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IPA15-G-208

PROCEEDINGS, INDONESIAN PETROLEUM ASSOCIATION


Thirty-Ninth Annual Convention & Exhibition, May 2015

IDENTIFYING BYPASSED OIL BY UTILIZING SEISMIC ATTRIBUTE AND ENVIRONMENT


OF DEPOSITIONAL CONCEPT IN TIDE-DOMINATED CLASTIC RESERVOIR

Reybi Waren*
Irfan Harris*
Terry O’Hearn*

ABSTRACT which broadens to the southwest. Two sweet spots


with bypassed hydrocarbons in the northwest and
Benar Field (Central Sumatra Basin, Indonesia) is a southeast flanks at Benar Field were identified.
pop-up anticlinal structure related to Miocene to
Pleistocene tectonism involving a major INTRODUCTION
transpressional strike-slip fault located 10km to the
west of the Field. New wells drilled in flank areas Back in 1980’s, field development process
indicate high oil saturation with multiple current oil particularly focused on the large-scale perspective
water contacts. Seismic interpretation shows no which did not include detailed-analysis.
evidence of faulting within Benar closures; therefore, Enhancement of static data such as the number of
stratigraphic compartmentalization alone is logs and production data has proven to be of
suspected. The current study of the Sand A (Early to significant value in the identification of by-passed
Middle Miocene) focuses on facies analysis and reserves.
high-resolution sequence stratigraphy of these tide-
influenced clastics with emphasis on reservoir The concept of reservoir compartmentalization is
distribution and stratigraphic compartmentalization. one of the most useful in finding bypassed-oil
The objective of the study is to increase oil recovery potential. A series of analysis for the study of
from the Sand A at Benar field. reservoir compartmentalization has been established.
It begins with very basic data, conventional core
Fifty wells (four wells with conventional core)
analysis and is followed by wireline log as well as
provide insight and constraints for the depositional
seismic response analysis at the reservoir target
system of the Sand A reservoir. In addition, high-
interval. In addition, production data are used to
resolution 3D seismic aids the prediction of reservoir
increase the level of confidence in the analysis. New
geometry of this tide-influenced clastic system.
wells drilled in flank areas indicate high oil
Production and RFT pressure data are used to predict
saturation with multiple current oil water contacts.
the current oil water contact (COWC) and to validate
Seismic interpretation shows no evidence of faulting
the compartmentalization analysis.
within Benar field thus making structural
Reservoir thickness variation and dissimilar gamma- compartmentalization unlikely. The goals of this
ray log responses indicate reservoir heterogeneity study are to determine how to gain maximum benefit
which is one of the hypotheses in inquiring the from available data and how to integrate both static
different COWC. Heterolithic bedding, bioturbated and dynamic data in order to better characterize
very fine- to fine-grained sandstones, and massive to reservoir compartmentalization and improve oil
crossbedded fine- to coarse-grained sandstones recovery.
highlight tide-influenced sedimentation. In analyzing
reservoir geometry and distribution, seismic Benar field (Figure 1), is an active oil producing field
stratigraphy analysis is conducted using seismic in the Northern area of the Central Sumatra Basin
attribute complex and waveform classification. (CSB). It has produced oil since early 1970’s. This
These conclusions are validated against integration long production period has resulted in a 42.3%
of wireline log and conventional core data. recovery factor (RF). The Duri and Bekasap
Formations are the two reservoir formations which
Data integration reveals an 800-1700m wide tidal have delivered the majority of oil in this field. Sand
channel with flanking sand-rich and mud-rich tidal A reservoir (part of uppermost Duri Formation) is the
flats. The tidal channel has a NE-SW orientation main reservoir and the object of this study.
