.0 85.5 91.7 83.0 85.5 91.0 150 3600 92.0 91.7 94.5 91.5 91.7 94.5
1200 84.0 86.5 91.7 82.0 86.5 91.0 1800 93.0 93.0 96.2 93.0 93.0 95.8
900 81.0 84.0 91.7 80.0 84.0 91.0 1200 91.5 92.4 95.8 93.5 93.4 95.8
900 92.5 91.0 95.0 92.5 92.4 94.5
15 3600 86.0 86.5 91.0 82.0 86.5 91.0
1800 86.5 87.5 93.0 86.5 87.5 200 3600 91.5 93.0 95.0 92.0 93.0 95.0
92.4 1800 94.0 93.6 96.2 93.0 94.5 95.8
1200 85.0 86.6 92.4 87.0 86.5 91.7
900 82.0 85.5 91.7 83.0 85.5 91.0 1200 93.0 93.0 95.4 93.5 94.5 95.4
900 - 93.0 92.4 92.4 93.6
20 3600 87.0 86.5 93.0 86.0 86.5 91.7 250 3600 - 92.4 95.0 - 93.0 95.4
1800 87.5 88.5 93.6 87.5 88.5 93.0 1800 - 93.0 96.2 - 93.6 96.2
1200 87.0 88.5 92.4 85.0 88.5 91.7 1200 - 93.0 96.2 - 94.5 95.4
900 85.0 87.5 92.4 85.0 87.5 91.7 900 93.6 91.3 - 93.4 94.5
25 3600 - 88.5 93.6 - 89.5 92.4 300 3600 92.5 93.0 94.1 93.5 93.0 94.1
1800 - 89.5 94.1 - 89.5 93.6 1800 93.0 92.2 96.2 93.0 91.7 95.8
1200 - 89.5 93.6 - 89.5 92.4 1200 - 93.6 94.1 - 93.2 94.1
900 - 87.5 92.4 - 87.5 91.7 900 - 93.0 94.0 - 92.8 94.0
8 12 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS. VOL. IA-21, NO. 4, MAY/JUNE 1985

TABLE XIX

Vertical-460 V Vertical-460 V
Dripproof TEFC Dripproof TEFC
Synchronous Percent Efficiency Percent Efficiency Synchronous Percent Efficiency Percent Efficiency
HP Speed Normal High Normal High HP Speed Normal High Norrnal High

2 3600 - 1200 89.0 92.4 88.0 92.4


1800 - - - 900 87.0 92.4 88.5 92.4
1200 80.0 - 80.0 - 50 3600 89.0 92.4 87.5 91.0
900 74.0 - 74.0 - 1800 89.0 93.6 89.0 93.0
3 3600 80.0 - 75.0 - 1200 90.0 93.0 88.5 93.0
1800 81.0 - 76.0 - 900 89.0 93.0 90.5 93.0
1200 80.0 88.5 80.0 88.5 60 3600 89.0 92.4 88.5 91.0
900 76.0 - 76.0 - 1800 90.5 93.6 89.0 93.0
5 3600 82.0 - 79.0 -1200 90.0 93.0 90.0 93.0
1800 79.0 - 81.0 - 900 90.0 - 91.0 -

1200 81.0 88.5 81.0 88.5 75 3600 89.0 93.0 89.5 91.7
900 77.0 - 77.0 - 1800 90.5 94.1 89.5 94.1
71/2 3600 83.0 90.2 80.2 88.5 1200 91.0 94.1 91.0 943.1
1800 81.0 90.2 83.5 90.290 910 41 910 30
1200 83.0 89.5 83.0 89.5 100 3600 89.5 93.0 90.5 92.4
900 83.0 - 82.0 - 1800 91.0 91.0 92.0 94.1
10 3600 84.5 90.2 82.5 89.5 1200 91.5 94.1 92.0 94.1
1800 83.0 90.2 86.0 90.2 900 91.0 - 91.0 -

