You are on page 1of 9

IPA15-G-208

PROCEEDINGS, INDONESIAN PETROLEUM ASSOCIATION


Thirty-Ninth Annual Convention & Exhibition, May 2015

IDENTIFYING BYPASSED OIL BY UTILIZING SEISMIC ATTRIBUTE AND ENVIRONMENT


OF DEPOSITIONAL CONCEPT IN TIDE-DOMINATED CLASTIC RESERVOIR

Reybi Waren*
Irfan Harris*
Terry O’Hearn*
Data integration reveals an 800-1700m wide tidal
channel with flanking sand-rich and mud-rich tidal
flats. The tidal channel has a NE-SW orientation
________________________________________________________________________________
ABSTRACT * Chevron Pacific Indonesia
which broadens to the southwest. Two sweet spots
Benar Field (Central Sumatra Basin, Indonesia) is a with bypassed hydrocarbons in the northwest and
pop-up anticlinal structure related to Miocene to southeast flanks at Benar Field were identified.
Pleistocene tectonism involving a major
transpressional strike-slip fault located 10km to the INTRODUCTION
west of the Field. New wells drilled in flank areas
indicate high oil saturation with multiple current oil Back in 1980’s, field development process
water contacts. Seismic interpretation shows no particularly focused on the large-scale perspective
evidence of faulting within Benar closures; which did not include detailed-analysis. Enhancement
therefore, stratigraphic compartmentalization alone of static data such as the number of logs and
is suspected. The current study of the Sand A (Early production data has proven to be of significant value
to Middle Miocene) focuses on facies analysis and in the identification of by-passed reserves.
high-resolution sequence stratigraphy of these
tideinfluenced clastics with emphasis on reservoir The concept of reservoir compartmentalization is one
distribution and stratigraphic compartmentalization. of the most useful in finding bypassed-oil potential. A
The objective of the study is to increase oil recovery series of analysis for the study of reservoir
from the Sand A at Benar field. compartmentalization has been established. It begins
with very basic data, conventional core analysis and is
Fifty wells (four wells with conventional core) followed by wireline log as well as seismic response
provide insight and constraints for the depositional analysis at the reservoir target interval. In addition,
system of the Sand A reservoir. In addition, production data are used to increase the level of
highresolution 3D seismic aids the prediction of confidence in the analysis. New wells drilled in flank
reservoir geometry of this tide-influenced clastic areas indicate high oil saturation with multiple current
system. Production and RFT pressure data are used oil water contacts. Seismic interpretation shows no
to predict the current oil water contact (COWC) and evidence of faulting within Benar field thus making
to validate the compartmentalization analysis. structural compartmentalization unlikely. The goals
of this study are to determine how to gain maximum
Reservoir thickness variation and dissimilar benefit from available data and how to integrate both
gammaray log responses indicate reservoir static and dynamic data in order to better characterize
heterogeneity which is one of the hypotheses in reservoir compartmentalization and improve oil
inquiring the different COWC. Heterolithic recovery.
bedding, bioturbated very fine- to fine-grained
sandstones, and massive to crossbedded fine- to Benar field (Figure 1), is an active oil producing field
coarse-grained sandstones highlight tide-influenced in the Northern area of the Central Sumatra Basin
sedimentation. In analyzing reservoir geometry and (CSB). It has produced oil since early 1970’s. This
distribution, seismic stratigraphy analysis is long production period has resulted in a 42.3%
conducted using seismic attribute complex and recovery factor (RF). The Duri and Bekasap
waveform classification. These conclusions are Formations are the two reservoir formations which
validated against integration of wireline log and have delivered the majority of oil in this field. Sand A