________________________________________________________________________________
* Chevron Pacific Indonesia
DATA AND METHODS (M2); mudstone / siltstone, mainly bioturbated
(Planolites, Nereites, Cylindrichnus, Zoophycus),
Fifty wells (four wells with conventional core) sand lenses and laminae often modified by
provide insight and constraints for the depositional burrowers, Bioturbated Fine – Medium Sandstone
system of the Sand A reservoir. This is (B3); upper fine – lower medium sandstone with
supplemented by a high-resolution 3-D seismic common floating very coarse grains and small
survey which aids in the definition of reservoir pebbles, common burrows, partly obliterating the
geometry and sand distribution. Current oil water original fabric, rare glauconite grains, Bioturbated
contacts (COWC) are determined by using well logs’ Coarse – Very Coarse sandstone (B4); coarse grained
signatures which are then validated by production sandstone with common ‘floating’ very coarse quartz
data. Finally, stratigraphic reservoir grains and granules, extensive bioturbation indicated
compartmentalization is predicted by integrating by some discrete burrows (large ophiomorpha) and
both static and dynamic data which are effective in also by variations in oil saturation, Stratified Fine –
finding bypassed oil potential location. Medium sandstone (S4); fine to medium sandstone
with cross bedding, 10 – 15cm fining upward cycles
SAND A RESERVOIR DESCRIPTION with very coarse grain at base, Stratified Coarse –
Very Coarse Sandstone (S5); upper medium to lower
Structurally, the field is comprised of three anticlinal coarse, planar to low angle cross bedded sandstone,
culminations. Sand A reservoir present in each of the 3 – 10cm thick bed-sets occasionally with fining up
three closures (Figure 2). Those closures- were trends, Wavy – Lenticular Sandstone (S1); fine to
formed by process related to major right lateral strike medium grained wavy-bedded sandstone, with silty
slip fault which is located about 10 Km west of Benar and carbonaceous drapes on ripples, individual sands
field (Figure 1). Surprisingly, seismic interpretation beds are likely to be laterally continuous. The upper
shows no evidence of essential faulting but only part of #C1 core’s interval is dominated by S5 Facies
shows a big anticlinorium or compressional drape whereas S1 Facies prevails in the lower part. The
structure (Figure 3). facies association indicates Sand A reservoir was
deposited in a tidal channel to sand / mixed flat
Gamma ray (GR) logs from 50 wells are showing environment (Davis and Dalrymple, 2012).
reservoir thickness contrasts and shale occurrences.
It illustrates how complex the Sand A reservoir is. In other conventional core intervals that have been
High degree of heterogeneity Sand A reservoir is analyzed, well #C2, a 10 cm thick layer of high
shown in the center and southeastern part of Benar calcite cemented sandstone which (is interpreted as a
field which are thinner and contain higher amounts tidal channel base) has been observed and proven to
of shale than in the Northern and Western part. The act as effective impermeable zone (Figure 4). The
heterogeneity gives an indication that the facies difference that is bounded by high calcite
stratigraphy is the key item in determining reservoir cemented sandstone has demonstrated stratigraphics
compartmentalization. compartmentalization. A vertical progression of
facies can be found corresponding to lateral facies
Further detailed-investigation was conducted on changes (Walter’s law). Thus, lateral facies boundary
conventional cores and 3D seismic data in order to examination across the Benar field is crucial in
address the reservoir facies both vertically and finding reservoir stratigraphic compartmentalization.
laterally. Understanding the environment of Locating lateral facies variations cannot be solved
deposition (EOD) of Sand A, its geometry, and through conventional core data analysis. Insights
distribution will aid in identification of potential about a reservoir facies boundary across Benar field
areas of by-passed oil. may be given by 3D seismic that has field-scale data.

