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Title 10 base T 1GL Explanation A standard for transmitting Ethernet over twisted-pair cable. See also Ethernet. First Generation Language. Machine Language, consists of 0s and 1s. The only language which a computer understands. Synonym for photorealistic color, this term describes printers, graphics cards and monitors that use 24 bits of color information per pixel or dot, producing up to 16.7 million color per image. An obsolete 16-bit CPU used in original IBM AT and it's clones. Secong Generation Languages. Assembly Language. Programmer could use shorthand mnemonics to write programs but still it was low level. Intel's first 32 -bit CPU, now obsolete but still a key standard due to millions of 386 systems in use and the ability of 486 and pentium systems to run software written for the 386. A slightly slower version of the 386DX that accesses memory 16 bits rather than 32 bits at a time. Intel's math co-processor for 386 PC. Graphics containing shapes that can be rotated and otherwise manipulated in three dimensions. eg. "Walking through" a 3D drawing of a building. Third Generation Languages. PASCAL, BASIC, etc. These are procedural languages. An obsolete version of 486 SX used in laptops. A 486 DX without the built-in math co-processor. Essentially a speeded up 386 CPU with built in math co-processor and 8K memory cache. Intel's successor to 486 DX. A "clock doubling" version of 486DX whose internal processing speed is twice that of a 486 DX installed in the same motherboard. A "clock tripling" (not quadrupling) version of the 486 DX whose internal processing speed is three times that of a 486DX in the same motherboard. Fourth Generation Languages. High level languages like C++, Visual BASIC,etc fall in this category. These languages are also called Non-procedural languages and believe in re-usablility of code. An obsolete 16-bit variation on 8088 used in few XTs and clones. An obsolete 8-bit CPU, used in original IBM PCs and PC-XTs and their clones. Incompatible with most contemporary software, including windows. Analog to Digital Convertor. A device used to convert analog signals into digital signals in order to use them. eg. A temprature sensor, a MODEM. etc. Artificial Intelligence. An approach used / technique to make a computer "think" like human beings and do things at it's own. Solution of a problem in simple words/ simple steps/ simple english. Arithematic and Logic Unit. It does all the calculations. It does all the arthematic, logical and relational operations on the data being held in the memory unit. Computers which use analog data for processing. eg. Oil pressure indicators, computerized baro meters, computerized air pressure and temprature controllers. Type of data which can not be counted but measured somehow.eg water flowing from the tap, temprature,etc Data that has an infinite number of possible states/values, rather than the simple 1's and 0's of a digital signal.eg. Audio, video and voice telephone signals,etc. American National Standards Institute. It sets standards for things all over the world. A type of program that scans your system and sounds the alarm if a computer virus is detected and removes the virus infection from the infected media. America On Line. One of the most popular on-line services , offering e-mail, news reports, travel reservations, online shopping, user forums, shareware, chat areas, a large reference library, and more. An application software is a software designed to accomplish a specific task or to solve a particular problem or to serve a particular need of the user.eg. Word processors, Spreadsheets, Desktop publishing packages, databases, graphic designing programs, simulation programs. etc. Any collection of data intended to be stored indefinitely and accessed infrequently. Archive files are also called library files as files are packed together by a compression utility, unpacking an archive restores the original component files. eg. PKZIP, LHARC, ARJ, etc.
24 bit color 286 2GL 386 DX 386 SX 387 3D graphics 3GL 486 SL 486 SX 486DX 486DX2 486DX4 4GL 8086 8088 ADC AI Algorithm ALU Analog computers Analog data Analog data ANSI Anti virus AOL Application software
Muhammad Kamran Azeem
Instructor O/A Level Computer Science ICAS F-8/2, Islamabad Instructor O Level Computer Science ASAS F-8/3, Islamabad.
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a bit can have a value either zero (0) or one (1). that executes automatically when you type the name of the file at DOS prompt and press enter key. where people dial up with their modems and leave messages or files for others to read or download. An obselete character code. Automated Teller Machine. this rate is different from Bits Per Second (BPS) rate. bit easy as compared to machine language but quite difficult as compared to high level languages. ARU ASCII Assembler Assembly language Asynchronous transmission AT ATM Audio compression Automatic Backup AVI Back end Background printing Backup Bandwidth Bar chart Barcode Batch file Batch printing Batch processing Baud Baud rate BBS BCD Benchmark Binary search BIOS Bit Bit-mapped graphics Muhammad Kamran Azeem Instructor O/A Level Computer Science ICAS F-8/2. Series of thin and thick lines / light and dark bars which uniquely identifies an item. Paint programs. A technique for reducing the size of sound files on disk. Advance Technology. A low level language. It provides services to the front-end (the client component). It is the rate at which data is transferred along a communication line. A data chart designed to compare quantities at evenly spaced time intervals.e. the amount of data that can be sent across wire in a given time. Class of IBM PC compatibles having processors 80286 and higher. Anyone with a modem and the right software can turn a PC into a BBS. Binary Coded Decimal. A backup utility that uses a software timer to trigger backups at set times. A very fast search algorithm/technique. Printed on : 09-Dec-2002 Page number : 2/ 15 . A method used to have another copy of important data at a safe place on a safe medium. The per-second rate of state transitions (i. Converts programs written into assembly language into machine language. Bar charts emphasize each interval's data point. Abbreviation of Binary digit. In network communications. an array to store names of ten students of a class may be defined in a computer language like : DIM names  . Basic Input Output System. Batch files enable you to speed up repetitive tasks. Each communication that passes along the wire decreases the amount of available bandwidth. gives out output in voice form. It is the process in which inputs are collected for certain period of time and are then processed at a specific time. 8 bits makes 1 byte Images stored as grid of dots. The server component of a client-server system. Windows comes with a print spooler called Print Manager. American Standard Code for Information Interchange. from 1 to 0 and vice verse) of a signal. each on its own line. A type of transmission that sends data using flow control rather than a clock to synchronize data between the source and destination. Audio Video Interlaced. and almost all small BBSs charge little (or nothing) for access. send and recieve data and information on different media. Needs an assembler to translate it's code into machine code. Baud rate of modems define the speed at which they make state transitions. Microsoft's standard file format for digital video. Bulletin Board Service. It uses sorted field to search for a match. A home-brewed version of an on-line service such as Compu Serve or America On Line. same data type. Needed at startup of a computer. it may reduce sound quality. A file containg a series of DOS commands.eg. Used at banks as cash dispencing machine. which enables you to use background printing with almost any Windows application. or network utility that backs up local hard drives to a server without users having to do anything. A payroll processing system. same size BUT different subscript numbers/element numbers. Normally one bit per second. eg. and fax modems save data as bitmaps.Computer Definitions Title Array Explanation Collection of variables of same name. It is a computer program written in machine language and "Hard Burned" into CMOS. scanners. smallest measurement unit of data in a computer. Used as output device. It is a character set used as a standard to store and retrieve. Because state transitions can represent more than a single bit each. It is always On-line to the bank database. The process of printing behind the scenes while you work in another file or application. Depending on the compression scheme . Audio Respond Unit. Islamabad Instructor O Level Computer Science ASAS F-8/3. A speed test performed under controlled conditions. the individual numeric value represented by each bar's height. It does it line by line. The ability to send several files to the printer in a single operation. Islamabad.