1200 85.0 90.2 84.0 90.2 125 3600 91.0 93.0 91.0 92.4
900 - - 84.0 - 1800 92.5 94.1 92.0 94.1
15 3600 85.0 89.5 79.5 89.5 1200 92.0 94.5 92.0 94.1
1800 84.0 91.7 85.5 91.7 900 91.0 93.0 91.5 92.5
1200 86.0 91.0 85.5 91.0 150 3600 92.0 93.6 91.0 93.0
900 84.0 - 84.0 - 1800 92.5 94.1 .92.5 94.5
20 3600 88.0 91.9 82.0 90.2 1200 92.0 93.0 92.0 94.0
1800 87.0 91.7 86.5 92.4 900 91.5 93.0 92.0 94.0
1200 87.0 91.7 86.5 91.7 200 3600 92.5 94.1 91.5 94.5
900 84.0 - 86.0 - 1800 92.5 95.0 92.5 -
25 3600 87.0 91.7 84.5 91.0 1200 92.5 93.5 92.5 -
1800 87.0 92.4 87.0 92.4 900 91.5 - 92.5 -

1200 87.0 92.4 87.0 92.4 300 3600 93.5 - 93.5 -


900 86.5 91.7 87.0 91.7 1800 92.5 - 92.5 -
30 3600 88.0 92.4 86.0 89.5 1200 91.5 - 93.0 -
1800 88.0 93.0 88.0 92.4 900 92.0 - 93.0 -
1200 88.0 92.4 87.5 92.4 500 3600 93.5 - 93.5 -
900 87.0 92.4 87.5 92.4 1800 92.5 - 93.5 -
40 3600 89.0 92.4 86.5 91.0 1200 93.0 - 93.5 -
1800 89.0 93.0 88.5 93.0 900 92.5 - 93.5

TABLE XX

Vertical, 2300 V
Dripproof TEFC
Synchronous Percent Efficiency Percent Efficiency
HP Speed Normal High Normal High
750 3600 94.2 95.0 - -
1800 93.7 94.2 93.0 93.5
1200 93.5 94.0 93.0 93.5
900 93.5 94.0 93.0 93.5
1000 3600 94.0 94.7 - -
1800 93.7 94.5 93.0 93.5
1200 93.5 94.5 93.0 94.0
900 93.5 94.5 93.5 94.2
MCDONALD AND HOCKOK: ENERGY LOSSES IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS 813

TABLE XXI
LARGE MOTORS-INDUCTION TYPE, HORIZONTAL, 2300 V
Dripproof TEFC Dripproof TEFC
Percent Percent Percent Percent
HP Speed Efficiency Efficiency HP Speed Efficiency Efficiency
200 3575 93.0 93.0 1185 93.7 93.3
1775 93.0 93.0 885 93.7 93.5
1185 91.4 93.0 800 3575 94.5 93.6
885 91.7 93.6 1775 94.5 93.5
250 3575 93.0 93.0 1185 93.9 93.5
1775 93.0 93.0 885 93.9 93.7
1185 93.0 94.1 1000 3575 94.8 93.9
885 92.4 94.1 1775 94.3 93.8
300 3575 93.0 93.0 1185 94.2 93.8
1775 92.2 93.6 885 94.1 93.9
1185 93.0 94.5 1250 3575 95.1 94.2
885 93.0 94.1 1775 94.5 94.0
350 3575 93.0 91.0 1185 94.5 94.1
1775 92.6 94.1 885 94.4 94.2
1185 93.6 94.5 1500 3575 95.3 94.6
885 93.0 92.8 1775 94.7 94.3
400 3575 93.3 91.7 1185 94.6 94.3
1775 93.0 94.5 890 94.5 94.3
1185 93.6 94.5 1750 3575 95.5 94.8
885 93.6 93.5 1780 94.9 94.5
450 3575 93.5 92.4 1185 94.8 94.5
1775 93.0 94.5 890 94.7 94.6
1185 93.6 92.6 2000 3575 95.6 94.9
885 93.6 92.8 1780 95.1 94.7
500 3575 94.1 92.4 1185 95.0 94.7
1775 93.6 92.8 890 94.9 94.8
1185 93.6 92.8 2250 3575 95.8 95.1
885 93.2 93.0 1780 95.2 94.8
600 3570 93.6 93.1 1185 95.1 94.8
1775 93.6 93.1 890 95.0 94.9
1185 94.1 93.1 2500 3575 95.9 95.2
885 93.5 93.3 1780 95.3 94.9
700 3575 94.1 93.4 1185 95.2 94.9
1775 94.1 93.3 890 95.1 95.0
814 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, VOL. IA-21, NO. 4, MAY/JUNE 1985