Core Analysis Seismic Analysis

Conventional core data from the field most often In order to delineate facies which have been
reflects stratified coarse-grained sediment previously identified in both well log and core
intercalation with heterolithic bedding. This general analysis, a seismic analysis was performed. The first
package is diagnostic of both fluvial processes and portion of the analysis consisted of transforming the
tide-influenced depositional environments. cube into instantaneous phase and subsequently
Conventional core analysis of well #C1 for instance, interpreting the top of the target reservoir.
reveals a blocky to fining upward facies succession Instantaneous phase provides better lateral reflector
consisting of Bioturbated Claystone to Siltstone continuity than original seismic.

 
The second analysis was directed toward the existence of stratigraphic reservoir
determining the geometrical distribution of channels. compartmentalization of Sand A, reservoir pressure
According to seismic response analysis at well data from reservoir formation tester (RFT) has been
locations, channel facies correspond to a specific used by plotting it into a depth versus reservoir
trace shape and magnitude. Therefore by mapping pressure cross plot. However, due to limited
the similarity of each traces shape within a certain reservoir pressure data and differing acquisition
window along the interpreted horizon facies times, the cross plot did not yield useful results.
distribution can be mapped. The trace similarity was
classified using waveform analysis with window Two sweet spots with bypassed hydrocarbons in the
length 25ms subdivided into 8 classes. northwest and south flanks of Benar Field were
identified (Figure 7). Lateral facies boundaries and
As can be seen in map view of classification (Figure attic location are the two key parameters in
5) there is distinct “channel like” geometry trending determining bypassed oil potential location. In
from NE-SW that is consistent with data from core addition, original and current oil water contacts are
and well log shape. This facies map then is utilized used in determining the sweet spot locations. It is
to guide well placement for the next drilling location expected to deliver optimum oil production.
target.
CONCLUSIONS
BY-PASSED OIL OPPORTUNITY
 A dissimilar GR log response indicates high
A better understanding of Sand A EOD has been
degree of reservoir heterogeneity.
obtained through facies distribution analysis. In
order to understand reservoir fluids, especially
current oil water contact, static reservoir information  Sand A reservoir was deposited in a tidal channel
was combined with production data. Well #NC50, a to sand / mixed flat environments.
recently drilled well in the flank, indicates high oil
saturation as determined by high resistivity value and  A thin layer of high calcite cemented sandstone at
good oil production. On the other hand, Well #NC8, the base of the reservoir is sufficient enough a
which is structurally located far above well #NC50, barrier to compartmentalize the sand A reservoir.
is currently wet with 100% water production based
on the latest well test (Figure 6a). This finding is in  Seismic waveform classification with correct
agreement with reservoir facies maps of Sand A windowing helps in delineating the geometry of
which show a boundary in the northwestern part of the reservoir.
Benar field.
 Integrating vertical and lateral facies boundaries
In addition, similar relationships have also been through conventional core and seismic analysis
found in the southern closure of Benar field. A along with production data was a sufficient
stratigraphic barrier is located between well #NC41 process to find potential locations of bypassed oil.
and well #NC43 which is down-structure. Facies
contrasts reflected by GR patterns and seismic ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
attribute are the main indicators of stratigraphic
reservoir compartmentalization in this area. Well The authors would like to thank the CPI Asset
#NC41 Sand A reservoir is organized by thin layers Development Team and the DITJEN Migas for their
of high calcite cemented sand and is more shale permission to publish this paper as well as Chris
grained as compared to well #NC43 where the sand Saxon, Zakiyah Sari, Cahyo Bawono, and Endo
is thick and blocky, indicating changing reservoir Finaldhi for their constructive supports and
facies between these wells (Figure 6). Furthermore, feedbacks on this paper.
seismic analysis shows there is a facies boundary
between those wells which extends northeast –
REFERENCE
southwest along the southern closure (Figure 5).

Reservoir pressure has been proven to validate Davis, R.A., and Dalrymple, R.W., 2012, Principles
reservoir compartmentalization. In order to validate of Tidal Sedimentology: Springer, New York.

 
Figure 1 - Benar field location. Strike slip fault are developed in 4km to the West of Benar field.

 
Figure 2 - Depth structure map of sand A reservoir shows Sand A reservoir present in each of the three
closures (Northern, Western, and Southern Closures)

 
Figure 3 - NNE – SSW seismic profile shows compressional drape structure

Figure 4 - Thin layer of high calcite cemented sandstone as an effective impermeable zone

 
Figure 5 - “Channel like” geometry trending from NE – SW. Class 8 (purple) is represented by gray color on
map.

 
Figure 6 - Well logs correlation combined with current oil water contacts

 
Figure 7 - Two sweet spot areas which are located in the Northern closure and Southern closure of Benar
Field