thus resulting in a lot of data moving in and out of CPU in a unit time. the bus or the signals "stops" at every terminal and tries to match the address. Islamabad. goals. It is a very safe way to keep backup as it is safe from accidental or delibrate deletion or updation. Computer Assisted Learning. A process during which a computer loads neccessary software into memory and executes it to make the computer ready for use. Printed on : 09-Dec-2002 Page number : 3/ 15 . management and operations. A small section of hard disk or floppy disk in which DOS or any other OS looks for instructions about how to start your computer. decision making and management. asks questions. 1024MB =1GB (Giga). If one terminal fails then the entire network goes down. 1024KB=1MB (mega). PCs fall under this category. Done in Implementation phase of SDLC. Any collection of drawings or other ready-made images you can insert into your document to liven them up. Auto CAD. A network architecture in which a circuit is established between end-points and data. An educational tool based on drill and practice method. Applications/programs written for the client-server architecture typically have different components for the server and for the client. 8 bits = 1 byte. Software needed for these computers is simple and needs less efforts. Client-server architecture allows clients to exploit the processing power of the server. A CD-ROM standard used by Philips CD-I player. Computer Aided Designing. programs and services from servers.Computer Definitions Title Book mark Explanation Placemarkers that let you move around rapidly in a long text document. programs and services to the clients. Computer presents material. old system is stopped and new one is run. 1024 bytes=1KB (kilo). This method is inexpensive/cheap but results are not reliable. this keeps on happening until either address is found or one bus cycle is complete.eg. Islamabad Instructor O Level Computer Science ASAS F-8/3. which can be written only once by a laser and later on can be read as many times as needed. It achieves them by different operations. A number put after the string of numbers to check that they have been correctly input to the computer. letting you jump from one to the next instead of scrolling. A terminal or a computer connected to the server through a network. Compact Disk Read Only Memory.objectives and policies. The servers then provide the data. A mistake a programmer made when writing software that shows up on your end as some unexpected event. Boot sector Boot sector Booting up Bubble sort Buffer Bug Bus network Business system Byte CAD CAI CAL CAM CASE CD-I CDROM Change over Check digit Cient CISC Client-server architechture Clip Art Clone Muhammad Kamran Azeem Instructor O/A Level Computer Science ICAS F-8/2. Used as a tool in industries as it uses raw materials in a very efficient manner and the output is high. A business system is a profit oriented system which has some purpose. All the terminals and server(s) are connected to one wire/bus. Computer Aided Manufacturing. based on these questions and student's performance. See also CAI. See also CAL. Smallest unit of storage in a computer. Computer Assisted Instructions. These computers have large instruction set area in the CPU resulting in a smaller memory area. A business system interacts with an information system to do decision making. CAM is used in car manufacturing company. Compact Disk Interactive. determines whether to present new topic or repeat old one. Complex Instruction Set Computers. Computer Aided Software Engineering. This results in slower processing. Physical area on hard disk which contains the boot strap program and vital hard disk partition information. A high capacity direct access storage media. Most word processors enable you to insert several book marks in a document. 1024GB=1TB (tera) . An old fashioned term that refers to an IBM-compatible PC.1024TB=1EB (exa). Not relevant to PC CD-ROMs. A software used specially to design different things on the computer and test them.eg. Useful when memorization is the main consideration. the data is send and recieved by using tokens which are plased on "bus". Such special program is called a boot strap program. A sorting algorithm Reserved space in memory area which is used between input/output devices and the CPU to regulate the speed of data.
Normally a comiler does not links the neccessary library files to an object file till the time all errors are removed. A software written by a progrmmer to destroy/corrupt data of the target computer when this software is run on the target computer. 10. See Analog data Also known as FPU (Floating Point Unit). automatic switching on and off of a burner in a furnace. In general terms it contains information about tables. Indeo and Cinepak are common video codecs. scavenging. A jargony synonym for monitor. 36. Short for compression / decompression.etc. etc. wire tapping. Islamabad. Complementry Metal Oxide Semiconductor. logic bombs. Most useful for highend CAD. See also Process controller. Computer Output on Microfilm. 25. eg. Printed on : 09-Dec-2002 Page number : 4/ 15 .Computer Definitions Title Closed loop control Explanation The process controller takes neccessary actions to keep the process control variable in specific range. Control Unit. 1. Spirit virus. computer viruses. automatic switching on and off of the tap when certain level of liquid is attained in a tank. which alone does not make sense. It is the condition that the data stored in a data store is always up to date and cannot be corrupted/lost automatically or intentionally. Controls all the inputs from and outputs to the input and output devices. codec refers to an audio or video compression method. eg 5. Data capture is a process in which data is collected and organized in some format before inputing it to the computer. Common User Interface. trap door routines(doors left open in a program). eg. etc. A file normally containing the raw facts and figures or DATA which is further used for producing information. A data file contains raw facts and figures or DATA. Data can be transmitted and recieved by using any of Narrow band. Contains three main parts. It also contains BIOS program which is neccessary for a computer to start. eg. a speedo-meter. also conversion of data from older system to new system is called data conversion. their fields and description and the relationship amongst them. Collection of raw facts and figures. It normally includes: data diddling (performing unauthorized modifications to data). 7000 A database is a collection of tables which further contain data about different entities (persons or things). Islamabad Instructor O Level Computer Science ASAS F-8/3. A constant is a data value which doesn't change during program execution. CU. An error file (. Smith. Digital to Analog Converter. Cental Processing Unit. Memory unit and ALU. and statistical software.etc. Converts a program written in a computer programming language into machine language all at once.ERR) is also generated if any errors are found in the source code. LHARC. It is backed up by a battery to keep the clock ticking.i. The process of shrinking files to conserve disk space or reduce modem transmission time. CMOS CODEC COM Compiler Compression Computer Computer crime Computer virus Constant Continuous data Coprocessor CPU CRT CU CUI DAC Data Data base Data capture Data communication channe Data conversion Data Dictionary Data file Data file Data Integrity Muhammad Kamran Azeem Instructor O/A Level Computer Science ICAS F-8/2. controls ALU and Memory unit. A device used to convert Digital signals to analog signals in order to use them.e.4329 etc. It is the picture tube in the monitor or TV.etc. open loop control. Pakistani brain virus ( the ever first virus created in computer field) . A text base software which interacts with the user through command line. MODEM. It contains specifications about entities used in the computer system. A machine used to store and process information. It refers to using computer resources to engage in unauthorized or illegal acts. eg . Conersion of data from manual files to computer files. Cathode Ray Tube. a math coprocessor is specifically designed to accelerate certain mathematical operations. graphics. Math coprocessors used to come as a separate / stand alone chip but since 486 DX they are built in the main CPU. tojan horse technique ( criminal computer code burried in an authorized program). PKZIP. eg. It is considered the brain of the computer system. software piracy and hacking.eg. voice band or broad band channel. a school database may contain a table containing data of all students and another table containing the library information.