TABLE XXII
LARGE MOTORS-INDUCTION MOTORS, HORIZONTAL, 4000 V
Dripproof TEFC
Percent Percent
HP Speed Efficiency Efficiency
1000 3575 94.7 94.0
1775 94.2 93.8
1185 94.1 93.8 TABLE XXIII
885 94.0 93.9 LARGE MOTORS-SYNCHRONOUS, BRUSH TYPE, HORIZONTAL, 2300 V
1250 3575 95.1 94.4
1775 94.5 94.0 Synchronous Percent Efficiency
1185 94.5 94.1 HP Speed PF 1.0 PF 0.8
885 94.4 94.2
1500 3575 95.3 94.6 500 1800 95.3 94.1
1775 94.7 94.3 1200 95.2 94.0
1885 94.6 94.3 900 95.3 93.8
890 94.5 94.4 720 95.1 93.4
1750 3575 95.5 94.8 600 1800 95.5 94.4
1780 94.9 94.5 1200 95.5 94.4
1185 94.8 94.5 900 95.6 94.2
890 94.7 94.6 720 95.3 93.9
2000 3575 95.6 94.9 700 1800 95.6 94.6
1780 95.1 94.7 1200 95.7 94.6
1185 95.0 94.7 900 95.8 94.5
890 94.9 94.8 720 95.6 94.2
2250 3575 95.8 95.1 8d6) 1800 95.7 94.7
1780 95.2 94.8 1200 95.8 94.8
1180 95.1 94.8 900 96.0 94.8
890 95.0 94.9 720 95.8 94.5
2500 3575 95.9 95.2 900 1800 95.9 94.9
1780 95.3 94.9 1200 95.9 94.9
900 96.1 95.0
1185 95.2 94.9 720 95.9 94.8
890 95.1 95.0
3000 3575 95.9 -
1000 1800 95.9 95.0
1785 95.4 -
1200 96.0 95.0
900 96.2 95.1
1185 95.3 -
720 96.1 95.0
890 95.1 -

96.0
125t 1800 96.1 95.1
3500 3575 95.3 1200 96.2 95.2
1785 95.5 95.1 900 96.4 95.3
1185 95.4 95.1 720 96.4 95.2
890 95.2 95.1
4000 3575 96.1 -
1500 1800 96.3 95.3
1200 96.4 95.4
1785 95.6 -
900 96.6 95.5
1185 95.1 -
720 96.6 95.4
890 95.3 -
1750 1800 96.4 95.5
4500 3575 96.1 95.4 1200 96.5 95.6
1785 95.7 95.4 900 96.7 95.7
1185 95.5 95.2 720 96.7 95.6
890 95.4 95.3
2000 1800 96.6 95.6
5000 3575 96.2 -
1200 96.7 95.7
1775 95.7 -
900 96.9 95.8
1185 95.6 -
720 96.9 95.8
885 95.4 -

6000 3575 96.3 -


2250 1800 96.6 95.7
95.8 1200 96.7 95.8
1185 -
900 96.9 95.9
1185 95.7 -
720 96.9 95.9
885 95.7 -

8000 3575 96.6 -


2500 libo 96.6 95.8
1780 95.9 -
1200 96.7 95.9
1185 95.8 -
900 97.0 96.0
885 95.8 -
720 97.0 96.0
10 000 - -
1785 95.9 -
1185 95.9
885 95.9 -

12 000 - - -
1780 96.3 -
1185 96.2 -
885 96.1
MCDONALD AND HOCKOK: ENERGY LOSSES IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS 815