conventional core data. reservoir (part of uppermost Duri Formation) is the
main reservoir and the object of this study.
DATA AND METHODS laminae often modified by burrowers, Bioturbated
Fine – Medium Sandstone (B3); upper fine – lower
Fifty wells (four wells with conventional core) medium sandstone with common floating very coarse
provide insight and constraints for the depositional grains and small pebbles, common burrows, partly
system of the Sand A reservoir. This is supplemented obliterating the original fabric, rare glauconite grains,
by a high-resolution 3-D seismic survey which aids in Bioturbated Coarse – Very Coarse sandstone (B4);
the definition of reservoir geometry and sand coarse grained sandstone with common ‘floating’
distribution. Current oil water contacts (COWC) are very coarse quartz grains and granules, extensive
determined by using well logs’ signatures which are bioturbation indicated by some discrete burrows
then validated by production data. Finally, (large ophiomorpha) and also by variations in oil
stratigraphic reservoir compartmentalization is saturation, Stratified Fine – Medium sandstone (S4);
predicted by integrating both static and dynamic data fine to medium sandstone with cross bedding, 10 –
which are effective in finding bypassed oil potential 15cm fining upward cycles with very coarse grain at
location. base, Stratified Coarse – Very Coarse Sandstone (S5);
upper medium to lower coarse, planar to low angle
SAND A RESERVOIR DESCRIPTION cross bedded sandstone, 3 – 10cm thick bed-sets
occasionally with fining up trends, Wavy – Lenticular
Structurally, the field is comprised of three anticlinal Sandstone (S1); fine to medium grained wavy-bedded
culminations. Sand A reservoir present in each of the sandstone, with silty and carbonaceous drapes on
three closures (Figure 2). Those closures- were ripples, individual sands beds are likely to be laterally
formed by process related to major right lateral strike continuous. The upper part of #C1 core’s interval is
slip fault which is located about 10 Km west of Benar dominated by S5 Facies whereas S1 Facies prevails in
field (Figure 1). Surprisingly, seismic interpretation the lower part. The facies association indicates Sand
shows no evidence of essential faulting but only A reservoir was deposited in a tidal channel to sand /
shows a big anticlinorium or compressional drape mixed flat environment (Davis and Dalrymple, 2012).
structure (Figure 3).
In other conventional core intervals that have been
Gamma ray (GR) logs from 50 wells are showing analyzed, well #C2, a 10 cm thick layer of high calcite
reservoir thickness contrasts and shale occurrences. It cemented sandstone which (is interpreted as a tidal
illustrates how complex the Sand A reservoir is. High channel base) has been observed and proven to act as
degree of heterogeneity Sand A reservoir is shown in effective impermeable zone (Figure 4). The facies
the center and southeastern part of Benar field which difference that is bounded by high calcite cemented
are thinner and contain higher amounts of shale than sandstone has demonstrated stratigraphics
in the Northern and Western part. The heterogeneity compartmentalization. A vertical progression of
gives an indication that the stratigraphy is the key item facies can be found corresponding to lateral facies
in determining reservoir compartmentalization. changes (Walter’s law). Thus, lateral facies boundary
examination across the Benar field is crucial in finding
Further detailed-investigation was conducted on reservoir stratigraphic compartmentalization.
conventional cores and 3D seismic data in order to Locating lateral facies variations cannot be solved
address the reservoir facies both vertically and through conventional core data analysis. Insights
laterally. Understanding the environment of about a reservoir facies boundary across Benar field
deposition (EOD) of Sand A, its geometry, and may be given by 3D seismic that has field-scale data.
distribution will aid in identification of potential areas
of by-passed oil. Seismic Analysis