news-letters. DTP. Data can be transmitted on any of the data communication channels by using simplex. See also information. A file in which records can be access directly. restricting system use. OCR. brouchures and other publications. This is called data preparation. Process of conversion of data into information. Islamabad. a wheather station. hard disk drive. to digital output such as scanned images or audio CDs. Bar codes and magnetic stripe cards. These depict the flow of data in a computer system. accidental or delebrate deletion. such as True Type Fonts (TTF) or Post Script fonts. A monitor could simulate yellow-green by mixing yellow and green dots.etc. A PC or special device / computer attached to LAN that enables users to dial in by modem from their home PC or laptop and access the network as if they were sitting at a regular workstation. Foxpro. eg. Precautionary measures taken to make sure that data is secure from unauthorized access. The process of using a word processor and page layout software. half suplex or full duplex techniques. from the PC to a printer. In Windows NTserver. DBase. It is done by using OMR. A basic measure of monitor sharpness. A transmission medium that is used exclusively between two locations. can be done by: Hiring the employees carefully. monitoring system transactions and conducting audits of different accounts frequently. number of days. See also data protection. such as photographs or sound waves.Computer Definitions Title Data logging Explanation It is automatic recording and storage of the information provided by sensors. CD-ROM drive. The process of transmitting a message from a transmittable standard to the native form of the recipient. Islamabad Instructor O Level Computer Science ASAS F-8/3.etc Used for disks which inturn are used to store and retrieve data. Count of seconds. passwords. Direct Memory Addressing. Data Base Management System. plus a laser or better printer . They are NOT to be confused with program flow charts. etc.eg. measured as a fraction of a millimeter. number of heartbeats per minute. Data Flow Diagram. between phosphor dots of the same color on the inner surface of a CRT's screen. a group of computers that share the same security and logon authentication database. mainframe or a mini computer is a digital computer. data must be gathered and prepared in a specific order/layout. Also to send downloadable fonts. syntactical or run-time errors from a program. etc. separating the functions of each employee. the dot pitch is the distance. See Discrete data The process of converting analog input . Printed on : 09-Dec-2002 Page number : 5/ 15 . Process of removal of logical. or the data which changes it's value is steps. eg. to produce professional looking reports. A PC. Usually . using backup. Floppy disk drive. encrypting data and programs. Before inputing data into computer.eg. Data preparation Data preperation Data processing Data protection Data security Data transmission channels DBMS Debugging Decoding Decryption Dedicated line Dedicated server Deffered processing Delay time Desk Top Publishing DFD Dial in gateway Digital computers Digital data Digitize Direct access file Direct data capture Discrete data Disk drive Dithering DMA Domain Dot Pitch Download Muhammad Kamran Azeem Instructor O/A Level Computer Science ICAS F-8/2. See batch processing Time needed to read the data by the head of a harddisk and translate it to binary and give it to CPU. Computers which use digital data for processing. Atechnique used by audio and video devices to directly address memory rather than requesting the microprocessor. to recieve a file via modem from BBS or on-line service. A computer that functions only as a server and is not used as a client or workstation. A series of processes through which information goes through before it is in the form that the computer can understand.eg. Protecting data by using physical or software means. The opposite of encryption. A software specially designed to handle databases and it's related issues. recording temprature every hour into the computer every hour. Dedicated lines are also known as leased lines or private line. Type of data which can be counted. Simulating colors (or sahdes of gray) not available on a monitor or printer by mixing pixels or dots of other colors (or shades).