TABLE XXIV TABLE XXV


LARGE MOTORS-SYNCHRONOUS, BRUSH TYPE, HORIZONTAL, 4000 V
Listed Full Load Reduction Required
Synchronous Percent Efficiency Efficiency Full Load 3/4 Load
HP Speed PF 1.0 PF 0.8
Over 97.0 0.1 0.2
3000 1800 96.8 95.9 96. 1-97.0 0.2 0.2
1200 96.9 96.1 95.1-96.0 0.2 0.3
900 97.0 96.2 94.1-95.0 0.3 0.4
720 97.0 96.2 93.1-94.0 0.3 0.4
3500 1800 96.8 96.1 92.1-93.0 0.5 0.6
1200 97.0 96.2 91.1-92.0 0.6 0.8
900 97.1 96.4
720 97.1 96.4
TABLE XXVI
4000 1800 96.9 96.2
1200 96.7 96.4
900 96.2 96.5 Losses
720 96.2 96.5 PF Load (Percent Full Load Losses)
4500 1800 97.0
1200 97.1 96.5 1.0 3/4 85
900 97.3 96.6 1/2 75
720 97.3 96.6 1/4 69
5000 1800 0 67
97.0
1200 97.1 96.5 0.8 3/4 94
900 97.4 96.7 1/2 90
720 97.4 96.7 1/4 88
5500 1800 0 87
97.0
1200 97.1 96.6
900 97.4 96.8
720 97.4 96.8 Power Factor Correction Capacitors: Energy losses per
6000 1200 97.2 96.7 kVA for 2400 V and above open stack rack capacitors units are
900 97.5 96.9 as follows:
720 97.5 96.9
600 97.4 96.9 paper/liquid 2 W/kvar
7000 1200 97.3 96.8 Magvar 0.5 W/kvar.
900 97.6 97.0
720 97.6 97.0 Notes:
600 97.4 97.0
1) Watt losses are based on rated voltage and vary as the
8000 1200 97.4 96.9
900 97.6 97.0 square of voltage. Capacitor life is in part a function of
720 97.6 97.0 temperature and goes down rapidly with overvoltage because
600 97.5 97.0 of it.
9000 1200 97.4 96.9 2) For enclosed outdoor units add 0.1 W/kvar for bus,
900 97.7 97.0 switch, and fans.
720 97.7 97.0
600 97.7 97.1 Since no through energy exists in a capacitor bank, losses
10 000 1200 97.5 97.0 cannot be expressed as a percent and must be added and
900 97.7 97.0 weighed against savings due to improvement of power factor
720 97.7 97.0 and energy.
600 97.7 97.1
Lighting: Energy consumed in lighting can generally be
read directly from the nameplate on the lamp in watts; it is the
Column C motors of high efficiency manufactured after energy input. Finding the total plant lighting energy is a matter
1980. of adding up the number and wattage of all lamps and adding
to them various ballast losses which, though small, are
Note that "normal" is intended to mean "of standard significant. An important factor to consider is a lamp's
efficiency without price premium," whereas "high" effi- conversion ratio of electrical energy to light energy, or
ciency means a machine with improved efficiency usually lumens/watt. Typical conversion efficiency ranges are [2]
offered at some price premium. given in Table XXVII.
Notes: Notes: Lighting sources are greatly affected by their
1) For brushless type motors of either 2300 or 4000 V, actual operating voltage. Actual watts consumed are a direct
decrease efficiency as indicated in Table XXV. function of voltage, whereas light output is generally a
2) For synchronous motors operated at rated excitation for function of the voltage cubed. Also, lighting fixture design
less than full load, adjust losses in terms of full-load losses as plays an important role in the amount of useful lumens
shown in Table XXVI. delivered.
3) To the losses for brush type synchronous motors, add Other Components:
exciter losses. Outdoor circuit breakers: Because of high kVA/A when
816 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS. VOL. IA-21. NO. 4. MAY/JUNE 1985

TABLE XXVII TABLE XXIX


CONVERSION EFFICIENCY RANGES LOSSES FOR ADJUSTABLE SPEED

Life Wattage Lumens/ Synchronous Percent Percent


Type of Lamp (h) Range Watt HP Speed Efficiency Loss

(x 1000) 50 1800 8A.3 12.0


Incandescent 0.75-12 15-1500 15.25 100 1800 901.3 10.7
Fluorescent 9-30 40-219 55-88 300 1800 91.0 9.9
Mercury-vapor 16-24 40-1000 20-63 600 1200 91.9 8.8
Metal-halide 1-15 400-1500 80-100
High-pressure sodium 10-20 75-1000 100-130
TABLE XXX

TABLE XXVIII Synchronous Percent Percent


RECTIFIER LOSSES HP Speed Efficiency Loss

DC Voltage Percent Efficiency Percent Loss 1000 1200 93.0 7.0


1500 900 93.0 7.0
100 96.0 4.0 2000 900 93.5 6.5
200 97.0 3.0 3000 900 93.0 7.0
300 97.4 2.6 4000 900 94.0 6.0
400 97.7 2.3 5000 900 94.5 5.5
500 97.9 2.1
600 98.0 2.0
700 98.1 1.9
800 98.2 1.8 Reactors-Oil Immersed and Dry Type, Current Limit-
*

900 98.2 1.8 ing, ANSI C57.16, 1958, R1971;