Core Analysis In order to delineate facies which have been


previously identified in both well log and core
Conventional core data from the field most often analysis, a seismic analysis was performed. The first
reflects stratified coarse-grained sediment portion of the analysis consisted of transforming the
intercalation with heterolithic bedding. This general cube into instantaneous phase and subsequently
package is diagnostic of both fluvial processes and interpreting the top of the target reservoir.
tide-influenced depositional environments. Instantaneous phase provides better lateral reflector
Conventional core analysis of well #C1 for instance, continuity than original seismic.
reveals a blocky to fining upward facies succession The second analysis was directed toward determining
consisting of Bioturbated Claystone to Siltstone (M2); the geometrical distribution of channels. According to
mudstone / siltstone, mainly bioturbated (Planolites, seismic response analysis at well locations, channel
Nereites, Cylindrichnus, Zoophycus), sand lenses and facies correspond to a specific trace shape and
magnitude. Therefore by mapping the similarity of data from reservoir formation tester (RFT) has been
each traces shape within a certain window along the used by plotting it into a depth versus reservoir
interpreted horizon facies distribution can be mapped. pressure cross plot. However, due to limited reservoir
The trace similarity was classified using waveform pressure data and differing acquisition times, the cross
analysis with window length 25ms subdivided into 8 plot did not yield useful results.
classes.
Two sweet spots with bypassed hydrocarbons in the
As can be seen in map view of classification (Figure northwest and south flanks of Benar Field were
5) there is distinct “channel like” geometry trending identified (Figure 7). Lateral facies boundaries and
from NE-SW that is consistent with data from core attic location are the two key parameters in
and well log shape. This facies map then is utilized to determining bypassed oil potential location. In
guide well placement for the next drilling location addition, original and current oil water contacts are
target. used in determining the sweet spot locations. It is
expected to deliver optimum oil production.
BY-PASSED OIL OPPORTUNITY
CONCLUSIONS
A better understanding of Sand A EOD has been
obtained through facies distribution analysis. In order • A dissimilar GR log response indicates high degree
to understand reservoir fluids, especially current oil of reservoir heterogeneity.
water contact, static reservoir information was
combined with production data. Well #NC50, a • Sand A reservoir was deposited in a tidal channel
recently drilled well in the flank, indicates high oil to sand / mixed flat environments.
saturation as determined by high resistivity value and
good oil production. On the other hand, Well #NC8, • A thin layer of high calcite cemented sandstone at
which is structurally located far above well #NC50, is the base of the reservoir is sufficient enough a
currently wet with 100% water production based on barrier to compartmentalize the sand A reservoir.
the latest well test (Figure 6a). This finding is in
agreement with reservoir facies maps of Sand A which • Seismic waveform classification with correct
show a boundary in the northwestern part of Benar windowing helps in delineating the geometry of the
field. reservoir.

In addition, similar relationships have also been found • Integrating vertical and lateral facies boundaries
in the southern closure of Benar field. A through conventional core and seismic analysis
stratigraphic barrier is located between well #NC41 along with production data was a sufficient process
and well #NC43 which is down-structure. Facies to find potential locations of bypassed oil.
contrasts reflected by GR patterns and seismic
attribute are the main indicators of stratigraphic ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
reservoir compartmentalization in this area. Well
#NC41 Sand A reservoir is organized by thin layers of The authors would like to thank the CPI Asset
high calcite cemented sand and is more shale grained Development Team and the DITJEN Migas for their
as compared to well #NC43 where the sand is thick permission to publish this paper as well as Chris
and blocky, indicating changing reservoir facies Saxon, Zakiyah Sari, Cahyo Bawono, and Endo
between these wells (Figure 6). Furthermore, seismic Finaldhi for their constructive supports and feedbacks
analysis shows there is a facies boundary between on this paper.
those wells which extends northeast – southwest along
the southern closure (Figure 5).
REFERENCE
Reservoir pressure has been proven to validate
reservoir compartmentalization. In order to validate Davis, R.A., and Dalrymple, R.W., 2012, Principles of
the existence of stratigraphic reservoir Tidal Sedimentology: Springer, New York.
compartmentalization of Sand A, reservoir pressure
Figure 1 - Benar field location. Strike slip fault are developed in 4km to the West of Benar field.
Figure 2 - Depth structure map of sand A reservoir shows Sand A reservoir present in each of the three
closures (Northern, Western, and Southern Closures)
Figure 3 - NNE – SSW seismic profile shows compressional drape structure

Figure 4 - Thin layer of high calcite cemented sandstone as an effective impermeable zone
Figure 5 - “Channel like” geometry trending from NE – SW. Class 8 (purple) is represented by gray color on
map.
Figure 6 - Well logs correlation combined with current oil water contacts
Figure 7 - Two sweet spot areas which are located in the Northern closure and Southern closure of Benar
Field