inference procedure. low-current. eg. It generally depicts the flow of instructions. Developed by Xerox in 1976. Testing of an algorithm or a program code by using paper and a pen rather running it on the computer. An expert system always contains a knowledge base and inference procedure/reasoning. A type of RAM which needs refreshing after specific time period (normally nano seconds). A mathematical formula that procudes graphics that look like (often beautiful) natural textures and shapes. It is a measure of computer system speed as how many large numeric calculations can be executed in a second. See also knowledge base. it is used in normal PCs. Fiber-optics uses a tiny glass or plastic fiber and sends light signals through it. A type of low-voltage. Printed on : 09-Dec-2002 Page number : 6/ 15 . File Allocation Table. MYCIN in the medical field. Fascility to send and recieve messages available on any network of computers. This field can have duplication but not blanks. A very basic type of credit card system. Similar to MIPS. Ethernet uses a bus topology and thick or thin co-axial. ElectricallyEraseable Programmable Read Only Memory. It shows the relationship between different entities in a computer system. Electronic Fund Transferring. Electro Magnetic Interference.Computer Definitions Title DRAM Explanation Dynamic RAM. Entity Relationship Diagram. Eraseable Programmable Read Only Memory. This tool is used during analysis and design phase od SDLC. Free software . In this whole senario 2nd level backup file is grand-father file. New code can be written by first erasing the older one by using electrical signals. fiber-optic. The client component of a client-sever system.44 MB capacities. See Data file This is a process / method of updating files. but since it is less expensive. Solution of a problem in graphical format. high-frequency signal that interferes with normal network transmission. The process of translating a message from a native form of a sender to a transmittable standard form. the first level backup file is Father file and the new master file is son file. See runtime error A computer system designed to work/operate at the level of an expert in that particular field. Ethernet offers a transfer rate of 10 Mbps (Mega Bits Per Second). Islamabad Instructor O Level Computer Science ASAS F-8/3. When the total number of 1s in a byte is even. In a multiple table system or in an RDBMS it is a key field in a table which looks up to another field( a primary key) in another (master/primary) table. A front end application works with a back end component stored on a server. A tracking system DOS uses to monitor the status of every sector on a hard disk or floppy disk and keep track of all files. FLoating point Operations Per Second. Electronic Numerical Integrator And Calculator. One medium type used for network communications. A 3 1/2" floppy dirve that uses a laser to pack 21MB on a single disk.eg. This type of RAM is slower than SRAM. New code can be wrirten by first erasing the old code by shinig ultra violet ligh on the IC. Or writing down the results of each step of a program manually to check that the program is correct. An obselete character code to store and retrive data and information. or twisted pair cabling. Floptical drives also accept standard 3 1/2" floppies with 720KB and 1. when ever a new master file is created these all files change places. In this process master file is copied to a backup file and any previous backup file is copied to a second level backup file. A NAME field may contain the names of all employees in a firm. The most popular network specification. Islamabad. Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. The encoding of messages for security reasons. Dry running EBCDIC EEPROM EFT Email EMI Encoding Encryption ENIAC EPROM ERD Ethernet Even parity Execution error Expert system FAT Fiber-optics Field File File generations FLOPS Floptical drive Flow chart Forien key Fractal Freeware Front end Muhammad Kamran Azeem Instructor O/A Level Computer Science ICAS F-8/2. EMI is typically caused by improper insulation or insufficient grounding. Name of computer built between 1943 and 1946. usually available through a BBS or on-line service. It is a heading under which specific type of data is stored about an entity ( a person or a thing) in a table of a database file.
mouse. eg. symbols and pointers rather than lengthy commands. The exchange of codes between two devices in order to negotiate the tranmission and reception of data.77 MHz 8088 CPU. can be taken and executed on different operating platforms. Allows a higher resolution display than a monitor would otherwise be able to support. Information makes sense. The first IBM personal computer. etc Hyper Text Transfer Protocol. Hardware needs logic code to be used/utilized. A network of many stand alone computers and INTRA-NETS (a network on a small scale / LAN ) on the world wide bases. A GUI is always user friendly and easy to use. A computer in which digital and analog devices are connected together and data is passed between them. Such kind of logic is very helpful / rather currently being used . Graphical User Interface. Printed output All the physical things in a computer system which can be felt and touched is hardware. More over the program could be portable. a remove LAN. a terminology indicating that if incorrect data is supplied to a computer system than incorrect information will be recieved. A TCP/IP protocol that permits the transferring of files between computer systems. built around Intel's 4. odd lines on the next. introduced in 1985 and built around Intel's 286 CPU.eg. file transfers can be done between different computer systems. released in 1981. Islamabad Instructor O Level Computer Science ASAS F-8/3. The first IBM system with a hard disk. otherwise nearly identical to the IBM PC. in designing and implementing expert systems andcomputer systems based on artificial intelligence. It is made up of the reasoning methods used to arrive at a conclusion. Information system is a computer system which supports any business system. Windows 9x Operating systems. A pressure-sensitive tablet lets you vary the width or color of the line on the screen by pressing harder. A software which interacts with the user through pictures. Pascal. Hub is a central controlling device in some star networks.eg. Integrated Circuit Integrated Drive Electronics. they are also called problem oriented languages because the programmer can concentrate on thinking the solution of a problem rather than thinking about controlling the hardware. joy stick.i. A flat panel (also known as a graphics pad) that enables you to draw using a stylus instead of a mouse. LITTLE are used to define quantities. providing a close simulation of working with pencil or brush. MANY. keyboard. A protocol used to send and recieve data on the internet. Garbage In = Garbage Out.e the words SOME. or a commercial e-mail system. A term used to describe an image containing a number of gray shades as well as black and white. A special type of a module which returns a value to the calling program or calling module. using the information in the knowledge base. eg. Function Fuzzy logic Gateway General pupose computer GIGO Graphic tablet Grayscale GUI Handshaking Hard copy Hardware High level language HTTP Hub Hybrid computer IBM AT IBM PC IBM XT IC IDE Inference procedure Information Information system Input devices Interlaced Internet Muhammad Kamran Azeem Instructor O/A Level Computer Science ICAS F-8/2. Islamabad. IBM Personal Computer. Apple Macintoch. A network interconnectivity device that translates communications protocols. C. A technology used in hard drives. i. Now adays all the hard drives are either IDE or SCSI. Used to do general tasks/multiple tasks. Devices used to provide data to the CPU of a computer. It's a method to solve a problem in a non-precise way. Because FTP has been implemented on numerous types of computer systems. such as the Internet. but usually results in irritating flicker. See also SCSI. An ancient IBM personal computer.e. house number= 36. eg. A network connectivity device that brings media segments together in a central location.etc. Also describes hardware(usually scanners) that produce grayscale images. Printed on : 09-Dec-2002 Page number : 7/ 15 . See also Knowledge base. A class of computer programming languages wich are machine independent. It can also be shown by the equation Information=f(data). name = smith age=25. pay=7000. A video mode that draws the even lines on the screen in one pass. expert system Processed data is information. it originally shipped with 64 KB of RAM. or A PC or special box hooked to a network to connect to another system.Computer Definitions Title FTP Explanation File Tranfer Protocol. BASIC.