Induction Motors, IEEE Standard 112A, 1964;
* Synchronous Motors, IEEE Standard 15A, 1965;
. Generators, ANSI C50. 10;
voltage high (15-230 kV)
is and low values of resistance, the
* Rectifiers, ANSI C34.2, 1968, R1973.
energy loss is almost negligible, and few tests have been made
to determine them. One example is In the case of induction motors, considerable controversy
exists at present on the subject of U.S. versus foreign
69 kV oil circuit breaker, 3000 A 0.0028 percent loss.
-

standards in the values of efficiency they give. Basically, the


Rectifiers for electrochemical service conversion: Sys- U.S. standard (IEEE Standard 112A) says that stray load
tem packages for cell lines have losses which are a function of
losses must be measured and corrected to a given operating
voltage. Typical data are shown in Table XXVIII. temperature. Foreign methods account for these generally as a
fixed or arbitrary value. For this reason, the following
Static adjustable speed drives: DC adjustable voltage
and ac adjustable frequency-adjustable voltage drives vary comparison of values of efficiency shows the U.S. standard to
considerably in equipment, circuitry, and drive motors. give the lowest values of efficiency [51:
Because data would be too extensive to list all, only
representative ratings are given in Table XXIX. Losses given Full-Load Efficiency
are for all components from ac bus through drive motor and at 7.5 hp 20 hp
rated speed and load. Standard (Percent) (Percent)
Larger ac adjustable speed drives of the load commutated International
(IED 34-2) 82.3 89.4
inverter (LCI) type with synchronous motors suitable for fan British (BS-269) 82.3 89.4
and pump applications have a relatively flat efficiency curve. Japanese (JEC-37) 85.0 90.4
The reduction in efficiency from rated to 50-percent speed U.S. (IEEE-112A Method B) 80.3 86.9
may be in the three to four percent range. The data in Table
XXX are for systems consisting of a transformer, converter- The accuracy of loss data on the equipment mentioned is
inverter, control, reactor, and motor. generally good, depending in some tests mainly on the
accuracy of the test instruments. In switchgear, switchboards,
MEASUREMENT OF LOSSES panel boards, motor control centers, motor starters, and power
Test procedures for determining losses in some kinds of
circuit breakers, no standards apply, and measurements may
not be very accurate or repeatable from lab to test floor to field
equipment are well defined by standards; in others, their location. Basically, they cannot be measured directly. In
standards make no mention of load losses at all. The
medium-voltage switchgear, for instance, there are three
equipment standards covering losses and test procedures are methods of determining losses. They are by 1) calculation, 2)
* Tranformers-Distribution, Power and Regulating, wattmeter measurement, and 3) dc resistance measurement.
ANSI Standard C57. 12.90, 1973 (same as IEEE Standard Some of the factors which interfere with accurate measure-
262, 1973); ment are as follows.
MCDONALD AND HOCKOK: ENERGY LOSSES IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS 817

