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Power System

Protection
S.A.Soman

Overcurrent
Protection
Principle
Directional
Power System Protection
Overcurrent
Protection

Distance
Protection
Principle S.A.Soman
Differential
Protection
Principle Department of Electrical Engineering
For Transmission
Lines
IIT Bombay
For Tapped Lines
For Transformers
For Busbars
Power System Protection
Summary
Protection Paradigms - Apparatus Protection

Power System
Protection
S.A.Soman
1 Overcurrent Protection
Principle
Overcurrent
Protection Directional Overcurrent Protection
Principle
Directional
Overcurrent
Protection
2 Distance Protection
Distance
Principle
Protection
Principle
3 Differential Protection
Differential
Protection Principle
Principle
For Transmission For Transmission Lines
Lines
For Tapped Lines For Tapped Lines
For Transformers
For Busbars For Transformers
Summary For Busbars
4 Summary
Protection Paradigms - Apparatus Protection

Power System
Protection
S.A.Soman
1 Overcurrent Protection
Principle
Overcurrent
Protection Directional Overcurrent Protection
Principle
Directional
Overcurrent
Protection
2 Distance Protection
Distance
Principle
Protection
Principle
3 Differential Protection
Differential
Protection Principle
Principle
For Transmission For Transmission Lines
Lines
For Tapped Lines For Tapped Lines
For Transformers
For Busbars For Transformers
Summary For Busbars
4 Summary
Protection Paradigms - Apparatus Protection

Power System
Protection
Principle of Overcurrent Protection
S.A.Soman When the current in a system exceeds a predetermined
Overcurrent
value, it indicates the presence of a fault.
Protection
Principle
Relaying decision is based solely on the magnitude of
Directional
Overcurrent current.
Protection

Distance Used in radial distribution systems.


Protection
Principle Overcurrent relaying and fuse protection uses this
Differential principle.
Protection
Principle
For Transmission
Lines
For Tapped Lines
For Transformers
For Busbars

Summary
Protection Paradigms - Apparatus Protection

Power System
Protection
S.A.Soman
1 Overcurrent Protection
Principle
Overcurrent
Protection Directional Overcurrent Protection
Principle
Directional
Overcurrent
Protection
2 Distance Protection
Distance
Principle
Protection
Principle
3 Differential Protection
Differential
Protection Principle
Principle
For Transmission For Transmission Lines
Lines
For Tapped Lines For Tapped Lines
For Transformers
For Busbars For Transformers
Summary For Busbars
4 Summary
Protection Paradigms - Apparatus Protection

Power System
Protection
S.A.Soman Directional Overcurrent Protection
Overcurrent Uses both magnitude of current and phase angle
Protection
Principle information for decision making.
Directional
Overcurrent
Protection Used in radial distribution systems with source at both
Distance ends.
Protection
Principle

Differential
Protection
Principle
For Transmission
Lines
For Tapped Lines
For Transformers
For Busbars

Summary
Protection Paradigms - Apparatus Protection

Power System
Protection
S.A.Soman
1 Overcurrent Protection
Principle
Overcurrent
Protection Directional Overcurrent Protection
Principle
Directional
Overcurrent
Protection
2 Distance Protection
Distance
Principle
Protection
Principle
3 Differential Protection
Differential
Protection Principle
Principle
For Transmission For Transmission Lines
Lines
For Tapped Lines For Tapped Lines
For Transformers
For Busbars For Transformers
Summary For Busbars
4 Summary
Protection Paradigms - Apparatus Protection

Power System
Protection
Distance Protection
S.A.Soman The basic principle is that the apparent impedance
Overcurrent seen by the relay reduces drastically in case of line
Protection
Principle
fault.
Directional
Overcurrent
Protection
If the ratio of apparent impedance to the positive
Distance
sequence impedance is less than unity, it indicates a
Protection
Principle
fault.
Differential This protection scheme is inherently directional.
Protection
Principle Impedance relay and Mho relay use this principle.
For Transmission
Lines
For Tapped Lines
For Transformers
For Busbars

Summary
Protection Paradigms - Apparatus Protection

Power System
Protection
S.A.Soman

Overcurrent
Protection
Principle
Directional
Overcurrent
Protection

Distance
Protection
Principle

Differential
Protection
Principle
For Transmission
Lines
For Tapped Lines
For Transformers
For Busbars

Summary
Protection Paradigms - Apparatus Protection

Power System
Protection
S.A.Soman
1 Overcurrent Protection
Principle
Overcurrent
Protection Directional Overcurrent Protection
Principle
Directional
Overcurrent
Protection
2 Distance Protection
Distance
Principle
Protection
Principle
3 Differential Protection
Differential
Protection Principle
Principle
For Transmission For Transmission Lines
Lines
For Tapped Lines For Tapped Lines
For Transformers
For Busbars For Transformers
Summary For Busbars
4 Summary
Protection Paradigms - Apparatus Protection

Power System
Protection
S.A.Soman

Overcurrent
Protection
Principle of Differential Protection
Principle
Directional
Overcurrent
It is based on the fact that any fault within an electrical
Protection
equipment would cause the current entering it to be
Distance
Protection different from the current leaving it.
Principle

Differential
Protection
Principle
For Transmission
Lines
For Tapped Lines
For Transformers
For Busbars