Islamabad Instructor O Level Computer Science ASAS F-8/3. A field in the database which identifies a record ( normally uniquely ) . ISDN lines allow voice.They either let electric current pass through them or they prevent it from doing so. Input to the CPU in a PC that allow devices to get its attention to interrupt it-if is performing some other task. Converts and executes a program written in computer programming language into machine language. see also expert system. Liquid Crystal Display. The only language which a computer understands. possible treatments in it's knowledge base.etc. It is never indicated by the interpreter or the compiler but must be percepted by the programmer. Motion JPEG is a digital video standard that compresses each frame with JPEG. eg. together these cells produce the image on screen. Integrated Services Digital Network. eg. But will give incorrect results if used for subtraction of two numbers. It is normally very close to machine language which gives it the advantage of having the power of accessing the hardware directly. Islamabad. The bus is simplest and most widely used network design. Electronic pulses in a computer can be made to follow certain rules if they pass through certain components. These components act like electronic switches and are called gates. Each cell contains a substrate that blocks or admits light depending on the electric charge. We can have searches wich base on the key field values. A search algorithm used to locate for some specific dataitem in a database or an array. eg. Assembly language. Joint Photographic Experts Group. video and data transfer all on the same line. It searches each record or each data item exactly once so that a match may be found. See expert system Local Area Network. Executable Computer program obtained after transaltion of source code. A series of keystrokes. a LAN in an office building. symptoms. It is a network of computers normally confined within a geographical boundry. The predecessor of the notebook. Lyons Electronic Office. Interrupts are also called IRQs (Interrupt ReQuests). This line is Ok if written to find the sum of two numbers B and C. Time used by a hard disk to spin up and put the head on the specific cylinder and sector containing required data. BASIC. compiler or an assembler in order to use/run them. It is a process through wich you enter your name and password when you connect with a LAN or dial into an on-line service or BBS via modem. Large Scale Integration. a blood disease expert system may contain disease type.eg. It provides dial in fascilities so that users can connect to internet. A communication circuit permanently established for a single customer. Unit of measurement of ICs planted on a unit surface area of a printed circuit board. names of all students in a school database. commands and/or mouse actions that can be "played back" using a special key combination. Interrupts Intranet ISDN ISP Jargon JPEG Key field Knowledge base Knowledge based systems LAN Laptop Latency timer LCD Leased Line LEO Linear bus Linear search Log in Logic gates Logical error Low level language LSI Machine code Machine language Macro Muhammad Kamran Azeem Instructor O/A Level Computer Science ICAS F-8/2. registration number. All programs must first be translated to this by using an interpreter. World's first commercial computer. A = B+C. Internet Service Provider. eg. The name of a compresion standard for still images. The knowledge base contains the facts and figures in the field being consider. A CCIT standard for digital communications. but the term is frequently used for notebook computers as well. Also called Log on. the laptop is a mobile PC usually weighing somewhere between 8 and 15 pounds. What people know something about computers use to intimidate others who know less. used on most mobile computers in place of a monitor. A class of computer programming language wich is normally machine oriented. Printed on : 09-Dec-2002 Page number : 8/ 15 . A network topology/model in which all computers are connected by a single length of cabling with a terminator at each end. An error made in the flow or the logic of the program written in some computer programming language. It doses not create any error file or object file. eg. Also called private line. A flat panel of tiny cells . in a building normally where separate LANs exist for each floor or for each department. line by line. Combination of LANs.Computer Definitions Title Inter-network Interpreter Explanation Two or more independant networks that are connected and yet maintain independent identities.
Multi Media eXtension. Infact memory unit consists of high speed registers which are used for any type of calculation. division and multiplication of two numbers. a mask is used to ensure that data entered in a field is formatted in exactly the desired way. MANs span a single city or metropolitan area. Magnetic Ink Character Recognition. Metropolitan Area Network. A type of unbounded network tranmission medium. cannot be used. a calculator program can have modules for addition. They have a large number of backup devices attached. you can hook up with any MIDI-compatible device (such as synthesizer) and . AMD. eg. and the database will automatically add the parentheses. Normally executes more than 5 million instructions per seond. Single or dual chip CPU. with the aid of MIDI sequencer software . Million of Instructions Per Second. subtraction. The main circuit board in your PC. can normally execute 250. etc. DEC 10. Musical Instrument Digital Interface. mail merge is most often used to create mass mailings. IBM 36. such as telephone relay towers. As it's name implies. NEC 610. IBM. A communication device used by the computers to send and recieve data through telephone lines. A network larger than LAN and smaller than WAN. AS400.Computer Definitions Title Mail merge Explanation A word processing feature that inserts information from a data file (usually a list of names and addresses) into pre-selected positions in a document file in order to print a series of customized documents. eg. attended by geek priests in lab coats. IBM 370. See Primary Storage An old-fashioned computer that lives in it's own air-conditioned tomb.This standard was created by musical instrument manufacturer. A mast for a phone number might be (###) ###-####. The # characters will take only numbers. Low storage capacity. In older computer programs. Running / execution of more than one programs at a time by giving CPU time slices to each program. main data file was called master file. Tandy. Usually includes the memory . A programmable device which is the heart of a Micro-computer system.000 instructions per second. such operating systems are multi access operating systems. A reletively large computer system as compared to micro computer. Prime 9755. Printed on : 09-Dec-2002 Page number : 9/ 15 . Techonology introduced in microprocessors by intel which makes processor take load of enhancing audio and video performance. Islamabad. eg. turn your PC into an electronic recording studio. If you install MIDI-in and MIDI-out ports in your PC. Microwaves are most oftenly used to transmit data accross satellite links and between earth-based equipment. and expansion slots. space and hyphen. Microwave tranmission is commonly used to transmit signals when bounded midea such as cable. A large computer whose CPU consists of many processing units and a lot of terminals attached to it. Maximum word size is 16 bits. It is used to hold intermediate and final results and the instruction to be executed by the CU. Main memory Mainframe Mainframe computer MAN Mask Master file Memory unit Merging MICR Micro computers Microprocessor Microwaves MIDI Mini computers MIPS MMX MODEM Modules Motherboard Multi programming Multi tasking Multiaccess Operating syste Multimedia Multiprocessing Muhammad Kamran Azeem Instructor O/A Level Computer Science ICAS F-8/2. Can execute almost 1 million instructions per second. Normally one processor is a front end processor and the other is back-end processor. and does all the processing. LINUX and windows NT allow multiple users to access the same data and compute. Joining of two sets of data on some specific common field (key field) resulting in a third set of data. It should not be confused with RAM or ROM or any thing of this type. word length varies beteen 12 to 32 bits. eg. CPU. MOdulator/ DEModulator. word length varies between 32 and 64 bits. Normally used at banks to verify the authenticity of cheques. eg . It is the measure of the speed of any processor that how many instructions it can execute in a second. In a databse. See multiprogramming Operating systems such as UNIX. Islamabad Instructor O Level Computer Science ASAS F-8/3. Its a matter of fact that this terminology is obsolete now. Execution of programs and accomplishment of different tasks in a computer by using more than one processors. Apple. Stand-alone piece of software designed to do one and onlt one task in a computer program. Now useful mostly for giant processing tasks like airline reservation systems and insurance claims processing. A combination of hardware and software used to store and retrieve audio and video data and information.