1) Measurement of dc resistance to get an I2R Iloss does not loads. Load is an important factor to consider when analyzing
take into consideration the skin effect of ac curr ent in actual a specific plant's losses. The 2000-A metal-clad breaker
operation. The often assumed factor of 1.2 to get,,ac resistance mentioned earlier would consume only 375 W instead of 1500
varies with bus configuration and conductor thiclkness. W of power at half load.
2) The proximity effect is also neglected, i.e., the effect of
the field of one phase on the other two. This iss difficult to CHECKLIST OF POSSIBLE SAVINGS
calculate with any accuracy. The main purpose of this paper is to point power system
3) Resistance changes in bus with ambient temlperature and engineers in the direction of where energy losses are or where
is not linear. to go to start plugging energy leaks. An opportunity would be
4) The use of a wattmeter does not take into c-onsideration missed, however, if a simple check list of ideas on possible
power factor of actual load current. energy savings were not provided. The savings may vary
5) Resistance changes with age. It may go dowin on thermal considerably from plant to plant. To convert ideas to actual
cycling in a silver plated joint, whereas it may gc up in other dollar savings is a specific study for each application.
kinds. 1) Quite naturally, the place to start is in the power
6) Losses vary from unit to unit of the same de sign because generation area. Efficiency improvements in converting fuel
of difference in materials, workmanship, and production energy to electrical energy can be dramatic. The days of low-
methods. pressure boilers and steam turbines or low-efficiency simple-
7) Since measurements are not made at ralted voltage, cycle gas turbines as drivers for small generators or as
dielectric losses, though small, are neglected connpletely. mechanical process drives are fading fast, under today's high
As an example, the losses of a 200-A 5-kV breaker in a fuel energy cost. On the other hand, as is the case in the pulp
cubicle with a 2000-A power bus and a 2000-A rrun back-bus and paper industries, cogeneration may be the way to ensure
was measured by the three methods, and the restalts were that a mill will be profitable.
calculated 1100 W 2) In applying motors note that in most mills other than
resistance assumed (with multipliers steam loads, motors require the most power and probably
for skin and proximity effects) 1500 W consume the greatest losses, so here is a major opportunity to
wattmeter (corrected by power factor) 2084 W. improve overall mill efficiency.
a) In original applications or in replacing or repairing
The apparent resistance of the unit assuming I 1500-W loss existing motors, high-efficiency motors may be a wise
would be 0.000375 0. Based on full-load current at 13.8 kV investment. Applications for which motors operate between 40
and a load power factor of 0.9, the efficiency of th4 e unit would and 100 percent load and 40 percent or more of the time are
be 99.994 percent. If in measurement the value of R-through very good candidates for the high-efficiency motor.
any of the aforementioned reasons-increased b)y 0.0001 Q, b) Motors increase efficiency as they get larger. Note that
the loss would increase to 1900 W or about 25 p(ercent. in the foregoing data a 500-hp 1775 r/min induction motor at
Recently, there have been more requests for atccurate loss 2300 V has 1.4 percent less energy loss than two 250-hp
data. If loss measurement is to be an importa int item for motors of the same rating. This adds to the trend of going to
comparison purposes, the method of measuremernt must first larger unit sizes in fan, pump, and refiner drives.
be agreed to for these kinds of equipment. If measu rement is to c) Motors decrease efficiency as voltage goes above 4000
be used as a guide as to where to find and impirove losses, V. A 5000-hp motor at 13.2 kV will have 1.3 percent more
present data, as they exist, are sufficiently accurati e. There are losses than at 4000 V.
many hundreds of configurations of bus, bus size, breakers of d) Motor efficiency can be improved by design. There is
various ratings, a wide variety of instrumentation i, protective generally a price adder for this, and it may be accompanied by
relaying, metering, and potential current and co ntrol power a change of one or more other characteristics such as starting
transformers on switchgear, and other control type equipment. current, power factor, and starting, pull in, and pull out
Accurate measurement would be a very expensivre and time- torques. It is well worth the effort to investigate for each
consuming task-if and when the measurement procedures particular application. There is a growing trend to purchase
were all agreed upon. Today only a base or averagre figure per premium efflciency which at times in large motors may be as
given unit of a given type is available. The cost of accurate much as 1.5 percent.
measurement of losses could well eat into the savin Igs of power e) In selecting new larger motors, remember that syn-
consumed by the equipment unit during its life. II n passing, it chronous motors are usually 0.5-3.0 percent higher in
might be noted that the difference in losses betweeon manufac- efficiency than induction motors.
turers of like units in the switchgear area is probat)ly less than 3) In applying transformers, it is well to remember that
the accuracy of data they could provide. transformers increase in efficiency as they go up in size for a
Loss data are nearly always given on the basis of the given type. On a per kVA basis, a 2000-kVA transformer with
equipment being fully loaded. In most cases, equip4ment is not 480- or 2400-V secondary has about 18 percent fewer losses
fully loaded, and for any reasonable use the valttes must be than a 750-kVA transformer. A 40 000-kVA 69-kV primary
modified down by its actual load. In many instaniIces the loss 13.8-kV secondary transformer has about 22 percent fewer
reduces mainly as an P2R finction, but this does n 1ot hold true total losses/kVA than two 20 000 kVA units with each at full
for some circuit components and usually does not Ihold at light load.
818 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDULSTRY APPLICATIONS. VOL IA2-2-. NO. 4. 1MAY/jUNE 1Q85