Summary
Protection Paradigms - Apparatus Protection

Power System
Protection
S.A.Soman

Overcurrent
Protection
Principle of Differential Protection
Principle
Directional
Overcurrent
It is based on the fact that any fault within an electrical
Protection
equipment would cause the current entering it to be
Distance
Protection different from the current leaving it.
Principle

Differential By comparing the two currents either in magnitude or in


Protection
Principle
phase or in both, fault can be determined.
For Transmission
Lines
For Tapped Lines
For Transformers
For Busbars

Summary
Protection Paradigms - Apparatus Protection

Power System
Protection
S.A.Soman

Overcurrent
Protection
Principle of Differential Protection
Principle
Directional
Overcurrent
It is based on the fact that any fault within an electrical
Protection
equipment would cause the current entering it to be
Distance
Protection different from the current leaving it.
Principle

Differential By comparing the two currents either in magnitude or in


Protection
Principle
phase or in both, fault can be determined.
For Transmission
Lines It is an attractive option if both the ends of the
For Tapped Lines
For Transformers apparatus are located near each other.
For Busbars

Summary
Protection Paradigms - Apparatus Protection

Power System
Protection
S.A.Soman
1 Overcurrent Protection
Principle
Overcurrent
Protection Directional Overcurrent Protection
Principle
Directional
Overcurrent
Protection
2 Distance Protection
Distance
Principle
Protection
Principle
3 Differential Protection
Differential
Protection Principle
Principle
For Transmission For Transmission Lines
Lines
For Tapped Lines For Tapped Lines
For Transformers
For Busbars For Transformers
Summary For Busbars
4 Summary
Protection Paradigms - Apparatus Protection

Power System
Protection
Differential Protection for Transmission Lines
S.A.Soman Its implementation requires a communication channel.
Overcurrent It is extremely accurate.
Protection
Principle Its zone is demarkated by CTs.
Directional
Overcurrent
Protection

Distance
Protection
Principle

Differential
Protection
Principle
For Transmission
Lines
For Tapped Lines
For Transformers
For Busbars

Summary
Protection Paradigms - Apparatus Protection

Power System
Protection
S.A.Soman
1 Overcurrent Protection
Principle
Overcurrent
Protection Directional Overcurrent Protection
Principle
Directional
Overcurrent
Protection
2 Distance Protection
Distance
Principle
Protection
Principle
3 Differential Protection
Differential
Protection Principle
Principle
For Transmission For Transmission Lines
Lines
For Tapped Lines For Tapped Lines
For Transformers
For Busbars For Transformers
Summary For Busbars
4 Summary
Protection Paradigms - Apparatus Protection

Power System
Protection
S.A.Soman
Differential Protection for Tapped Line
Overcurrent
Protection
Principle
Directional
Overcurrent
Protection

Distance
Protection
Principle

Differential
Protection
Principle
For Transmission
Lines
For Tapped Lines
For Transformers
For Busbars

Summary
Protection Paradigms - Apparatus Protection

Power System
Protection
S.A.Soman
1 Overcurrent Protection
Principle
Overcurrent
Protection Directional Overcurrent Protection
Principle
Directional
Overcurrent
Protection
2 Distance Protection
Distance
Principle
Protection
Principle
3 Differential Protection
Differential
Protection Principle
Principle
For Transmission For Transmission Lines
Lines
For Tapped Lines For Tapped Lines
For Transformers
For Busbars For Transformers
Summary For Busbars
4 Summary
Protection Paradigms - Apparatus Protection

Power System
Protection
Differential Protection for Transformer
S.A.Soman CTs are selected in such a way that under normal
conditions the scaled CT currents will match in
Overcurrent
Protection magnitude.
Principle
Directional
Overcurrent
Under fault condition, differential current will flow
Protection
through the overcurrent relay.
Distance
Protection Overcurrent relay pick up is set above the no load
Principle
current value.
Differential
Protection
Principle
For Transmission
Lines
For Tapped Lines
For Transformers
For Busbars

Summary
Protection Paradigms - Apparatus Protection

Power System
Protection
S.A.Soman
1 Overcurrent Protection
Principle
Overcurrent
Protection Directional Overcurrent Protection
Principle
Directional
Overcurrent
Protection
2 Distance Protection
Distance
Principle
Protection
Principle
3 Differential Protection
Differential
Protection Principle
Principle
For Transmission For Transmission Lines
Lines
For Tapped Lines For Tapped Lines
For Transformers
For Busbars For Transformers
Summary For Busbars
4 Summary
Protection Paradigms - Apparatus Protection

Power System
Protection Differential protection for Busbar
S.A.Soman
If the fault is external the algebraic sum of the currents
Overcurrent
Protection
entering the bus is zero.
Principle
Directional
If the fault is on the bus the sum is not zero.
Overcurrent
Protection

Distance
Protection
Principle

Differential
Protection
Principle
For Transmission
Lines
For Tapped Lines
For Transformers
For Busbars

Summary
Protection Paradigms - Apparatus Protection

Power System
Protection
S.A.Soman

Overcurrent
Protection
Principle
Summary
Directional
Overcurrent
Protection Basic Principle of
Distance Overcurrent Protection.
Protection
Principle Directional Overcurrent Protection.
Differential Distance Protection.
Protection
Principle
Differential Protection.
For Transmission
Lines Applications of Apparatus Protection.
For Tapped Lines
For Transformers
For Busbars

Summary