Not compatible with a regular MODEM cable. at the moment only ORACLE is the OORDBMS as it deals with all tables . Creating an OLE link is like cutting and pasting between document. A hardware device installed in a computer which makes it able to link to a network. Network Network administrator Network Operating system NIC Null MODEM cable Object Code Object oriented programmin OCR OEM Offline processing OLE OMR Online processing OOP OORDBMS Open loop control Operand Operator Optical fiber OSI Output devices Output devices When input and output is done interactively. Original Equipment Manufacturer. printer. Also the person you blame when something goes wrong. A group of computers and various devices ( such as printers and routers) that are joined together on a common networktransmission medium.etc. users. Operators perform specific operation on the operands. eg. The company that actually made the hardware / software as opposed to the company whose name is on it. Authenticates all the users logging on to the network through login names and passwords. Logical Operators (AND OR NOT ) and relational Operators (> < = <> >= <= ). except the pasted data is updated automatically to reflect any changes made to the original.CBL) into object file (. See also Process controller. procedures as OBJECTS. Network Interface Card. It is an operating system which is specifically designed to meet the requirements of a network. Normally a network contains atleast one server and at least one client computer/terminal. It supports multitaccess.views. They are mainly of three types. A programming method which puts alot of stress on code reusability and modular programming rather procedural programming. Devices used to give information to the user either in hard copy format or doft copy format. Visual BASIC. compiler of COBOL converts source code (. etc. Printed on : 09-Dec-2002 Page number : 10/ 15 . Open System Interconnection. Optical Character Recognizer. Allows user to share software and data on a computer which is normally a server. The person who makes sure the network is working properly and who assigns access rights to users. LINUX. Muhammad Kamran Azeem Instructor O/A Level Computer Science ICAS F-8/2./ * ). Normally used to input data at a large scale by using a specific format. etc. See Object oriented programming. Islamabad Instructor O Level Computer Science ASAS F-8/3.eg. Closed loop control. called protocol stacks. a screen message or an alarm or a bell. C++. A model defined by the International Standard Organization (ISO) to conceptually organize the process of communication between computers in terms of seven layers.COB) which is later on executed by COBOL runtime Library files. eg. A window standard for combining data from from different applications. Used at places where lot of word processing is to be done or a lot of data is to be extracted out of newspapers and books. Devices used to recieve information from the CPU and give it out to the user. Monitor. Optical Mark Reader. See Batch processing. The process controller only indicates what actions needs to be taken. It allows networked computers to communicate (using e-mail) . B and 10 are operands and ( + ) sign is the mathematical operator. Manages print ques and spooling.etc. Normally comiplers does not directly make an executable program. Also used to the OEM market-comapnies that buy and resell original equipment under their own name.Computer Definitions Title Network Explanation Terminology used to represent computers connected to each other. etc). Object Linking and Embedding. Glass filament cable that conveys signals using light rather than electricity. Allows user to share Hardware (printers. WIndows NT. eg . The data /constant or variable on which some operation is performed. eg. Mathematical operators (+ . A cable pecially wired to connect two computers together via their serial ports. Object Oriented Relational Data Base Management System. Rather they just convert the source code into object code which is later on linked with different neccessary library files to make it executable. In the equation A = B+10. UNIX. Islamabad. Or when the inputs are processed before the next inputs arrive.
A parity bit is attached with rest of the eight bits. Solution of a problem in a computer like language. Only few settings/ values can be altered. this means that no duplication is allowed in this field nor the field can be empty. maps. This method is expensive but reliable. It is NOT stored on any kind of card. modems hard disks. A computer language in which solutions of problems are written / implemented. Temprature. both simple words and some computer terms/tools/constructs are used to write the solution of a problem.eg . whenever some code from virtual memory is needed. and more have all been sqeezed onto PCMCIA cards.Computer Definitions Title Paging Explanation A process in which only those pieces of program code are loaded into memory which are currently needed and rest are stored on the virtual memory in areas called pages. etc. Point Of Sale terminal. C . used to draw graphs. It does it by querying each terminal. Technique used in the last stage of SDLC.eg. Programmable Read Only Memory. In literal terms a Procedure is a special type of a module which does not return any value to the calling program or calling module. without a file server. normally during physical implementation of the new computer system. A standard developed by Microsoft. Parity PCMCIA Peer to peer network Peripheral devices Pie chart PIN Plotter Plug n' Play PNP Polling POS terminal Prallel run Primary key Primary storage Printer Procedures Process Control Process control variable Programming language Project Dictionary PROM Protocols Pseudocode Muhammad Kamran Azeem Instructor O/A Level Computer Science ICAS F-8/2. detailed designs of different things. In other words. It is the physical quantity that can vary in a process. Pascal. It contains one or zero depending on the number of ones and zeros in the data bits (eight data bits). It's a technique used to verify the authenticity of data being recieved.eg.eg. It is the control of some process(normally in industries) by using computers. A technique used by a network server to check wether any client needs it's attention or not. Volatile Memory of computer which is used to hold data for a short interval of time. DFDs . Both old and new systems are run in parallel to notice any differences. and other vendors that will allow PCs running Windows 95 and it's successors to configure themselves automatically. List of programs. ehich describe slots and expansion crads no longer in width and height than a credit card. In broader terms. Normally found at shops which are connected to some central computer. Memory cards. BASIC. closed loop control. making it easier to install exapnsion bords. Registration number of all the students in a school. Procedure is a technical term used for module in a computer programming language. Islamabad Instructor O Level Computer Science ASAS F-8/3. Used to get hard copy of the results. the rules by which computer communicate. Islamabad. CD-ROMs and things like that. Personal Identification Number. See Plug 'n Play. The specifications that define procedures used by computers when they transmit and recieve data. A local area network in which network resources are shared among workstations. RAM. It loses it's contents when power is switched off. i. FoxPro. This acronym refers to notebook expansion specifications. the input. It contains complete details on all items of a project. Special type of printer which can print in both directions. A circular data chart designed to show proportions (usually percentages) of a whole quantity. The process control can be either a open loop control or closed loop control. See also Process controller. C++. it is swapped with the page in memory thus resulting in the smooth execution of the program. All devices attached to CPU are peripheral devices. eg. etc. output and storage devices are the peripheral devices.e.etc. See also open loop control. and gives the specific time slice/Server attention to the terminal for that much time. The job of process controller is to make sure that this variable stays in the specific range. Level of liquid. An output device. A key field in a table which always uniquely identifies a record.eg. Printed on : 09-Dec-2002 Page number : 11/ 15 . Rather it is stored in the bank's database only. List of database files. Personal Computer Memory Card International Association. Intel.