4) Examine cable sizes in your distribution system, particu-


larly in the low-voltage area of 208 and 480 V. The code says
that a feeder circuit should have no more than three percent
voltage regulation. New economic factors may say that in
actual practice this should be no more than 1 1/2 percent. -f ' I
5) Reduce lighting loads by the following means. b

a) Use more efficient light sources such as sodium in


place of mercury vapor on structures and towers. In cost per (a) (b)
million lumen hours, the lighting of a 400-W high-pressure Fig. 2.
sodium lamp is 31 ¢; a 100-W incandescent source, $2.26; and
a common candle, $3000. a) Keep them out of the main power flow if possible, as
b) Use more efficient luminaires. shown in Fig. 2(a) or (b). The total losses in feeder reactors as
c) Use lighter colors on walls, structures, etc., to reflect in Fig. 2(a) are one-third of those in a main incoming line
more light. reactor as in Fig. 2(b).
d) Keep lighting equipment clean. b) Keep magnetic clearances given on reactor drawings.
e) Cut down footcandle levels of lighting, particularly in When these are below recommended distances, they incur
nonworking areas such as cat walks, halls, etc. The Federal losses in magnetic materials which show up as additional
Energy Administration (FEA) recently passed a guideline for reactor energy losses.
workstations and desks 50 fc c) Make sure there is no loop of magnetic materials such
as continuous reinforcing bar or structural steel around
general work area 30 fc reactor. This, too, adds to reactor losses.
halls and corridors 10 fc. 8) In outdoor switchgear, it is frequently beneficial to move
This guide, though not yet mandatory, will generally cut the lineup indoors and dehumidify it. Besides the price adder
present levels in half. In building interiors, a secondary savings/unit in outdoor construction, 300 or 500 W of energy!
savings is in decreased air conditioning load. unit is saved in deletion of heaters. With a fully loaded power
f) Eliminate wasted light. Put lighting on timers or bus, it may be worth the price adder to go to the next higher
photoelectric controls. bus ampacity rating for the reduction in energy loss. Vacuum
In general, it has been estimated that potential savings in type switchgear has less loss than the older air magnetic type.
lighting loads with the same lighting effectiveness are 9) Remember that in decreasing the loss in a piece of
residential 10-20 percent equipment, particularly in the utilization area, its direct
commercial 15-35 percent savings on that equipment reflects a small but significant
industrial reduction in losses in other components up through the power
5-20 percent. system to the source.
6) Use power factor correction capacitors to reduce system 10) Where adjustable speed drives are found that operate
losses. Normally, we think of capacitors being installed to very much of their time below rated speed, a de adjustable
improve power factor, release system capacity, and lower voltage or ac adjustable frequency drive should be investigated
billing demand charges. They also produce an important in lieu of a constant speed motor and hydraulic or hysistersis
savings in energy losses. The resultant improvement in power coupling. A constant speed motor and coupling operating at
factor may result in an annual gross return in less energy of as half speed, for instance, throws away half of its consumed
much as 20 percent of the annual capacitor equipment energy in heat losses.
investment. Capacitors in reducing reactive currents reduce 11) In process applications involving motor driven centrifu-
the I in IR2 system losses. Since current is reduced in direct gal fans and pumps with throttling valves to control flow or
proportion to power factor improvement, losses are inversely pressure, considerable savings in throttling loss energy can be
proportional to the square of the power factors: achieved by using an adjustable speed drive system controlled
by flow or pressure sensors eliminating the throttle valve loss
original PF2
along with its cost and high maintenance.
kW losses=
improved PF
MOTOR EFFICIENCY INDEX
loss reduction = I
original pF 2 Since motors consume 64 percent of all electric power in
improved PF this country and 76 percent in industry [6] and in smaller sizes
ckvar (2 kvar ckvar)
- usually have the highest losses of electrical components, they
kva2 have been a prime target for improvement in efficiency. How
to improve losses is well-known, but efficiency data have been
To this savings, the kilowatt losses of the capacitors, usually sometimes hard to get. Recently, motor vendors working
about one-fourth of one percent of the kvar rating, must be through NEMA have adopted Standard MG- 1 12.53b to help
deducted. provide motor users with a means of identifying efficiency in
7) In applying reactors, the following guidelines are NEMA frame sizes. Under this new standard an 'efficiency
effective. index" classification in the form of a code letter will be
MCDONALD AND HOCKOK: ENERGY LOSSES IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS 819