financial simulation. A program used to search for the given data on the internet. Visual Foxpro. normally on a network. A type of access in which records are accessed in the order they are stored. Read Only Memory. Microsoft Access. hard disk. web servers. you are requested to send a small payment to the author.e. Review. Used to read from only and cannot be written to. Volatile memory used to read and write. Analysis. See online processing. Numbers generated without any sequence within a specific range. A DBMS which supports relation model. such computers are very expensive and special software has to be written to tap their full power. The idea is to keep the CPU from accessing main memory directly. Scientific simnulation. Design. They may be : backup severs. eg throwing of a dice. The request is send down on the network using a token. engineering simulation. It uses commands similar to the one which are used to interogate a database. eg. They provide an overview of mattters and are extensivly used by the management for decision making. Software you try out for free. which would slow things down. summary reports. ectc. Pronounce as (Scuzzy). Islamabad. SCSI hard drives are faster than IDE hard drives. See also Primary storage. Wiped off at power off.etc. Printed on : 09-Dec-2002 Page number : 12/ 15 . Reports may be detailed reports. Small Computer System Interface. Category of devices to permanently store data even when the power is off. RAM Random Access Random numbers RDBMS Realtime processing Reports Ring network RISC ROM Runtime error SAD SCSI SDLC Search engine Secondary memory cache Secondary storage devices Sequential access Sequential Search Serial access Server Shareware Simulation Muhammad Kamran Azeem Instructor O/A Level Computer Science ICAS F-8/2. It normally contains Bootup information backed up by a battery. error reports. This results in a runtime error. Recduced Instruction Set Computers. Type of access in wich records are access by using a specific key in an order. See Linear search. Errors which occur at Execution time. CD-ROM.an array of SRAM chips on the motherboard between CPU and main memory. eg. Not a very robust network model. It is also known as ROM-BIOS sometimes.Computer Definitions Title RAID Explanation Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks. it tries the secondary memory cache-also known as external memry cache . application servers. a common sequence of steps taken to develop a computer system. System Analysis and Design. sometime we have other servers as well beside normal main or primary servers in the network. Creation of environment in computer what might be real world events. Islamabad Instructor O Level Computer Science ASAS F-8/3. Normally used is games. mail servers. Floppy disk. These computers have a very small instruction set area in the CPU thus resulting in a larger memory unit. A field in which computer systems and their problems are studied and rectified. If you like it. reports are the most vital and most important output of a computer system. If one or more drives fail. to which all the terminals connect and share resources. eg. ORACLE. This type of network is actually a bus network with it's both ends connected to each other/joined. eg. Ssytem Development Life Cycle. i. which inturn results in faster computing. The reciever picks up the token decodes it and puts back the reply on a new token which is recieved by the initial sender. The most common way to get shareware is to download it via amodem from an on-line service such as compuserve. A technique used to join several small hard disks and use them as one. geological simulations flight simulators. All the terminals and the server(s) are connected to each other in a closed loop. etc. network data can be saved. A technology used in hard drives. etc. by using parent-child relationships in more than one table. weather simulation. Random Access Memory. If the CPU can't find what it needs in its own cache. Printed outputs of a computer information system. Type of access in which records can be accessed directly without going through all the records and values. Relational Data Base Management System. They are Investigation. Normally a main computer in the network. This flow of data is uni-directional. Most CPUs (inclusing Intel's 486 and Pentiums) have a fast built -in memory cahe. Implementation. a data file may not be OPEN when you are trying to put data in it or read data from it. etc. etc.
This type of RAM is extremely fast and is used as CACHE memory in normal PCs. An violation of gramatical rules of a specific computer programming language. A computer program written in a computer programming language before translation process. the following line is invalid for BASIC language. and you pick up where you left off.eg air craft landing system/navigation system. System software and Application software.financial calculations. etc. Simultaneous Peripherals Operations On Line. See also System software.e. All terminals and server(s) are connected to one main server through a "hub". eg. CYBER-205. They are designed to do some specific task. a problem is broken down into smaller problems and so on. this BASIC program will not be executed including and beyond this line. A state of battery saving hibernation that notebook computers go into when you perss a button. moreover the symbol (. CRAY-2. A := A + 10 . It is used to solve problems which involve calculations . data is send and recieved back via this main server (also called Primary server ) .) must not be put in as an end of statement indicator. eg. It is used in place of DRAM in high end servers very speed is the vital aspect.Computer Definitions Title Sleep mode Explanation Also known as suspend mode. It is the most powerful language for data retrieval from databases. result cards of a class . Normally used for weather forecasting. Static RAM. Specific predecided/predesigned forms/documents used for data capture. A type of transmission that uses a clock to control the timing of bits being sent. If one terminal goes down or the wire breaks from somewhere then the network keeps working and only the relative terminal is disconnected from the server. Serial Line Internet Protocol. mathematical modeling and image processing. weapon system design and weapon control systems.e. Very high temporary / main memory. Now main constituent of almost all RDBMS. which may stay there intact for weeks. A protocol that permits the sending of IP packets on a dial-up (serial) connection. In short structured programming is technique used to write efficient programs using TOP DOWN DESIGN or using modules. Printed on : 09-Dec-2002 Page number : 13/ 15 .etc.every thing shuts down except for the trickle of power required to preserve data in memory. Application software. It is not so but the use of GOTO satements is always discouraged and is always avoided till maximum extent. CRAY-1. Can normally execute more than 50 million instructions per second. first developed by IBM.aid out in rows and columns. Controlling of peripheral devices simultaneously by giving a time slice to each device. SLIP Soft copy Software Sorting Source code Source documents Special Pupose computers SPOOL Spooler Spooling Spread sheet SQL SRAM SRD Stand alone system Star network Structured Programming Sub routine Super computer Synchronous transmission Syntax error System Analyst System flow chart Muhammad Kamran Azeem Instructor O/A Level Computer Science ICAS F-8/2. It does not by itself provide support for compression or for IP address negotiation. To arrange data in some specific order (ascending or descending) on some specific key field (a unique key normally). Islamabad. It is a technique used by the computer to control all the peripheral devices simultaneously. See also module. This type of RAM does not need any refreshing and holds data until it is changed or power is switched off. A software program that stores documents until they can be printed and coordinates how print jobs are sent to a printer. Used as input devices by using human voice. Mainly two types of software exist. Structured Query Language (Pronounced as es que el). A synonym used for module. then a solution for each smallest problem is written. Oracle uses extensive use of SQL in it's product ORACLE. eg. Islamabad Instructor O Level Computer Science ASAS F-8/3.i. NEC SX 400. Heart beat controller. System flow chart is used to show the overall working of the computer system and the interaction between it's various parts.. This term is normally used in databases and spread sheets. It is a common mis-concept that structured programing is GOTO LESS programming. Output on the monitor. A person who performs system analysis. So till the time these two errors are there . the operator ( := ) is not supported in BASIC . Software is the Program code/ data/ information which cannot be felt and touched but is used to control the hardware to utilze it's resources to solve a particular problem. Speech Recognition Devices. Very high storage space. Press the suspend button again . Any computer which is not connected to any kind of network and can operate at it's own. i.
DFDs . ring. An address of some site or data on the internet. pay cannot have -ve value. a document where most of the layout and formatting decisions have been made for you. etc. An obsolete terminology. See also data types. actual program code and different type of test data used. DOS. It is a check that the data being input to the computer is being input correctly or not. A memory location which holds values during program execution.Computer Definitions Title System Implementation Explanation It is placing the system into operation. Print A . so all you need to do is enter text or graphics. See also Field. System Software System support Table TCP / IP Technical documentation Telecommunication Telecommuters Template Terminal Test data Throughput Time sharing Time slice Topology Transaction file Trogan Horse UNIVAC URL User documentation User Manual Validation VAN Variable VDU Verification Virtual Reality Muhammad Kamran Azeem Instructor O/A Level Computer Science ICAS F-8/2. Used as both input and output device. A name field of an employee cannot be blank.etc. Visual Display Unit. First machine was used to calculate the USA census. a variable can have different values coming in and out during program execution. In this example. Launches the application programs on user request. 10 base T Ethernet has theoratical maximum throughput of 10 Mbps. A type of network connection or cabling system. It deals with issues like database structure. UNIVersal Accounting Machine. Documentation written by a programmer or an analyst for another technical person so that any changes . The amount of data that has been sent over a given time. A collection of records is a table. For example. Networks are usually configured in bus. computer programs are written and testted. star and mesh / hybrid topologies. See User Documentation It is a test that whether the data being input is REASONABLE or not. eg A = 10 . It is normaly done by inputing the data twice. eg. A process of giving time slices to all the terminals on the network. It is the on-going support of the system after it has been placed into operations. A very small part of the CPU time which is allotted to / given to a program or given to a terminal on the network. desktop publishing. Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol. See client Data used to test an algorithm or a program whose values /results are already known. instructions on how to use and common problems and their solutions (trouble shooting). Islamabad Instructor O Level Computer Science ASAS F-8/3. A dangerous or destructive program that is designed to disguise itself as something harmless. Variables can be of differnt types. Islamabad. Windows NT. As the name depicts. Data base. In practise the throughput depends on the quality and length of wiring and is usually slightly less than 10 Mbps. Optimizes the use of computer's hardware and software resources. A is a variable. Uniform Resource Locator. Exchange of data and information by using telephone lines. It is the software which is specially designed to handle the hardware of the computer. a file containig data in a temporary state or waiting to be processed or waiting to be added to a master file is called a transaction file. A = A + 1. It controls and manages all the computer hardware. Documentation written by a programmer for a common user so that it is easy for him to use/operate the system. UNIX. It manages all the user files. later machines were used for accounting purpose. managers and users are trained to use the new system and operations are converted to the new system. enhancements can be made easily. Work is send and recieved from them through telephone lines. ie. It is also called operating system. Generally used as shorthand for the phrase "TCP/IP protocol suite". Hiring date cannot be less / smaller than the birth date Value Added Network. It's a computer simulated environment in which user "experiences" real world environment by using hardware and software. logic used (algorithms). Printed on : 09-Dec-2002 Page number : 14/ 15 . windows 95. The user can move around in that environment see. This include program mentainance and system improvement. and presentation graphics. system flowcharts. It deals with issues like Installation procedures. It is also used to simply understand the working of a specific system. do and "feel" things by using electronic gadgets such as special gloves and head gears. In word processing. Handicapped workers can stay at home and perform office work on computers. See also Network Operating System.
See computer virus. countries. In these cases . See also LSI. in what workgroup lack the central administrative capacities of a domain. 4 bytes= double word. A program used to visit different web sites and view the information over there. Write Once . Islamabad. By using a web browser. one word has the word length of 16 bits or 2 bytes and double word has a word length of 32 bits or 4 bytes. Printed on : 09-Dec-2002 Page number : 15/ 15 . It may be (and is) spead over a very large area such as between cities. VRAM is used in about half of all graphics cards. letter writing. Islamabad Instructor O Level Computer Science ASAS F-8/3.Computer Definitions Title Virtual storage Explanation A reserved area on hard disk used as RAM. VIrus VLSI Volatile memory VRAM WAN Web browser Word Word Length Word processor Workgroup WORM WORM WWW XT Muhammad Kamran Azeem Instructor O/A Level Computer Science ICAS F-8/2. Read Many. a type of memory chip that costs more and runs faster than DRAM. insert text. See also Primary storage.etc. The collection of computers on the internet running HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol) servers. The combination of bytes resulting in a larger unit of measurement. delete. The WWW allows for text and graphics to have hyperlinks connecting users to other servers. etc. Useful for creating archive disks of data that you don't want changed. 2 bytes= 1 word. netscape or Internet explorer. It is the unit made up of bytes. a user can cross-link from one server to another to interact at the click of a button. Class of IBM PC compatibles having processors 8086 and 8088. Extended Technology. Memory which loses its contents on power off. Very Large Scale Integration. A software specially designed to serve typing. normally 2 bytes=word. supplied with fascilities as edit. Write Once Read Many. This technique is used when physical RAM is insufficient to load/execute programs. such as Qmosaic. World Wide Web. A group of computers linked together to share resources. A workgroup is less sophisticated than a domain. An optical disk that can be written to do only once. It is not confined within any geographical boundries. Video Random Access Memory. Wide Area Network. 4 bytes=double word. a terminology used for CD-ROM.
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