TABLE XXXI 86.5 88.5 90.2 91,7 93.0 94.1


NEMA EFFICIENCY INDEX STANDARD

Index Nominal Minimum


Letter Efficiency Efficiency Fig. 3. Efficiency index letters.
A - 95.0
B 95.0 94.1 for excessive starting operations. These losses may be
C 94.1 93.0 eliminated at some inconvenience, and our plant life style may
D 93.0 91.7 have to be changed. The real savings in pulp and paper mills is
E 91.7 90.2
F 90.2 88.5 in the process operation and must be achieved with close
G 88.5 86.5 coordination with power plant and process engineers. It is
H 86.5 84.0 mentioned here only as a big potential area for investigation
K 84.0 81.5
L 81.5 78.5 towards saving kilowatthours of power.
M 78.5 75.5 This paper is concerned only with electrical energy losses,
N 75.5 72.0 but it should be noted that probably equal savings are to be
p 72.0 68.0
R 68.0 64.0 made in improvement in energy wasted in mechanical losses.
S 64.0 59.5 Better pump and blower efficiency, less friction in conveyor
T 59.5 55.0 bearings, and fewer losses in gear and belt systems for speed
U 55.0 50.5
V 50.5 46.0 changing are a few places to continue pursuit of improved
W - 46.0 efficiency.
REFERENCES
included on the nameplate for the motor full-load efficiency. 11} E. Raia, "Are motors wasting too many kilowatts?" Purchasing, p.
These are shown in Table XXXI. 41, Jan. 13, 1976.
121 J. Maloney, "Engineer convinced plugging leaks best bet for saving
The new standard recognizes variations in material, manu- energy," Austin Amer., Dec. 15, 1975.
facture, and test results in a group of motors of a given design [3I H. L. Kertz, "How Bell pinches power," IEEE Spectrum, pp. 54-58,
and rating. Consequently, ilidividual efficiencies of the group Feb. 1976.
[4] C. W. Beardsley, "Let there be light, but just enough," IEEE
will form a band. The code letter for nominal efficiency of the Spectrum, pp. 28-32.
group is stamped on the nameplate. On the basis of probabili- [5] D. C. Montgomery, "Efficiency-A new emphasis in motor selec-
ties, half of the motors in a group will be above the nominal tion," in TAPPI Conf. Rec., 1977, Fig. 11.
[6] A. D. Little, "Energy efficiency and electric motors," in Nat. Tech.
efficiency listed for that code letter and half below, with the Information Service Publication, PB-259129, p. ES-3.
lowest not to be less than the minimum value listed. The upper [71 A. Jain, "Energy efficient applications in electrical power systems,"
end of the band will reach up to the nominal value of the next IEEE-PCIC, Sept. 1983, Denver, CO.
better code letter. Fig. 3 indicates how this works out.
Since the cost of actual testing of an individual motor is a Wiliam J. McDonald (M'62-SM'82) was born in
significant adder to its price, this band type classification of California. He received the B.S. degree in electrical
engineering from the California State Polytechnic
efficiency indexes is a means of supplying the user with a close Universit,i191
value of efficiency without the trouble of an individual test. Of Upon graduation, he joined the General Electric
course, the motor can always be tested for a more exact value. l Il Il Company at Schenectady, NY. While there, he had
l assignments in machinery testing, machine design,
OPERATING LOSSES industrial system application engineering and indus-
trial system sales. In 1971 he transferred to Salem,
Though this paper is primarily concerned with eliminating VA, to accept the position of manager, testing,
mining, and ac adjustable speed drive system sales
energy losses by improving the efficiency of components, at and engineering. In 1981 he accepted the position of Industry Engineer, Forest
least a note must be given about its closely allied copartner in Products Industry, located in Atlanta, GA, where he presently resides.
crime-operating losses. Their possible savings are probably Mr. McDonald is currently a member of the IEEE Pulp and Paper
Committee. He is also a member of TAPPI and is a member of the
much greater. They involve energy wasted in perform- Engineering Committee.
ing useless work. This loss, for instance, is typified by the
process whose outdoor lights burn all day because somehow,
manually or automatically, they do not get turned off. These Herbert N. Hickok (M'53-SM'83) was born in
are generally much easier to find and eliminate. A multistory San Antonio, TX. He received the B.S.M.E. degree
_ from the Univbrsity of Texas, Austin.
administration building in Houston recently found that they He has been employed by the General Electric
could save $2500/mo by operating their air conditioning and Company for 37 years, most of the time being spent
heating blower motors only when heating or cooling was as an Industrial Application Engineer. He works
mainly with the petroleum, chemical, and electro-
taking place instead of operating them continuously. Turning chemical industries. His current position is that of
off unloaded equipment during down periods saves their no- Industry Engineer.
load kilowatt hours of energy through both motors and _ _ Mr. Hickok is a kegistered Professional Engineer
in the State of Texas. He has been active for many
transformers, and their control equipment should be checked years in both local and national IEEE and ASME activities.